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Sample records for major blood supply

  1. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between cholangiocytes and PBP endothelial cells suggests that manipulation of VEGF release and function could represent a therapeutic strategy for human pathological conditions characterized by damage of hepatic artery or the biliary tree. PMID:16773711

  2. Blood Supply to the Chicken Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianzhong; Wang, Xiuli; Toney, C Brian; Seamon, Jesse; Cui, Quanjun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the vascular supply to the femoral head, including the vessels that give rise to the terminal perfusing branches. Using a casting agent, we highlighted the anatomy of the external iliac and ischiatic arteries with their associated branches after anatomic dissection of 24 hips from 12 Leghorn chickens. We confirmed published findings regarding perfusion of the femoral head and identified 3 previously undescribed arterial branches to this structure. The first branch (the acetabular branch of the femoralis artery) was supplied by the femoralis artery and directly perfused the acetabulum and femoral head. The second branch (the lateral retinacular artery) was a tributary of the femoralis artery that directly supplied the femoral head. Finally, we found that the middle femoral nutrient artery supplies a previously undescribed ascending intraosseous branch (the ascending branch of the middle femoral nutrient artery) that perfuses the femoral head. Precise understanding of the major vascular branches to the femoral head would allow for complete or selective ligation of its blood supply and enable the creation of a reproducible bipedal model of femoral head osteonecrosis. PMID:20819379

  3. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  8. Indian Supreme Court demands cleaner blood supply.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1996-01-13

    The government of India recently admitted in parliament that 25% of the country's blood banks remain unlicensed. The Supreme Court has directed the government to establish a National Council for Blood Transfusion in an attempt to curb malpractice, malfunctioning, and corruption in the national blood banking system, and to ensure a safe blood supply. Furthermore, the Court advised the government to enact separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution, and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks. Legal action will be taken if any blood banks remain ill equipped or unlicensed after the period of one year. Agencies have been directed to take steps to eliminate professional blood selling within two years. They have also been asked to ensure that there are trained drug inspectors to check upon the banks. To boost funding for the councils, the government has been advised to allow 100% exemption upon income tax to those who donate money to the organizations. The Director General of Health Services has been asked to submit a report on action taken by July 16, 1996, to ensure compliance. PMID:8538304

  9. Blood supply of the greater trochanter after trochanterotomy.

    PubMed

    Najima, H; Gagey, O; Cottias, P; Huten, D

    1998-04-01

    The human vascular anatomy to the greater trochanter after a trochanterotomy (digastric, standard) was examined using injection techniques. Three major sources of blood supply to the greater trochanter were found: the proximal soft tissues, including the gluteus medius and minimus vascularized mainly from the internal iliac artery system; the distal soft tissues, including the vastus lateralis, vascularized from the descending branches of the lateral circumflex femoral artery; and a third possible source of blood circulation came from the transverse branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. Many vascular structures from the lateral circumflex femoral artery were concentrated in the anterior half of the vastus lateralis muscle. Perfusion with a latex oxide mixture and angiography after trochanterotomy proves that by using a digastric trochanterotomy, the transverse and descending branches of the lateral circumflex femoral artery to the greater trochanter thus can be preserved. With a standard trochanterotomy, the supply from the transverse and descending branches of the lateral circumflex artery are lost. These results therefore suggest that a digastric trochanterotomy is superior to a standard trochanterotomy because the blood supply of the trochanter is preserved. PMID:9584388

  10. Anatomical variant of the liver blood supply

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular variations are significant for liver transplantations, radiological procedures, laparoscopic method of operation and for the healing of penetrating injuries, including the space close to the hepatic area. These variants are very common in the abdominal region, and their description will be useful. During a routine dissection of a 73 year old female cadaver, we found in the subhepatic region that the blood supply of the liver differed from a normal one. The difference was found in the absence of the right liver branch and the cystic artery, which normally arises from the common hepatic artery. After a detailed dissection of the superior mesenteric artery we distinguished a branchthat was routed to the right lobe of the liver. The diameter of this vessel was 3.7 mm and the length 8.2 cm. In the artery pathway, three consecutive branches were observed. The first branch was found about 2.02 cm before the portal region of the liver. The second one became visible after another millimeter and finally the artery made one little curve and became a cystic artery. PMID:26609280

  11. Emerging infectious diseases that threaten the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Alter, Harvey J; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2007-01-01

    Following the devastating effects of blood-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), blood establishments have become increasingly vigilant for the emergence or re-emergence of new threats to the safety of the blood supply. Many agents have fulfilled the broad definition of emerging blood-transmitted infections, including West Nile virus (WNV), Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium spp., Babesia spp., parvovirus B19, dengue virus, and the prions that cause variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (vCJD). Other agents such as human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8-Kaposi's sarcoma virus) and Borellia (Lyme disease) and, perhaps, avian flu virus, are known to have a viremic phase, but have not yet been proved to be transfusion-transmitted. In the wake of these threats, transfusion services use a variety of donor screening interventions, including serologic assays, nucleic acid assays, and geographic exclusions based on potential exposure. The ultimate safeguard may be a pre-emptive pathogen inactivation strategy that will disrupt all nucleic acid-containing agents (though not prions). Considerable effort and resources have been invested in this arena, but currently no single technique is effective for inactivation of both liquid and cellular blood products and toxicity issues have not been completely resolved. The blood supply is remarkably safe with the risk of major pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV now reduced to less than one transmission per 2 to 3 million exposures. However, to approach near-zero infectious disease risk for emerging and re-emerging pathogens, new strategies such as pathogen inactivation or multi-pathogen microarray technology will need to be developed or refined. PMID:17198845

  12. Impact of vCJD on blood supply.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Rainer; von Auer, Friedger; Blümel, Johannes; Burger, Reinhard; Buschmann, Anne; Dietz, Klaus; Heiden, Margarethe; Hitzler, Walter E; Klamm, Horst; Kreil, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Hans; Nübling, Micha; Offergeld, Ruth; Pauli, Georg; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Volkers, Peter; Zerr, Inga

    2007-04-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is an at present inevitably lethal neurodegenerative disease which can only be diagnosed definitely post mortem. The majority of the approximately 200 victims to date have resided in the UK where most contaminated beef materials entered the food chain. Three cases in the UK demonstrated that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Since BSE and vCJD have spread to several countries outside the UK, it appears advisable that specific risk assessments be carried out in different countries and geographic areas. This review explains the approach adopted by Germany in assessing the risk and considering precautionary measures. A fundamental premise is that the feeding chain of cattle and the food chain have been successfully and permanently cleared from contaminated material. This raises the question of whether transmissions via blood transfusions could have the potential to perpetuate vCJD in mankind. A model calculation based on actual population data showed, however, that this would not be the case. Moreover, an exclusion of transfusion recipients from blood donation would add very little to the safety of blood transfusions, but would have a considerable impact on blood supply. Therefore, an exclusion of transfusion recipients was not recommended in Germany. PMID:17320412

  13. Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to eye tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, G.C.Y.; Yan, H.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Although it is essential that intraocular pressure (IOP) be reduced in glaucoma treatment, it is also vitally important to provide sufficient blood flow to eye tissues so that healthy visual field is maintained. It is possible for an agent to reduce IOP and blood supply to the eye. In that case, glaucoma appears to be under control since IOP has been reduced to within normal range yet the disease is actually progressing, causing damage to the retina, optic nerve, and other tissues. /sup 85/Sr-Microsphere technique was used to study the effects of several antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to various eye tissues. Clearly, L-timolol, D-timolol and pilocarpine are good drugs to use in treating glaucoma because they do not reduce blood flow. On the other hand, although moperone reduced IOP effectively, it also decreased blood supply markedly. Therefore, it should not be used for the treatment of glaucoma.

  14. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-François; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

  15. Leishmania: risk to the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Cardo, Lisa J

    2006-09-01

    Leishmania infection is most often transmitted to humans via the bite of the phlebotomine sandfly, but transmission of Leishmania by transfusion has also been reported. There has been a huge increase in the incidence of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Iraq and Afghanistan. The deployment of US troops to these countries and published case reports of transmission to soldiers in endemic areas, by transfusion to infants with immature immune systems, and to individuals immunocompromised by disease or immunosuppressive therapy beckon a reexamination of blood donor deferral procedures. The length of the ongoing military conflict and the nature of exposure indicate that prior decisions regarding blood donor deferral made during the first Gulf War may no longer apply. Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom present a much greater Leishmania threat than did Operation Desert Storm. Because most transmission by transfusion occurs in endemic areas, and visceral infection is asymptomatic in healthy individuals such as blood donors, it is difficult to determine the absolute risk of transmission by transfusion, but review of the literature provides many clues as to the appropriate measures to be taken for blood donor deferral. PMID:16965594

  16. The Key Role of the Blood Supply to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Marenzana, Massimo; Arnett, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the vascular supply for bone is well-known to orthopaedists but is still rather overlooked within the wider field of skeletal research. Blood supplies oxygen, nutrients and regulatory factors to tissues, as well as removing metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide and acid. Bone receives up to about 10% of cardiac output, and this blood supply permits a much higher degree of cellularity, remodelling and repair than is possible in cartilage, which is avascular. The blood supply to bone is delivered to the endosteal cavity by nutrient arteries, then flows through marrow sinusoids before exiting via numerous small vessels that ramify through the cortex. The marrow cavity affords a range of vascular niches that are thought to regulate the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic and stromal cells, in part via gradients of oxygen tension. The quality of vascular supply to bone tends to decline with age and may be compromised in common pathological settings, including diabetes, anaemias, chronic airway diseases and immobility, as well as by tumours. Reductions in vascular supply are associated with bone loss. This may be due in part to the direct effects of hypoxia, which blocks osteoblast function and bone formation but causes reciprocal increases in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Common regulatory factors such as parathyroid hormone or nitrates, both of which are potent vasodilators, might exert their osteogenic effects on bone via the vasculature. These observations suggest that the bone vasculature will be a fruitful area for future research. PMID:26273504

  17. Reversible harmless interruption of testicular blood supply in the ram

    SciTech Connect

    van Vliet, J.; De Ruiter-Bootsma, A.L.; Oei, Y.H.; Hoekstra, A.; De Rooij, D.G.; Wensing, C.J.

    1987-03-01

    An effective method of interrupting testicular blood flow temporarily and repeatedly in the ram has been developed. Blockade of flow has been achieved mechanically by an inflatable occluder placed around the testicular artery at the level of the spermatic cord. The effect of the blockade on total testicular blood supply was investigated using Doppler flowmetry and a percutaneous Xenon-133 injection method. With both approaches, the blood flow changes after inflation or deflation of the occluders could be estimated satisfactorily. A substantial decrease of testicular blood flow was achieved in eight of the 10 testes with inflated occluders. However, there were indications that in the remaining two testes blockade of the arterial flow was not complete. After deflation of the occluders, blood flow was restored rapidly and completely in all testes. Macro- and microscopic examinations revealed no long-term damage to the testis after blood flow interruptions lasting 30 or 60 minutes.

  18. Investigation into the practice of ensuring a steady blood supply for medical rescue during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Yi, Mei

    2009-08-01

    In the rescue that follows a major natural disaster, blood donation is a unique, necessary method to assist the injured. To achieve effective assurance of the blood supply for medical rescue in an orderly fashion, the current procedure must be adjusted by using scientific prediction, analysis, and adaptation. After the process of ensuring the blood supply for medical rescue during the Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ministry of Health of China, with great efforts, continues to investigate and reflect upon the application of the above principals during actual practice. Objectively, these efforts will lead to better results and establish a standard supplying blood during a disaster rescue. PMID:21349010

  19. The cardiac blood supply-workload balance in children.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Takeda, Atsuhito; Takei, Kohta; Tateno, Shigeru; Kawasoe, Yasutaka; Niwa, Koichiro

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that the reflected pressure wave in small children returns earlier than that in adolescent. The reason of early return of the reflected pressure wave in infancy is their height. The short distance between heart and reflection point makes the reflected pressure wave returning to the heart earlier. In adult, the early return (during systole) of the reflected pressure wave means disadvantage to cardiac blood supply-workload balance. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the early return of the reflected pressure wave in small children impairs the cardiac blood supply-workload balance. This study enrolled 37 small left-to-right shunt patients with normal aortic circulation below 15 years of age. The aortic pressure waveform was recorded using a pressure sensor mounted catheter, and augmentation index and subendocardial viability ratio were calculated. The age of patients was 6.1 ± 3.2 years. The augmentation index was 8.7 ± 14.3 % and the index had a negative correlation with patients' age (r = -0.6243, p < 0.0001). The subendocardial viability ratio, which means the cardiac blood supply-workload balance, was 0.92 ± 0.14 and the index had a positive relationship with patients' age (r = 0.6435, p < 0.0001). The cardiac blood supply-workload balance gradually improves from infancy to young adulthood. One of the causes of the unfavorable cardiac blood supply-workload balance in infancy would be the accelerated aortic pressure wave reflection due to their short height. PMID:24989969

  20. Blood products and their use in traumatic major haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Deveau, Simon Ross

    2016-02-01

    Blood loss due to trauma is a leading cause of death in young people and is the result of the 'lethal triad' of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy, which collectively reduce haemostasis. Emergency department nurses can help to reverse the triad through the timely and efficient use of blood products and fluids. This article briefly examines different blood groups, describes the elements of the lethal triad, and discusses the blood products used to transfuse patients with major haemorrhage. PMID:26853674

  1. Operational effectiveness and quality assurance mechanisms with stochastic demand of blood supply: blood bank case study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    A general overview of various blood products operational effectiveness and related strategies that can be utilised by service providers (in particular, healthcare providers) is presented in the present study. In terms of the massive volumes of blood products, the North American blood centres collect more than eight million units of whole blood, which represents appropriately 50% of the US and Quebec, Canada?s volunteer donor blood supply. A case study of the quality inspection and inventory control concerns of the Central Blood Bank, located in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA, is presented. Initially, brief introduction to its general operating environment is followed by sections describing its general situation, quality-service initiatives, and followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the practical applications of lessons learned from the case study. PMID:22189177

  2. Development of arterial blood supply in experimental liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Dezso, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Papp, Veronika; Lszl, Viktria; Dme, Balzs; Tvri, Jzsef; Tmr, Jzsef; Nagy, Pter; Paku, Sndor

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we present a mechanism for the development of arterial blood supply in experimental liver metastases. To analyze the arterialization process of experimental liver metastases, we elucidated a few key questions regarding the blood supply of hepatic lobules in mice. The microvasculature of the mouse liver is characterized by numerous arterioportal anastomoses and arterial terminations at the base of the lobules. These terminations supply one hepatic microcirculatory subunit per lobule, which we call an arterial hepatic microcirculatory subunit (aHMS). The process of arterialization can be divided into the following steps: 1) distortion of the aHMS by metastasis; 2) initial fusion of the sinusoids of the aHMS at the tumor parenchyma interface; 3) fusion of the sinusoids located at the base of the aHMSs, which leads to the disruption of the vascular sphincter (burst pipe); 4) incorporation of the dilated artery and the fused sinusoids into the tumor; and 5) further development of the tumor vasculature (arterial tree) by proliferation, remodeling, and continuous incorporation of fused sinusoids at the tumor-parenchyma interface. This process leads to the inevitable arterialization of liver metastases above the 2000- to 2500-mum size, regardless of the origin and growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:19574433

  3. Development of Arterial Blood Supply in Experimental Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Dezs?, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Papp, Veronika; Lszl, Viktria; Dme, Balzs; Tvri, Jzsef; Tmr, Jzsef; Nagy, Pter; Paku, Sndor

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a mechanism for the development of arterial blood supply in experimental liver metastases. To analyze the arterialization process of experimental liver metastases, we elucidated a few key questions regarding the blood supply of hepatic lobules in mice. The microvasculature of the mouse liver is characterized by numerous arterioportal anastomoses and arterial terminations at the base of the lobules. These terminations supply one hepatic microcirculatory subunit per lobule, which we call an arterial hepatic microcirculatory subunit (aHMS). The process of arterialization can be divided into the following steps: 1) distortion of the aHMS by metastasis; 2) initial fusion of the sinusoids of the aHMS at the tumor parenchyma interface; 3) fusion of the sinusoids located at the base of the aHMSs, which leads to the disruption of the vascular sphincter (burst pipe); 4) incorporation of the dilated artery and the fused sinusoids into the tumor; and 5) further development of the tumor vasculature (arterial tree) by proliferation, remodeling, and continuous incorporation of fused sinusoids at the tumorparenchyma interface. This process leads to the inevitable arterialization of liver metastases above the 2000- to 2500-?m size, regardless of the origin and growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:19574433

  4. Potential impact of AUSFTA on Australia's blood supply.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary J; Faunce, Thomas A; Johnston, Kellie

    2006-09-18

    Australia is largely self-sufficient in its supply of safe, fresh blood products because of the goodwill of non-remunerated, volunteer donors, plus rigorous testing and processing standards. CSL Limited is the sole provider of plasma fractionation services in Australia, enjoying exclusive rights under the Plasma Fractionation Agreement with the Australian Government. In the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), Australia agreed to review its current contract with CSL Limited, and to recommend to the states and territories that the process be opened up to overseas tender. Overseas tenders for off-shore fractionation services are likely to be highly competitive due to their low manufacturing costs and accumulated expertise. Off-shore fractionation could compromise the safety of Australia's blood supply through delays in processing and transportation, issues related to quality control, and even the siphoning of stock to overseas markets. This could compromise the long-term care of Australian patients and create a serious national security risk in the event of a terrorist attack or natural disaster. Australia's AUSFTA obligation to recommend changes does not equate to an obligation to actually proceed. The states and territories should carefully consider whether such changes would be in our national interest. The long-term security of the Australian people in the current security environment is dependent on continuance of an on-shore fractionation plant and appropriate back-up facilities. PMID:16999673

  5. Meanings of blood, bleeding and blood donations in Pakistan: implications for national vs global safe blood supply policies

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Bowen, Sarah; Mumtaz, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary public policy, supported by international arbitrators of blood policy such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of the Red Cross, asserts that the safest blood is that donated by voluntary, non-remunerated donors from low-risk groups of the population. These policies promote anonymous donation and discourage kin-based or replacement donation. However, there is reason to question whether these policies, based largely on Western research and beliefs, are the most appropriate for ensuring an adequate safe blood supply in many other parts of the world. This research explored the various and complex meanings embedded in blood using empirical ethnographic data from Pakistan, with the intent of informing development of a national blood policy in that country. Using a focused ethnographic approach, data were collected in 26 in-depth interviews, 6 focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews and 25 hours of observations in blood banks and maternity and surgical wards. The key finding was that notions of caste-based purity of blood, together with the belief that donors and recipients are symbolically knitted in a kin relationship, place a preference on kin-blood. The anonymity inherent in current systems of blood extraction, storage and use as embedded in contemporary policy discourse and practice was problematic as it blurred distinctions that were important within this society. The article highlights the importance—to ensuring a safe blood supply—of basing blood procurement policies on local, context-specific belief systems rather than relying on uniform, one-size-fits-all global policies. Drawing on our empirical findings and the literature, it is argued that the practice of kin-donated blood remains a feasible alternative to the global ideal of voluntary, anonymous donations. There is a need to focus on developing context-sensitive strategies for promoting blood safety, and critically revisit the assumptions underlying contemporary global blood procurement policies. PMID:21372061

  6. Manufacturing blood ex vivo: a futuristic approach to deal with the supply and safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal K.; Saini, Abhishek; Tsuji, Kohichiro; Sharma, P. B.; Chandra, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusions are routinely done in every medical regimen and a worldwide established collection, processing/storage centers provide their services for the same. There have been extreme global demands for both raising the current collections and supply of safe/adequate blood due to increasingly demanding population. With, various risks remain associated with the donor derived blood, and a number of post collection blood screening and processing methods put extreme constraints on supply system especially in the underdeveloped countries. A logistic approach to manufacture erythrocytes ex-vivo by using modern tissue culture techniques have surfaced in the past few years. There are several reports showing the possibilities of RBCs (and even platelets/neutrophils) expansion under tightly regulated conditions. In fact, ex vivo synthesis of the few units of clinical grade RBCs from a single dose of starting material such as umbilical cord blood (CB) has been well established. Similarly, many different sources are also being explored for the same purpose, such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the major concerns remain elusive before the manufacture and clinical use of different blood components may be used to successfully replace the present system of donor derived blood transfusion. The most important factor shall include the large scale of RBCs production from each donated unit within a limited time period and cost of their production, both of these issues need to be handled carefully since many of the recipients among developing countries are unable to pay even for the freely available donor derived blood. Anyways, keeping these issues in mind, present article shall be focused on the possibilities of blood production and their use in the near future. PMID:25364733

  7. Noncoronary Collateral Myocardial Blood Flow: The Human Heart’s Forgotten Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Picichè, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The “noncoronary collateral circulation” (NCCC) or “noncoronary collateral myocardial blood flow” (NCCMBF), reaches the heart through a micro-vascular network arising from the bronchial, esophageal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, and aortic arteries. The left and right internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) along with their collateral branches also serve as a source of NCCMBF-a feature seen in other mammals. Under certain circumstances the ITAs have a high potential for developing collateral branches. In the case of severe Leriche syndrome or with chronic obstruction of the abdominal aorta, the ITAs can serve as the main or even sole source of blood supply to the lower limbs. It is also possible for the ITAs to develop angiographically visible branches that directly connect with the coronary arteries. In ischemic conditions there is a functional, ischemia-reducing extracardiac coronary artery supply via natural ipsilateral ITA anastomosis. To date we know little about NCCMBF and its potential benefits in clinical applications, which makes this a challenging and intriguing field of research. This paper reviews all available data on noncoronary collateral blood supply to the human heart. PMID:27006713

  8. Noncoronary Collateral Myocardial Blood Flow: The Human Heart's Forgotten Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Picichè, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The "noncoronary collateral circulation" (NCCC) or "noncoronary collateral myocardial blood flow" (NCCMBF), reaches the heart through a micro-vascular network arising from the bronchial, esophageal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, and aortic arteries. The left and right internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) along with their collateral branches also serve as a source of NCCMBF-a feature seen in other mammals. Under certain circumstances the ITAs have a high potential for developing collateral branches. In the case of severe Leriche syndrome or with chronic obstruction of the abdominal aorta, the ITAs can serve as the main or even sole source of blood supply to the lower limbs. It is also possible for the ITAs to develop angiographically visible branches that directly connect with the coronary arteries. In ischemic conditions there is a functional, ischemia-reducing extracardiac coronary artery supply via natural ipsilateral ITA anastomosis. To date we know little about NCCMBF and its potential benefits in clinical applications, which makes this a challenging and intriguing field of research. This paper reviews all available data on noncoronary collateral blood supply to the human heart. PMID:27006713

  9. Ovarian function and ovarian blood supply following premenopausal abdominal hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrazak, Khaled M.; Elbiaa, Assem A.M.; Farghali, Mohamed M.; Essam, Amr; Zhurabekova, Gulmira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The issue of conserving the ovaries at hysterectomy in premenopausal women with benign gynecologic disease has been the subject of considerable controversy. Some clinicians prefer prophylactic oophorectomy in premenopausal women during hysterectomy to prevent future development of malignant changes in conserved ovaries. Other clinicians prefer to conserve apparently normal ovaries, because bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women results in an abrupt imbalance, sudden onset of menopausal symptoms, decreased libido, increased cardiovascular risk and osteoporosis. Material and methods Two hundred and twenty multipara women (who had completed their families), with benign uterine pathology were included in this prospective study for abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation. Pre-operative vaginal ultrasound, Doppler studies, diagnostic hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy were done followed by laboratory studies including Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol for all studied women. Doppler studies, AMH, FSH and estradiol were repeated 6 and 12 months post-operative for assessment of the ovarian function and ovarian blood supply after hysterectomy. Results Pre-operative AMH, FSH and estradiol of the studied women were statistically insignificant compared to AMH, FSH and estradiol 6 and 12 months post-operative. Twelve months post-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.92 ± 0.18 and 6.85 ± 0.19 cm3, respectively) were significantly larger than pre-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.19 ± 0.22 and 5.86 ± 0.23 cm3, respectively), and, 12 months post-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (2.92 ± 0.15 and 2.96 ± 0.16 cm/s, respectively) were significantly lower than pre-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (3.45 ± 0.19 and 3.36 ± 0.2 cm/s, respectively). Eight (3.6%) cases of the studied women developed an ovarian cyst 6 months after hysterectomy, 3 were spontaneously resolved and the remaining 5 (2.27%) cases underwent exploratory laparotomy. Conclusions There is no evidence of ovarian dysfunction affecting conserved ovaries one year after hysterectomy in premenopausal women as evident by AMH, FSH and estradiol. Furthermore, an increased ovarian volume and reduced ovarian pulsatility indices indicate a possible increase in ovarian blood supply, and preserved non-compromised ovarian function. PMID:26848295

  10. Paying donors and the ethics of blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez del Pozo, P

    1994-01-01

    Countries may be erring in the current trend towards relying entirely on volunteers to fulfil blood and plasma needs. Complementing uncompensated blood with compensated blood is vitally necessary not only effectively to meet the blood and plasma needs of most countries, but it is also ethically sound. PMID:8035437

  11. Tumor-line specific causes of intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply in human melanoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Trude G; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Leinaas, Marit N; Rofstad, Einar K

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of most cancer treatments is strongly influenced by the tumor blood supply. The results of experimental studies using xenografted tumors to evaluate novel cancer treatments may therefore vary considerably depending on the blood supply of the specific tumor model being used. Mechanisms underlying intertumor heterogeneity in the blood supply of xenografted tumors derived from same tumor line are poorly understood, and were investigated here by using intravital microscopy to assess tumor blood supply and vascular morphology in human melanomas growing in dorsal window chambers in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Two melanoma lines, A-07 and R-18, were included in the study. These lines differed substantially in angiogenic profiles. Thus, when the expression of 84 angiogenesis-related genes was investigated with a quantitative PCR array, 25% of these genes showed more than a 10-fold difference in expression. Furthermore, A-07 tumors showed higher vascular density, higher vessel tortuosity, higher vessel diameters, shorter vessel segments, and more chaotic vascular architecture than R-18 tumors. Both lines showed large intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply. In the A-07 line, tumors with low microvascular density, long vessel segment, and high vessel tortuosity showed poor blood supply, whereas in the R-18 line, poor tumor blood supply was associated with low tumor arteriolar diameters. Thus, tumor-line specific causes of intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply were identified in human melanoma xenografts, and these tumor-line specific mechanisms were possibly a result of tumor-line specific angiogenic profiles. PMID:23149341

  12. Arterial blood supply of the infrapatellar fat pad. Anatomy and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D; Deiler, S; Rudert, M

    1995-01-01

    The arterial blood supply to the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa's fat pad) was investigated in 12 knee joints of human cadavers. The infrapatellar fat pad is supplied by an anastomotic network which displays some striking topographic features. Its vascular blood supply protects it against necrosis, when either reconstructive operations are carried out or extensive surgical exposures of the knee are done. The blood supply to the center of the fat pad is limited. This is of practical importance for the choice of arthroscopic portals. In addition, arthroscopically verified sources of bleeding are described in 57 patients with hemarthrosis without clinically detectable instability. Rupture of the infrapatellar synovial fold can be a cause of posttraumatic hemarthrosis in rare cases. Arteries irregularly found within the fold contribute to the blood supply of the anterior aspect of the synovial membrane covering the cruciate ligaments. PMID:7734236

  13. Accelerated apoptosis of blood leukocytes and oxidative stress in blood of patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Słotwińska, Maria; Stachura, Anna; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Dubas-Slemp, Halina; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2008-04-01

    Acceleration of blood leukocyte apoptosis in major depression has been described. The present studies have been undertaken to estimate the level of apoptosis of blood leukocytes in patients with depression and to examine the mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Blood was taken from 29 patients with depression (age 48.2+/-11.2, 14 males, 15 females) and 30 healthy controls (age 41.3+/-4.1, 15 males, 15 females), and apoptosis was estimated by the cytometric method by measurements of annexin V binding, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi), bcl-2, bax, and Fas (CD95) expression in CD4+, CD8+ and CD14+ cells. The amounts of cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were also measured. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from PMNs were examined as was the serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and total peroxidase (PER). Additionally, serum levels of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were estimated. Our experiments indicated accelerated apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ cells (mainly neutrophils) of depressed patients as well as a significant increase in the percent of Fas-expressing cells. Bcl-2 and bax expression was higher in cells of depressed patients than in control, however, bcl-2/bax ratio was significantly decreased in CD14+ cells of depressed patients. PMNs isolated from the blood of the patients produced more ROS spontaneously and after induction with phorbol ester (PMA) than PMNs of the healthy control. A significant increase in serum activity of SOD, CAT and PER was also detected. Overproduction of superoxide anion correlated positively with the level of PMNs apoptosis (measured by cytochrome c release), suggesting that superoxide anion might be an important factor inducing apoptotic death of blood cells. The result of our experiment indicated that apoptosis of immune cells may affect patient's susceptibility to different infections and application of antioxidants in medication of patients with depression will be beneficial for them. The increased level of IL-6 in sera of the depressed patients did not correlate with overproduction of ROS, suggesting that this cytokine is not involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis of leukocytes. PMID:18083280

  14. [Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with multiple arterial blood supply].

    PubMed

    Uroz Tristán, J; Mogueya, S A; Poenaru, D; Martínez Lagares, F; Arteaga García, R; Sanchís Solera, L; López-Pinto Ruiz, J

    1994-04-01

    We report the case of a 4 years old boy, who presented at our institution with reiterative neumonia affecting left basal lobe. Anomalous vascular appearance was detected in the chest x-ray. With the suspicion of pulmonary sequestration we carried on Digital Intravenous Angiography by Substraction (DIVAS) and aortogram. The anomalous systemic arterial supply was formed by 6 vessels coming from the thoracic aorta and going into the left lower lobe basal segment. Lobectomy was performed and previous diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. PMID:8086288

  15. Upper cervicothoracic sympathetic block increases blood supply of unipedicled TRAM flap.

    PubMed

    Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis; Kakagia, Despoina; Gravvanis, Andreas; Iconomou, Thomais; Tsagkarakis, Myron; Zogogiannis, Ioannis; Dimitriou, Vassilios

    2008-09-01

    A prospective clinical study was conducted to evaluate the impact of upper cervicothoracic sympathetic block (CTGB) on blood supply of the unipedicled transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap. The use of the technique is first reported herein, as a manipulation improving arterial blood flow within the flap in high-risk patients, thus reducing postoperative morbidity. From March 2003 to September 2006, 28 heavy smokers, who underwent delayed breast reconstruction with unipedicled TRAM flap, were included in the study. Intraoperative upper cervicothoracic block (ganglia C5,6,7 and T1,2) was performed in 16 patients (group A), while 12 patients, who did not consent to have the blockade (group B), were the control. Clinical evaluation and thermographic monitoring of skin temperature, using the Thermacam A40 (FLIR systems, Wilsonville, OR), was used in all patients and determined the blood flow within the flap. All patients were monitored for early and late complications. In all group A patients, CTGB resulted in TRAM flap temperature increase within 9.5 to 16 min. Flap temperature elevation was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.001) and hospital stay was significantly shorter (P = 0.004) in group A patients. No CTGB or TRAM flap complications were recorded in group A patients. However, in group B, major fat necrosis occurred in 2 patients and partial (1/3) flap necrosis in 1 patient. Upper cervicothoracic sympathetic block is a reliable, safe, and useful technique for increasing blood flow within TRAM flaps in high-risk patients, like heavy smokers, and it minimizes postoperative morbidity. PMID:18724121

  16. Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Mairbäurl, Heimo

    2013-01-01

    During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood's buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called “sports anemia.” This is not anemia in a clinical sense, because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume (PV). The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g., in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise. PMID:24273518

  17. A stochastic simulator of a blood product donation environment with demand spikes and supply shocks.

    PubMed

    An, Ming-Wen; Reich, Nicholas G; Crawford, Stephen O; Brookmeyer, Ron; Louis, Thomas A; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular), immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an 8-week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries), and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during 1996-2005. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts. PMID:21814550

  18. Maintaining a Safe Blood Supply in an Era of Emerging Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Marks, Peter W; Epstein, Jay S; Borio, Luciana L

    2016-06-01

    Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the western hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly and can adversely affect public health, including the safety of the blood supply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral and sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood supply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to ensuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed. PMID:26962237

  19. 77 FR 31026 - Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood Supply in Support of Planning for Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood Supply... (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood... panel discussions will: (1) Discuss ] simulation modeling of the U.S. blood supply, including...

  20. Whole blood for hemostatic resuscitation of major bleeding.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Pidcoke, Heather F; Strandenes, Geir; Hervig, Tor; Fisher, Andrew; Jenkins, Donald; Yazer, Mark; Stubbs, James; Murdock, Alan; Sailliol, Anne; Ness, Paul M; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Recent combat experience reignited interest in transfusing whole blood (WB) for patients with life-threatening bleeding. US Army data indicate that WB transfusion is associated with improved or comparable survival compared to resuscitation with blood components. These data complement randomized controlled trials that indicate that platelet (PLT)-containing blood products stored at 4°C have superior hemostatic function, based on reduced bleeding and improved functional measures of hemostasis, compared to PLT-containing blood products at 22°C. WB is rarely available in civilian hospitals and as a result is rarely transfused for patients with hemorrhagic shock. Recent developments suggest that impediments to WB availability can be overcome, specifically the misconceptions that WB must be ABO specific, that WB cannot be leukoreduced and maintain PLTs, and finally that cold storage causes loss of PLT function. Data indicate that the use of low anti-A and anti-B titer group O WB is safe as a universal donor, WB can be leukoreduced with PLT-sparing filters, and WB stored at 4°C retains PLT function during 15 days of storage. The understanding that these perceived barriers are not insurmountable will improve the availability of WB and facilitate its use. In addition, there are logistic and economic advantages of WB-based resuscitation compared to component therapy for hemorrhagic shock. The use of low-titer group O WB stored for up to 15 days at 4°C merits further study to compare its efficacy and safety with current resuscitation approaches for all patients with life-threatening bleeding. PMID:27100756

  1. Malaria and blood transfusion: major issues of blood safety in malaria-endemic countries and strategies for mitigating the risk of Plasmodium parasites.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Saleh; Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Malaria inflicts humankind over centuries, and it remains as a major threat to both clinical medicine and public health worldwide. Though hemotherapy is a life-sustaining modality, it continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. Hence, hemovigilance is a matter of grave concern in the malaria-prone third-world countries. In order to pursue an effective research on hemovigilance, a comprehensive search has been conducted by using the premier academic-scientific databases, WHO documents, and English-language search engines. One hundred two appropriate articles were chosen for data extraction, with a particular reference to emerging pathogens transmitted through blood transfusion, specifically malaria. Blood donation screening is done through microscopic examination and immunological assays to improve the safety of blood products by detection major blood-borne pathogens, viz., HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis, and malarial parasites. Transfusion therapy significantly dwindles the preventable morbidity and mortality attributed to various illnesses and diseases, particularly AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Examination of thick and thin blood smears are performed to detect positivity and to identify the Plasmodium species, respectively. However, all of these existing diagnostic tools have their own limitations in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost-effectiveness, and lack of resources and skilled personnel. Globally, despite the mandate need of screening blood and its components according to the blood-establishment protocols, it is seldom practiced in the low-income/poverty-stricken settings. In addition, each and every single phase of transfusion chain carries sizable inherent risks from donors to recipients. Interestingly, opportunities also lie ahead to enhance the safety of blood-supply chain and patients. It can be achieved through sustainable blood-management strategies like (1) appropriate usage of precise diagnostic tools/techniques, (2) promoting hemovigilance system, and (3) adopting novel processes of inactivation technology. Furthermore, selection of the zero-risk donors could pave the way to build a transmissible malaria-free world in the near future. PMID:26531301

  2. The arterial blood supply of human inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, D; Davies, J D

    1986-01-01

    Injection of the arterial tree supplying human inguinal (superficial) and mesenteric (deep) lymph nodes was performed using a barium sulphate suspension. Radiography and histological examination showed two distinct types of arterial supply to lymph nodes. The superficial inguinal nodes are generally supplied by a single artery which penetrates the hilum and then radiates outwards to the lymph node pulp. The deep mesenteric lymph nodes, in contrast, are invariably supplied by several separate arteries which penetrate the nodal capsule, enter the trabeculae and run centripetally. These differences reflect the microanatomical differences in structure between deep and superficial lymph nodes. The two types of blood supply may be responsible for the different patterns of ischaemia found in deep and superficial lymph nodes. The findings re-emphasise the heterogeneous character of lymph nodes in man. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693046

  3. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins.

    PubMed

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials. PMID:26089000

  4. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials.

  5. Self-Deferral, HIV Infection, and the Blood Supply: Evaluating an AIDS Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Novick, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of self-deferral, a social screen implemented to protect the U.S. blood supply from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prior to the advent of laboratory testing. Mathematical models are developed to estimate the number of infectious transfusions ultimately leading to AIDS prior to self-deferral.…

  6. Factors regulating viable cell density in the intervertebral disc: blood supply in relation to disc height

    PubMed Central

    Boubriak, Olga A; Watson, Natasha; Sivan, Sarit S; Stubbens, Naomi; Urban, Jill P G

    2013-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an avascular tissue, maintained by a small population of cells that obtain nutrients mainly by diffusion from capillaries at the disc–vertebral body interface. Loss of this nutrient supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how nutrient supply influences viable cell density is unclear. We investigated two factors that influence nutrient delivery to disc cells and hence cell viability: disc height and blood supply. We used bovine caudal discs as our model as these show a gradation in disc height. We found that although disc height varied twofold from the largest to the smallest disc studied, it had no significant effect on cell density, unlike the situation found in articular cartilage. The density of blood vessels supplying the discs was markedly greater for the largest disc than the smallest disc, as was the density of pores allowing capillary penetration through the bony endplate. Results indicate that changes in blood vessels in the vertebral bodies supplying the disc, as well as changes in endplate architecture appear to influence density of cells in intervertebral discs. PMID:23311982

  7. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches. PMID:21864330

  8. Arterial blood supply of hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with efficacy of sorafenib therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Zhang, Xianghua; Li, Jing; Huang, Liang; Yan, Jianjun; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of sorafenib in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of HCC, analyze the prognostic factors of HCC patients treated with sorafenib, and investigate the relationship between imaging findings and outcomes. Methods A total of 38 HCC patients who were treated with sorafenib from April 2009 to December 2010 were included in this study. HCCs were classified as good arterial supply and poor arterial supply according to the intensity enhancement on CT scan or MRI. Clinical data were collected and the survival time was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Results Among these 38 patients [35 (92.1%) were males] treated with sorafenib, the median age was (53.3±11.1) years. Tumors in 17 patients had good arterial supply while those in the remained 21 patients had poor arterial supply. The median survival time (MST) was 10.7 months (95% CI, 8.7-12.7) and the 1-year overall survival (OS) was 41.0%. The MST and 1-year OS in patients with tumors with good arterial supply were 12 months (range, 4-20 months) and 52.9%, respectively, compared with those of 7 months (range, 1-16 months) and 23.8% in patients with tumors with poor arterial supply (P=0.002). Patients with BCLC stage B tumors had longer MST and higher OS than those with BCLC stage C tumors, although the differences were not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis showed that arterial supply of tumors remained statistically predictive for OS (HR =0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.67; P=0.008). Conclusions Arterial blood supply is an independent predictor for survival in HCC patients treated with sorafenib, and patients with tumors with good arterial supply benefit more than those with tumors with poor arterial supply. PMID:26697445

  9. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  10. A modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap technique with improved vascular supply and an extended rotation arc for oral defects: A case report

    PubMed Central

    KANNO, TAKAHIRO; NARIAI, YOSHIKI; TATSUMI, HIROTO; KARINO, MASAAKI; YOSHINO, AYA; SEKINE, JOJI

    2015-01-01

    The pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is versatile, and is widely used for the treatment of surgical defects following oral cancer resection. Although free-tissue transfer of a vascularized free flap is often preferred, the clinical benefits of the PMMC flap should not be overlooked. The conventional technique of harvesting a PMMC flap involves a single vascular supply from the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery. However, this approach compromises the distal skin island of the flap, and requires an indirect blood supply via communicating vessels, which increases the potential risk of partial distal flap necrosis. When harvesting a PMMC flap for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction, preservation of the lateral thoracic artery and use of the subclavian route are alternatives that ensure sufficient blood supply and an increased rotation arc. Such an approach enables the harvesting of a PMMC flap that can reach the entire oral cavity, including the infraorbital region, palate, middle pterygopalatine fossa and nasopharynx, with no risk of vascular insufficiency to the distal skin island. In conclusion, the technique described in the present study was able to improve the blood supply of the distal PMMC flap and increase its rotation arc. PMID:26722234

  11. Hypertension: a problem of organ blood flow supply-demand mismatch.

    PubMed

    Koeners, Maarten P; Lewis, Kirsty E; Ford, Anthony P; Paton, Julian Fr

    2016-05-01

    This review introduces a new hypothesis that sympathetically mediated hypertensive diseases are caused, in the most part, by the activation of visceral afferent systems that are connected to neural circuits generating sympathetic activity. We consider how organ hypoperfusion and blood flow supply-demand mismatch might lead to both sensory hyper-reflexia and aberrant afferent tonicity. We discuss how this may drive sympatho-excitatory-positive feedback and extend across multiple organs initiating, or at least amplifying, sympathetic hyperactivity. The latter, in turn, compounds the challenge to sufficient organ blood flow through heightened vasoconstriction that both maintains and exacerbates hypertension. PMID:27091483

  12. Emerging Infectious Threats to the Blood Supply: Seroepidemiological Studies in Iran – a Review

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Gharib; Gharehbaghian, Ahmad; Tafti, Mohammad Fallah; Vafaiyan, Vida

    2013-01-01

    Summary The risk of transfusion-transmitted infections has been greatly reduced by improvements in donor screening and testing. However, newly recognized blood-borne infectious agents can be threats to blood safety. In order to evaluate the prevalence some of these agents in blood donors, a systematic review was conducted. Data were obtained from published papers related to HGV, Torque Teno virus (TTV), HTLV, West Nile virus (WNV) and SEN virus (SEN-V). Based on these studies, the prevalence of HGV varied from 1 to 8.6% for anti-E2 and from 0 to 4.8% for HGV RNA. The prevalence of TTV DNA and HTLV-I varied from 2.7 to 79.5% and from 0.013 to 2.3%, respectively. The WNV-specific IgM antibody and WNV RNA are negative in blood donors. Prevalence rates of SEN-V in Iranian blood donors range from 23 to 90.8%. Consequences of these infectious agents for blood safety are different. Thus, the need to perform laboratory screening as well as effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory tests depend on pathogenicity level and epidemiological conditions of emerging infections. However, being prepared based on the current level of risk and interventions to reduce the risk can be effective in reducing the potential threat for blood supply. PMID:23922546

  13. Mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with depressive subsymptoms and severity of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Karabatsiakis, A; Böck, C; Salinas-Manrique, J; Kolassa, S; Calzia, E; Dietrich, D E; Kolassa, I-T

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction might have a central role in the pathophysiology of depression. Phenotypically, depression is characterized by lack of energy, concentration problems and fatigue. These symptoms might be partially explained by reduced availability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a consequence of impaired mitochondrial functioning. This study investigated mitochondrial respiration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), an established model to investigate the pathophysiology of depression. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in intact PBMCs in 22 individuals with a diagnosis of major depression (MD) compared with 22 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution respirometry. Individuals with MD showed significantly impaired mitochondrial functioning: routine and uncoupled respiration as well as spare respiratory capacity, coupling efficiency and ATP turnover-related respiration were significantly lower in the MD compared with the control group. Furthermore, mitochondrial respiration was significantly negatively correlated with the severity of depressive symptoms, in particular, with loss of energy, difficulties concentrating and fatigue. The results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the biomolecular pathophysiology of depressive symptoms. The decreased immune capability observed in MD leading to a higher risk of comorbidities could be attributable to impaired energy supply due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus mitochondrial respiration in PBMCs and its functional consequences might be an interesting target for new therapeutical approaches in the treatment of MD and immune-related comorbidities. PMID:26126180

  14. Infundibula of equine maxillary cheek teeth. Part 1: Development, blood supply and infundibular cementogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suske, A; Pöschke, A; Schrock, P; Kirschner, S; Brockmann, M; Staszyk, C

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in diseases of infundibula of equine maxillary cheek teeth. Imperfect infundibular cementogenesis has been recognized as an aetiopathological factor for the onset of infundibular necrosis. In this article, infundibular development was examined with particular attention to infundibular blood vessels and cementogenesis. Forty-one deciduous maxillary premolars prior to eruption were investigated using routine histological and immunohistological methods to visualize blood vessels and the enamel organ. Selected specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomography to analyze the three-dimensional configuration of the developing infundibulum. Before eruption, the infundibula are supplied by a central infundibular artery entering the infundibulum from an occlusal direction and by arteries entering the mesial infundibulum from the mesial aspect, and the distal infundibulum from the distal aspect. The central infundibular artery is destroyed shortly after tooth eruption but the lateral arteries remain vital for a time after eruption. As the arteries of the distal infundibulum are located in a more apical position, blood is received for a longer period compared with the mesial infundibulum. Cementogenesis starts first at distinct enamel in-foldings in the occlusal part of the infundibula, advancing in an apical direction. The results suggest a distinct asymmetry between the infundibula with the mesial infundibulum prone to incomplete cementogenesis due to early blood supply cessation. PMID:26832811

  15. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuck T.; Kitson, Alex P.; Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lin, Lauren E.; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Thies, Frank; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being critical for normal brain function, the pools that supply docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain are not agreed upon. Using multiple kinetic models in free-living adult rats, we first demonstrate that DHA uptake from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool predicts brain uptake of DHA upon oral administration, which enters the plasma NEFA pool as well as multiple plasma esterified pools. The rate of DHA loss by the brain is similar to the uptake from the plasma NEFA pool. Furthermore, upon acute iv administration, although more radiolabeled lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-DHA enters the brain than NEFA-DHA, this is due to the longer plasma half-life and exposure to the brain. Direct comparison of the uptake rate of LPC-DHA and NEFA-DHA demonstrates that uptake of NEFA-DHA into the brain is 10-fold greater than LPC-DHA. In conclusion, plasma NEFA-DHA is the major plasma pool supplying the brain. PMID:26511533

  16. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply in the gluteal region: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kanawati, Andrew James

    2014-11-01

    Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy and blood supply are complex and largely not dealt with in common anatomy texts. Variations of the sciatic nerve anatomy can be divided into the height of division of its branches, relation of the branches to the piriformis muscle, and its blood supply. These variations should be well known to any surgeon operating in this anatomical region. It is unknown whether these variations increase the risk of surgical injury and consequent morbidity. This paper will review the current knowledge regarding anatomical variations of the sciatic nerve and its blood supply. PMID:24842563

  17. Effect on blood volume of maintaining a high central venous pressure after major aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fluck, David C.; Bescos, L. Lopez; Gilkes, R.

    1973-01-01

    Fluck, D. C., Lopez Bescos, L., and Gilkes, R. (1973).Thorax,28, 762-767. Effect on blood volume of maintaining a high central venous pressure after major aortic valve surgery. Serial blood volume measurements were made in 15 patients undergoing major aortic valve surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. In all patients the plasma volume was measured by iodine-125 (125I) labelled albumin and in 10 the red cell mass was measured by chromium-51 (51Cr) labelled red cells. Close correlation was found between the blood volume derived from the plasma volume and central venous haematocrits and the blood volume derived by addition of the plasma volume and red cell mass. Postoperatively blood was given to maintain the right atrial pressure at between 10 and 15 cm H2O. Before operation the red cell mass, and plasma and blood volumes related to body weight were within the normal range. In the postoperative phase the first measurement two hours after the end of the operation showed a significant decrease in mean blood volume, red cell mass, and plasma volume as compared with the preoperative level. By the second postoperative measurement six hours after the end of operation the mean blood volume had risen to the preoperative level. Subsequently, over postoperative days 1 to 6 the mean blood volume remained steady, although the red cell mass tended to fall. After blood transfusion had ceased the red cell mass usually showed a progressive fall. It was considered that although there was little relationship between the right atrial pressure and the blood volume there was little or no clinical value in performing serial postoperative measurements of blood volume in addition to venous pressure monitoring in these patients. Images PMID:4787988

  18. Blood supply to the human femoral diaphysis in youth and senescence.

    PubMed Central

    Bridgeman, G; Brookes, M

    1996-01-01

    The nutrient foramina in the human femoral diaphysis were counted in 109 cleaned and dried bones, ranging in age from 38 to 98 y. Although statistical analysis for univariate associations found that foramen number was not linked to age, sex (male/female) or side (R/L), multivariate logistic analysis revealed a significant interaction between the effects of sex and side (P < 0.01). Univariate analysis for sex and for side separately revealed a significant difference in for men number between the results for men and women for R bones 62% (18/29) vs 33% (8/24) (P < 0.04), but not for L bones 35% (9/26) vs 48% (13/27) (P < 0.28). One lower limb from 15 cadavers was perfused with a barium sulphate suspension to show the blood supply of the femoral diaphysis. Twelve were in the age group 59-88 y and considered to be senescent material. In addition, 3 more femora were perfused, 1 from a young male aged 21 y, another from a 42-y-old male considered to show early senescent changes, and a third from a man aged 56 y with a hip prosthesis in situ, to provide an example of a cortex deprived entirely of its medulla. All perfused femora were fixed and decalcified, and sections were then radiographed. Cross-sections through the middiaphysis showed that aged bone cortex is supplied predominantly from the periosteum in contrast to the medullary supply in young human and animal material. The change is attributed to increasingly severe medullary ischaemia with age, brought on by atherosclerosis of the marrow vessels. An examination of the findings reported by investigators of animal bone blood supply in the past 40 y shows a large measure of agreement. Long standing controversy seems to be based on a failure to recognise that marrow ischaemia accompanies natural senescence, affecting transcortical haemodynamics, and entraining an increasing periosteal supply for bone survival in old age. The change over from a medullary to a periosteal blood supply to bone cortex is the consequence of medullary ischaemia and reduced marrow arterial pressure, brought about by medullary atherosclerosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:8763478

  19. Assessing the Residual Risk for Transfusion-Transmitted Infections in the Philippine Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hilton Y.; Belizario, Vicente Y.; Juban, Noel R.; Alejandria, Marissa M.; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma. Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P.; Sison, Olivia T.; Rivera, Adovich S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-ready blood was not safe using the LQAS method (P > 0.05). We found that the 2012 residual risk became 0 to 0.9 percent attributable to the national policy. We noted poor to fair adherence to this policy. We identified unsafe practices such as use of rapid tests and lack of random blood retesting. Training and use of regional networks may improve safety. Despite improvement in safety, facilities complain of funding and logistical issues regarding compliance with the policy. PMID:25191145

  20. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  1. Sufficient collateral blood supply from accessory middle cerebral artery in a patient with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Long-Jiang; Sun, Yong; Kuang, Xiong-Wei; Wang, Wei; Li, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We reported a case of acute embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery with a patent accessory middle cerebral artery. Because of the presence of sufficient collateral blood supply from the accessory middle cerebral artery, the patient only underwent transient ischemic attack and did not need endovascular treatment. There was mild infarction in the basal ganglia and temporal lobe, NIHSS score of the patient at discharge seven days after stroke onset was 0, and modified Rankin scale score at 90 days was 0. PMID:25943843

  2. Study of Relationship Between the Blood Supply of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct and Duct Supply Branches from Gastroduodenal Artery on Imaging and Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Chun; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Ya-Liang; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Song, Yi-Zhi; Wu, Huan-Huan; Ding, Jin-Li; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage acute or chronic hepatic disease. Bile duct complications are common events after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood supply of the human bile duct and identify the underlying mechanisms of bile duct complications after liver transplantation. Methods: The duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and blood supply of extrahepatic bile duct system were re-evaluated through selective hepatic angiography from 600 patients. In addition, 33 cadavers were injected with latex casting material into the common hepatic artery, then the extrahepatic bile duct and the branches from the common hepatic artery were carefully dissected to visualize the gastroduodenal artery and its branching to the extrahepatic bile duct. Results: The bile duct artery arose from the branch of the gastroduodenal artery in 8.1% (49/600). Of these 49 individuals, the bile duct artery was supplied by the gastroduodenal artery (61.22%, 30/49), the proper hepatic artery (14.29%, 7/49), or both the gastroduodenal artery and the proper hepatic artery (24.49%, 12/49). In our study of 33 cadavers, the percentage that the bile duct artery arose from the gastroduodenal artery was 27.27%. The blood supply to the bile extrahepatic bile ducts was divided into different segments and formed longitudinal and arterial network anastomosed on the walls of the duct. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between the duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and the blood supplying patterns of the extrahepatic bile duct system. In liver transplant surgery, the initial part of the gastroduodenal artery is preferred to be preserved in the donor liver. It is of great significance to improve the success rate of operation and reduce complications. PMID:25635427

  3. Widefield in vivo spectral and fluorescence imaging microscopy of microvessel blood supply and oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jennifer; Kozikowski, Raymond; Wankhede, Mamta; Sorg, Brian S.

    2011-02-01

    Abnormal microvascular function and angiogenesis are key components of various diseases that can contribute to the perpetuation of the disease. Several skin diseases and ophthalmic pathologies are characterized by hypervascularity, and in cancer the microvasculature of tumors is structurally and functionally abnormal. Thus, the microvasculature can be an important target for treatment of diseases characterized by abnormal microvasculature. Motivated largely by cancer research, significant effort has been devoted to research on drugs that target the microvasculature. Several vascular targeting drugs for cancer therapy are in clinical trials and approved for clinical use, and several off-label uses of these drugs have been reported for non-cancer diseases. The ability to image and measure parameters related to microvessel function preclinically in laboratory animals can be useful for development and comparison of vascular targeting drugs. For example, blood supply time measurements give information related to microvessel morphology and can be measured with first-pass fluorescence imaging. Hemoglobin saturation measurements give an indication of microvessel oxygen transport and can be measured with spectral imaging. While each measurement individually gives some information regarding microvessel function, the measurements together may yield even more information since theoretically microvessel morphology can influence microvessel oxygenation, especially in metabolically active tissue like tumors. However, these measurements have not yet been combined. In this study, we report the combination of blood supply time imaging and hemoglobin saturation imaging of microvessel networks in tumors using widefield fluorescence and spectral imaging, respectively. The correlation between the measurements in a mouse mammary tumor is analyzed.

  4. Blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the laboratory mouse using corrosion and dissection techniques.

    PubMed

    Flesarova, Slavka; Mazensky, David; Teleky, Jana; Almasiova, Viera; Holovska, Katarina; Supuka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mice are used frequently as experimental models in the study of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the mouse. The study was carried out on 20 adult mice using the corrosion and dissection technique. Dorsal intercostal arteries were found as branches of the thoracic aorta: as 7 pairs in 80% of cases, as 8 pairs in 15% of cases and as 9 pairs in 5% of cases. The paired lumbar arteries arising from the abdominal aorta were present as 5 pairs in all cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, we observed left-sided branches entering the ventral spinal artery in 64.2% and right-sided branches in 35.8% of cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, the branches entering the dorsal spinal arteries were left-sided in 60.8% of cases and right-sided in 39.2% of cases. We found some variations in the site of origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz and in the number of dorsal spinal arteries. Documenting the anatomical variations in spinal cord blood supply in the laboratory mouse will aid the planning of future experimental studies and in determining the clinical relevance of such studies. PMID:25636913

  5. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Effect of the high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B.; Shim, S.S.; Leung, G.

    1984-05-01

    This investigation was done to study the effects of high femoral osteotomy upon the vascularity and blood supply of the hip and to further our knowledge of its physiologic basis. We have used established methods of study, including bone scans, microangiography, isotope clearance and perosseous venography, and based upon the results of these studies, we have reached certain conclusions. First, high femoral osteotomy increases the blood flow and vascularity in the hip joint, the femoral head and neck and the great trochanter. Second, bone scanning techniques using /sup 99m/Tc labeled diphosphonate have shown increased uptake in the femoral head and neck after high femoral osteotomy. The localization was done using a Digital Gamma III computer, and the activity on the osteotomy side at two weeks was 3.5 times as great as on the control side. By 16 weeks postoperatively, there was still two times as much activity on the osteotomy side. Third, microangiography showed increased vascularity both at the osteotomy site and in the femoral head and neck and the greater trochanter on that side. Such an increase in vascularity first became evident two weeks after osteotomy and persisted during the four month period studied. Fourth, the results of the /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate clearance study showed a 25 per cent increase in femoral head blood flow on the operative side. Fifth, perosseous venography of the femoral head and neck showed a marked increase in venous drainage through the osteotomy site in the immediate postosteotomy stage.

  7. Local oxygen supply and blood flow regulation in contracting muscle in dogs and rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D K; Birkenhake, S; Knauf, S K; Kessler, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Multiwire surface electrodes were used to measure local hydrogen clearance curves and tissues PO2 in the sartorius muscle in dogs under resting conditions and during stimulation of the muscle at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 20 Hz via the femoral nerve. Tissue oxygen supply was assessed by means of PO2 histograms; evaluation of the initial slopes of the hydrogen clearance curves enabled the measurement of capillary blood flow. 2. In a further model, the analysis of hydrogen clearance curves measured in the femoral vein using intravascular needle electrodes in rabbits enabled the distribution of blood flow to be evaluated both under resting conditions and during direct 2 Hz stimulation of the vastus medialis muscle. 3. Increased oxygen consumption, induced by stimulation, caused increases in capillary flow which were not necessarily accompanied by augmentation of femoral artery flow. 4. PO2 histograms provided no evidence of cellular anoxia even at the maximum level of oxygen consumption. 5. A two-compartment distribution of flow was measured under resting conditions, whereas only one compartment could be resolved during 2 Hz stimulation of the vastus medialis muscle in the rabbit experiments. A clear redistribution of flow was observed in the absence of any increase in total flow. 6. A model for oxygen-dependent regulation of capillary blood flow involving high-flow and normal-flow compartments is proposed. PMID:2352180

  8. [Effect of retraction materials on the blood supply of marginal gingiva].

    PubMed

    Fazekas, A; Csabai, Z; Csempesz, F; Vág, J

    2000-10-01

    Effect of knitted cord and retraction medicaments applied to achieve gingival displacement prior to taking impression has been studied on the blood supply of marginal gingiva of volunteers using laser Doppler flowmetry. Immediately after application of #00 cord saturated with 0.9% saline, 25% AlCl3 or 15.5% Fe2(SO4)3 solutions, significant decrease of blood perfusion was registered. Removal of cords containing medicaments resulted in prompt gingival hyperemia. However, vasoconstriction observed as a consequence of cord application saturated with 0.1% epinephrine proved to be long-lasting and persisted even in the 20th min of cord removal. In conclusion our results suggest that the reduced perfusion of marginal gingiva is evoked by the mechanical compression of retraction cord. At the time of making impression, which procedure in clinical practice is due immediately after cord removal, the blood flow of marginal gingiva is elevated. Permanent hypoperfusion can be achieved only by the means of cord impregnated with 0.1% epinephrine. PMID:11084773

  9. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Avila, M; Romieu, I; Rios, C; Rivero, A; Palazuelos, E

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 micrograms/dL, with a mean of 10.6 micrograms/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 micrograms/dL and 22% over 15 micrograms/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status (presence of telephone in the house, t-test, p = 0.01) and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food (t-test, p less than 0.005). There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC (test for trend, p = 0.0008). Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (less than 15 micrograms/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery. PMID:1954921

  10. The compliance problem: a major obstacle in the development of implantable blood pumps.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Rosenberg, G; Donachy, J H; Wisman, C B; Pierce, W S

    1984-02-01

    The compliance problem represents a major obstacle in the development of implantable blood pumps. The motor-driven pumps are enclosed in an airtight casing with gas in the motor space. The trapped gas in the motor space either increases the load on the motor during systole or impedes blood sac filling. Potential solutions to the compliance problem include the use of a conventional blood pump with a compliance chamber, a blood pump with an isolated blood sac and accumulator, or a volume-compensated blood pump. Most experimental studies designed to investigate this problem have been performed with compliance chambers. An ideal compliance chamber should accept 100 ml gas with less than a 15-mm Hg increase in pressure and should automatically compensate for changes in atmospheric pressure. To date, two designs have been shown to be effective in laboratory and animal studies: a collapsible rectangular sac design developed by our group, and a lenticular chamber developed by Nosé and associates. Compliance chambers of the former design have now been employed to provide the required compliance for motor-driven assist pumps in long-term calf studies. PMID:6703930

  11. Climate change could threaten blood supply by altering the distribution of vector-borne disease: an Australian case-study

    PubMed Central

    Bambrick, Hilary J.; Woodruff, Rosalie E.; Hanigan, Ivan C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to promote more intense and prolonged outbreaks of vector-borne disease, and alter the geographic boundaries of transmission. This has implications for the safety and supply of fresh blood products around the world. In Australia, a recent outbreak of dengue fever caused a prolonged regional shortage in the supply of fresh blood products. Objective To highlight the potential for climate change to affect the safety and supply of blood globally through its impact on vector-borne disease, using the example of dengue in Australia as a case-study. Design We modelled geographic regions in Australia suitable for dengue transmission over the coming century under four climate change scenarios, estimated changes to the population at risk and effect on blood supply. Results Geographic regions with climates that are favourable to dengue transmission could expand to include large population centres in a number of currently dengue-free regions in Australia and reduce blood supply across several states. Conclusion Unless there is strong intergovernmental action on greenhouse gas reduction, there could be an eight-fold increase in the number of people living in dengue prone regions in Australia by the end of the century. Similar impacts will be experienced elsewhere and for other vector-borne diseases, with regions currently on the margins of transmission zones most affected. Globally, climate change is likely to compound existing problems of blood safety and supply in already endemic areas and cause future shortages in fresh blood products through its impact on transmission of vector-borne disease. PMID:20052315

  12. Methylglyoxal further impairs adipose tissue metabolism after partial decrease of blood supply.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Matafome, Paulo; Seiça, Raquel

    2013-12-01

    We previously showed that methylglyoxal-induced glycation induces adipose tissue lesions, including decreased irrigation and macrophage recruitment, independently of obesity. Here, we developed a model of partially decreased adipose tissue irrigation, a common condition in obese individuals. We aimed to study the role of methylglyoxal in the metabolic adaptations to such conditions 1 and 48 hours after decreased blood supply, avoiding other confoundable variables. Irrigation decrease during 1 hour leaded to increased activation of ERK1/2 and degradation of Ikappa-Balpha and Perilipin A in methylglyoxal-treated normal Wistar rats. After 48 hours, all rats showed increased fasting glycaemia and insulinemia. However, methylglyoxal-treated rats had higher free fatty acids and triglycerides levels and decreased adiponectinemia, consequent to decreased PPARgamma levels in partially irrigated adipose tissue. Our data show that besides causing vascular dysfunction, glycation further contributes to impaired adipocyte metabolism after a decrease of tissue irrigation, what may hamper metabolic adaptation during tissue expansion. PMID:23845007

  13. [Effect of noradrenaline and angiotensin II on the brain and kidney blood supply with changes in systemic arterial pressure].

    PubMed

    Beketov, A I; Korneliuk, I K

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogen clearance was used in experiments on anesthetized cats to demonstrate that intravenous infusions of noradrenaline induced an increase in cerebral blood supply and reduction of renal blood flow both in anesthetized animals and in the presence of hypotension. In these conditions, angiotensin II lowered the cerebral and renal blood flow. Hypotension enhanced the reactions of the cerebral and renal blood flow to the action of vasopressor agents. The intensity of the reactions was consistent with the degree of vascular autocontrol preservation in the brain and kidneys. PMID:7286196

  14. Verses, viruses, and the vulnerability of the blood supply in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Mushahwar, Isa K

    2007-08-01

    In the last 30 years, tremendous progress in identifying transfusion-transmitted viruses such as HBV, HCV, and HIV in industrialized countries has been achieved. Currently, the residual risk of transmitting these viruses through transfusion is very low especially after the introduction of "minipool" nucleic acid-amplification tests. Despite these major technical advances, there remains a legitimate concern as to the transmission of other blood-borne infectious agents through blood transfusion. Among these agents are HBV mutants, occult HBV, and HCV infections, malaria, Chagas, West Nile, dengue, and vesiviruses, bacterial infections such as Yersinia enterocolitica, and tick borne diseases such as human monocytic ehrlichiosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme and prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt and variant Creutzfeldt. Most of these agents are very rarely transmitted by transfusion in industrialized countries. However, an awareness of their possible transmission is essential for the control of spread of these diseases among the public by human-to-human transmission via blood transfusion. This review summarizes the current status of prevalence and diagnosis of these emerging diseases and also updates our knowledge on recently discovered non-pathogenic blood-borne viruses such as GB virus C and Torque Tenoviruses. PMID:17596828

  15. Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D; Umali, Elaine; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective We investigated associations between changes in national food energy supply and in average population body weight. Methods We collected data from 24 high-, 27 middle- and 18 low-income countries on the average measured body weight from global databases, national health and nutrition survey reports and peer-reviewed papers. Changes in average body weight were derived from study pairs that were at least four years apart (various years, 1971–2010). Selected study pairs were considered to be representative of an adolescent or adult population, at national or subnational scale. Food energy supply data were retrieved from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations food balance sheets. We estimated the population energy requirements at survey time points using Institute of Medicine equations. Finally, we estimated the change in energy intake that could theoretically account for the observed change in average body weight using an experimentally-validated model. Findings In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight. In 45 countries, the increase in food energy supply was higher than the model-predicted increase in energy intake. The association between change in food energy supply and change in body weight was statistically significant overall and for high-income countries (P < 0.001). Conclusion The findings suggest that increases in food energy supply are sufficient to explain increases in average population body weight, especially in high-income countries. Policy efforts are needed to improve the healthiness of food systems and environments to reduce global obesity. PMID:26170502

  16. How to maintain blood supply during computer network breakdown: a manual backup system.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, T; Slonka, J; Brgi, H R; Kretschmer, V

    2000-12-01

    Electronic data management systems using computer network systems and client/server architecture are increasingly used in laboratories and transfusion services. Severe problems arise if there is no network access to the database server and critical functions are not available. We describe a manual backup system (MBS) developed to maintain the delivery of blood products to patients in a hospital transfusion service in case of a computer network breakdown. All data are kept on a central SQL database connected to peripheral workstations in a local area network (LAN). Request entry from wards is performed via machine-readable request forms containing self-adhesive specimen labels with barcodes for test tubes. Data entry occurs on-line by bidirectional automated systems or off-line manually. One of the workstations in the laboratory contains a second SQL database which is frequently and incrementally updated. This workstation is run as a stand-alone, read-only database if the central SQL database is not available. In case of a network breakdown, the time-graded MBS is launched. Patient data, requesting ward and ordered tests/requests, are photocopied through a template from the request forms on special MBS worksheets serving as laboratory journal for manual processing and result report (a copy is left in the laboratory). As soon as the network is running again the data from the off-line period are entered into the primary SQL server. The MBS was successfully used at several occasions. The documentation of a 90-min breakdown period is presented in detail. Additional work resulted from the copy work and the belated manual data entry after restoration of the system. There was no delay in issue of blood products or result reporting. The backup system described has been proven to be simple, quick and safe to maintain urgent blood supply and distribution of laboratory results in case of unexpected network breakdown. PMID:11123812

  17. Multi-Objective Algorithm for Blood Supply via Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the Wounded in an Emergency Situation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in many industries. In the medical environment, especially in some emergency situations, UAVs play an important role such as the supply of medicines and blood with speed and efficiency. In this paper, we study the problem of multi-objective blood supply by UAVs in such emergency situations. This is a complex problem that includes maintenance of the supply blood's temperature model during transportation, the UAVs' scheduling and routes' planning in case of multiple sites requesting blood, and limited carrying capacity. Most importantly, we need to study the blood's temperature change due to the external environment, the heating agent (or refrigerant) and time factor during transportation, and propose an optimal method for calculating the mixing proportion of blood and appendage in different circumstances and delivery conditions. Then, by introducing the idea of transportation appendage into the traditional Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP), this new problem is proposed according to the factors of distance and weight. Algorithmically, we use the combination of decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and local search method to perform a series of experiments on the CVRP public dataset. By comparing our technique with the traditional ones, our algorithm can obtain better optimization results and time performance. PMID:27163361

  18. The changing distribution of a major surgical procedure across hospitals: were supply shifts and disequilibrium important?

    PubMed

    Friedman, B; Elixhauser, A

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the changing distribution across hospitals in the U.S. of total hip replacement surgery (THR) for the period 1980-1987. THR is one of the most costly single procedures contributing to health care expenses. Also, the use of THR exhibits a particularly high degree of geographic variation. Recent research pointed to shifts in demand as one plausible economic explanation for increasing use of THR. This paper questions whether shifts in supply may have been large enough to explain changes in patient mix and the relationship of patient mix to the number of procedures performed at a particular hospital. In addition, the relationship between total use of THR and the local availability of orthopaedic surgeons as well as the average allowable Medicare fee for standardized physician services is analyzed. These relationships might yield evidence to support a scenario of induced demand beyond the optimum for patients' welfare, or evidence of supply increase within a disequilibrium scenario. This study, using data for all THR patients in a large sample of hospitals, tends to reject the formulation of a market with independent supply and demand shifts where the supply shifts were the dominant forces. Hospitals with a larger number of THRs performed did not see a higher percentage of older, sicker, and lower income patients. It was more likely that demand shifts generated increases in capacity for surgical services. Moreover, there was little evidence for a persistent disequilibrium and only weak evidence for inducement. Also, we found little evidence that hospitals responded to financial incentives inherent in the Medicare payment system after 1983 to select among THR candidates in favour of those with below average expected cost. We did observe increased concentration over time of THR procedures in facilities with high volume--suggesting plausible demand shifts towards hospitals with a priori quality and cost advantages or who obtained those advantages with a high volume of patients. PMID:8528432

  19. Methodology for determining major constituents of ayahuasca and their metabolites in blood.

    PubMed

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2012-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in potential medical applications of ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea with a long cultural history of indigenous medical and religious use. Clinical research into ayahuasca will require specific, sensitive and comprehensive methods for the characterization and quantitation of these compounds and their metabolites in blood. A combination of two analytical techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and/or fluorescence detection and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection) has been used for the analysis of some of the constituents of ayahuasca in blood following its oral consumption. We report here a single methodology for the direct analysis of 14 of the major alkaloid components of ayahuasca, including several known and potential metabolites of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and the harmala alkaloids in blood. The method uses 96-well plate/protein precipitation/filtration for plasma samples, and analysis by HPLC-ion trap-ion trap-mass spectrometry using heated electrospray ionization to reduce matrix effects. The method expands the list of compounds capable of being monitored in blood following ayahuasca administration while providing a simplified approach to their analysis. The method has adequate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility to make it useful for clinical research with ayahuasca. PMID:21710581

  20. Blood Transcriptomic Markers in Patients with Late-Onset Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Shigeo; Kurachi, Masashi; Okano, Yoshiko; Sakurai, Noriko; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Harada, Kenichiro; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Koji; Takahashi, Keisuke; Narita, Kosuke; Fukuda, Masato; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated transcriptomic markers of late-onset major depressive disorder (LOD; onset age of first depressive episode ≥ 50 years) from the genes expressed in blood cells and identified state-dependent transcriptomic markers in these patients. We assessed the genes expressed in blood cells by microarray and found that the expression levels of 3,066 probes were state-dependently changed in the blood cells of patients with LOD. To select potential candidates from those probes, we assessed the genes expressed in the blood of an animal model of depression, ovariectomized female mice exposed to chronic ultra-mild stress, by microarray and cross-matched the differentially expressed genes between the patients and the model mice. We identified 14 differentially expressed genes that were similarly changed in both patients and the model mice. By assessing statistical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), the following 4 genes were selected as candidates: cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector c (CIDEC), ribonuclease 1 (RNASE1), solute carrier family 36 member-1 (SLC36A1), and serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting-like 1 (STYXL1). The discriminating ability of these 4 candidate genes was evaluated in an independent cohort that was validated. Among them, CIDEC showed the greatest discriminant validity (sensitivity 91.3% and specificity 87.5%). Thus, these 4 biomarkers should be helpful for properly diagnosing LOD. PMID:26926397

  1. Obstructions in Vascular Networks: Relation Between Network Morphology and Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Torres Rojas, Aimee M.; Meza Romero, Alejandro; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Travasso, Rui D. M.; Corvera Poiré, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    We relate vascular network structure to hemodynamics after vessel obstructions. We consider tree-like networks with a viscoelastic fluid with the rheological characteristics of blood. We analyze the network hemodynamic response, which is a function of the frequencies involved in the driving, and a measurement of the resistance to flow. This response function allows the study of the hemodynamics of the system, without the knowledge of a particular pressure gradient. We find analytical expressions for the network response, which explicitly show the roles played by the network structure, the degree of obstruction, and the geometrical place in which obstructions occur. Notably, we find that the sequence of resistances of the network without occlusions strongly determines the tendencies that the response function has with the anatomical place where obstructions are located. We identify anatomical sites in a network that are critical for its overall capacity to supply blood to a tissue after obstructions. We demonstrate that relatively small obstructions in such critical sites are able to cause a much larger decrease on flow than larger obstructions placed in non-critical sites. Our results indicate that, to a large extent, the response of the network is determined locally. That is, it depends on the structure that the vasculature has around the place where occlusions are found. This result is manifest in a network that follows Murray’s law, which is in reasonable agreement with several mammalian vasculatures. For this one, occlusions in early generation vessels have a radically different effect than occlusions in late generation vessels occluding the same percentage of area available to flow. This locality implies that whenever there is a tissue irrigated by a tree-like in vivo vasculature, our model is able to interpret how important obstructions are for the irrigation of such tissue. PMID:26086774

  2. Racial disparities in the use of blood transfusion in major surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Racial disparities in healthcare in the United States are widespread and have been well documented. However, it is unknown whether racial disparities exist in the use of blood transfusion for patients undergoing major surgery. Methods We used the University HealthSystem Consortium database (2009-2011) to examine racial disparities in perioperative red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), total hip replacement (THR), and colectomy. We estimated multivariable logistic regressions to examine whether black patients are more likely than white patients to receive perioperative RBC transfusion, and to investigate potential sources of racial disparities. Results After adjusting for patient-level factors, black patients were more likely to receive RBC transfusions for CABG (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI: [1.13, 1.76], p = 0.002) and THR (AOR = 1.39, 95% CI: [1.20, 1.62], p < 0.001), but not for colectomy (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI: [0.90, 1.30], p = 0.40). Black-white disparities in blood transfusion persisted after controlling for patient insurance and hospital effects (CABG: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI: [1.30, 1.56], p < 0.001; THR: AOR = 1.43, 95% CI: [1.29, 1.58], p < 0.001). Conclusions We detected racial disparities in the use of blood transfusion for CABG and THR (black patients tended to receive more transfusions compared with whites), but not for colectomy. Reporting racial disparities in contemporary transfusion practices may help reduce potentially unnecessary blood transfusions in minority patients. PMID:24618049

  3. Effects of Blood Transfusion on Exercise Capacity in Thalassemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Daniela; Rao, Carmelo Massimo; Cefalù, Claudia; Aguglia, Demetrio Oreste; Cattadori, Gaia; D’Ascola, Domenico Giuseppe; Benedetto, Frank Antonio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Sciomer, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anemia has an important role in exercise performance. However, the direct link between rapid changes of hemoglobin and exercise performance is still unknown.To find out more on this topic, we studied 18 beta-thalassemia major patients free of relevant cardiac dysfunction (age 33.5±7.2 years,males = 10). Patients performed a maximal cardiopulmolmonary exercise test (cycloergometer, personalized ramp protocol, breath-by-breath measurements of expired gases) before and the day after blood transfusion (500 cc of red cell concentrates). After blood transfusion, hemoglobin increased from 10.5±0.8 g/dL to 12.1±1.2 (p<0.001), peak VO2 from 1408 to 1546mL/min (p<0.05), and VO2 at anaerobic threshold from 965 to 1024mL/min (p<0.05). No major changes were observed as regards heart and respiratory rates either at peak exercise or at anaerobic threshold. Similarly, no relevant changes were observed in ventilation efficiency, as evaluated by the ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production relationship, or in O2 delivery to the periphery as analyzed by the VO2 vs. workload relationship. The relationship between hemoglobin and VO2 changes showed, for each g/dL of hemoglobin increase, a VO2 increase = 82.5 mL/min and 35 mL/min, at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold, respectively. In beta-thalassemia major patients, an acute albeit partial anemia correction by blood transfusion determinates a relevant increase of exercise performance, observed both at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold. PMID:26010540

  4. Major surgery in an osteosarcoma patient refusing blood transfusion: case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of osteosarcoma in a Jehovah's Witness patient who underwent chemotherapy and major surgery without the need for blood transfusion. This 16-year-old girl presented with osteosarcoma of the right proximal tibia requiring proximal tibia resection, followed by endoprosthesis replacement. She was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with the support of haematinics, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant erythropoietin and intraoperative normovolaemic haemodilution. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining effective, open communication and exploring acceptable therapeutic alternative in the management of these patients, whilst still respecting their beliefs. PMID:21059231

  5. Sociodemographic and Health Characteristics, Rather Than Primary Care Supply, are Major Drivers of Geographic Variation in Preventable Hospitalizations in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Louisa R.; Douglas, Kirsty A.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Elliott, Robert F.; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Geographic rates of preventable hospitalization are used internationally as an indicator of accessibility and quality of primary care. Much research has correlated the indicator with the supply of primary care services, yet multiple other factors may influence these admissions. Objective: To quantify the relative contributions of the supply of general practitioners (GPs) and personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, to geographic variation in preventable hospitalization. Methods: Self-reported questionnaire data for 267,091 participants in the 45 and Up Study, Australia, were linked with administrative hospital data to identify preventable hospitalizations. Multilevel Poisson models, with participants clustered in their geographic area of residence, were used to explore factors that explain geographic variation in hospitalization. Results: GP supply, measured as full-time workload equivalents, was not a significant predictor of preventable hospitalization, and explained only a small amount (2.9%) of the geographic variation in hospitalization rates. Conversely, more than one-third (36.9%) of variation was driven by the sociodemographic composition, health, and behaviors of the population. These personal characteristics explained a greater amount of the variation for chronic conditions (37.5%) than acute (15.5%) or vaccine-preventable conditions (2.4%). Conclusions: Personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, rather than GP supply, are major drivers of preventable hospitalization. Their contribution varies according to condition, and if used for performance comparison purposes, geographic rates of preventable hospitalization should be reported according to individual condition or potential pathways for intervention. PMID:25793270

  6. Rotational thromboelastometry-guided blood product management in major spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Naik, Bhiken I; Pajewski, Thomas N; Bogdonoff, David I; Zuo, Zhiyi; Clark, Pamela; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Durieux, Marcel E; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Nemergut, Edward C

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Major spinal surgery in adult patients is often associated with significant intraoperative blood loss. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is a functional viscoelastometric method for real-time hemostasis testing. In this study, the authors sought to characterize the coagulation abnormalities encountered in spine surgery and determine whether a ROTEM-guided, protocol-based approach to transfusion reduced blood loss and blood product use and cost. METHODS A hospital database was used to identify patients who had undergone adult deformity correction spine surgery with ROTEM-guided therapy. All patients who received ROTEM-guided therapy (ROTEM group) were matched with historical cohorts whose coagulation status had not been evaluated with ROTEM but who were treated using a conventional clinical and point-of-care laboratory approach to transfusion (Conventional group). Both groups were subdivided into 2 groups based on whether they had received intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA), the only coagulation-modifying medication administered intraoperatively during the study period. In the ROTEM group, 26 patients received TXA (ROTEM-TXA group) and 24 did not (ROTEM-nonTXA group). Demographic, surgical, laboratory, and perioperative transfusion data were recorded. Data were analyzed by rank permutation test, adapted for the 1:2 ROTEM-to-Conventional matching structure, with p < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS Comparison of the 2 groups in which TXA was used showed significantly less fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) use in the ROTEM-TXA group than in the Conventional-TXA group (median 0 units [range 0-4 units] vs 2.5 units [range 0-13 units], p < 0.0002) but significantly more cryoprecipitate use (median 1 unit [range 0-4 units] in the ROTEM-TXA group vs 0 units [range 0-2 units] in the Conventional-TXA group, p < 0.05), with a nonsignificant reduction in blood loss (median 2.6 L [range 0.9-5.4 L] in the ROTEM-TXA group vs 2.9 L [0.7-7.0 L] in the Conventional-TXA group, p = 0.21). In the 2 groups in which TXA was not used, the ROTEM-nonTXA group showed significantly less blood loss than the Conventional-nonTXA group (median 1 L [range 0.2-6.0 L] vs 1.5 L [range 1.0-4.5 L], p = 0.0005), with a trend toward less transfusion of packed red blood cells (pRBC) (median 0 units [range 0-4 units] vs 1 unit [range 0-9 units], p = 0.09]. Cryoprecipitate use was increased and FFP use decreased in response to ROTEM analysis identifying hypofibrinogenemia as a major contributor to ongoing coagulopathy. CONCLUSIONS In major spine surgery, ROTEM-guided transfusion allows for standardization of transfusion practices and early identification and treatment of hypofibrinogenemia. Hypofibrinogenemia is an important cause of the coagulopathy encountered during these procedures and aggressive management of this complication is associated with less intraoperative blood loss, reduced transfusion requirements, and decreased transfusion-related cost. PMID:26053893

  7. Blood Vessel Segmentation of Fundus Images by Major Vessel Extraction and Subimage Classification.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Parhi, Keshab K

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a novel three-stage blood vessel segmentation algorithm using fundus photographs. In the first stage, the green plane of a fundus image is preprocessed to extract a binary image after high-pass filtering, and another binary image from the morphologically reconstructed enhanced image for the vessel regions. Next, the regions common to both the binary images are extracted as the major vessels. In the second stage, all remaining pixels in the two binary images are classified using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier using a set of eight features that are extracted based on pixel neighborhood and first and second-order gradient images. In the third postprocessing stage, the major portions of the blood vessels are combined with the classified vessel pixels. The proposed algorithm is less dependent on training data, requires less segmentation time and achieves consistent vessel segmentation accuracy on normal images as well as images with pathology when compared to existing supervised segmentation methods. The proposed algorithm achieves a vessel segmentation accuracy of 95.2%, 95.15%, and 95.3% in an average of 3.1, 6.7, and 11.7 s on three public datasets DRIVE, STARE, and CHASE_DB1, respectively. PMID:25014980

  8. Blood transcriptomic biomarkers in adult primary care patients with major depressive disorder undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Redei, E E; Andrus, B M; Kwasny, M J; Seok, J; Cai, X; Ho, J; Mohr, D C

    2014-01-01

    An objective, laboratory-based diagnostic tool could increase the diagnostic accuracy of major depressive disorders (MDDs), identify factors that characterize patients and promote individualized therapy. The goal of this study was to assess a blood-based biomarker panel, which showed promise in adolescents with MDD, in adult primary care patients with MDD and age-, gender- and race-matched nondepressed (ND) controls. Patients with MDD received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clinical assessment using self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9). The measures, including blood RNA collection, were obtained before and after 18 weeks of CBT. Blood transcript levels of nine markers of ADCY3, DGKA, FAM46A, IGSF4A/CADM1, KIAA1539, MARCKS, PSME1, RAPH1 and TLR7, differed significantly between participants with MDD (N=32) and ND controls (N=32) at baseline (q< 0.05). Abundance of the DGKA, KIAA1539 and RAPH1 transcripts remained significantly different between subjects with MDD and ND controls even after post-CBT remission (defined as PHQ-9 <5). The ROC area under the curve for these transcripts demonstrated high discriminative ability between MDD and ND participants, regardless of their current clinical status. Before CBT, significant co-expression network of specific transcripts existed in MDD subjects who subsequently remitted in response to CBT, but not in those who remained depressed. Thus, blood levels of different transcript panels may identify the depressed from the nondepressed among primary care patients, during a depressive episode or in remission, or follow and predict response to CBT in depressed individuals. PMID:25226551

  9. Blood transcriptomic biomarkers in adult primary care patients with major depressive disorder undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Redei, E E; Andrus, B M; Kwasny, M J; Seok, J; Cai, X; Ho, J; Mohr, D C

    2014-01-01

    An objective, laboratory-based diagnostic tool could increase the diagnostic accuracy of major depressive disorders (MDDs), identify factors that characterize patients and promote individualized therapy. The goal of this study was to assess a blood-based biomarker panel, which showed promise in adolescents with MDD, in adult primary care patients with MDD and age-, gender- and race-matched nondepressed (ND) controls. Patients with MDD received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clinical assessment using self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The measures, including blood RNA collection, were obtained before and after 18 weeks of CBT. Blood transcript levels of nine markers of ADCY3, DGKA, FAM46A, IGSF4A/CADM1, KIAA1539, MARCKS, PSME1, RAPH1 and TLR7, differed significantly between participants with MDD (N=32) and ND controls (N=32) at baseline (q< 0.05). Abundance of the DGKA, KIAA1539 and RAPH1 transcripts remained significantly different between subjects with MDD and ND controls even after post-CBT remission (defined as PHQ-9 <5). The ROC area under the curve for these transcripts demonstrated high discriminative ability between MDD and ND participants, regardless of their current clinical status. Before CBT, significant co-expression network of specific transcripts existed in MDD subjects who subsequently remitted in response to CBT, but not in those who remained depressed. Thus, blood levels of different transcript panels may identify the depressed from the nondepressed among primary care patients, during a depressive episode or in remission, or follow and predict response to CBT in depressed individuals. PMID:25226551

  10. Parallel renal and extremity blood supply abnormalities in nonmodulation: responses to ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ramiro A; Ramos, Felipe; Giannone, Carlos; Fischer, Patricia; Masnatta, Lucas; Baglivo, Hugo P; Ramírez, Agustín J; Hollenberg, Norman K

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain, in nonmodulating essential hypertension, whether the abnormality in the renal blood supply is extended to the extremities and showed a similar response to ACE inhibition and whether these abnormalities could be identified in normotensive offspring of hypertensives, as non-modulation is a familial process with genetic underpinnings. We measured forearm vascular blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by plethysmography and urinary albumin excretion in 20 normotensive without family story of hypertension (NT: 25+/-9 years), 10 modulating offspring of hypertensive parents (MHO: 25+/-6 years), 10 nonmodulating offspring of hypertensive parents (NMHO: 26+/-5 years), 12 modulating essential hypertensives (MHT: 34+/-5 years), and 11 nonmodulating essential hypertensives (NMHT: 32+/-4 years). Measurements were repeated in hypertensives after 3-month treatment with ramipril (5 mg daily). Nonmodulating individuals showed lower maximum FBF (NMHT: 41.96+/-3.3 mL/100 g per minute and NMHO: 35.6+/-9.0 mL/100 g per minute) than modulating subjects (MHT: 57.5+/-10.0 mL/100 g per minute and MHO: 51.8+/-7.0 mL/100 g per minute; P<0.003). Likewise, all nonmodulating subjects showed higher minimum FVR (NMHT: 2.5+/-0.2 AU; NMO: 2.8+/-0.5 AU) than modulating individuals (MHT: 1.9+/-0.5 AU; MHO, 1.8+/-0.3AU; P<0.025). Urinary albumin excretion was higher in NMHT and NMHO than MHT, MHO, and NT (P<0.05). Ramipril increased maximum FBF to 53.8+/-8.0 mL/100 g per minute and reduced minimum FVR to 1.9+/-0.5 AU in NMHT (P<0.01). Likewise, ramipril increased effective renal plasma flow and reduced renal vascular resistance and urinary albumin excretion only in NMHT (P<0.05). These results have shown an early involvement of the peripheral circulation in association with increased urinary albumin excretion not only in essential hypertensives but also in NMHO. The effectiveness of ramipril in reducing minimum FVR and urinary albumin excretion in NMHT also suggests a common mechanism. PMID:12642507

  11. Multi-Objective Algorithm for Blood Supply via Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the Wounded in an Emergency Situation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Wong, Kelvin K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been widely used in many industries. In the medical environment, especially in some emergency situations, UAVs play an important role such as the supply of medicines and blood with speed and efficiency. In this paper, we study the problem of multi-objective blood supply by UAVs in such emergency situations. This is a complex problem that includes maintenance of the supply blood’s temperature model during transportation, the UAVs’ scheduling and routes’ planning in case of multiple sites requesting blood, and limited carrying capacity. Most importantly, we need to study the blood’s temperature change due to the external environment, the heating agent (or refrigerant) and time factor during transportation, and propose an optimal method for calculating the mixing proportion of blood and appendage in different circumstances and delivery conditions. Then, by introducing the idea of transportation appendage into the traditional Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP), this new problem is proposed according to the factors of distance and weight. Algorithmically, we use the combination of decomposition-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm and local search method to perform a series of experiments on the CVRP public dataset. By comparing our technique with the traditional ones, our algorithm can obtain better optimization results and time performance. PMID:27163361

  12. Toward a more stable blood supply: charitable incentives, donation rates, and the experience of September 11.

    PubMed

    Sass, Reuben G

    2013-01-01

    Although excess blood collection has characterized U.S. national disasters, most dramatically in the case of September 11, periodic shortages of blood have recurred for decades. In response, I propose a new model of medical philanthropy, one that specifically uses charitable contributions to health care as blood donation incentives. I explain how the surge in blood donations following 9/11 was both transient and disaster-specific, failing to foster a greater continuing commitment to donate blood. This underscores the importance of considering blood donation incentives. I defend charitable incentives as an alternative to financial incentives, which I contend would further extend neoliberal market values into health care. I explain my model's potential appeal to private foundations or public-private partnerships as a means for expanding both the pool of blood donors and the prosocial benefit of each act of blood donation. Finally I link my analysis to the empirical literature on blood donation incentives. PMID:23641850

  13. Late Holocene development of a major fluvial discontinuity in floodplain wetlands of the Blood River, eastern South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, Stephen; McCarthy, Terence; Rodnight, Helena; Keen-Zebert, Amanda; Rowberry, Matthew; Brandt, Dion

    2014-01-01

    In dryland settings, most floodplain wetlands form in low gradient, low energy environments that are characterised by strong interactions between flow, sediment and biota. Some floodplain wetlands are only partly channelled or largely unchannelled, and represent major discontinuities in drainage networks, fundamentally influencing downvalley water and sediment transfer. In the > 15 km2 Blood River floodplain wetlands, located in subhumid to semiarid eastern South Africa, field investigations, aerial photographs, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages provide evidence for development of a major discontinuity during the very late Holocene. Between ~ 800 and 100 years ago, the wetlands were characterised by a through-going, meandering channel set within a floodplain up to 2.5 km wide. A sinuous channel remains in the lower part of the wetlands but during the last ~ 100 years major morphological and sedimentary changes have occurred upvalley. The former through-going, meandering channel has been replaced by a straighter channel that decreases in size downstream and terminates in a 'floodout', characterised here by an unchannelled reedbed. Small tributaries supply water and limited sediment to this floodout and another floodout located farther downvalley. Organo-clastic sediments > 3 m thick have accumulated in the floodouts as broad lobes, in places burying the former meander-belt sediments. On the steepened, downvalley sides of these lobes, small headcutting channels convey water that filters through the reedbeds. If headcutting through the lobes continues, a through-going channel may re-establish upvalley, possibly eventually linking with the sinuous but now moribund channel in the lower part of the wetlands. Along the Blood River, the initial cause(s) of the sequence of changes is not known, but these channel-floodplain adjustments are partially analogous to the system-scale, autogenic morphological and sedimentary dynamics of those dryland fluvial systems that are also characterised by a combination of channelled and unchannelled landforms (e.g. discontinuous ephemeral streams, erosion cells). Knowledge of these historical changes can provide scientific underpinning for present-day management of wetlands, including assessments of ecosystem service provision and the suitability of measures to control erosion.

  14. A novel subpopulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells presents in major burn patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Zhu, Zhenshen; Shankowsky, Heather A; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are generally believed to result from proliferation and activation of resident connective tissue fibroblasts after burns. To demonstrate a potential role of blood-borne cells, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the effect of PBMCs on dermal fibroblast behavior was investigated. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the surface and intracellular protein expression of PBMCs and fibroblasts. Transwell migration assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess fibroblast functions. We identified a novel subpopulation of PBMCs in burn patients in vivo that appears at an early stage following major thermal injuries, which primarily express procollagen 1, leukocyte specific protein 1, CD204, toll-like receptor 4 and stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) receptor CXCR4. In vitro, the conditioned media from burn patient PBMCs up-regulated the expression of fibrotic growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules, down-regulated antifibrotic factor decorin, enhanced cell chemotaxis and promoted cell differentiation into contractile myofibroblasts in dermal fibroblasts. After thermal injury, this novel subpopulation of PBMCs is systemically triggered and attracted to the wounds under SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling where they appear to modulate the functions of resident connective tissue cells and thus contribute to the development of HTS. PMID:25683215

  15. Major gene analysis of quantitative variation in blood clotting factor X levels.

    PubMed Central

    Siervogel, R M; Elston, R C; Lester, R H; Graham, J B

    1979-01-01

    Blood clotting factor ten (X) levels measured in 149 people in six pedigrees were found to fit a mixture of normal distributions. No environmental effect could be identified to account for the wide separation in the means of these distributions. Pedigree analysis reveals that the data are compatible with an autosomal, one locus, two allele genetic model affecting factor X activity. Goodness of fit tests suggest that the allele for low levels of factor X is dominant, though on the basis of likelihood tests, mean heterozygote levels are different from mean homozygote levels. A similar bimodal distribution for factor X levels observed previously in a separate sample of 207 young men, indicated that the proposed dominant allele has an estimated population gene frequency of .53. The earlier estimate is remarkably similar to that obtained with the currently ascertained pedigrees. The postulated major gene accounts for more than half of the variation in factor X levels. PMID:453203

  16. Current epidemiology and clinical practice in arboviral infections – implications on blood supply in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gan, V C H; Leo, Y-S

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are a growing threat to global health. Complex vector–virus–host interactions lead to unpredictable epidemiological patterns. Difficulties in accurate surveillance including imperfect diagnostic tools impair effective response to outbreaks. With arboviral infections causing a wide spectrum of disease severity, from asymptomatic infection to fatal neuroinvasive and haemorrhagic fevers, the potential impact on blood safety is significant. Asymptomatic or presymptomatic individuals may introduce virus into the blood supply by donation, while recipients can potentially suffer severe consequences. Dengue, West Nile and chikungunya outbreaks have led to responses by blood transfusion services which can inform future planning. Reports of transfusion-associated transmission demonstrate the potentially fatal consequences of lack of haemovigilance. South-East Asia remains vulnerable to arboviruses with permissive climate and high levels of endemic transmission as well as the potential for emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases. Resource limitations constrain the use of expensive technologies for donor screening. Continued surveillance and research will be required to manage the arboviral threat to the blood supply. PMID:25210534

  17. Effect of age and vascular anatomy on blood flow in major cerebral vessels

    PubMed Central

    Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Du, Xinjian; Pandey, Dilip K; Thulborn, Keith R; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of volume flow rates in major cerebral vessels can be used to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of cerebrovascular disease. However, both age and vascular anatomy can affect flow rates independent of disease. We prospectively evaluated 325 healthy adult volunteers using phase contrast quantitative magnetic resonance angiography to characterize these effects on cerebral vessel flow rates and establish clinically useful normative reference values. Flows were measured in the major intracranial and extracranial vessels. The cohort ranged from 18 to 84 years old, with 157 (48%) females. All individual vessel flows and total cerebral blood flow (TCBF) declined with age, at 2.6 mL/minute per year for TCBF. Basilar artery (BA) flow was significantly decreased in individuals with one or both fetal posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). Internal carotid artery flows were significantly higher with a fetal PCA and decreased with a hypoplastic anterior cerebral artery. Indexing vessel flows to TCBF neutralized the age effect, but anatomic variations continued to impact indexed flow in the BA and internal carotid artery. Variability in normative flow ranges were reduced in distal vessels and by examining regional flows. Cerebral vessel flows are affected by age and cerebrovascular anatomy, which has important implications for interpretation of flows in the disease state. PMID:25388677

  18. Blood diagnostic biomarkers for major depressive disorder using multiplex DNA methylation profiles: discovery and validation

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Shusuke; Ishii, Kazuo; Tajima, Atsushi; Iga, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinya; Umehara, Hidehiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Okada, Satoshi; Boku, Shuken; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Shimodera, Shinji; Imoto, Issei; Morinobu, Shigeru; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been reported in several previous studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with MDD have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of these previous studies has been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions. The main aim of the present study is to identify DNA methylation markers that distinguish patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of peripheral leukocytes was conducted in two set of samples, a discovery set (20 medication-free patients with MDD and 19 controls) and a replication set (12 medication-free patients with MDD and 12 controls), using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Significant diagnostic differences in DNA methylation were observed at 363 CpG sites in the discovery set. All of these loci demonstrated lower DNA methylation in patients with MDD than in the controls, and most of them (85.7%) were located in the CGIs in the gene promoter regions. We were able to distinguish patients with MDD from the control subjects with high accuracy in the discriminant analysis using the top DNA methylation markers. We also validated these selected DNA methylation markers in the replication set. Our results indicate that multiplex DNA methylation markers may be useful for distinguishing patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls. PMID:25587773

  19. Segregation analysis of blood oxygen saturation in broilers suggests a major gene influence on ascites.

    PubMed

    Navarro, P; Visscher, P M; Chatziplis, D; Koerhuis, A N M; Haley, C S

    2006-12-01

    1. Blood oxygen saturation (SaO) is a potential indicator trait for resistance to ascites in chickens. 2. The objective of the study was to investigate the genetic architecture of SaO in a meat-type chicken line reared in commercial conditions. 3. Data were collected over 15 generations of selection and were divided into two data sets on the basis of a change in recording age from 6 to 5 weeks of age, approximately halfway through the period. The resulting pedigrees comprised in excess of 90,000 birds each and, on average, 12% of these birds had SaO records. 4. Segregation analyses of SaO were carried out assuming a mixed inheritance model that included a major locus segregating in a polygenic background. 5. The analyses suggest that a major gene is involved in the genetic control of SaO in this line. The putative gene acts in a dominant fashion and has an additive effect of around 0.90 sigma(p), equivalent to a predicted difference in SaO between the two homozygous classes of more than 10%. The frequency of the allele that increases SaO changed from 0.53 to 0.65 from the first to the second set of data, consistent with selection on SaO scores. 6. Using estimated genotype probabilities at the putative major locus, we inferred that it acts in an overdominant fashion on body weight and fleshing score. If the low SaO allele leads to susceptibility to ascites, its combined effects are consistent with it being maintained in the population by a balance of natural selection on fitness nad artificial selection on growth and carcase traits. 7. Even with selection on both SaO and growth traits, the combined genotypic effects would make it difficult to remove the unfavourable low-SaO allele by means of traditional selection without the use of genetic markers. PMID:17190674

  20. Compensation of CD55 Underexpression on Red Blood Cells of β-Thalassemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Jamil M A S; Abo El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghanem, Amal M; El-Hadidi, Abeer S; Mersal, Basma H M

    2015-01-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-thal), is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations at the β gene locus. β-Thalassemia major (β-TM) is a severe form of the disease, characterized by severe hypochromic and hemolytic anemia with an increased need for transfusion. Hemolysis is caused by intoxication, whereas mechanical removal of the affected cells caused by macrophage. Immunological implications are also reported and occur via antibodies and complement. We found previously that complement inhibitor receptor CD55 is underexpressed in these patients. This study concerns the compensatory mechanisms of this diminished expression upon flow cytometry analysis of CD55 and CD59 on the red blood cells (RBCs) of β-thal patients. This study was conducted on 24 patients and 10 healthy controls. Full history and transfusion data was obtained, then a complete blood count (CBC) and flow cytometry analysis of CD55 and CD59 on erythrocytes were carried out. Within our 24 patients, we found a diminished expression of CD55 with a normal expression of CD59. The percentage of cells that express CD55 was significantly different from that of the controls. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD55 and CD59 with correlation studies reveals that different factors affect the underexpression of CD55 and also revealed compensatory changes of the defect to minimize the hemolysis occurring in β-thal patients. Compensation of CD55 underexpression in the deficient patients occurred when an increase in the MFI of both the receptor CD55, on the positive cells, and another complement inhibitor receptor CD59. PMID:25897480

  1. Effects of arterial cannulation stress on regional cerebral blood flow in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, Jonathan; Nugent, Allison C.; Cannon, Dara M.; Carlson, Paul J.; Davis, Rebecca; Neumeister, Alexander; Rallis-Frutos, Denise; Fromm, Steve; Herscovitch, Peter; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) display abnormal neurophysiological responses to psychological stress but little is known about their neurophysiological responses to physiological stressors. Using [15O-H2O] positron emission tomography we assessed whether the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) response to arterial cannulation differed between patients with MDD and healthy controls (HCs). Fifty-one MDD patients and 62 HCs were scanned following arterial cannulation and 15 MDD patients and 17 HCs were scanned without arterial cannulation. A region-of-interest analysis showed that a significantly increased rCBF of the anterior cingulate cortex and right amygdala was associated with arterial cannulation in MDD. A whole brain analysis showed increased rCBF of the right post-central gyrus, left temporopolar cortex, and right amygdala during arterial cannulation in MDD patients. The rCBF in the right amygdala was significantly correlated with depression severity. Conceivably, the limbic response to invasive physical stress is greater in MDD subjects than in HCs. PMID:22403745

  2. Reduced Venous Blood Basophil Count and Anxious Depression in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee-Jin; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Papakostas, George I; Nierenberg, Andrew; Heo, Jung-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anxious depression has a distinct neurobiology, clinical course and treatment response from non-anxious depression. Role of inflammation in anxious depression has not been examined. As an exploratory study to characterize the role of inflammation on a development of anxious depression, we aimed to determine the relationship between white blood cell (WBC) subset counts and anxiety in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods A total of 709 patients who were newly diagnosed with MDD were recruited. Anxiety levels of participants were evaluated using the Anxiety/ Somatization subitem of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The association between WBC subset fraction and anxiety was evaluated. Results Basophil and eosinophil sub-fractions showed significant negative correlations with HAM-D anxiety/somatization factor scores (basophils: r=-0.092, p=0.014 and eosinophils: r=-0.075, p=0.046). When an anxiety score (a sum of somatic and psychic anxiety) was entered as a dependent variable, only basophils showed significant negative association with the anxiety scores after adjusting for all other WBC subset counts and demographic factors (t=-2.57, p=0.010). Conclusion This study showed that anxious depression had a decreased basophil subfraction, which might be associated with involvement of inflammation in development of anxious depression.

  3. Targeting growth factor supply in keratopathy treatment: comparison between maternal peripheral blood and cord blood as sources for the preparation of topical eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Terzi, Adriana; Fresina, Michela; Velati, Claudio; Campos, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitheliotrophic growth factors (GF) can be supplied topically to patients with severe keratopathy through a variety of blood-derived products. We compared GF content in adult peripheral blood serum (PB-S) and cord blood serum (CB-S) as potential sources of GF. To limit inter-individual variability the assessment was performed in maternal-child pairs at the time of delivery. Material and methods The amounts of epidermal GF (EGF), insulin-like GF (IGF), transforming GF-beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) in CB units collected from the umbilical vein and PB from mothers (each group n=30) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Obstetric characteristics and haematological data were recorded from the archives of the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank. Statistical evaluations were performed by Wilcoxon’s test and correlations between variables were determined using Spearman’s (ρ) coefficient; p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results EGF, TGF-β and VEGF levels were significantly higher in CB-S than in PB-S (median 1,254.4 vs 646.0 pg/mL, 51.3 vs 38.4 μg/mL and 686.8 vs 30 pg/mL, respectively; all p<0.0001) whereas IGF content was significantly higher in PB-S than in CB-S (159.9 vs 53.5 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In CB-S, the CD34+ cell concentration appeared to be related to EGF, IGF and TGF-β levels whereas white blood cell count appeared to be related to EGF and TGF-β levels. VEGF levels showed no relation to the haematological parameters considered. Platelet counts were not related to GF level in either CB or PB. Discussion The GF content in the two blood sources was different, with CB containing larger amounts. Each GF selectively regulates cellular processes involved in corneal healing, so the use of PB or CB should be targeted to supply specific GF on the basis of the type and severity of the keratopathy. PMID:26192781

  4. Classification of hypervascular liver lesions based on hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients calculated from triphasic CT scans.

    PubMed

    Boas, F Edward; Kamaya, Aya; Do, Bao; Desser, Terry S; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Vasanawala, Shreyas S; Hwang, Gloria L; Sze, Daniel Y

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion CT of the liver typically involves scanning the liver at least 20 times, resulting in a large radiation dose. We developed and validated a simplified model of tumor blood supply that can be applied to standard triphasic scans and evaluated whether this can be used to distinguish benign and malignant liver lesions. Triphasic CTs of 46 malignant and 32 benign liver lesions were analyzed. For each phase, regions of interest were drawn in the arterially enhancing portion of each lesion, as well as the background liver, aorta, and portal vein. Hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients for each lesion were then calculated by expressing the enhancement curve of the lesion as a linear combination of the enhancement curves of the aorta and portal vein. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hypervascular metastases, on average, both had increased hepatic artery coefficients compared to the background liver. Compared to HCC, benign lesions, on average, had either a greater hepatic artery coefficient (hemangioma) or a greater portal vein coefficient (focal nodular hyperplasia or transient hepatic attenuation difference). Hypervascularity with washout is a key diagnostic criterion for HCC, but it had a sensitivity of 72 % and specificity of 81 % for diagnosing malignancy in our diverse set of liver lesions. The sensitivity for malignancy was increased to 89 % by including enhancing lesions that were hypodense on all phases. The specificity for malignancy was increased to 97 % (p = 0.039) by also examining hepatic artery and portal vein blood supply coefficients, while maintaining a sensitivity of 76 %. PMID:25183580

  5. Peripheral whole blood microRNA alterations in major depression and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Rosso, Gianluca; Maina, Giuseppe; Maj, Carlo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Tardito, Daniela; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2016-08-01

    Major depression (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe and potentially life-threating mood disorders whose etiology is to date not completely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate protein synthesis post-transcriptionally by base-pairing to target gene mRNAs. Growing evidence indicated that miRNAs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders and in the action of psychotropic drugs. On these bases, in this study we evaluated the expression levels of 1733 mature miRNAs annotated in miRBase v.17, through a microarray technique, in the blood of 20 MD and 20 BD patients and 20 healthy controls, in order to identify putative miRNA signatures associated with mood disorders. We found that 5 miRNAs (hsa-let-7a-5p, hsa-let-7d-5p, hsa-let-7f-5p, hsa-miR-24-3p and hsa-miR-425-3p) were specifically altered in MD patients and 5 (hsa-miR-140-3p, hsa-miR-30d-5p, hsa-miR-330-5p, hsa-miR-378a-5p and hsa-miR-21-3p) in BD patients, whereas 2 miRNAs (hsa-miR-330-3p and hsa-miR-345-5p) were dysregulated in both the diseases. The bioinformatic prediction of the genes targeted by the altered miRNAs revealed the possible involvement of neural pathways relevant for psychiatric disorders. In conclusion, the observed results indicate a dysregulation of miRNA blood expression in mood disorders and could indicate new avenues for a better understanding of their pathogenetic mechanisms. The identified alterations may represent potential peripheral biomarkers to be complemented with other clinical and biological features for the improvement of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27152760

  6. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  7. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  8. Designing and Constructing an Optical Monitoring System of Blood Supply to Tissues under Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Akbari; Amin, Younessi Heravi Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Reduced blood flow due to obstruction is in most cases a primary factor in pressure ulcer formation and creation of bedsores. The aim of this study is to design and manufacture a care system for tissue under pressure, based on variations in blood flow at different depths of tissue. In the manufacture of the system two infrared light transmitters and receivers were located between 5 and 10 mm depth to measure the flow of blood at different in the under- pressure heel tissue. In addition, blood flow was evaluated in an unloaded and loaded condition, with 30 mmHg and 60.0 mmHg. A total of 15 people participated with a mean age of 50. Of these 15; 9 (60%) were men and 6 (40%) were women. Primary measurement results showed different individual differences in variation of blood flow in the tissue. To study signal amplitude changes significantly influenced by external pressure the PPG, P-value was measured. It was noted that there were significant changes in PPG signal amplitude during loading both pressures of 30 and 60 mmHg. Further development of this system would be possible with the use of a more flexible probe and by using a stronger optical receiver and transmitter to access more depth. PMID:23626948

  9. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  10. Quality of Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007Overview of Major Findings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary of Major Findings and Implications About 105 million people in the United States-more than one-third of the Nation's population-receive their drinking water from about 140,000 public water systems that use groundwater as their source. Although the quality of finished drinking water (after treatment and before distribution) from these public water systems is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), long-term protection and management of groundwater, a vital source of drinking water, requires an understanding of the occurrence of contaminants in untreated source water. Sources of drinking water are potentially vulnerable to a wide range of man-made and naturally occurring contaminants, including many that are not regulated in drinking water under the SDWA. In this study by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), chemical water-quality conditions were assessed in source (untreated) groundwater from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, and in source and finished water from a subset of 94 wells. The public wells are located in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive water-supply aquifers, which constitute about one-half of the principal aquifers in the United States. Although the wells sampled in this study represent less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States, they are widely distributed nationally and were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. All source-water samples were collected prior to any treatment or blending that potentially could alter contaminant concentrations. As a result, the sampled groundwater represents the quality of the source water and not necessarily the quality of finished water ingested by the people served by these public wells. A greater number of chemical contaminants-as many as 337-both naturally occurring and man-made, were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells (Appendixes 1 and 2). Consistent with the terminology used in the SDWA, all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants,' regardless of their source, concentration, or potential for health effects (see sidebar on page 3). Eighty-three percent (279) of the contaminants analyzed in this study are not regulated in drinking water under the SDWA. The USEPA uses USGS data on the occurrence of unregulated contaminants to fulfill part of the SDWA requirements for determining whether specific contaminants should be regulated in drinking water in the future. By focusing primarily on source-water quality, and by analyzing many contaminants that are not regulated in drinking water by USEPA, this study complements the extensive sampling of public water systems that is routinely conducted for the purposes of regulatory compliance monitoring by federal, state, and local drinking-water programs. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) the occurrence of contaminants in source water from public wells and their potential significance to human health, (2) whether contaminants that occur in source water also occur in finished water after treatment, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. To evaluate the potential significance of contaminant occurrence to human health, contaminant concentrations were compared to regulatory Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) or non-regulatory Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs)-collectively referred to as human-health benchmarks in this study (see sidebars on pages 4 and 19). The major findings and implications of this study are summarized below and the results are described in greater detail in the remainder of the report. These findings build upon water-quality data from previous public-well studies and

  11. Clinical significance of blood supply to the internal capsule and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Djulejić, Vuk; Marinković, Slobodan; Georgievski, Biljana; Stijak, Lazar; Aksić, Milan; Puškaš, Laslo; Milić, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Although the general vascular supply of the basal ganglia and internal capsule is well known, precise data are lacking regarding the variations of the vascular territories in the two regions. Twelve hemispheres were studied following an injection of coloured ink into the main cerebral arteries, namely the anterior cerebral (ACA), middle cerebral (MCA), anterior choroidal (AChA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Serial sections of the injected hemispheres were taken in the axial or coronal plane. In 75% of the hemispheres, ACA perforators were seen to supply the inferomedial part of the head of the caudate nucleus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule, as well as the anterior and inferior portions of the putamen and globus pallidus. The MCA vessels perfused the superolateral part of the head and body of the caudate nucleus, the superior part of the entire internal capsule, most of the putamen and part of the globus pallidus. The AChA perforators perfused the medial segment of the globus pallidus, the inferior part of the posterior limb, the retrolenticular and sublenticular portions of the internal capsule, and occasionally its genu. The same segment of the globus pallidus and the inferior part of the genu of the internal capsule were most likely supplied by the perforators of the internal carotid artery. A predominance of ACA territory was noticed in one specimen (8.33%) and a predominance of MCA territory in two specimens (16.67%). The obtained anatomical data may help radiologic determination of perforators involved in ischemic events, as well as a better understanding of the neurological deficits in the same events. PMID:26596401

  12. Projection of Morbidity 2030 and 2050: Impact for the National Health System and Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Katalinic, Alexander; Peters, Elke; Beske, Fritz; Pritzkuleit, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background The German population will decrease by 16% until 2050, and the ratio of young to old people is shifting towards the elderly. Because risk of disease rises with age, an aging society will be confronted with a higher burden of diseases. Methods A projection of status quo case numbers and crude rates of selected diseases was done for the years 2030 and 2050. Actual sex- and age-specific rates were transferred to the predicted population figures (11th coordinated population prediction). Results Cancer incidence will rise from 461,000 (2007) to 588,000 cases (2050) (+27%). Crude incidence rate will increase by 52%. Number of femoral neck fractures will rise by 88% (rate +122%). For other diseases incidence and prevalence will increase up to 144%. Conclusion Blood (products) will be necessary for the therapy of many of the presented diseases. Therefore, it can be assumed that future demand of blood will rise in a similar manner as the rising number of diseases. The projected developments describe an extraordinary challenge for the German health care system and in particular for transfusion medicine. It is necessary to develop new concepts to meet this future demands and to ensure a high-performance health care system. PMID:20737019

  13. A retrospective analysis of massive blood transfusion and post-operative complications in patients undergoing supra-major orthopaedic oncosurgeries

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankit; Kulkarni, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Anaesthetic management of patients undergoing supra-major orthopaedic oncosurgeries is challenging. We wanted to evaluate the effects of pre-operative co-morbid conditions, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion, haemodynamic instability on post-operative complications and hospital outcomes in patients after such surgeries. Methods: We collected data from the patient files, anaesthesia records and the electronic medical records about pre-operative morbidities, intraoperative management, complications, blood loss, fluid therapy and blood products transfused. We also collected data on post-operative complications, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS) and status at discharge. Data were summarised using percentages for categorical data and mean and median for continuous data. Results: The mean blood loss was 4567.44 ml (range 1200–16,000 ml); 95% of all patients received blood transfusion. Twenty patients needed massive blood transfusion. Fresh frozen plasma was needed in 17 patients while 1 patient needed single donor platelets. Haemodynamic instability was present in 38 patients, of which 8 needed continuous vasopressor infusion. Nineteen patients were ventilated post-operatively. Coagulopathy occurred in 22 patients while thrombocytopaenia was seen in 6 patients. The median ICU LOS was 3 (1–6) days, and median hospital stay was 17 (6–53) days. All patients were discharged alive. Conclusion: Supra-major orthopaedic oncosurgeries are associated with massive intraoperative blood loss and transfusion. Common complications include anaemia, coagulopathy and hyperbilirubinaemia and prolonged ICU stay. Meticulous care, anticipating the complications with timely treatment can lead to excellent outcomes. PMID:27141111

  14. Intensive iron chelation therapy in beta-thalassemia major: some effects on iron metabolism and blood transfusion dependence.

    PubMed

    Silvestroni, E; Bianco, I; Graziani, B; Lerone, M; Valente, M; Congedo, P; Ponzini, D; Costantini, S

    1982-01-01

    Subcutaneous infusions of Desferal (DF) rarely induce negative iron balance in thalassemia major patients less than 6 years old. In nonsplenectomized patients the requirements for blood transfusions increase slightly. Urinary iron excretion decreases during the first days following a blood transfusion. An average of 5.8 mg/day equivalent to 30% of the total iron excretion is eliminated with the feces after subcutaneous infusions of DF. Serum ferritin does not decrease significantly after 18-24 months of therapy. The effectiveness of long-term therapy progressively increases in the splenectomized patients, while it decreases appreciably in the course of the treatment in the nonsplenectomized ones. PMID:6812366

  15. [Age-dependent changes in the sub-epithelial blood supply to the bovine rumen].

    PubMed

    Lotz, N; Kressin, M; Schnorr, B

    1997-06-01

    Qualitative age-related changes in the structure and the position of subepithelial blood vessels in the bovine atrium ruminis were investigated on the electron microscopical level in 39 fetal, peri- and postnatal individuals as well as in adult animals of different ages. Standardized morphometrical methods were applied and the data were statistically evaluated. The distance between epithelium and capillary endothelium, the endothelial fenestration and the thickness of the endothelial wall as well as the endothelial-epithelial exchange sectors facing each other were distinctly a function of age. Crucial changes of these parameters were either finished until the sixth postnatal month and were pronounced during the period of feeding adaptation from milk to roughage or were not markedly influenced during this period. The degree of endothelial vesiculation showed individual variations but was not a function of age or feeding regime. PMID:9254580

  16. Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems…

  17. Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula of the Scalp in the Left Temporoparietal Region with Intra- and Extracranial Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Feng; Augustus Pitts, Herbert; Goldbrunner, Roland; Krischek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic AVF of the scalp is a rare abnormal vascular disease. It is defined as a communication between the high flow arterial system and the low flow venous network, which directly connects the arterial feeding vessels of the scalp and the draining veins without an intervening capillary bed. The superficial temporal artery (STA) was involved in 90% of the cases, and 71% of the patients only had one dominant feeding STA. Here, we report the case of a rare large traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp that is fed by intra- and extracranial blood supply. The clinical and radiological features are presented, and the possible pathogenesis and surgical technique are discussed. PMID:26885435

  18. Drought-related impacts on municipal and major self-supplied industrial water withdrawals in Tennessee -- Part A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Frank M.; Keck, Lee A.; Conn, Lewis G.; Wentz, Stanley J.

    1984-01-01

    A state-wide water use survey was conducted of all public water suppliers and large, self-supplied industries in Tennessee. This report contains a summation of the data received from 463 public-water suppliers and 129 self-supplied water users. Analysis of the study results and findings indicate that many communities in Tennessee do experience occasional water supply, quantity-related shortages. A total of 142 problems were reported by 107 of the public water suppliers. However, only 22 of the problems were a result of inadequate source supply. Although only three industries reported a water shortage problem , 20 were identified as having a potential water-supply source problem. West Tennessee was the only section of the state where all communities and industries surveyed reported an adequate water supply. The effects of a drought on the environment--specifically, wetlands, fish wildlife, and recreational-users--are briefly described, although there was no evidence that water withdrawn by communities or industry would directly affect the environment. This study appears to verify the conclusions that an extended drought, although directly affecting the supply to some communities and industries, may actually affect water quality and wastewater treatment more accurately by decreasing the ability of the source to assimilate wastes. (USGS)

  19. Drought-related impacts on municipal and major self-supplied industrial water withdrawals in Tennessee -- Part B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Frank M.; Keck, Lee A.; Conn, Lewis G.; Wentz, Stanley J.

    1984-01-01

    A state-wide water use survey was conducted of all public water suppliers and large, self-supplied industries in Tennessee. This report contains a summation of the data received from 463 public-water suppliers and 129 self-supplied water users. Analysis of the study results and findings indicate that many communities in Tennessee do experience occasional water supply, quantity-related shortages. A total of 142 problems were reported by 107 of the public water suppliers. However, only 22 of the problems were a result of inadequate source supply. Although only three industries reported a water shortage problem , 20 were identified as having a potential water-supply source problem. West Tennessee was the only section of the state where all communities and industries surveyed reported an adequate water supply. The effects of a drought on the environment--specifically, wetlands, fish wildlife, and recreational-users--are briefly described, although there was no evidence that water withdrawn by communities or industry would directly affect the environment. This study appears to verify the conclusions that an extended drought, although directly affecting the supply to some communities and industries, may actually affect water quality and wastewater treatment more accurately by decreasing the ability of the source to assimilate wastes. (USGS)

  20. Intraorgan differences of blood flow, oxygen supply and glycogen content in the multilobular liver of normal and hemorrhagic rats.

    PubMed

    Metzger, H P; Schywalsky, M

    1992-02-01

    In order to characterize intraorgan differences in blood supply of the rat liver, hepatic blood flow (HBF), surface oxygen tension (sPO2) and glycogen content of the largest and smallest lobi have been determined for normal and hemorrhagic rats (N = 68) in ketamin-xylazine anesthesia. 1. Mean HBF +/- SD of lobus sinister measured 1.07 +/- 0.23 ml/g min (n = 119 determinations, N = 9 rats); HBF of lob. caudatus dexter showed a left-shifted histogram (mean value = 0.77 ml/g.min, median = 0.72 ml/g.min, modul = 0.63 ml/g.min, p less than 0.005). 2. Mean sPO2 +/- SD of lob. sin. measured 23 +/- 6.8 mm Hg (n = 168, N = 16). The histograms of lob. caudat. dext. and sin. were left-shifted (mean value of l.c.d. = 9 mm Hg, median = 4 mm Hg, modul = 0 mm Hg, mean value of l.c.s. = 16 mm Hg, median = 17 mm Hg, modul = 0 mm Hg). Under hemorrhage sPO2 became almost zero in 91% of the measurements. 3. In response to an arterial bolus of fluorescence stained gamma-globulins, spreading of the dye showed a pronounced front and marked periportal area within lob. sin., while an irregular convective front and a much smaller area were detected within both of the lobi caudati. Under hemorrhage, intersinusoidal staining and undefined, irregular contours were observed within all lobes. 4. Compared with lob. sin. preferential glycogen depletion and partial centrilobular necrosis were detected within both of the lob. caudati while under hemorrhage the glycogen stores were empty and severe group necroses have been observed especially within the small lobi. From the data it is concluded that in comparison to lob. sin. an insufficient supply and pronounced vulnerability against hepatic ischemia exists within the small lobi caudati. PMID:1555916

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S. )

    1990-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms.

  2. Micro-CT analysis of myocardial blood supply in young and adult rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Heather M.; Beighley, Patricia E.; Eaker, Diane R.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2009-02-01

    This study addresses whether the vasculature grows in proportion to the myocardium as the rat heart develops. The volume of myocardium and coronary vessels were estimated from micro-CT images of the hearts injected with Microfil(R) contrast agent. Young (n=5) and adult (n=5) hearts were scanned, resulting in 3D images comprised of 20μm on-a-side cubic voxels. The myocardial muscle and vessel lumen volumes were measured for all vessels 40 to 320μm in diameter by an erosion and dilation method applied to the binary images in which the contrast in the vessels were assigned "1" and all non-opacified entities were assigned "0". The average total muscle volume increases by 50%, 129.4 to 237.4mm3, from young to adult rats, while the luminal volume increases by 10%, 16.6 to 18.6mm3. The vessel volume is 12% of the total muscle volume in young and 8% in adults. For a given vessel volume, the muscle volume in the young is 82% of the muscle volume in adults. We conclude that as the heart matures, the myocardium grows more rapidly than the vasculature. This may result in greater angles of separation between vessel branches, and the increase in myocardial coronary volume. The ratio suggests either higher blood flow velocity or a lower metabolic rate in adults.

  3. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... which measure the number, size, and shape of cells and platelets in the blood. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion.

  4. Bone Is a Major Target of PTH/PTHrP Receptor Signaling in Regulation of Fetal Blood Calcium Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Takao; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Nishimori, Shigeki; Karaplis, Andrew C; Goltzman, David; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-08-01

    The blood calcium concentration during fetal life is tightly regulated within a narrow range by highly interactive homeostatic mechanisms that include transport of calcium across the placenta and fluxes in and out of bone; the mechanisms of this regulation are poorly understood. Our findings that endochondral bone-specific PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) knockout (KO) mice showed significant reduction of fetal blood calcium concentration compared with that of control littermates at embryonic day 18.5 led us to focus on bone as a possibly major determinant of fetal calcium homeostasis. We found that the fetal calcium concentration of Runx2 KO mice was significantly higher than that of control littermates, suggesting that calcium flux into bone had a considerable influence on the circulating calcium concentration. Moreover, Runx2:PTH double mutant fetuses showed calcium levels similar to those of Runx2 KO mice, suggesting that part of the fetal hypocalcemia in PTH KO mice was caused by the increment of the mineralized bone mass allowed by the formation of osteoblasts. Finally, Rank:PTH double mutant mice had a blood calcium concentration even lower than that of the either Rank KO or PTH KO mice alone at embryonic day 18.5. These observations in our genetic models suggest that PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling in bones has a significant role of the regulation of fetal blood calcium concentration and that both placental transport and osteoclast activation contribute to PTH's hypercalcemic action. They also show that PTH-independent deposition of calcium in bone is the major controller of fetal blood calcium level. PMID:26052897

  5. Plasmatic tissue factor pathway inhibitor is a major determinant of clotting in factor VIII inhibited plasma or blood.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Sabine; Gorczyca, Monika E; Jilma, Bernd; Derhaschnig, Ulla; Hartmann, Rudolf; Palige, Michael; Scheiflinger, Fritz; Dockal, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a major inhibitor of coagulation. We therefore hypothesised that high plasmatic TFPI levels are associated with impaired ex vivo clotting in a model of acquired haemophilia. Blood samples were collected in a prospective clinical study from 30 healthy volunteers. Coagulation in normal or factor VIII (FVIII)-inhibited human blood or plasma was measured by the calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Both methods are global haemostatic assays that provide insight into the whole coagulation process. Monoclonal mouse antibodies raised against either the C-terminus or the Kunitz domain 2 of TFPI were used to determine full-length (fl-) and total TFPI by an enzyme-immunoassay. Clotting times and parameters of thrombin generation correlated with TFPI levels. Subjects with low fl-TFPI levels had significantly shorter clotting times and a higher endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) compared to those with high fl-TFPI levels (p≤0.005 for all). An even stronger effect was seen in FVIII-inhibited blood/plasma: ROTEM clotting time was 26% shorter (p=0.01) and the ETP assessed by CAT was >2-fold higher in subjects with low fl-TFPI levels (p≤0.0001). Plasmatic TFPI is a major determinant of coagulation in global haemostatic tests particularly when FVIII is missing. Thus, inhibition of TFPI might be a promising novel treatment approach, especially in haemophilia patients with FVIII inhibitors. PMID:23348798

  6. Supply with Platelet Concentrates from the Point of View of a Blood Donation Service of the Bavarian Red Cross

    PubMed Central

    Weinauer, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background It is known that pooled platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat (PCs) have several disadvantages compared to platelet concentrates produced by platelet apheresis (APCs). Therefore, all blood products issued by the Bavarian Red Cross blood banks (BSD/BRK) (18,000 products/year) were produced by single donor apheresis. The main reason not to produce PCs was the elevated viral and bacterial infection risk during the last decade. But also the four-fold increased exposition to HLA and PLA antigens and the poor quality (in the sense of white and red cell contamination) of PCs (especially the ones produced with the platelet-rich plasma method) played a role to abstain from these products. Material and Methods We performed a risk assessment to evaluate both products with regard to the actual testing and production methods, considering recently published data. However, a statistical calculation of the risks associated with the use of PCs or APCs with regard to different infectious agents with various prevalences was not done. Results The dramatically reduced risk for the transmission of HIV, HBV or HCV accompanying the implementation of improved antibody tests and of NAT minipool testing, the introduction of 100% leukocyte filtration, the conversion of PC production from the platelet-rich to the buffy coat method, and recent data on the risk of transmission of bacterial infections resulted in a equal assessment of APCs and PCs. Conclusion As a consequence of this revised risk assessment, we supply our hospitals with both products APCs and buffy coat-derived PCs (pools of 4 donors). For clinical use we considered both products as equally effective, except for patients who have multiple antibodies and need HLA-typed platelets. PMID:21512638

  7. [Dependence of bioelectrical activity in occipital and frontal lobes and of the function of visual pathways from blood and oxygen supply].

    PubMed

    Khatsukov, V Kh; Kolchinskaia, A Z

    2000-01-01

    The dependence of occipital and frontal lobes of the brain cortex bioelectrical activity and function from blood and oxygen supply was investigated in 626 minopic and 80 children and teenagers with normal vision. Myopia was found a natural model of blood and oxygen deprivation, of decrease of bioelectrical activity of frontal and partially occipital lobes, especially. The decrease of alpha-rythme index and alpha-waves amplitude was found on EEG of occipital lobes. Adaptation to hypoxia in the course of interval hypoxic training and the course of osteoreflex stimulation were proved to be reliable means for improving blood and oxygen supply of occipital and frontal lobes of the brain cortex, which was followed by normalization of EEG and vision: the sharpness of vision rose to 1.0-0.9 in 80% of children and in 60% of teenagers. PMID:11424563

  8. Solid hemangioblastoma in the cerebellopontine angle: Importance of external carotid blood supply with regard to the probable site of origin and preoperative embolization

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Rajesh Kumar; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Gupta, Vivek; Anirudh, Srinivasan; Chatterjee, Debajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemangioblastoma (HBL) is rare in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with questionable origin and limited access for circumferential dissection and “en-bloc” excision. We report a case of surgical removal of large solid CPA-HBL and discuss the pattern of blood supply suggesting its origin and indicating preoperative embolization. Case Description: The solid and highly vascular CPA-HBL had feeders mainly from neuromeningeal division of ascending pharyngeal branch of external carotid artery, suggesting true extra-axial origin. We could achieve “en-bloc” excision without significant blood loss or morbidity using preoperative embolization. Conclusion: Large solid HBL is rare in CPA necessitating arduous “en-bloc” excision. The pattern of blood supply probably indicates the site of origin and safety of preoperative embolization. PMID:26862451

  9. Major acid endopeptidases of the blood-feeding monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae).

    PubMed

    Jedličková, Lucie; Dvořáková, Hana; Kašný, Martin; Ilgová, Jana; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Mikeš, Libor

    2016-04-01

    In parasitic flatworms, acid endopeptidases are involved in crucial processes, including digestion, invasion, interactions with the host immune system, etc. In haematophagous monogeneans, however, no solid information has been available about the occurrence of these enzymes. Here we aimed to identify major cysteine and aspartic endopeptidase activities in Eudiplozoon nipponicum, an invasive haematophagous parasite of common carp. Employing biochemical, proteomic and molecular tools, we found that cysteine peptidase activities prevailed in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products (ESP) of E. nipponicum; the major part was cathepsin L-like in nature supplemented with cathepsin B-like activity. Significant activity of the aspartic cathepsin D also occurred in soluble protein extracts. The degradation of haemoglobin in the presence of ESP and worm protein extracts was completely inhibited by a combination of cysteine and aspartic peptidase inhibitors, and diminished by particular cathepsin L, B and D inhibitors. Mass spectrometry revealed several tryptic peptides in ESP matching to two translated sequences of cathepsin L genes, which were amplified from cDNA of E. nipponicum and bioinformatically annotated. The dominance of cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L type in E. nipponicum resembles the situation in, e.g. fasciolid trematodes. PMID:26888494

  10. The relationship between total mass and blood supply of parathyroid glands and their secretion of parathyroid hormone in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Aghajanzadeh, Pegah; Yazdi, Hadi Rokni; Maziar, Sima; Gatmiri, Sayad Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of parathyroid glands usually determined by ultrasonography such as its total weight or volume might be a good indicator for the induction or suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from these glands. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the volume and blood supply grade of the parathyroid glands, and its PTH secretion. Study subjects included 52 consecutive patients with the secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing maintenance hemodialysis therapy referred to dialysis wards of the Imam Khomeini and Amiralam University Hospitals in Tehran. Serum intact PTH (i-PTH) was measured by an ELISA assay. The parathyroid glands characteristics were identified by ultrasonography that was performed simultaneously with blood collection. Parathyroid blood flows were evaluated by power-Doppler color imaging. There was no significant correlation between the total mass of the glands and serum concentration of i-PTH. No significant correlations were also observed between both total central and peripheral parathyroid glands blood flow and serum i-PTH level. Dialysis duration and serum alkaline phosphatase were significantly correlated in a positive manner with i-PTH level. Furthermore, serum level of i-PTH was not correlated with the total signals of glands blood flow in a multivariable linear regression analysis. Serum secreted i-PTH level might not be predictable by a total mass of parathyroid glands as well as their blood supply. PMID:26997379

  11. Differential patterns of relaxation by atrial natriuretic peptide in major blood vessels of two distantly related teleosts.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, A; Helle, K B

    1994-09-22

    In order to elucidate the role of the atrial hormone in the teleost circulation, the vascular effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been compared in major blood vessels of the cod (Gadus morhua) and of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The relaxing effects of ANP from eel (eANP) have been examined in ventral aorta (VA) versus dorsal aorta (DA) in the cod and in VA versus the coeliaco mesenteric artery (CMA), a major branch of DA, in the salmon. The vessels were precontracted by acetylcholine (ACh) and adrenaline (A) and by the mammalian endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1). The role of endothelial integrity for these responses has been assessed in vessels either mechanically probed or chemically impaired by indomethacin or the L-arginine analogue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Adrenaline and noradrenaline (NA) failed to contract the salmon VA. In the salmon vessels, eANP was without relaxing effects in ACh-contracted VA, while completely relaxing CMA when precontracted with ACh. The eANP was also a relaxant of A-contracted CMA and of ET-1-contracted VA. The cod vessels, which were insensitive to ACh were markedly relaxed by eANP when precontracted with either A (VA) or ET-1 (DA). In DA also the resting tension was reversed, an effect of eANP that was highly potentiated in mechanical probed vessels. Otherwise the relaxing effects of eANP in these vessels were seemingly independent of endothelial factors. In conclusion ANP is not a general relaxant of the precontracted VA which in teleosts is the first possible target vessel for the myocardial release of this hormone. On the arterial side ANP serves as a relaxant both in the salmon and the cod vessels, indicating that myocardial release of ANP in teleosts may have an important role in regulation of blood flow via diverse, species-specific effects on major blood vessels on both sides of the gills. PMID:7831502

  12. Peripheral blood and neuropsychological markers for the onset of action of antidepressant drugs in patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), treatment outcomes with currently available strategies are often disappointing. Therefore, it is sensible to develop new strategies to increase remission rates in acutely depressed patients. Many studies reported that true drug response can be observed within 14 days (early improvement) of antidepressant treatment. The identical time course of symptom amelioration after early improvement in patients treated with antidepressants of all classes or with placebo strongly suggests a common biological mechanism, which is not specific for a particular antidepressant medication. However, the biology underlying early improvement and final treatment response is not understood and there is no established biological marker as yet, which can predict treatment response for the individual patient before initiation or during the course of antidepressant treatment. Peripheral blood markers and executive functions are particularly promising candidates as markers for the onset of action and thus the prediction of final treatment outcome in MDD. Methods/Design The present paper presents the rationales, objectives and methods of a multi-centre study applying close-meshed repetitive measurements of peripheral blood and neuropsychological parameters in patients with MDD and healthy controls during a study period of eight weeks for the identification of biomarkers for the onset of antidepressants' action in patients with MDD. Peripheral blood parameters and depression severity are assessed in weekly intervals from baseline to week 8, executive performance in bi-weekly intervals. Patients are participating in a randomized controlled multi-level clinical trial, healthy controls are matched according to mean age, sex and general intelligence. Discussion This investigation will help to identify a biomarker or a set of biomarkers with decision-making quality in the treatment of MDD in order to increase the currently disappointing remission rates of antidepressant treatment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00974155 PMID:21269443

  13. Genetic demonstration of intestinal NPC1L1 as a major determinant of hepatic cholesterol and blood atherogenic lipoprotein levels

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ping; Zhu, Hongling; Jia, Lin; Ma, Yinyan; Tang, Weiqing; Wang, Youlin; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective The correlation between intestinal cholesterol absorption values and plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remains controversial. Niemann-Pick-C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption, and is the target of ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor. However, studies with NPC1L1 knockout mice or ezetimibe cannot definitively clarify this correlation because NPC1L1 expression is not restricted to intestine in humans and mice. In this study we sought to genetically address this issue. Methods and results We developed a mouse model that lacks endogenous (NPC1L1) and LDL receptor (LDLR) (DKO), but transgenically expresses human NPC1L1 in gastrointestinal tract only (DKO/L1IntOnly mice). Our novel model eliminated potential effects of non-intestinal NPC1L1 on cholesterol homeostasis. We found that human NPC1L1 was localized at the intestinal brush border membrane of DKO/L1IntOnly mice. Cholesterol feeding induced formation of NPC1L1-positive vesicles beneath this membrane in an ezetimibe-sensitive manner. Compared to DKO mice, DKO/L1IntOnly mice showed significant increases in cholesterol absorption and blood/hepatic/biliary cholesterol. Increased blood cholesterol was restricted to very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL fractions, which was associated with increased secretion and plasma levels of apolipoproteins B100 and B48. Additionally, DKO/L1IntOnly mice displayed decreased fecal cholesterol excretion and hepatic/intestinal expression of cholesterologenic genes. Ezetimibe treatment virtually reversed all of the transgene-related phenotypes in DKO/L1IntOnly mice. Conclusion Our findings from DKO/L1IntOnly mice clearly demonstrate that NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption is a major determinant of blood levels of apolipoprotein B-containing atherogenic lipoproteins, at least in mice. PMID:25463095

  14. [Choice of the optimal variant of blood loss replacement during reconstructive surgery of the major vessels with the object of preventing postoperative anemia].

    PubMed

    Cherednichenko, M A; Unzhakov, V V; Sukhotin, S K

    1990-01-01

    175 patients after reconstructive surgery on major vessels have been examined. Blood loss during surgery was compensated by crystalloid and colloid solutions or their combination with donor blood, autoblood, UV-irradiated autoblood. In the postoperative period hematological parameters were assessed, the volume of the donor blood transfused was determined and the effect of UV-irradiation on the morphology and size of autoerythrocytes was studied. The optimal variant of blood loss compensation was the combination of crystalloid solutions with UV-irradiated autoblood. PMID:2396767

  15. Careful treatment planning enables safe ablation of liver tumors adjacent to major blood vessels by percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE)

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Bor; Voigt, Peter; Miklavcic, Damijan; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a tissue ablation method, which relies on the phenomenon of electroporation. When cells are exposed to a sufficiently electric field, the plasma membrane is disrupted and cells undergo an apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Although heating effects are known IRE is considered as non-thermal ablation technique and is currently applied to treat tumors in locations where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. Materials and methods. The manufacturer of the only commercially available pulse generator for IRE recommends a voltage-to-distance ratio of 1500 to 1700 V/cm for treating tumors in the liver. However, major blood vessels can influence the electric field distribution. We present a method for treatment planning of IRE which takes the influence of blood vessels on the electric field into account; this is illustrated on a treatment of 48-year-old patient with a metastasis near the remaining hepatic vein after a right side hemi-hepatectomy. Results Output of the numerical treatment planning method shows that a 19.9 cm3 irreversible electroporation lesion was generated and the whole tumor was covered with at least 900 V/cm. This compares well with the volume of the hypodense lesion seen in contrast enhanced CT images taken after the IRE treatment. A significant temperature raise occurs near the electrodes. However, the hepatic vein remains open after the treatment without evidence of tumor recurrence after 6 months. Conclusions Treatment planning using accurate computer models was recognized as important for electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. An important finding of this study was, that the surface of the electrodes heat up significantly. Therefore the clinical user should generally avoid placing the electrodes less than 4 mm away from risk structures when following recommendations of the manufacturer. PMID:26401128

  16. The March of Extrahepatic Collaterals: Analysis of Blood Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located in the Bare Area of the Liver After Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Ikeno, Hiroshi; Orito, Nobuaki; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in vascular supply to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the bare area of the liver in patients who were mainly treated with chemoembolization. Twenty-six patients with HCC showing a mean diameter of 3.1 {+-} 1.4 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation) were mainly treated with chemoembolization. All patients underwent 2.7 {+-} 2.3 chemoembolization sessions over 40.1 {+-} 25.2 months. Tumor feeding branches demonstrated in each chemoembolization session were retrospectively evaluated. Initially, 18 tumors (59.2%) were supplied by the hepatic artery (H) and 8 (30.8%) by both the hepatic and the extrahepatic arteries (H + C). Fourteen tumors (53.8%) recurred at the posterior aspect of the tumor and were supplied by H (n = 4), H + C (n = 5), and extrahepatic collaterals (C) (n = 5). Several tumors recurred despite repeated chemoembolization, and these were supplied by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 7), and C (n = 2) at the second recurrence, by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 2), and C (n = 3) at the third, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fourth, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fifth, and by H (n = 1) and C (n = 1) at the sixth. One tumor was supplied by H at the seventh and by H + C at the eighth recurrence. As the number of local recurrences increased, the feeding vessel shifted from H to C. Especially, the right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) and renal capsular artery (RCA) supplied the tumor early, while the small right RCAs, adrenal arteries, and intercostal and lumbar artery supplied late recurrences in turns. In conclusion, HCCs located in the bare area are frequently supplied by extrahepatic vessels initially, while recurrence after chemoembolization is mainly due to extrahepatic blood supply. The right IPA and RCA are common feeding vessels demonstrated early, while other extrahepatic collateral supply from the retroperitoneal circulation occurs in turns during the later course.

  17. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city (< 2.5% in each phase) or those recently entering the trade (≤ 1.5%). Similarly, demand for sex work, indicated by median number of clients (around 12 per week) and amount charged per transaction ($13) remained similar in the three study periods. Only a third of participants reported observing any change in the sex industry ascribed to the World Cup. Self-reported condom-use with clients remained high across all samples (> 92.4% in all phases). Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P = 0.075). Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period. PMID:22967260

  18. Multilayer-strategy to enhance optimal safety of the blood supply: The role of pathogen inactivation for optimizing recipient safety and helping health care cost containment: Moderator views.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    This brief paper is based on the Coimbra 'conference presentation by the moderator', prior to the two main lectures on pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. Being an educationist and teacher in core and having a great interest to simplify the message convey to conference' participants and readers I decided to maintain the slide format of the presentation. To highlight most effectively the role played by pathogen reduction to supplement the multilayer-strategy already in place, emphasizes were placed by going back to basic focusing on: where we were, where we are now and where we are going!. The unresolved problems of viral safety of blood components and criteria of universal acceptability of PRT are highlighted so is the need for further DDR strategies both in incremental and innovative ways. Finally the issue of who would benefit from implementation of PRT is described based on published data and also providing some visionary foresights for the long term benefits of PRT in both optimizing the safety of blood supply and helping at least in health care containment. I hope this new approach will be useful to readers, providing at least some conceptual and technical supports in understanding the role of PRT in optimizing the safety of blood supply. PMID:25748230

  19. New insights into the ear region anatomy and cranial blood supply of advanced stem Strepsirhini: evidence from three primate petrosals from the Eocene of Chambi, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Julien; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Lebrun, Renaud; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    We report the discovery of three isolated primate petrosal fragments from the fossiliferous locality of Chambi (Tunisia), a primate-bearing locality dating from the late early to the early middle Eocene. These fossils display a suite of anatomical characteristics otherwise found only in strepsirhines, and as such might be attributed either to Djebelemur or/and cf. Algeripithecus, the two diminutive stem strepsirhine primates recorded from this locality. Although damaged, the petrosals provide substantial information regarding the ear anatomy of these advanced stem strepsirhines (or pre-tooth-combed primates), notably the patterns of the pathway of the arterial blood supply. Using μCT-scanning techniques and digital segmentation of the structures, we show that the transpromontorial and stapedial branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were present (presence of bony tubes), but seemingly too small to supply enough blood to the cranium alone. This suggests that the ICA was not the main cranial blood supply in stem strepsirhines, but that the pharyngeal or vertebral artery primitively ensured a great part of this role instead, an arterial pattern that is reminiscent of modern cheirogaleid, lepilemurid lemuriforms and lorisiforms. This could explain parallel loss of the ICA functionality among these families. Specific measurements made on the cochlea indicate that the small strepsirhine primate(s) from Chambi was (were) highly sensitive to high frequencies and poorly sensitive to low frequencies. Finally, variance from orthogonality of the plane of the semicircular canals (SCs) calculated on one petrosal (CBI-1-569) suggests that Djebelemur or cf. Algeripithecus likely moved (at least its head) in a way similar to that of modern mouse lemurs. PMID:23938180

  20. Effects of the level of dietary valine supply on amino acids and urea concentration in milk and blood plasma of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Roth-Maier, D A; Ott, H; Roth, F X; Paulicks, B R

    2004-02-01

    In order to determine the valine (Val) requirement, suckling sows with 10-12 piglets were supplied with feed mixtures, which contained various levels of Val derived by adding crystalline L-Val to the native diet (0.45% = native, 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.05 and 1.45%) during a total of 72 lactations. Milk and blood plasma, taken after 3 weeks of lactation, was examined on the concentration of amino acids (total amino acids in milk, free amino acids in plasma) and urea by ion exchange chromatography or autoanalyzer, respectively. The contents of almost all amino acids in milk were significantly higher compared with the native diet, when Val was supplemented, reflecting increasing milk protein concentrations. Highest amino acid concentrations were observed with 0.85% dietary Val. Amino acid pattern in milk was not affected by the Val supply. In blood plasma the concentration of free Val rose with the dietary Val from 9 mg/l (0.45% dietary Val) to 132 mg/l (1.45% dietary Val). Several other amino acid contents were also higher when Val was added to the native diet, but there was no dose-response. Urea concentrations in milk and blood plasma were lowest with 0.65% and 0.85% dietary Val, respectively. Conclusively, for sows nursing litters with 10-12 piglets a dietary valine supply of 0.85% (0.75% apparent ileal digestible Val) can be recommended with a minimum requirement of 0.65% (0.55% apparent ileal digestible Val). PMID:19774761

  1. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables. PMID:27046032

  2. [Methods of correcting hepatic arterial blood supply for subsequent implantation of the "port-catheter" infusion system].

    PubMed

    Generalov, M I; Balakhnin, P V; Rutkin, I O; Maĭstrenko, D N; Tsurkan, V A; Polikarpov, A A; Tarazov, P G; Granov, D A; Polysalov, V N; Krotova, O A

    2009-01-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of using surgical and roentgenoendovascular redistribution of the hepatic arterial blood flow for adequate implantation of the "port-catheter" infusion system. Between December 2001 and March 2008, we performed surgical (n = 25) or transcutaneous (n = 22) implantations of the infusion systems for carrying out regional chemotherapy in a total of forty-seven patients presenting with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma. Anatomical variants of the hepatic arteries were observed in eleven cases. The blood stream was corrected by means of either transcatheter embolization (n = 7), ligation (n = 2), or transposition (n = 2) of the aberrant arteries. No complications were encountered. In all the cases, the "port-catheter" system was implanted successfully, with adequate hepatic perfusion achieved. Both transcatheter embolization and surgical reconstruction turned out to be efficient methods in correction of the blood flow in various anatomical structures of the hepatic arteries, thus favourably contributing to increased efficacy of regional chemotherapy. PMID:19806939

  3. Protocol for a systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components compared to other resuscitative fluids in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the use of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation of patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. It has been speculated that early resuscitation with blood components may have benefits in terms of treating trauma-induced coagulopathy, which in turn may influence survival. The proposed systematic review will evaluate the evidence on the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components (red blood cells and/or plasma or whole blood), in both civilian and military settings, compared with other resuscitation strategies in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. Methods/design Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. General medical and specialist databases will be searched; the search strategy will combine terms for the population, intervention and setting. Studies will be selected for review if the population includes adult patients with major traumatic haemorrhage who receive blood components in a pre-hospital setting (civilian or military). Systematic reviews, randomised and non-randomised controlled trials and controlled observational studies will be included. Uncontrolled studies will be considered depending on the volume of controlled evidence. Quality assessment will be tailored to different study designs. Both patient related and surrogate outcomes will be considered. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analyses and subgroup analyses will be undertaken where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Discussion Given the increasing use by emergency services of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base for this practice. As far as the authors are aware, the proposed systematic review will be the first to address this topic. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014013794 PMID:25344301

  4. Blood supply to the brain and. beta. -endorphin and acth levels under the influence of thyrotrophin releasing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzoyan, R.S.; Ganshina, T.S.; Mirzoyan, R.A.; Ragimov, K.S.

    1985-08-01

    The authors studied beta-endorphin because of its possible mediator role in terms of the cerebrovascular effects of thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH), and also because of data in the literature on antagonistic relations between TRH and the endogenous opioid system of the brain. Beta-endorphin was determined by radioimmunoassay; its level was determined after its separation from the beta-lipotrophin fraction. The investigation showed that TRH has a marked depressant effect on cerebrovascular vasoconstrictor refleces. Elevation of the blood ACTH level causes an increase in BP and in the tone of the cerebral vessels. An absence of correlation between the beta-endorphin and ACTH levels in the blood and CSF under the influence of TRH is shown.

  5. The dominant erosion processes supplying fine sediment to three major rivers in tropical Australia, the Daly (NT), Mitchell (Qld) and Flinders (Qld) Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caitcheon, Gary G.; Olley, Jon M.; Pantus, Francis; Hancock, Gary; Leslie, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    The tropics of northern Australia have received relatively little attention with regard to the impact of soil erosion on the many large river systems that are an important part of Australia's water resource, especially given the high potential for erosion when long dry seasons are followed by intense wet season rain. Here we use 137Cs concentrations to determine the erosion processes supplying sediment to two major northern Australian Rivers; the Daly River (Northern Territory), and the Mitchell River (Queensland). We also present data from five sediment samples collected from a 100 km reach of the Cloncurry River, a major tributary of the Flinders River (Queensland). Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface soil and subsurface (channel banks and gully) samples were used to derive 'best fit' probability density functions describing their distributions. These modelled distributions are then used to estimate the relative contribution of these two components to the river sediments. Our results are consistent with channel and gully erosion being the dominant source of sediment, with more than 90% of sediment transported along the main stem of these rivers originating from subsoil. We summarize the findings of similar studies on tropical Australian rivers and conclude that the primary source of sediment delivered to these systems is gully and channel bank erosion. Previously, as a result of catchment scale modelling, sheet-wash and rill erosion was considered to be the major sediment source in these rivers. Identifying the relative importance of sediment sources, as shown in this paper, will provide valuable information for land management planning in the region. This study also reinforces the importance of testing model predictions before they are used to target investment in remedial action.

  6. Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities: an analysis of DHS data from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background By 2050, sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) urban population is expected to grow from 414 million to over 1.2 billion. This growth will likely increase challenges to municipalities attempting to provide access to water supply and sanitation (WS&S). This study aims to characterize trends in access to WS&S in SSA cities and identify factors affecting those trends. Methods DHS data collected between 2000 and 2012 were used for this analysis of thirty-one cities in SSA. Four categories of household access to WS&S were studied using data from demographic and health surveys – these included: 1) household access to an improved water supply, 2) household’s time spent collecting water, 3) household access to improved sanitation, and 4) households reporting to engage in open defecation. An exploratory analysis of these measures was then conducted to assess the relationship of access to several independent variables. Results Among the 31 cities, there was wide variability in coverage levels and trends in coverage with respect to the four categories of access. The majority of cities were found to be increasing access in the categories of improved water supply and improved sanitation (65% and 83% of cities, respectively), while fewer were making progress in reducing the amount of time spent collecting water and reducing open defecation (50% and 38% of cities, respectively). Additionally, the prevalence of open defecation in study cities was found to be, on average, increasing. Conclusions Based on DHS data, cities appeared to be making the most progress in gaining access to WS&S along metrics which reflect specified targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Nearly half of the cities, however, did not make progress in reducing open defecation or the time spent collecting water. This may reflect that the MDGs have led to a focus on “improved” services while other measures, potentially more relevant to the extreme poor, are being neglected. This study highlights the need to better characterize access, beyond definitions of improved and unimproved, as well as the need to target resources to cities where changes in WS&S access have stalled, or in some cases regressed. PMID:24576260

  7. Major Transcriptome Changes Accompany the Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Blood from Patients with Severe Thermal Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kruczek, Cassandra; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Dissanaike, Sharmila; Dzvova, Nyaradzo; Griswold, John A.; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.; Hamood, Abdul N.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts including severely burned patients. After multiplying within the burn wound, P. aeruginosa translocate into the bloodstream causing bacterial sepsis frequently leading to organ dysfunction and septic shock. Although the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infection of thermally-injured wounds has been extensively analyzed, little is known regarding the ability of P. aeruginosa to adapt and survive within the blood of severely burned patients during systemic infection. To identify such adaptations, transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq) were conducted on P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that was grown in whole blood from a healthy volunteer or three severely burned patients. Compared with growth in blood from healthy volunteers, growth of PA14 in the blood from severely burned patients significantly altered the expression of 2596 genes, with expression of 1060 genes enhanced, while that of 1536 genes was reduced. Genes whose expression was significantly reduced included genes related to quorum sensing, quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors and transport of heme, phosphate, and phosphonate. Genes whose expression was significantly enhanced were related to the type III secretion system, the pyochelin iron-acquisition system, flagellum synthesis, and pyocyanin production. We confirmed changes in expression of many of these genes using qRT-PCR. Although severe burns altered the levels of different blood components in each patient, the growth of PA14 in their blood produced similar changes in the expression of each gene. These results suggest that, in response to changes in the blood of severely burned patients and as part of its survival strategy, P. aeruginosa enhances the expression of certain virulence genes and reduces the expression of others. PMID:26933952

  8. In Vivo Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes during Clogging and Unclogging of Blood Supply for the Application of Clinical Shock Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Stelzle, Florian; Schmidt, Michael

    This paper presents a novel methodology in early detection of clinical shock by monitoring hemodynamic changes using diffuse reflectance measurement technique. Detailed prototype of the reflectance measurement system and data analysis technique of hemodynamic monitoring was carried out in our laboratory. The real time in-vivo measurements were done from the index finger. This study demonstrates preliminary results of real time monitoring of reduced/- oxyhemoglobin changes during clogging and unclogging of blood flow in the finger tip. The obtained results were verified with pulse-oximeter values, connected to the tip of the same index finger.

  9. Anti-PEG IgM Is a Major Contributor to the Accelerated Blood Clearance of Polyethylene Glycol-Conjugated Protein.

    PubMed

    Mima, Yu; Hashimoto, Yosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Kiwada, Hiroshi; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Limited therapeutic efficacy of polyethylene glycol-conjugated (PEGylated) protein drugs has been recently reported in animals and human following repeat injections. Since there are reports that an accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon is caused by repeated injection of PEGylated liposome, there is an assumption that PEGylated proteins lose their long circulating property when they are injected repeatedly due to the induction of anti-PEG antibody. Although induction of anti-PEG antibody by PEGylated protein has been reported, there is little evidence of accelerated blood clearance of PEGylated protein upon repeated injection. Herein, we investigated the blood concentration of PEGylated ovalbumin (PEG-OVA), a model PEGylated protein, upon its repeated injection. A single intravenous administration of PEG-OVA elicited an anti-PEG IgM response but not anti-PEG IgG response, while the administration did not elicit antibody against OVA. At 24 h postinjection of test PEG-OVA, although control mice showed 41.6% dose of PEG-OVA in blood, the mice pretreated with PEG-OVA showed rapid clearance of test PEG-OVA from blood and undetectable level of PEG-OVA. Interestingly, the anti-PEG IgM induced by PEGylated liposome did not affect the blood concentration of subsequent dose of PEG-OVA. Our result suggests that anti-PEG IgM is a major contributor to the accelerated blood clearance of PEG-conjugated protein, but the presence of anti-PEG IgM in blood circulation does not necessarily affect circulating property of entire PEGylated materials. PMID:26070445

  10. Applied anatomical study of the vascularized ulnar nerve and its blood supply for cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow region.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Xiu-Li; He, Qiong; Hu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Liu, Zheng-Hai; Wen, Yong; Peng, Tian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is often accompanied by paresthesia in ulnar nerve sites and hand muscle atrophy. When muscle weakness occurs, or after failure of more conservative treatments, anterior transposition is used. In the present study, the ulnar nerve and its blood vessels were examined in the elbows of 18 adult cadavers, and the external diameter of the nutrient vessels of the ulnar nerve at the point of origin, the distances between the origin of the vessels and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and the length of the vessels accompanying the ulnar nerve in the superior ulnar collateral artery, the inferior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior ulnar recurrent artery were measured. Anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve was performed to treat cubital tunnel syndrome. The most appropriate distance that the vascularized ulnar nerve can be moved to the subcutaneous tissue under tension-free conditions was 1.8 ± 0.6 cm (1.1-2.5 cm), which can be used as a reference value during the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome with anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve. PMID:25788935

  11. Applied anatomical study of the vascularized ulnar nerve and its blood supply for cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow region

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei-xiu-li; He, Qiong; Hu, Zhong-lin; Chen, Sheng-hua; Lv, Yun-cheng; Liu, Zheng-hai; Wen, Yong; Peng, Tian-hong

    2015-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is often accompanied by paresthesia in ulnar nerve sites and hand muscle atrophy. When muscle weakness occurs, or after failure of more conservative treatments, anterior transposition is used. In the present study, the ulnar nerve and its blood vessels were examined in the elbows of 18 adult cadavers, and the external diameter of the nutrient vessels of the ulnar nerve at the point of origin, the distances between the origin of the vessels and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and the length of the vessels accompanying the ulnar nerve in the superior ulnar collateral artery, the inferior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior ulnar recurrent artery were measured. Anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve was performed to treat cubital tunnel syndrome. The most appropriate distance that the vascularized ulnar nerve can be moved to the subcutaneous tissue under tension-free conditions was 1.8 ± 0.6 cm (1.1–2.5 cm), which can be used as a reference value during the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome with anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve. PMID:25788935

  12. A new pulsed electric field therapy for melanoma disrupts the tumor’s blood supply and causes complete remission without recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Chen, Xinhua; Pakhomov, Andrei G.; Baldwin, Wallace H.; Sheikh, Saleh; Pomicter, Jennifer L.; Ren, Wei; Osgood, Christopher; Swanson, R. James; Kolb, Juergen F.; Beebe, Stephen J.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2009-01-01

    We have discovered a new, ultrafast therapy for treating skin cancer that is extremely effective with a total electric field exposure time of only 180 μsec. The application of 300 high-voltage (40 kV/cm), ultrashort (300 nsec) electrical pulses to murine melanomas in vivo triggers both necrosis and apoptosis, resulting in complete tumor remission within an average of 47 days in the 17 animals treated. None of these melanomas recurred during a 4-month period after the initial melanoma had disappeared. These pulses generate small, long-lasting, rectifying nanopores in the plasma membrane of exposed cells, resulting in increased membrane permeability to small molecules and ions, as well as an increase in intracellular Ca2+, DNA fragmentation, disruption of the tumor’s blood supply and the initiation of apoptosis. Apoptosis was indicated by a 3-fold increase in Bad labeling and a 72% decrease in Bcl-2 labeling. In addition, microvessel density within the treated tumors fell by 93%. This new therapy utilizing nanosecond pulsed electric fields has the advantages of highly localized targeting of tumor cells and a total exposure time of only 180 μsec. These pulses penetrate into the interior of every tumor cell and initiate DNA fragmentation and apoptosis while at the same time reducing blood flow to the tumor. This new physical tumor therapy is drug free, highly localized, uses low energy, has no significant side effects and results in very little scarring. PMID:19408306

  13. The anterolateral approach leads to less disruption of the femoral head-neck blood supply than the posterior approach during hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Steffen, R; O'Rourke, K; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

    2007-10-01

    In 12 patients, we measured the oxygen concentration in the femoral head-neck junction during hip resurfacing through the anterolateral approach. This was compared with previous measurements made for the posterior approach. For the anterolateral approach, the oxygen concentration was found to be highly dependent upon the position of the leg, which was adjusted during surgery to provide exposure to the acetabulum and femoral head. Gross external rotation of the hip gave a significant decrease in oxygenation of the femoral head. Straightening the limb led to recovery in oxygen concentration, indicating that the blood supply was maintained. The oxygen concentration at the end of the procedure was not significantly different from that at the start. The anterolateral approach appears to produce less disruption to the blood flow in the femoral head-neck junction than the posterior approach for patients undergoing hip resurfacing. This may be reflected subsequently in a lower incidence of fracture of the femoral neck and avascular necrosis. PMID:17957066

  14. Increased muscle blood supply and transendothelial nutrient and insulin transport induced by food intake and exercise: effect of obesity and ageing.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Strauss, Juliette A; Shepherd, Sam O; Keske, Michelle A; Cocks, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This review concludes that a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and ageing impair the vasodilator response of the muscle microvasculature to insulin, exercise and VEGF-A and reduce microvascular density. Both impairments contribute to the development of insulin resistance, obesity and chronic age-related diseases. A physically active lifestyle keeps both the vasodilator response and microvascular density high. Intravital microscopy has shown that microvascular units (MVUs) are the smallest functional elements to adjust blood flow in response to physiological signals and metabolic demands on muscle fibres. The luminal diameter of a common terminal arteriole (TA) controls blood flow through up to 20 capillaries belonging to a single MVU. Increases in plasma insulin and exercise/muscle contraction lead to recruitment of additional MVUs. Insulin also increases arteriolar vasomotion. Both mechanisms increase the endothelial surface area and therefore transendothelial transport of glucose, fatty acids (FAs) and insulin by specific transporters, present in high concentrations in the capillary endothelium. Future studies should quantify transporter concentration differences between healthy and at risk populations as they may limit nutrient supply and oxidation in muscle and impair glucose and lipid homeostasis. An important recent discovery is that VEGF-B produced by skeletal muscle controls the expression of FA transporter proteins in the capillary endothelium and thus links endothelial FA uptake to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, potentially preventing lipotoxic FA accumulation, the dominant cause of insulin resistance in muscle fibres. PMID:25627798

  15. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  16. Identification, immunomodulatory activity, and immunogenicity of the major helper T-cell epitope on the K blood group antigen.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Jillian; Cairns, Lindsay S; Pickford, Wendy J; Vickers, Mark A; Urbaniak, Stanislaw J; Barker, Robert N

    2012-06-01

    The K blood group remains an important target in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), with no immune prophylaxis available. The aim was to characterize the Th response to K as a key step in designing specific immunotherapy and understanding the immunogenicity of the Ag. PBMCs from K-negative women who had anti-K Abs after incompatible pregnancy, and PBMCs from unimmunized controls, were screened for proliferative responses to peptide panels spanning the K or k single amino acid polymorphism. A dominant K peptide with the polymorphism at the C terminus elicited proliferation in 90% of alloimmunized women, and it was confirmed that responding cells expressed helper CD3(+)CD4(+) and "memory" CD45RO(+) phenotypes, and were MHC class II restricted. A relatively high prevalence of background peptide responses independent of alloimmunization may contribute to K immunogenicity. First, cross-reactive environmental Ag(s) pre-prime Kell-reactive Th cells, and, second, the K substitution disrupts an N-glycosylation motif, allowing the exposed amino acid chain to stimulate a Th repertoire that is unconstrained by self-tolerance in K-negative individuals. The dominant K peptide was effective in inducing linked suppression in HLA-transgenic mice and can now be taken forward for immunotherapy to prevent HDN because of anti-K responses. PMID:22490333

  17. Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neeraj; Mishra, Anupa; Chauhan, Dhaval; Vora, C.; Shah, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed. Results: Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5%) were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%). 96 (67%) of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2%) were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml). 5 (3.5%) of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72%) of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40) children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV. Conclusions: The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen) and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the ELISA kits used to detect HCV in donor blood needs to be done urgently. Alternately, more sensitive and specific measures (like NAT testing) should be employed for detection of HCV. In the absence of a definitive cure accessible and available to all patients, strict implementation of the above suggested measures will go a long way in improving the quality (and quantity) of life in patients of beta-thalassemia major. PMID:20859507

  18. America's Blood Centers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers' member organizations make up North America's largest network of non-profit community blood centers, which operate more than 600 blood donation collection sites. Together the network provides half the U.S. blood supply to over ...

  19. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... about getting diseases from infected blood, but the United States has one of the safest blood supplies in ... through a transfusion is extremely low in the United States today because of very stringent blood screening. Also, ...

  20. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact your community blood center for more information. Autologous Donations Blood drawn from an individual prior to ... hard to support from the regular blood supply. Autologous donors must be healthy enough to donate safely, ...

  1. Normal and retrograde blood supply to the body of the mandible in the dog. II. The role played by periosteo-medullary and symphyseal anastomoses.

    PubMed

    Hellem, S; Ostrup, L T

    1981-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out in 8 dogs to delineate the blood supply to the body of the mandible under normal conditions and when the central (medullary) circulation was blocked. A vascular blocking technique combined with selective arterial perfusion using different colored perfusates was used. The results were based on an evaluation of cleared specimens, microradiography and histology. Under normal conditions, the inferior alveolar artery was shown to be the sole source of perfusate to the entire mandibular body, marginal gingiva and the subperiosteal layer, without any contribution from facial artery branches. Several perfused symphyseal anastomoses were found. When the medullary circulation was blocked, retrograde perfusion was evident only in the medullary bone of the frontal region 30 min. after blocking. Marked periosteal and symphyseal vascularity and an increased medullary perfusion were seen 3 days later. 30 days after vascular blocking, perfusion was demonstrated throughout the entire bone including dental pulps. The facial artery was found to be the source of the retrograde perfusion through symphyseal and periosteo-medullary anastomoses in cases with blocked central (medullary) circulation. PMID:6792093

  2. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Southeastern Funeral Mountains, California-Nevada, and Implications for the Major Water-Supply Springs in Death Valley National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrich, C.; Workman, J.; Blakely, R.; Bredehoeft, J.; Jansen, J.; Thompson, R.; King, M.

    2003-12-01

    We are using a combination of geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, hydrologic computer modeling, and a drilling-and-testing program to evaluate the hydrologic framework of the southeastern Funeral Mountains. Our work addresses: (1) the hydrologic connection of the Furnace Creek springs on the south side of the Funeral Mountains to the regional aquifer system on the north side, and (2) potential impacts on these springs from human activities, including possible leakage from the proposed radioactive waste repository under Yucca Mountain, ~50 km to the northeast, and ongoing agricultural overdrafting of groundwater in the southern Amargosa Desert, ~25 km to the northeast. Discharge from the springs at Furnace Creek provides the major water supply for Death Valley National Park and, at 5000 acre-ft/yr, is at least 10 times larger than that attributable to recharge in the adjacent, arid Funeral Mountains. Moreover, hydrochemical data indicate that the spring water is derived mainly from interbasin groundwater flow through the regional carbonate aquifer. This aquifer extends northeastward across much of southeastern Nevada. Our geologic map data indicate that the carbonate aquifer is continuous under the southeastern Funeral Mountains. The base of this aquifer is, however, structurally uplifted under the axis of the range, to an elevation that is much higher than most of the springs at Furnace Creek, but that is locally lower than the water table on the opposite (northeast) side of the range. Rather than forming a barrier that blocks groundwater flow under the Funeral Mountains, as previously interpreted, this uplift evidently forms a spillway. The ~700 m drop in the water-table elevation across this range, into Death Valley, thus does not indicate the presence of any feature that would divert or slow groundwater flow. Because of the spillway mechanism, flow from the springs at Furnace Creek may be sensitive to the water-mining activities that have been progressively lowering the hydraulic head on the northeast side of the Funeral Mountains. DOE proposes to emplace nuclear waste in Yucca Mountain, above a volcanic aquifer, which is separated from the underlying regional carbonate aquifer by a leaky volcanic confining unit. An upward hydraulic gradient, from the carbonate aquifer to the overlying volcanic aquifer, has been measured in a single well. This upward gradient is inferred to act as a natural barrier that will keep radionuclides from leaking into the regional carbonate aquifer. There are reasons to question the efficacy and durability of this mechanism. First, with data from only one well penetration into the carbonates, it is unknowable whether the observed upward gradient is a regional feature, or a relatively local one. Second, if recent trends in water mining in this region are projected into the future, it is plausible that the current upward gradient, even if it is regionally effective today, could be reversed. We hope to shed some light on these issues by: (1) testing the chemistry of water in the carbonate aquifer under the Funeral Mountains to see if volcanic-aquifer water from nearby areas such as Yucca Mountain is entering the carbonate aquifer, and (2) developing better computer models of this hydrologic system that could be used to forecast potential long-term impacts of water mining.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Identifies the ABO Blood Group as a Major Locus Associated With Serum Levels of Soluble E-Selectin

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Andrew D.; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Waggott, Daryl; Boright, Andrew P.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Carter, Rickey E.; Shen, Enqing; Mirea, Lucia; Bharaj, Bhupinder; Sun, Lei; Bull, Shelley B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated serum soluble E-selectin levels have been associated with a number of diseases. Although E-selectin levels are heritable, little is known about the specific genetic factors involved. E-selectin levels have been associated with the ABO blood group phenotype. Methods and Results We performed a high-resolution genome-wide association study of serum soluble E-selectin levels in 685 white individuals with type 1 diabetes from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC) study to identify major loci influencing levels. Highly significant evidence for association (P=10−29) was observed for rs579459 near the ABO blood group gene, accounting for 19% of the variance in E-selectin levels. Levels of E-selectin were higher in O/O than O/A heterozygotes, which were likewise higher than A/A genotypes. Analysis of subgroups of A alleles reveals heterogeneity in the association, and even after this was accounted for, an intron 1 SNP remained significantly associated. We replicate the ABO association in nondiabetic individuals. Conclusion ABO is a major locus for serum soluble E-selectin levels. We excluded population stratification, fine-mapped the association to sub-A alleles, and also document association with additional variation in the ABO region. PMID:19729612

  4. Technique of multilevel adjustment calculation of the heat-hydraulic mode of the major heat supply systems with the intermediate control stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, V. V.; Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for heat-hydraulic calculation to organize the normal operating modes of the heat supply systems intended to decide the tasks of planning and mode selecting, which ensures the required thermal loads at adherence of all restrictions on its parameters, is proposed. The main feature of the technique is in the determination of the parameters of throttling devices on the network and inlets into the buildings of consumers taking into account the differentiated corrections to the flow rates on the compensation of the heat losses in the network. The technique involves the decision of the multilevel adjustment calculation task, in which the deviations of the boundary mode parameters (pressure, flow rate, temperature) in place of the decomposition of the heat supply system model on the levels of main and distribution heating networks taking into account the intermediate control stages on the central heat points (CHP) are minimized. At each level, the task of single-level adjustment heat-hydraulic calculation is decided, which is mathematically defined as an optimization task where the internal air temperature deviation is minimized of the required value with the given accuracy a priori. The technique is realized as part of the ANGARA-TS data-computing system and allows developing the adjusting procedures to improve the heat supply quality and availability of heating consumers, determining the minimum necessary values of heads on the sources and pumping stations.

  5. Increased serum NKG2D-ligands and downregulation of NKG2D in peripheral blood NK cells of patients with major burns

    PubMed Central

    Haik, Josef; Nardini, Gil; Goldman, Noga; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Harats, Moti; Zilinsky, Isaac; Weissman, Oren; Schachter, Jacob; Winkler, Eyal; Markel, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Immune suppression following major thermal injury directly impacts the recovery potential. Limited data from past reports indicate that natural killer cells might be suppressed due to a putative soluble factor that has remained elusive up to date. Here we comparatively study cohorts of patients with Major and Non-Major Burns as well as healthy donors. MICB and ULBP1 are stress ligands of NKG2D that can be induced by heat stress. Remarkably, serum concentration levels of MICB and ULBP1 are increased by 3-fold and 20-fold, respectively, already within 24h post major thermal injury, and are maintained high for 28 days. In contrast, milder thermal injuries do not similarly enhance the serum levels of MICB and ULBP1. This kinetics coincides with a significant downregulation of NKG2D expression among peripheral blood NK cells. Downregulation of NKG2D by high concentration of soluble MICB occurs in cancer patients and during normal pregnancy due to over production by cancer cells or extravillous trophoblasts, respectively, as an active immune-evasion mechanism. In burn patients this seems an incidental outcome of extensive thermal injury, leading to reduced NKG2D expression. Enhanced susceptibility of these patients to opportunistic viral infections, particularly herpes viruses, could be explained by the reduced NKG2D expression. Further studies are warranted for translation into innovative diagnostic or therapeutic technologies. PMID:26745675

  6. Increased serum NKG2D-ligands and downregulation of NKG2D in peripheral blood NK cells of patients with major burns.

    PubMed

    Haik, Josef; Nardini, Gil; Goldman, Noga; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Harats, Moti; Zilinsky, Isaac; Weissman, Oren; Schachter, Jacob; Winkler, Eyal; Markel, Gal

    2016-01-19

    Immune suppression following major thermal injury directly impacts the recovery potential. Limited data from past reports indicate that natural killer cells might be suppressed due to a putative soluble factor that has remained elusive up to date. Here we comparatively study cohorts of patients with Major and Non-Major Burns as well as healthy donors. MICB and ULBP1 are stress ligands of NKG2D that can be induced by heat stress. Remarkably, serum concentration levels of MICB and ULBP1 are increased by 3-fold and 20-fold, respectively, already within 24h post major thermal injury, and are maintained high for 28 days. In contrast, milder thermal injuries do not similarly enhance the serum levels of MICB and ULBP1. This kinetics coincides with a significant downregulation of NKG2D expression among peripheral blood NK cells. Downregulation of NKG2D by high concentration of soluble MICB occurs in cancer patients and during normal pregnancy due to over production by cancer cells or extravillous trophoblasts, respectively, as an active immune-evasion mechanism. In burn patients this seems an incidental outcome of extensive thermal injury, leading to reduced NKG2D expression. Enhanced susceptibility of these patients to opportunistic viral infections, particularly herpes viruses, could be explained by the reduced NKG2D expression. Further studies are warranted for translation into innovative diagnostic or therapeutic technologies. PMID:26745675

  7. Relationship between oxygen supply and cerebral blood flow assessed by transcranial Doppler and near – infrared spectroscopy in healthy subjects during breath – holding

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Filippo; Liboni, William; Grippi, Gianfranco; Negri, Emanuela

    2006-01-01

    Background Breath – holding (BH) is a suitable method for inducing cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR). The assessment of VMR is of clinical importance for the early detection of risk conditions and for the follow-up of disabled patients. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is used to measure cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during BH, whereas near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measures the concentrations of the oxygenated (O2Hb) and reduced (CO2Hb) hemoglobin. The two techniques provide circulatory and functional-related parameters. The aim of the study is the analysis of the relationship between oxygen supply and CBFV as detected by TCD and NIRS in healthy subjects performing BH. Methods 20 healthy subjects (15 males and 5 females, age 33 ± 4.5 years) underwent TCD and NIRS examination during voluntary breath – holding. VMR was quantified by means of the breath-holding index (BHI). We evaluated the BHI based on mean CBFV, O2Hb and CO2Hb concentrations, relating the baseline to post-stimulus values. To quantify VMR we also computed the slope of the linear regression line of the concentration signals during BH. From the NIRS signals we also derived the bidimensional representation of VMR, plotting the instantaneous O2Hb concentration vs the CO2Hb concentration during the BH phase. Two subjects, a 30 years old current smoker female and a 63 years old male with a ischemic stroke event at the left middle cerebral artery, were tested as case studies. Results The BHI for the CBFV was equal to 1.28 ± 0.71 %/s, the BHI for the O2Hb to 0.055 ± 0.037 μmol/l/s and the BHI for CO2Hb to 0.0006 ± 0.0019 μmol/l/s, the O2Hb slope was equal to 0.15 ± 0.09 μmol/l/s and the CO2Hb slope to 0.09 ± 0.04 μmol/l/s. There was a positive correlation between the CBFV and the O2Hb increments during BH (r = 0.865). The bidimensional VMR pattern shows common features among healthy subjects that are lost in the control studies. Conclusion We show that healthy subjects present a common VMR pattern when counteracting cerebral blood flow perturbations induced by voluntary BH. The proposed methodology allows for the monitoring of changes in the VMR pattern, hence it could be used for assessing the efficacy of neurorehabilitation protocols. PMID:16854224

  8. The plaque protein myozap identified as a novel major component of adhering junctions in endothelia of the blood and the lymph vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Rickelt, Steffen; Heid, Hans; Claycomb, William C; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Kuhn, Caecilia; Winter-Simanowski, Stefanie; Kuhn, Christian; Frey, Norbert; Franke, Werner W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recently the protein myozap, a 54-kD polypeptide which is not a member of any of the known cytoskeletal and junctional protein multigene families, has been identified as a constituent of the plaques of the composite junctions in the intercalated disks connecting the cardiomyocytes of mammalian hearts. Using a set of novel, highly sensitive and specific antibodies we now report that myozap is also a major constituent of the cytoplasmic plaques of the adherens junctions (AJs) connecting the endothelial cells of the mammalian blood and lymph vascular systems, including the desmoplakin-containing complexus adhaerentes of the virgultar cells of lymph node sinus. In light and electron microscopic immunolocalization experiments we show that myozap colocalizes with several proteins of desmosomal plaques as well as with AJ-specific transmembrane molecules, including VE-cadherin. In biochemical analyses, rigorous immunoprecipitation experiments have revealed N-cadherin, desmoplakin, desmoglein-2, plakophilin-2, plakoglobin and plectin as very stably bound complex partners. We conclude that myozap is a general component of cell–cell junctions not only in the myocardium but also in diverse endothelia of the blood and lymph vascular systems of adult mammals, suggesting that this protein not only serves a specific role in the heart but also a broader set of functions in the vessel systems. We also propose to use myozap as an endothelial cell type marker in diagnoses. PMID:21992629

  9. Preferential orientation of centrioles toward the heart in endothelial cells of major blood vessels is reestablished after reversal of a segment.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, K A; McKee, N H; Kalnins, V I

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of centrioles was examined in porcine and rabbit vascular endothelial cells fixed in situ and prepared en face for immunofluorescent staining with rabbit sera that specifically stain these organelles. In endothelial cells lining the major blood vessels of the pig, the centrioles are preferentially located on the heart side of the nucleus regardless of the direction of blood flow. A similar distribution is seen in the inferior vena cava of the rabbit but not in the rabbit aorta. In the major vessels of the pig and in the rabbit inferior vena cava, 60%-80% of the endothelial cells have their centrioles located on the side of the nucleus toward the heart, 10%-20% have them on the side away from the heart, and 7%-15% have them in a central position along the side of the nucleus. To determine whether this preferential orientation is reestablished, microvascular surgical techniques were used to reverse a 3-cm segment of the inferior vena cava between the left renal vein and the common iliac veins of the rabbit. Within 1 week of the reversal, some of the centrioles had migrated from the end away from the heart to a more central position. During the following weeks, an increasing number of endothelial cells had their centrioles located on the heart side of the nucleus; after 12 weeks, values similar to those in the nonreversed inferior vena cava were reached in the reversed segment. The demonstration that the preferential orientation of centrioles on the heart side of the nucleus is reestablished after reversal of a segment suggests that the observed polarity is important for normal functioning of vascular endothelium. Images PMID:3889904

  10. A novel O-linked glycan modulates Campylobacter jejuni major outer membrane protein-mediated adhesion to human histo-blood group antigens and chicken colonization

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Jafar; Pirinccioglu, Necmettin; Oldfield, Neil J.; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Stoof, Jeroen; Aslam, Akhmed; Self, Tim; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; Petrovska, Liljana; Colborne, Natalie; Sihlbom, Carina; Borén, Thomas; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis; strategies to prevent infection are hampered by a poor understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen. Previous work showed that C. jejuni could bind human histo-blood group antigens (BgAgs) in vitro and that BgAgs could inhibit the binding of C. jejuni to human intestinal mucosa ex vivo. Here, the major flagella subunit protein (FlaA) and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were identified as BgAg-binding adhesins in C. jejuni NCTC11168. Significantly, the MOMP was shown to be O-glycosylated at Thr268; previously only flagellin proteins were known to be O-glycosylated in C. jejuni. Substitution of MOMP Thr268 led to significantly reduced binding to BgAgs. The O-glycan moiety was characterized as Gal(β1–3)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAcα1-Thr268; modelling suggested that O-glycosylation has a notable effect on the conformation of MOMP and this modulates BgAg-binding capacity. Glycosylation of MOMP at Thr268 promoted cell-to-cell binding, biofilm formation and adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and was required for the optimal colonization of chickens by C. jejuni, confirming the significance of this O-glycosylation in pathogenesis. PMID:24451549

  11. Neurovascular unit dysfunction with blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability contributes to major depressive disorder: a review of clinical and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    About one-third of people with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail at least two antidepressant drug trials at 1 year. Together with clinical and experimental evidence indicating that the pathophysiology of MDD is multifactorial, this observation underscores the importance of elucidating mechanisms beyond monoaminergic dysregulation that can contribute to the genesis and persistence of MDD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are mechanistically linked to the presence of neurovascular dysfunction with blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability in selected neurological disorders, such as stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast to other major psychiatric disorders, MDD is frequently comorbid with such neurological disorders and constitutes an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in disorders characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus). Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the neurobiology of MDD. More recent evidence links neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to MDD without neurological comorbidity. We review this emerging literature and present a theoretical integration between these abnormalities to those involving oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in MDD. We discuss our hypothesis that alterations in endothelial nitric oxide levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling are central mechanistic links in this regard. Understanding the contribution of neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to the pathophysiology of MDD may help to identify novel therapeutic and preventative approaches. PMID:24289502

  12. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the “synaptic transmission” pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research. PMID:26728011

  13. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the "synaptic transmission" pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research. PMID:26728011

  14. The Supply of Female Scientists Conundrum: An International Study Exploring the Predictors of Females' Intentions to Major in Science Postsecondary Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, Susan E.

    The goal of this study was to perform an exploratory analysis of a comprehensive list of independent variables identified from literature to determine which, if any, are effective predictors in forecasting a female's intention to study science postsecondary. This is likely to be indicative of interest to study science when pursing higher education as well as choice of major and possible career. The postulated model guiding this analysis, which was based on prior research, recognized that factors pertaining to students, parents, schools, and peers are all important. This study used logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The findings of this study suggest that external factors, such as those considered from the environment, are indeed important in determining a female's intention to study science postsecondary. The findings of this study provided further refinement by demonstrating that for the 15 countries included in this analysis from the Oceania, Latin America, European, and Asian regions there were some overarching and consistent factors that are positively associated with females' intentions to study science postsecondary. These findings essentially paint a portrait of females who intend to study science postsecondary, which are used to suggest additional research as well as interventions to help mitigate the female scientist conundrum observed worldwide.

  15. Unusual Vascular Supply to Extensor Digitorum Brevis

    PubMed Central

    De Silva, Dinuksha; Hsieh, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Lower limb reconstruction after a traumatic event has always been a challenge for plastic surgeons. The reliability of vessel integrity postinjury often drives us away from a local reconstructive option. With the advancement of computed tomography angiogram, it can not only demonstrate the continuation of major vessels but also helps to map the vascular supply at a perforator level. We hereby report an incidentally identified anatomical variant with dual dominant blood supply to the extensor digitorum brevis muscle from an extra branch of anterior tibial artery originated at midtibial level. This variant was picked up preoperatively by computed tomography angiogram and confirmed intraoperatively to be one of the dominant supply. We took advantage of this unusual anatomy by basing our reconstruction on this branch and hence spared the need to terminalize distal dorsalis pedis artery. PMID:27200235

  16. Abnormal resting state corticolimbic blood flow in depressed unmedicated patients with major depression: a (15)O-H(2)O PET study.

    PubMed

    Monkul, E Serap; Silva, Leandro A P; Narayana, Shalini; Peluso, Marco A M; Zamarripa, Frank; Nery, Fabiano G; Najt, Pablo; Li, John; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T; Lafer, Beny; Soares, Jair C

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the differences in the resting state corticolimbic blood flow between 20 unmedicated depressed patients and 21 healthy comparisons. Resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H(2)(15)O PET. Anatomical MRI scans were performed on an Elscint 1.9 T Prestige system for PET-MRI coregistration. Significant changes in cerebral blood flow indicating neural activity were detected using an ROI-free image subtraction strategy. In addition, the resting blood flow in patients was correlated with the severity of depression as measured by HAM-D scores. Depressed patients showed decreases in blood flow in right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24 and 32) and increased blood flow in left and right posterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 23, 29, 30), left parahippocampal gyrus (Brodmann area 36), and right caudate compared with healthy volunteers. The severity of depression was inversely correlated with the left middle and inferior frontal gyri (Brodmann areas 9 and 47) and right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 10) and right anterior cingulate (Brodmann areas 24, 32) blood flow, and directly correlated with the right thalamus blood flow. These findings support previous reports of abnormalities in the resting state blood flow in the limbic-frontal structures in depressed patients compared to healthy volunteers. PMID:21391267

  17. Alterations of microRNA-124 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pre- and post-treatment patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    He, Shen; Liu, Xiaohua; Jiang, Kaida; Peng, Daihui; Hong, Wu; Fang, Yiru; Qian, Yiping; Yu, Shunying; Li, Huafang

    2016-07-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that dysfunction of microRNA-124 (miR-124) might be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in some animal models of depression. However, the role of miR-124 in MDD patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the miR-124 expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were associated with MDD and to evaluate the effects of antidepressant treatment on miR-124 levels. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to detect miR-124 expression in 32 pre- and post-treatment MDD patients and 30 healthy controls. Our results showed that expression levels of miR-124 from PBMCs in MDD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (p < 0.001), and that the area under the curve of miR-124 from ROC analysis was 0.762 with a sensitivity of 83.33% and specificity of 66.67% in distinguishing MDD patients from healthy controls. In addition, the expression levels of miR-124 were significantly down-regulated after eight weeks of treatment (p < 0.001). MiRNA target gene prediction and functional annotation analysis indicated that altered miR-124 was involved in affecting some important biological processes and pathways related to MDD. These results provide new information on miR-124 involvement in the biological alterations of MDD and in antidepressant effects. PMID:27078210

  18. Energy Supply and Development: A Major Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews (1) problems created by United States dependence on foreign oil, (2) recent progress in oil and natural gas development in the U.S., and (3) alternative sources of energy such as the sun, coal, and uranium. (AV)

  19. Migration Patterns of Hepatitis C Virus in China Characterized for Five Major Subtypes Based on Samples from 411 Volunteer Blood Donors from 17 Provinces and Municipalities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Xia, Wenjie; Tian, Linwei; Xu, Ru; Li, Chunhua; Wang, Jingxing; Rong, Xia; Xiong, Huaping; Huang, Ke; Huang, Jieting; Nakano, Tatsunori; Bennett, Phil; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linqi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the migration patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in China. Partial E1 and/or NS5B sequences from 411 volunteer blood donors sampled in 17 provinces and municipalities located in five large regions, the north-northeast, northwest, southwest, central south, and southeast, were characterized. The sequences were classified into eight subtypes (1a, n = 3; 1b, n = 183; 2a, n = 83; 3a, n = 30; 3b, n = 44; 6a, n = 55; 6n, n = 10; 6v, n = 1) and a new subtype candidate. Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees of the E1 sequences of the five major subtypes revealed distinct migration patterns. Subtype 1b showed four groups: one is prevalent nationwide with possible origins in the north-northeast; two are locally epidemic in the central south and northwest, respectively, and have spread sporadically to other regions; and the fourth one is likely linked to the long-distance dispersion among intravenous drug users from the northwest. Subtype 2a showed two groups: the larger one was mainly restricted to the northwest and seemed to show a trend toward migration via the Silk Road; the smaller one was geographically mixed and may represent descendants of those that spread widely during the contaminated plasma campaign in the 1990s. Subtype 3a exhibited three well-separated geographic groups that may be epidemically unrelated: one showed origins in the northwest, one showed origins in the southwest, and the other showed origins in the central south. In contrast, subtype 3b had a mixture of geographic origins, suggesting migrations from the southwest to the northwest and sporadically to other regions. Structurally resembling the tree for subtype 3a, the tree for subtype 6a showed four groups that may indicate migrations from the central south to southeast, southwest, and northwest. Strikingly, no subtype 6a strain was identified in the north-northeast. IMPORTANCE With a population of greater than 1.3 billion and a territory of >9.6 million square kilometers, China has a total of 34 provinces and municipalities. In such a vast country, the epidemic history and migration trends of HCV are thought to be unique and complex but variable among regions and are unlikely to be represented by those observed in only one or at best a few provinces and municipalities. However, due to the difficulties in recruiting patients, all previous studies for this purpose have been based only on data from limited regions, and therefore, geographical biases were unavoidable. In this study, such biases were greatly reduced because we utilized samples collected from volunteer blood donors in 17 provinces and municipalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the HCV isolates represented such a large portion of the country, and thus, the results should shed light on the current understanding of HCV molecular epidemiology. PMID:24719413

  20. Somatic-cell selection is a major determinant of the blood-cell phenotype in heterozygotes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations causing severe enzyme deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Filosa, S.; Giacometti, N.; Wangwei, C.; Martini, G.

    1996-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation in mammals is regarded as an essentially random process, but the resulting somatic-cell mosaicism creates the opportunity for cell selection. In most people with red-blood-cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the enzyme-deficient phenotype is only moderately expressed in nucleated cells. However, in a small subset of hemizygous males who suffer from chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, the underlying mutations (designated class I) cause more-severe G6PD deficiency, and this might provide an opportunity for selection in heterozygous females during development. In order to test this possibility we have analyzed four heterozygotes for class I G6PD mutations: two with G6PD Portici (1178G{r_arrow}A) and two with G6PD Bari (1187C{r_arrow}T). We found that in fractionated blood cell types (including erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cell lineages) there was a significant excess of G6PD-normal cells. The significant concordance that we have observed in the degree of imbalance in the different blood-cell lineages indicates that a selective mechanism is likely to operate at the level of pluripotent blood stem cells. Thus, it appears that severe G6PD deficiency affects adversely the proliferation or the survival of nucleated blood cells and that this phenotypic characteristic is critical during hematopoiesis. 65 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Simultaneous Detection of Major Drug Resistance Mutations of HIV-1 Subtype B Viruses from Dried Blood Spot Specimens by Multiplex Allele-Specific Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Fangping; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jing; Nkengasong, John; Gao, Feng; Yang, Chunfu

    2016-01-01

    A multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay has been developed for the detection of HIV-1 subtype C drug resistance mutations (DRMs). We have optimized the MAS assay to determine subtype B DRMs in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from patients on antiretroviral therapy. The new assay accurately detected DRMs, including low-abundance mutations that were often missed by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26560533

  2. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and Their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, A.; Kousba, A.; Timchalk, C.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF)(O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioate, CAS 2921-88-2), and diazinon (DZN)(O,O-diethyl-O-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl thiophosphate, CAS 333-41-5) are commonly encountered organophosphorus insecticides whose oxon metabolites (CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon) have the ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Chlorpyrifos-oxon and DZN-oxon are highly unstable compounds that degrade via hepatic, peripheral blood, and intestinal metabolism to the more stable metabolites, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, CAS not assigned) and IMHP (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, CAS 2814-20-2), respectively. Studies have been performed to understand and model the chronic and acute toxic effects of CPF and DZN individually but little is known about their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) computational models by quantifying concentrations of CPF and DZN and their metabolites TCP and IMHP in whole rat blood, following exposure to the chemicals individually or as a mixture. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 60 mg/kg of CPF, DZN, or a mixture of these two pesticides. When administered individually DZN and CPF were seen to reach their maximum concentration at ~3 hours post-dosing. When given as a mixture, both DZN and CPF peak blood concentrations were not achieved until ~6 hours post-dosing and the calculated blood area under the curve (AUC) for both chemicals exceeded those calculated following the single dose. Blood concentrations of IMHP and TCP correlated with these findings. It is proposed that the higher AUC obtained for both CPF and DZN as a mixture resulted from competition for the same metabolic enzyme systems.

  3. Potassium-based algorithm allows correction for the hematocrit bias in quantitative analysis of caffeine and its major metabolite in dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Capiau, Sara; Stove, Veronique V; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2014-10-01

    Although dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is increasingly receiving interest as a potential alternative to traditional blood sampling, the impact of hematocrit (Hct) on DBS results is limiting its final breakthrough in routine bioanalysis. To predict the Hct of a given DBS, potassium (K(+)) proved to be a reliable marker. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether application of an algorithm, based upon predicted Hct or K(+) concentrations as such, allowed correction for the Hct bias. Using validated LC-MS/MS methods, caffeine, chosen as a model compound, was determined in whole blood and corresponding DBS samples with a broad Hct range (0.18-0.47). A reference subset (n = 50) was used to generate an algorithm based on K(+) concentrations in DBS. Application of the developed algorithm on an independent test set (n = 50) alleviated the assay bias, especially at lower Hct values. Before correction, differences between DBS and whole blood concentrations ranged from -29.1 to 21.1%. The mean difference, as obtained by Bland-Altman comparison, was -6.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), -9.7 to -3.4%). After application of the algorithm, differences between corrected and whole blood concentrations lay between -19.9 and 13.9% with a mean difference of -2.1% (95% CI, -4.5 to 0.3%). The same algorithm was applied to a separate compound, paraxanthine, which was determined in 103 samples (Hct range, 0.17-0.47), yielding similar results. In conclusion, a K(+)-based algorithm allows correction for the Hct bias in the quantitative analysis of caffeine and its metabolite paraxanthine. PMID:25168119

  4. Prediction of Anomalous Blood Viscosity in Confined Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiébaud, Marine; Shen, Zaiyi; Harting, Jens; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2014-06-01

    Red blood cells play a major role in body metabolism by supplying oxygen from the microvasculature to different organs and tissues. Understanding blood flow properties in microcirculation is an essential step towards elucidating fundamental and practical issues. Numerical simulations of a blood model under a confined linear shear flow reveal that confinement markedly modifies the properties of blood flow. A nontrivial spatiotemporal organization of blood elements is shown to trigger hitherto unrevealed flow properties regarding the viscosity η, namely ample oscillations of its normalized value [η]=(η-η0)/(η0ϕ) as a function of hematocrit ϕ (η0=solvent viscosity). A scaling law for the viscosity as a function of hematocrit and confinement is proposed. This finding can contribute to the conception of new strategies to efficiently detect blood disorders, via in vitro diagnosis based on confined blood rheology. It also constitutes a contribution for a fundamental understanding of rheology of confined complex fluids.

  5. [The treatment of a post-burn deformity and contracture of the neck, using extended flaps with axial type of blood supply].

    PubMed

    Zhernov, A A; Zhernov, An A

    2012-03-01

    Experience of treatment of 24 patients, suffering neck deformity and contracture, using stretched flaps with axial type of blood circulation, was summarized. In total 43 expanders were implanted. The cutaneo-fascial flaps stretching was performed in the neck and thorax. In all the flaps a nutrition artery was included. The neck-brachial flaps, including supraclavicular artery, were applied in 25 (58.1%) patients, the neck-thoracic flaps, using superficial neck artery--in 12 (27.91%), the occipital-neck flaps on a musculocutaneous perforating vessels of occipital artery--in 6 (13.95%). The methods of the expander implantation, the stretching, transposition regimes of plastic material and its fixation were elaborated. The donor sites were closed using stretched tissues, left in place after formation of flaps. Flaps were fixed, using mechanical method of the tissues connection with duplicature formation from deepidermized portion of cicatrix or with polypropylene mesh, which played a role of a dense framework. Then a strong connective tissue bolt was formed, securely fixing transposedstretched tissues. While application of a complex-component vascularized flaps a suppuration have occurred in 3 (6.97%), partial necrosis--in 2 (4.64%) observations. Inclusion of nutritive vessels permit to form large size flaps with a small risk of necrosis occurrence. The stretched perforant flaps application permits to achieve positive result in 95.3% of observations--in immediate and in 81.82%--in far remote period. PMID:22702123

  6. The Relevance of a Novel Quantitative Assay to Detect up to 40 Major Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Directly in Clinical Nasopharyngeal and Blood Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Albrich, Werner C.; van der Linden, Mark P. G.; Bénet, Thomas; Chou, Monidarin; Sylla, Mariam; Barreto Costa, Patricia; Richard, Nathalie; Klugman, Keith P.; Endtz, Hubert P.; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Telles, Jean-Noël

    2016-01-01

    For epidemiological and surveillance purposes, it is relevant to monitor the distribution and dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Conventional serotyping methods do not provide rapid or quantitative information on serotype loads. Quantitative serotyping may enable prediction of the invasiveness of a specific serotype compared to other serotypes carried. Here, we describe a novel, rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the 40 most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes and the assay impacts in pneumonia specimens from emerging and developing countries. Eleven multiplex PCR to detect 40 serotypes or serogroups were optimized. Quantification was enabled by reference to standard dilutions of known bacterial load. Performance of the assay was evaluated to specifically type and quantify S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and blood samples from adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with pneumonia (n = 664) from five different countries. Serogroup 6 was widely represented in nasopharyngeal specimens from all five cohorts. The most frequent serotypes in the French, South African, and Brazilian cohorts were 1 and 7A/F, 3 and 19F, and 14, respectively. When both samples were available, the serotype in blood was always present as carriage with other serotypes in the nasopharynx. Moreover, the ability of a serotype to invade the bloodstream may be linked to its nasopharyngeal load. The mean nasopharyngeal concentration of the serotypes that moved to the blood was 3 log-fold higher than the ones only found in the nasopharynx. This novel, rapid, quantitative assay may potentially predict some of the S. pneumoniae serotypes invasiveness and assessment of pneumococcal serotype distribution. PMID:26986831

  7. A robust type I interferon gene signature from blood RNA defines quantitative but not qualitative differences between three major IFNβ drugs in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Harari, Daniel; Orr, Irit; Rotkopf, Ron; Baranzini, Sergio E; Schreiber, Gideon

    2015-06-01

    We analysed gene expression microarray data from whole blood samples from 228 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients either untreated or treated with one of three alternative commonly used interferon beta (IFNβ) disease modifying drugs: Avonex (×1 weekly), Betaseron (every second day) or Rebif (×3 weekly). Patient injections were not timed to coordinate sample collections, thus providing a global transcriptomic profile for each population of patients studied. Three hundred and fifty one genes were significantly differentially expressed by at least one of the IFNβ drugs. Despite the different drug sources with distinct injection and dosage protocols, a striking similarity was found in the identity and functional classes of the differentially expressed genes induced. Using the 25 most-upregulated genes, we defined a robust IFNβ gene expression signature that quantifies the IFN activation state per blood sample collected irrespective of the type of IFNβ therapy. This 25-gene signature also defined basal IFN activation states among untreated MS patients, which differed among individuals but remained relatively constant per patient with time. The maximum drug-induced IFN-activation state was similar for all three drugs despite a 1.7-2.0-fold diminished average effect for Avonex. This and a more erratic effect of Avonex per patient across longitudinal measurements is likely a result of its reduced injection frequency. In summary, we have defined a robust blood-derived type I IFN gene signature from MS patients. This signature could potentially serve to generically quantify the systemic Type I IFN activation status for any other clinical manifestation, inclusive of other autoimmune diseases. PMID:25721402

  8. Phenylpropanoids and their metabolites are the major compounds responsible for blood-cell protection against oxidative stress after administration of Lippia citriodora in rats.

    PubMed

    Quirantes-Piné, R; Herranz-López, M; Funes, L; Borrás-Linares, I; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-09-15

    Lippia citriodora (lemon verbena) has been widely used in folk medicine for its pharmacological properties. Verbascoside, the most abundant compound in this plant, has protective effects associated mostly with its strong antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of L. citriodora extract intake on the antioxidant response of blood cells and to correlate this response with the phenolic metabolites found in plasma. For this purpose, firstly the L. citriodora extract was characterized and its radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Then, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GRed) activities were determined in lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and neutrophils isolated from rats after acute intake of L. citriodora. Phenolic metabolites were analyzed in the same plasma samples by HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in neutrophils, which has been proposed as a marker for inflammatory vascular damage, was also determined. After L. citriodora administration, the antioxidant enzymes activities significantly accelerated (p<0.05) while MPO activity subsided, indicating that the extract protects blood cells against oxidative damage and shows potential anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic activities. The main compounds found in plasma were verbascoside and isoverbascoside at a concentration of 80±10 and 57±4 ng/ml, respectively. Five other metabolites derived from verbascoside and isoverbascoside were also found in plasma, namely hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, ferulic acid glucuronide, and homoprotocatechuic acid, together with another eight phenolic compounds. Therefore, the phenylpropanoids verbascoside and isoverbascoside, as well as their metabolites, seem to be the responsible for the above-mentioned effects, although the post-transcriptional activation mechanism of blood-cell antioxidant enzymes by these compounds needs further investigation. PMID:23827667

  9. The Relevance of a Novel Quantitative Assay to Detect up to 40 Major Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Directly in Clinical Nasopharyngeal and Blood Specimens.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Melina; Milenkov, Milen; Albrich, Werner C; van der Linden, Mark P G; Bénet, Thomas; Chou, Monidarin; Sylla, Mariam; Barreto Costa, Patricia; Richard, Nathalie; Klugman, Keith P; Endtz, Hubert P; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Telles, Jean-Noël

    2016-01-01

    For epidemiological and surveillance purposes, it is relevant to monitor the distribution and dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Conventional serotyping methods do not provide rapid or quantitative information on serotype loads. Quantitative serotyping may enable prediction of the invasiveness of a specific serotype compared to other serotypes carried. Here, we describe a novel, rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the 40 most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes and the assay impacts in pneumonia specimens from emerging and developing countries. Eleven multiplex PCR to detect 40 serotypes or serogroups were optimized. Quantification was enabled by reference to standard dilutions of known bacterial load. Performance of the assay was evaluated to specifically type and quantify S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and blood samples from adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with pneumonia (n = 664) from five different countries. Serogroup 6 was widely represented in nasopharyngeal specimens from all five cohorts. The most frequent serotypes in the French, South African, and Brazilian cohorts were 1 and 7A/F, 3 and 19F, and 14, respectively. When both samples were available, the serotype in blood was always present as carriage with other serotypes in the nasopharynx. Moreover, the ability of a serotype to invade the bloodstream may be linked to its nasopharyngeal load. The mean nasopharyngeal concentration of the serotypes that moved to the blood was 3 log-fold higher than the ones only found in the nasopharynx. This novel, rapid, quantitative assay may potentially predict some of the S. pneumoniae serotypes invasiveness and assessment of pneumococcal serotype distribution. PMID:26986831

  10. Lead (Pb) contamination of self-supply groundwater systems in coastal Madagascar and predictions of blood lead levels in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Akers, D Brad; MacCarthy, Michael F; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Annis, Jonathan; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of households in coastal Madagascar rely on locally manufactured pitcher-pump systems to provide water for drinking, cooking, and household use. These pumps typically include components made from lead (Pb). In this study, concentrations of Pb in water were monitored at 18 household pitcher pumps in the city of Tamatave over three sampling campaigns. Concentrations of Pb frequently exceeded the World Health Organization's provisional guideline for drinking water of 10 μg/L. Under first-draw conditions (i.e., after a pump had been inactive for 1 h), 67% of samples analyzed were in excess of 10 μg/L Pb, with a median concentration of 13 μg/L. However, flushing the pump systems before collecting water resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in Pb concentrations: 35% of samples collected after flushing exceeded 10 μg/L, with a median concentration of 9 μg/L. Based on measured Pb concentrations, a biokinetic model estimates that anywhere from 15% to 70% of children living in households with pitcher pumps may be at risk for elevated blood lead levels (>5 μg/dL). Measured Pb concentrations in water were not correlated at statistically significant levels with pump-system age, well depth, system manufacturer, or season of sample collection; only the contact time (i.e., flushed or first-draw condition) was observed to correlate significantly with Pb concentrations. In two of the 18 systems, Pb valve weights were replaced with iron, which decreased the observed Pb concentrations in the water by 57-89% in one pump and by 89-96% in the other. Both systems produced samples exclusively below 10 μg/L after substitution. Therefore, relatively straightforward operational changes on the part of the pump-system manufacturers and pump users might reduce Pb exposure, thereby helping to ensure the continued sustainability of pitcher pumps in Madagascar. PMID:25608177

  11. Nursing Supplies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...

  12. Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    Maxwell Laboratories capacitor charging power supply is the first commercial spinoff from the NASA CCDS program - a consortia of industries and government establishments to accelerate development of ground and space based commercial applications of NASA technology. The power supply transforms and conditions large voltages to charge capacitors used in x-ray sources, medical accelerators, etc. It is lighter, more reliable, more compact and efficient. Originally developed for space lasers, its commercial potential was soon recognized.

  13. The relationship of blood transfusion with peri-operative and long-term outcomes after major hepatectomy for metastatic colorectal cancer: a multi-institutional study of 456 patients

    PubMed Central

    Postlewait, Lauren M.; Squires, Malcolm H.; Kooby, David A.; Weber, Sharon M.; Scoggins, Charles R.; Cardona, Kenneth; Cho, Clifford S.; Martin, Robert C.G.; Winslow, Emily R.; Maithel, Shishir K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on prognostic implications of peri-operative blood transfusion around resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) are conflicting. This retrospective study assesses the association of transfusion with complications and disease-specific survival (DSS). Methods Major hepatectomies for CRLM from 2000 to 2010 at three institutions were included. Transfusion was analyzed based on timing and volume. Results Of 456 patients, 140 (30.7%) received transfusions. Transfusion was associated with extended hepatectomy (28.6 vs 18.4%; p = 0.020), tumor size (5.7 vs 4.2 cm; p < 0.001), and operative blood loss (917 vs 390 mL; p < 0.001). Transfusion was independently associated with major complications (OR 2.61; 95% CI: 1.53–4.44; p < 0.001). Transfusion at any time was not associated with DSS; however, patients who specifically received blood post-operatively had reduced DSS (37.4 vs 42.7 months; p = 0.044). Increased volume of transfusion (≥3 units) was also associated with shortened DSS (Total: 37.4 vs 41.5 months, p = 0.018; Post-operative: 27.2 vs 40.3 months, p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, however, transfusion was not independently associated with worsened DSS, regardless of timing and volume. Conclusion Transfusion with major hepatectomy for colorectal cancer metastases is independently associated with increased complications but not disease-specific survival. Judicious use of transfusion per a blood utilization protocol in the peri-operative period is warranted. PMID:26902139

  14. Pheochromocytoma supplied by the dorsal pancreatic artery

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.L.; Doppman, J.L.; Andriole, G.L.; Linehan, M.W.; Keiser, H.R.

    1985-08-01

    Preoperative localization of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas can occasionally be difficult, even with the use of computed tomography (CT). Angiography is often resorted to in this circumstance, but this can be nondiagnostic when tumors have unusual blood supply. The authors report a case of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma supplied by the dorsal pancreatic artery, a rare source of supply in this tumor.

  15. Cerebral blood flow in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and modulation of the mood-regulatory networks in a successful rTMS treatment for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shun; Ukai, Satoshi; Tsuji, Tomikimi; Kose, Asami; Shoyama, Masaru; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Okumura, Masatoshi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (Cg25) has been reported to be a node of mood-regulatory networks. Using a responder and a non-responder of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for depression, we examined pre/post-treatment cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the Cg25 and treatment-related CBF changes in cortical/subcortical regions. In the responder, pre-treatment Cg25 perfusion was higher and was decreased after treatment, in addition, CBF was increased in the frontal and parietal regions and decreased in the hippocampus and basal ganglia. Our results suggest that rTMS treatment response may be related to pre-treatment Cg25 activity and modulation of the Cg25 and mood-regulatory networks. PMID:22512803

  16. BLOOD GAS, LACTATE, AND HEMATOLOGY EFFECTS OF VENIPUNCTURE TIMING AND LOCATION AFTER MIST-NET CAPTURE OF MOURNING DOVES (ZENAIDA MACROURA), BOAT-TAILED GRACKLES (QUISCALUS MAJOR), AND HOUSE SPARROWS (PASSER DOMESTICUS).

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jinks, Maggie R; Harms, Ronald V

    2016-04-01

    Venous blood gas partial pressures, pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations, packed cell volume, white blood cell differential counts, and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios were measured from Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Boat-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus major), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). Birds were bled promptly after mist-net capture and banding or following a targeted delay of 45-60 min, in order to assess the impacts of a brief holding period commonly practiced in large-scale bird banding operations. Additionally, effects of venipuncture location (basilic [=ulnar] vein versus jugular vein) were evaluated in male Boat-tailed Grackles sampled promptly after capture and banding. All comparisons were with unpaired samples; no birds were subjected to more than one venipuncture. All three species exhibited moderate improvements in blood gas and acid-base status after the delay, with reductions in lactate concentrations with or without concurrent increases in pH and bicarbonate. Boat-tailed Grackles exhibited an increased proportion of heterophils in the differential white blood cell count following a delay in sampling, suggestive of a stress leukogram. There were no significant differences between basilic and jugular venipuncture results from male Boat-tailed Grackles. Most metabolic, respiratory, and acid-base alterations were minor, but a small number of birds exhibited values (e.g., temperature-corrected pH <7.3, lactate >10 mmol/L) that could be of concern if combined with other adverse conditions. For such birds, a short delay between capture and processing could benefit their blood gas and acid-base status, although loss of time foraging or feeding young and greater activation of the hypophyseal-pituitary-adrenal axis are additional considerations. PMID:26845300

  17. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  20. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  1. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... testing Anti-human globulin Each day of use. Blood grouping reagents Do. Lectins Do. Antibody screening... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.65 Supplies and... distribution of blood and blood components shall be stored in a safe, sanitary and orderly manner. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 606.65 - Supplies and reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... testing Anti-human globulin Each day of use. Blood grouping reagents Do. Lectins Do. Antibody screening... CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Equipment § 606.65 Supplies and... distribution of blood and blood components shall be stored in a safe, sanitary and orderly manner. (a)...

  3. Identification and determination of selenoneine, 2-selenyl-N α , N α , N α -trimethyl-L-histidine, as the major organic selenium in blood cells in a fish-eating population on remote Japanese Islands.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Michiaki; Yamashita, Yumiko; Ando, Tetsuo; Wakamiya, Junji; Akiba, Suminori

    2013-12-01

    Selenoneine is the major selenium compound in fish muscles, and fish appears to be an important source of selenium in the fish-eating population. Selenoneine has strong antioxidant activity and a detoxifying function against methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity. Dietary intake, bioaccumulation, and metabolism of selenoneine have not been characterized in humans. A nutritional survey was conducted in remote islands of the Kagoshima Prefecture in Japan. To evaluate the potential risks and benefits of fish consumption for health, we measured concentrations of selenoneine, total selenium, MeHg, inorganic mercury, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) in the blood of a fish-eating human population. The erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet residues following removal of serum (cellular fraction) contained 0.510 μg Se/g, 0.212 μg selenoneine Se/g, and 0.262 μg Se-containing proteins Se/g, whereas the serum contained 0.174 μg total Se/g. Selenoneine was highly concentrated in the cellular fraction in a manner that was dependent on subjects' frequency of fish consumption. Concentrations of selenoneine were closely correlated with concentrations of MeHg in the cellular fraction. Selenoneine is the major chemical form of selenium in the blood cells of this fish-eating human population and may be an important biomarker for selenium redox status. PMID:24197605

  4. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  5. Genome-Wide Linkage Screen for Systolic Blood Pressure in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES) of Mexican-Americans and Confirmation of a Major Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 6q14.1

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Sobha; Coletta, Dawn K.; Schneider, Jennifer; Hu, Shirley L.; Farook, Vidya S.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Arya, Rector; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hypertension or high blood pressure is a strong correlate of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We conducted a genome-wide linkage screen to identify susceptibility genes influencing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Mexican-Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Methods Using data from 1,089 individuals distributed across 266 families, we performed a multipoint linkage analysis to localize susceptibility loci for SBP and DBP by applying two models. In model 1, we added a sensible constant to the observed BP values in treated subjects [Tobin et al.; Stat Med 2005;24:2911–2935] to account for antihypertensive use (i.e. 15 and 10 mm Hg to SBP and DBP values, respectively). In model 2, we fixed values of 140 mm Hg for SBP and 90 mm Hg for DBP, if the treated values were less than the standard referenced treatment thresholds of 140/90 mm Hg for hypertensive status. However, if the observed treated BP values were found to be above these standard treatment thresholds, the actual observed treated BP values were retained in order not to reduce them by substitution of the treatment threshold values. Results The multipoint linkage analysis revealed strong linkage signals for SBP compared with DBP. The strongest evidence for linkage of SBP (model 1, LOD = 5.0; model 2, LOD = 3.6) was found on chromosome 6q14.1 near the marker D6S1031 (89 cM) in both models. In addition, some evidence for SBP linkage occurred on chromosomes 1q, 4p, and 16p. Most importantly, our major SBP linkage finding on chromosome 6q near marker D6S1031 was independently confirmed in a Caucasian population (LOD = 3.3). In summary, our study found evidence for a major locus on chromosome 6q influencing SBP levels in Mexican-Americans. PMID:21293138

  6. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos and their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic Models.

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2004-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase due to the effects of their active oxon metabolites. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase results in a buildup of acetylcholine within the nerve synapses leading to a variety of neurotoxic effects (Mileson et al., 1998). These effects are most clearly seen following acute high dose exposures but they can also be observed in lower dose chronic cases as well. Chlorpyrifos is the active ingredient in commonly used organophosphorous (OP) insecticides like DURSBAN and LORSBAN (Timchalk et. al, 2002). Chlorpyrifos and diazinon are used to eliminate pests in agricultural applications like cotton and fruit crops. Every year globally there are approximately 3 million cases of organophosphate poisoning reported resulting in 200,000 deaths (Haywood et al., 2000). The public is exposed to these chemicals on a regular basis at chronic low levels from food and water contamination, dermal contact and inhalation. The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that of approximately 3,600 persons from all 64 NHANES III locations, 70% tested positive for TCP in urine, suggesting exposure to chlorpyrifos (NHANES III, 1994). The chemical structures of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and their major metabolites trichlorpyridinol (TCP), and isopropyl-methyl-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) are shown in Figure 1. The parent compounds, CPF and DZN, are metabolized to their potent inhibiting oxon forms via a desulfuration reaction initiated by cytochrome P450 (CYP)(Poet et al., 2003; Amitai et al., 1998). Competing with the formation of oxon is the detoxification metabolism of CPF to TCP and DZN to IMHP via a dearylation reaction utilizing the same enzymes. A-esterase (PON1) and other B-esterases also contribute to the production of TCP and IMHP through the metabolism of CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon, respectively (Poet et al., 2003; Ma et al., 1994). The ratio between the toxification/detoxification reactions determines the degree of enzyme inhibition and can be used to evaluate metabolism processes (Timchalk et al., 2002).

  7. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  11. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy. PMID:25467858

  12. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  13. [Blood transfusion: the challenges for tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Folléa, Gilles; Garraud, Olivier; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. The availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all lead to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. The main tools available to improve transfusion and the transfusion chain management are the following: programs of patient blood management (PBM) to optimize the use of blood products with a patient centred approach, blood supply management tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, donor management tools to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, and coordination of these activities. A better understanding of these tools and their implementation will certainly be major challenges for transfusion medicine in the near future. Integrating these evolutions in regulations through the revision of the European Directives on blood and blood components (the review process is expected to be launched in 2015) should enroll them in the long term, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain. PMID:25578549

  14. Development and validation of a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl in urine and whole blood in forensic context.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Tytgat, Jan

    2010-07-15

    Fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl often occur in low doses in biological samples. Therefore, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and fully validated. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge with an additional alkaline wash step to decrease matrix effects and thus increase sensitivity. Ionization of fentanyl and norfentanyl with electrospray ionization (ESI) was more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher ESI signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed. A comparison of columns with different internal diameter and/or smaller particles showed optimal resolution and sensitivity when an Acquity C18 column (1.7 microm, 2.1 mm x 50 mm) was used. Deuterium labeled internal standards were used, but with careful evaluation of their stability since loss of deuteriums was seen. With limits of detection of 0.25 pg/ml for fentanyl and 2.5 pg/ml for norfentanyl in urine and 5 pg/ml for fentanyl and norfentanyl in whole blood the presented method is highly appropriate for the analysis of fentanyl and norfentanyl in forensic urine and blood samples. PMID:20542478

  15. The mitochondrial genomes of Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae) and Argas africolumbae (Ixodoidae: Argasidae): estimation of divergence dates for the major tick lineages and reconstruction of ancestral blood-feeding characters.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; de Klerk, Daniel; Pienaar, Ronel; de Castro, Minique H; Latif, Abdalla A

    2012-01-01

    Ixodida are composed of hard (Ixodidae), soft (Argasidae) and the monotypic Nuttalliellidae (Nuttalliella namaqua) tick families. Nuclear 18S rRNA analysis suggested that N. namaqua was the closest extant relative to the last common ancestral tick lineage. The mitochondrial genomes of N. namaqua and Argas africolumbae were determined using next generation sequencing and de novo assembly to investigate this further. The latter was included since previous estimates on the divergence times of argasids lacked data for this major genus. Mitochondrial gene order for both was identical to that of the Argasidae and Prostriata. Bayesian analysis of the COI, Cytb, ND1, ND2 and ND4 genes confirmed the monophyly of ticks, the basal position of N. namaqua to the other tick families and the accepted systematic relationships of the other tick genera. Molecular clock estimates were derived for the divergence of the major tick lineages and supported previous estimates on the origins of ticks in the Carboniferous. N. namaqua larvae fed successfully on lizards and mice in a prolonged manner similar to many argasids and all ixodids. Excess blood meal-derived water was secreted via the salivary glands, similar to ixodids. We propose that this prolonged larval feeding style eventually gave rise to the long feeding periods that typify the single larval, nymphal and adult stages of ixodid ticks and the associated secretion of water via the salivary glands. Ancestral reconstruction of characters involved in blood-feeding indicates that most of the characteristics unique to either hard or soft tick families were present in the ancestral tick lineage. PMID:23145176

  16. The Mitochondrial Genomes of Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae) and Argas africolumbae (Ixodoidae: Argasidae): Estimation of Divergence Dates for the Major Tick Lineages and Reconstruction of Ancestral Blood-Feeding Characters

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Ben J.; de Klerk, Daniel; Pienaar, Ronel; de Castro, Minique H.; Latif, Abdalla A.

    2012-01-01

    Ixodida are composed of hard (Ixodidae), soft (Argasidae) and the monotypic Nuttalliellidae (Nuttalliella namaqua) tick families. Nuclear 18S rRNA analysis suggested that N. namaqua was the closest extant relative to the last common ancestral tick lineage. The mitochondrial genomes of N. namaqua and Argas africolumbae were determined using next generation sequencing and de novo assembly to investigate this further. The latter was included since previous estimates on the divergence times of argasids lacked data for this major genus. Mitochondrial gene order for both was identical to that of the Argasidae and Prostriata. Bayesian analysis of the COI, Cytb, ND1, ND2 and ND4 genes confirmed the monophyly of ticks, the basal position of N. namaqua to the other tick families and the accepted systematic relationships of the other tick genera. Molecular clock estimates were derived for the divergence of the major tick lineages and supported previous estimates on the origins of ticks in the Carboniferous. N. namaqua larvae fed successfully on lizards and mice in a prolonged manner similar to many argasids and all ixodids. Excess blood meal-derived water was secreted via the salivary glands, similar to ixodids. We propose that this prolonged larval feeding style eventually gave rise to the long feeding periods that typify the single larval, nymphal and adult stages of ixodid ticks and the associated secretion of water via the salivary glands. Ancestral reconstruction of characters involved in blood-feeding indicates that most of the characteristics unique to either hard or soft tick families were present in the ancestral tick lineage. PMID:23145176

  17. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... some people choose a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you , which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  18. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the uterine vascular supply through vascular casting and thin slice computed tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Lin; Guo, Hong-Xia; Liu, Ping; Huang, Rui; Yang, Zhen-Bo Ou; Tang, Lei; Li, Ze-Yu; Liu, Chang; Wu, Kun-Cheng; Zhong, Guang-Ming; Hong, Hui-Wen; Hu, Jie-Wei; Li, Jian-Yi; Yu, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Shi-Zheng; McLucas, Bruce; Beller, Mark

    2009-01-01

    It was the objective of this study to construct a model of the uterine vascular supply through vascular casting and thin slice computed tomography scanning. This will provide a teaching aide for the understanding of uterine artery embolization (UAE) procedures, as well as normal uterine and ovarian arterial anatomy. Using 20% chlorinated poly vinyl chloride, we infused and cast a set of a normal uterus, vagina and bilateral adnexa through the uterine artery and ovarian artery. After thin slice CT scanning, we obtained the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by maximum intensity projection (MIP) and surface-shaded display (SSD), and then observed its figure and characteristics. A model of the uterine vascular supply can be successfully reconstructed by vascular casting and thin slice CT scanning. The 3D reconstruction offers a clear view of the course of the uterine artery and its blood supply distribution. It has two major branches: The intramuscular uterine branch and the cervicovaginal branch (1). Blood supply is generally unilateral, with communicating branches between the two sides and possible anastomoses between the arterial blood supply of the uterus and the ovaries. The major blood supply of the cervix comes from the cervicovaginal branch of the uterine artery, while the vaginal arterial supply derives directly from the internal iliac artery. The CT technique allows real-time 360 degrees rotation and changes in model for in-depth study of the vascular network and its adjacent tissues. It is possible to construct an in vitro uterine arterial network by vascular casting and CT scanning, which can provide unique insight into the female genitourinary system arterial network. Based on this, we can create reconstructions as well as models for different diseases such as leiomyomata, adenomyosis, and endometrial cancer. These models will provide morphological evidence to the interventional therapy and UAE teaching in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:19418349

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is considered normal. If you had a random ... blood glucose level will be below 125 mg/dL. The examples above show the common measurements for ...

  2. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  3. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products. PMID:22727006

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  5. Blood Tracer Kinetics in the Arterial Tree

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Elias; Gall, Peter; Günther, Matthias; Reisert, Marco; Mader, Irina; Fleysher, Roman; Kiselev, Valerij G.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data. PMID:25299048

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Fully automated determination of nicotine and its major metabolites in whole blood by means of a DBS online-SPE LC-HR-MS/MS approach for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Piper, Thomas; Hedeland, Mikael; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-05-10

    Dried blood spots (DBS) represent a sample matrix collected under minimal-invasive, straightforward and robust conditions. DBS specimens have been shown to provide appropriate test material for different analytical disciplines, e.g., preclinical drug development, therapeutic drug monitoring, forensic toxicology and diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in newborns. However, the sample preparation has occasionally been reported as laborious and time consuming. In order to minimize the manual workload and to substantiate the suitability of DBS for high sample-throughput, the automation of sample preparation processes is of paramount interest. In the current study, the development and validation of a fully automated DBS extraction method coupled to online solid-phase extraction using the example of nicotine, its major metabolites nornicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and the tobacco alkaloids anabasine and anatabine is presented, based on the rationale that the use of nicotine-containing products for performance-enhancing purposes has been monitored by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for several years. Automation-derived DBS sample extracts were directed online to liquid chromatography high resolution/high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry, and target analytes were determined with support of four deuterated internal standards. Validation of the method yielded precise (CV <7.5% for intraday and <12.3% for interday measurements) and linear (r(2)>0.998) results. The limit of detection was established at 5ngmL(-1) for all studied compounds, the extraction recovery ranged from 25 to 44%, and no matrix effects were observed. To exemplify the applicability of the DBS online-SPE LC-MS/MS approach for sports drug testing purposes, the method was applied to authentic DBS samples obtained from smokers, snus users, and e-cigarette users. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results indicated differences in metabolic behavior depending on the route of administration (inhalative versus buccal absorption) in terms of the ratio of nicotine and nornicotine. PMID:26896632

  9. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  10. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... to major health problems. Make a point of learning what blood pressure should be. And, remember: High ...

  11. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or problems with the kidneys, bones, or pancreas. Albumin and total blood protein , which are needed to ... bones, blood, and organ tissue. The CMP measures albumin specifically (the major blood protein produced by the ...

  12. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James

    2014-05-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  13. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... TAHL-uh-gus) blood donation. Another option for blood transfusions is called directed donation . This is when a family member or friend donates blood specifically to be used by a designated patient. ...

  14. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on ... left untreated, high blood pressure can damage important organs, such as the brain and kidneys, as well ...

  15. Blood Smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood smears may be used to help diagnose malaria , a disease caused by a blood parasite . The ... a blood smear is examined under a microscope. Malaria rarely occurs in the U.S. and is usually ...

  16. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePlus

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  17. Blood donor management in china.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-07-01

    Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  18. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  6. Health supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Rolf; Gallagher, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The actual application of supply chain practice and disciplines required for service delivery improvement within the current health environment. * A rationale for the application of Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches to the Health sector. * The tools and methods available for supply chain analysis and benchmarking. * Key supply chain success factors. PMID:20407173

  7. US energy consumption and supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanatta, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Energy consumption and cost in 1978 and 1979 are discussed with emphasis on the effect of imported oil on the economy of the United States. Some of the international aspects of energy supply are described, and actions to meet the probability of a cutoff of oil imports from the Persian Gulf area are suggested. Short and long range strategies for ensuring energy self sufficiency are discussed. A rationale for major, long range dependence on fission and fusion power is given, and the possible advantages of a nearly all electric energy system are mentioned. Projection of energy consumption and supply to the year 2020 based upon economic and demographic models is discussed.

  8. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  9. Blood donation and blood transfusion: special considerations for African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shaz, Beth H; Zimring, James C; Demmons, Derrick G; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2008-07-01

    Unique issues in blood donation and blood transfusion regarding African Americans (AA) in the United States span the donation process, manufacturing of products, and hospital transfusion service. As AAs become a growing population, a constant supply of blood donated by AAs is necessary to support this growth. Nationally, AAs are underrepresented in blood collection, which may be secondary to AAs having higher rates of anemia and other deferrable conditions or unique motivators as well as other barriers to blood donation. When investigating blood transfusion practices, blood utilization for different races and ethnicities is unknown. AAs may receive more red blood cell (RBC) transfusions because they have a higher proportion of diseases that require transfusion. Patients with sickle cell disease are at increased risk of RBC alloimmunization likely due to the predominance of RBC units from white donors in the existing blood supply, but it is not known if all AA recipients experience increased alloimmunization rates compared with whites. In conclusion, there is a need to increase donation by AAs, which can only be achieved by conducting studies to understand racial differences in donor recruitment and to better understand blood utilization and adverse events as a factor of race and ethnicity. PMID:18572096

  10. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  11. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

  12. Blood Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many blood tests don't require any special preparations. For some, you may need to fast (not eat any food) for 8 to 12 hours before the test. Your doctor will let you know how to prepare for blood tests. During a blood test, a small sample of blood is taken from your body. It's ...

  13. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

  14. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping; Bennett, Eric P; Pietz, Greg; Saunders, Kristen; Spence, Jean; Nudelman, Edward; Levery, Steven B; White, Thayer; Neveu, John M; Lane, William S; Bourne, Yves; Olsson, Martin L; Henrissat, Bernard; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this technology to clinical practice has been the lack of efficient glycosidase enzymes. Here we report two bacterial glycosidase gene families that provide enzymes capable of efficient removal of A and B antigens at neutral pH with low consumption of recombinant enzymes. The crystal structure of a member of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions. PMID:17401360

  15. National supply-chain survey of drug manufacturer back orders.

    PubMed

    Wellman, G S

    2001-07-01

    The impact of manufacturer back orders on the supply chain for pharmaceuticals in the institutional setting was studied. A questionnaire was distributed during May and June 2000 to 600 institutional pharmacies affiliated with a major national drug and supply group purchasing organization. The instrument included questions on basic institutional demographics, perceptions about the frequency of manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals, the quality of communication with manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders, the two most significant back orders that had occurred in the 12 months preceding the survey, and the reasons for and impact of back orders. A total of 170 usable surveys were returned (net response rate, 28.3%). Reported manufacturer back orders included an array of drug classes, including blood products, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepine antagonists, thrombolytics, corticosteroids, and antihypertensives. Respondents perceived significant back orders as increasing in frequency. Communication by manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders was reported to be relatively poor. A raw-material shortage was the most common reason given by manufacturers for back orders (36.5%), followed by a regulatory issue (23.2%). In most cases (92%), medical staff members had to be contacted, indicating an interruption in the normal drug distribution process. In over a third of instances, respondents stated that the back order resulted in less optimal therapy. A survey found that manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals were increasing in frequency and that information flow within the supply chain was insufficient to meet the needs of end users. PMID:11449880

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. Petroluem Supply Monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-04

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. [European Blood Alliance (EBA) and EuroNet TMS: what challenges for the transfusion of tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Folléa, G; de Wit, J; Rouger, P

    2011-04-01

    The primary mission of the European Blood Alliance (EBA) is to contribute to the safety and efficiency of the supply of blood products, cells and tissues, in developing an active network of blood establishments in Europe (25 countries). Its strategic objectives are to improve performance (through working groups and projects funded by the European Union), to engage in regulatory affairs (particularly at the European Commission level) to promote best practices and to facilitate a network to collect and share knowledge and experiences. The main objective of EuroNet TMS, combining the blood scientific societies from more than 30 countries in Europe, is to update and publish regularly, intended for policymakers, a White Book on the transfusion chain from donor to patient and probable or possible changes in the coming 5 years. Since 2008, EBA and EuroNet TMS actively collaborate on the drafting of the 2nd edition to be published in 2011. The two presidents jointly drafted the final chapter outlining the major issues of transfusion for tomorrow, summarized thereafter. Transfusion will still be useful for a long time and for reasons of safety and ethics the voluntary and unpaid donations, with non-profit blood establishments, will remain, the cornerstone of the supply of blood products. This renders crucial the continuous improvement of donor management and optimal blood use. On the regulatory side, after 5 years of implementation, EU directives must be independently evaluated and the Blood Guide of the Council of Europe should gradually become a regulatory standard. Finally, if a competition should be introduced for the blood products, it should be strictly regulated to prevent any threat to the security of their supply and quality for patients. PMID:21458349

  19. The management of blood safety in the presence of uncertain risk: a United kingdom perspective.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Nicholas A; Dobra, Stephen; Bennett, Peter; Cairns, John; Turner, Marc L

    2012-07-01

    Millions of patients in the UK benefit from the use of both plasma derivatives and blood components that are seen as critical interventions in current medicine. Measures are in place to significantly reduce the risks associated with blood transfusion and plasma derivatives; however, these measures themselves are not risk free. Over the past 20 years, advances in technology and regulation have seen major reductions in the risks associated with transfusion. International blood services, industry, and regulators strive to maintain safety levels through constant monitoring, assessment, and response to changing risk factors. Regulation of screening tests together with the development and introduction of nucleic acid technique tests for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus has improved blood safety. However, other risks, including the changing epidemiology of transfusion-transmitted infections, bacterial contamination of platelets, incorrect blood component transfusion, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, require further attention. Risks such as these are often complex, and there is a difficult balance to be struck between donors/recipients' benefit and adequacy of blood supply. The introduction of any new safety measure therefore requires robust, evidence-based evaluation of associated benefit, both clinical and economical. This review presents a UK perspective on how the safety of the blood supply is maintained in the face of uncertain risks. PMID:22126710

  20. [Management of massive transfusion - the role of the blood transfusion service].

    PubMed

    Sone, Shinji; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Okazaki, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Massive transfusion (hemorrhage) is defined as blood transfusion exceeding the circulatory blood volume within 24 hours. Here, we investigated cases of massive transfusion, defined as transfusion of more than 21 units of red blood cells within 24 hours, in our institution in the period from August 2005 to March 2013. Massive transfusion accounted for approximately 1% of all blood transfusions in our institution, and the majority were cardiac surgery cases (75%), with 80% of the cases receiving blood transfusion irtfhe operating theater. Brain-dead heart and liver transplantations were started in our hospital in 2006. Due to the revision of the Organ Transplantation Law in July 2010, brain-dead organ donations increased in Japan. Massive transfusion was required in approximately 47% of heart and 41% of liver transplants, with 44% of the transplants being conducted on holidays, and 47% at night. Therefore, the implementation of a 24-hour duty system for medical technologists, including holidays, is essential for the prompt testing and supply of blood products. For improvement of the safety of blood supply, a computer network system, connecting the blood control system of the blood transfusion service, the anesthetic system of the operating theater, and the hospital general medical system, was implemented in our hospital in March 2007. In the operating theater, anesthetists can request blood products, order new blood products, cross-check the provided blood products, and register their use, using this system. At the blood transfusion service, the blood products to be provided are cross- checked against the anesthetists' requests. Through this system, the anesthetists and blood transfusion service staff can check the list of blood products available for the surgical patient as well as those already transfused, on a real-time basis. For analysis of the improvements achieved, we compared the number of non-used blood units, i.e., the number of those provided minus the number of transfused units in the surgical theater, in the period after (2009-2012) and before (2005-2006) the implementation of this computer network system. In the period after its implementation, the number of non-used units decreased from 17.4 units to 7.5 units (P<0.001), leading us to conclude that this system helped avoid the excessive ordering of blood products by the anesthetists. (Review). PMID:25823247

  1. What's Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... You know what blood is — it's that red stuff that oozes out if you get a paper ... ingredients. It makes them. Bone marrow — that goopy stuff inside your bones — makes the red blood cells, ...

  2. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  5. Coronary blood flow in the anesthetized American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Elfwing, Magnus; Elsey, Ruth M; Wang, Tobias; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary circulation of the heart evolved early within ectothermic vertebrates and became of vital importance to cardiac performance in some teleost fish, mammals and birds. In contrast, the role and function of the coronary circulation in ectothermic reptiles remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the systemic and coronary arterial responses of five anesthetized juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to hypoxia, acetylcholine, adenosine, sodium nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. We recorded electrocardiograms, monitored systemic blood pressure, blood flows in both aortae, and blood flow in a major coronary artery supplying most of the right ventricle. Coronary arterial blood flow was generally forward, but there was a brief retrograde flow during a ventricular contraction. Blood pressure was significantly changed in all conditions. Acetylcholine decreased coronary forward flow, but this response was confounded by the concomitant lowered work of the ventricles due to decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Coronary forward flow was poorly correlated with heart rate and mean arterial pressure across treatments. Overall changes in coronary forward flow, significant and not significant, were generally in the same direction as mean arterial pressure and ventricular power, approximated as the product of systemic cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26436857

  6. A computerized national Blood Donor Deferral Register.

    PubMed

    Ellis, F R; Friedman, L I; Wirak, B F; Hellinger, M J; Malin, W S; Greenwalt, T J

    1975-05-19

    With blood given exclusively by volunteer donors, the American National Red Cross (ANRC) Blood Program aims to supply patients needing transfusion with blood products of the highest quality. The use of blood from volunteers, with its established greater safety, combined with laboratory testing to detect carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB-SAg) and modern computer technology, creates an effective system to reduce the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis. The ANRC has devised a national Donor Deferral System, which is designed to minimize the transmission of hepatitis by blood and blood products. PMID:1173170

  7. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  8. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  13. Successful abatement of lead exposure from water supplies in the West of Scotland

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.R.; Richards, W.N.; Sherlock, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    A major problem has existed in the West of Scotland for at least the past century associated with lead uptake by water from leaden water distribution systems. Initial studies in Glasgow from 1969 to 1976 and in Ayr in 1980/1981 showed that not only were water supplies soft, acid and in consequence highly plumbosolvent, and that water lead levels were, on average, unacceptably high but that blood lead concentrations were also in excess of acceptable limits. A decision was therefore made by Strathclyde Water Department to carry out remedial water treatment to adjust the water pH. The success of this venture was proven by the parallel rapid falls in blood lead and water lead concentrations in the city of Glasgow. This encouraged the Water Department to institute a similar scheme in the town of Ayr. Work on this commenced in 1981, and in a study of the participants in a previous blood lead survey, a highly significant fall in blood lead concentrations was observed. The equation linking these two parameters was found to follow a curvilinear relationship where blood lead varied as the cube root of the water lead with a highly significant coefficient of correlation. This relationship has been shown to hold across a wide range of water lead concentrations down to 1 g/liter. This detailed information allows accurate calculation of acceptable limits of lead exposure from specific sources based upon acceptable blood lead concentrations.

  14. Proceedings: 1987 fuel supply seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.

    1988-08-01

    The seventh annual EPRI Fuel Supply Seminar was held in Baltimore, Maryland, from October 6 to 8, 1987. The major emphasis of the meeting was on identifying fuel market risks and planning concerns in order to cope with inherent uncertainties and make informed fuel supply decisions. Sessions dealt with the natural gas markets including the prospects for continued availability of gas as a boiler fuel, the relationship of gas and oil prices and the relevance of different regulatory issues. Other sessions addressed the political dimensions of world oil supply and the role of oil inventories in price dynamics, the interaction of world trade cycles, interest rates and currency fluctuations on utility fuel planning, and the role of strategic fuel planning in various utilities. The changing coal transportation market was the subject of several presentations, concluding with a review of utility experiences in integrating coal transportation and coal supply procurement. Presentations were made by various specialists including EPRI research contractors reporting on the results of ongoing research, speakers drawn from the utility, coal and natural gas industries, and independent consultants. The principal purpose of the seminar continues to be to provide utility fuel planners and fuel procurement managers with data and insights into the structure, operations and uncertainties of the fuel markets, thereby supporting their development of flexible fuel strategies and contributing to integrated utility decision making. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the energy data base.

  15. Major coexisting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env gene subpopulations in the peripheral blood are produced by cells with similar turnover rates and show little evidence of genetic compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Ince, William L; Harrington, Patrick R; Schnell, Gretja L; Patel-Chhabra, Milloni; Burch, Christina L; Menezes, Prema; Price, Richard W; Eron, Joseph J; Swanstrom, Ronald I

    2009-05-01

    A distinctive feature of chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the presence of multiple coexisting genetic variants, or subpopulations, that comprise the HIV-1 population detected in the peripheral blood. Analysis of HIV-1 RNA decay dynamics during the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been a valuable tool for modeling the life span of infected cells that produce the bulk HIV-1 population. However, different HIV-1 target cells may have different turnover rates, and it is not clear whether the bulk HIV-1 RNA decay rate actually represents a composite of the decay rates of viral subpopulations compartmentalized in different cellular subsets with different life spans. Using heteroduplex tracking assays targeting the highly variable V3 or V4-V5 regions of the HIV-1 env gene in eight subjects, we found that all detectable coexisting HIV-1 variants in the peripheral blood generally decayed at similar rates during the initiation of HAART, suggesting that all of the variants were produced by cells with similar life spans. Furthermore, single genome amplification and coreceptor phenotyping revealed that in two subjects coexisting HIV-1 variants with distinct CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor phenotypes decayed with similar rates. Also, in nine additional subjects, recombination and a lack of genetic compartmentalization between X4 and R5 variants were observed, suggesting an overlap in host cell range. Our results suggest that the HIV-1 env subpopulations detectable in the peripheral blood are produced by cells with similar life spans and are not genetically isolated within particular cell types. PMID:19211740

  16. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  17. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  18. Controlling supply expenses through capitated supply contracting.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, J C

    1997-07-01

    Some providers dealing with the financial challenges of managed care are attempting to control supply expenses through capitated supply contracting and similar risk/reward sharing arrangements. Under such arrangements, a supplier sells products and services to a provider for a fixed, prospective price in exchange for the provider's exclusive business. If expenses exceed the prospectively established amount, the supplier and provider share the loss. Conversely, if expenses are less than the fixed amount, they share the savings. For a capitated supply arrangement to be successful, providers must be able to identify and track supply expense drivers, such as clinical pathways, technology utilization, and product selection and utilization. Sophisticated information systems are needed to capture data, such as total and per-transaction product usage/volume; unit price per item; average and cost per item; average and total cost per transaction; and total cost per outcome. Providers also will need to establish mutually cooperative relationships with the suppliers with whom they contract. PMID:10168443

  19. Hepatitis B and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A

    1998-11-01

    The safety of blood and blood products is a global issue. Blood transfusion is an important part of modern medicine, but it is also an efficient route of transmission for a number of infectious agents. Although many countries screen all blood donations for a number of infectious agents, a significant proportion of the world's blood supply is either unscreened or poorly screened, with the resultant risk to recipients of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is of concern because it is transmitted parenterally, many HBV infections are asymptomatic (and infected individuals may thus unwittingly present as blood donors) and the virus is stable in blood and blood products over long periods. The transmission of HBV is minimized by the screening of donors prior to donation, exclusion of high-risk donors, followed by the in-vitro screening of donations for HBsAg (+anti-HBc in some countries) prior to transfusion. However, even in countries with good quality, active screening programmes, there is still a small residual risk of transmission of HBV from undetected donors with early acute infection, resolving infection, silent infection or infection with atypical virus serology. Unfortunately, as with so many infectious agents, the prevalence of HBV is most often higher in those countries with poorly developed healthcare systems and limited resources. In these countries, the safety of the blood supply is compromised frequently, either because of lack of resources with which to purchase screening assays, or because of acute blood shortages and insufficient time to screen blood prior to transfusion. In such situations it is important to encourage and actively support the introduction of appropriate screening programmes which can be based upon simple assay formats, such as agglutination, rather than the favoured but more complex enzyme immunoassays which are more expensive, require specific equipment and support, and take longer to perform. Such approaches will help reduce greatly the transfusion transmission of HBV. PMID:9915031

  20. How much blood is needed?

    PubMed

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention. PMID:21175652

  1. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

  2. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  4. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePlus

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... to check the levels of certain immunoglobulins (or antibodies) associated with multiple myeloma and Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. This ...

  5. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... Templates One-on-One Recruitment Solutions Flyers and Posters Community Outreach Solutions Thank You Note Templates Flyers and Posters Answering Donor Questions Blood Drive Sponsor Stories Sponsor ...

  6. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  7. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  8. US Army blood program: 2025 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Richard; Taylor, Audra L; Atkinson, Andrew J; Malloy, Wilbur W; Macdonald, Victor W; Cap, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    In preparing to support the Army in 2025 and beyond, the Army Blood Program remains actively engaged with the research and advanced development of blood products and medical technology to improve blood safety and efficacy in conjunction with the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. National and International Blood Bank authorities have noted that the US Army research and development efforts in providing new blood products and improving blood safety operate on the cutting edge of technology and are transformational for the global blood industry. Over the past 14 years, the Army has transformed how blood support is provided and improved the survival rate of casualties. Almost every product or process developed by or for the military has found an application in treating civilian patients. Conflicts have many unwanted consequences; however, in times of conflict, one positive aspect is the identification of novel solutions to improve the safety and efficacy of the blood supply. PMID:27001366

  9. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xue; Shen, Yu-meng; Jiang, Meng-nan; Lou, Xiang-feng; Shen, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described. PMID:26576295

  10. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system at a level of detail that can be used for construction and deployment. Test and quality assurance plans are also included to insure that the system delivers all requirements when it is built. The design is for an automated forecasting prototype that allocates inventory and processing resources in response to potentially daily changes in the forecasted optics exchanges required to operate NIF. It will automatically calculate future inventory levels and processing rates based on current inventory and projected exchanges, procurements, and capacities. It will include screens that allow users to readily assess the feasibility of the forecast, identify failures to meet the demand, revise input data, and re-run the automated forecast calculation. In addition, the system will automatically retrieve the current exchange demand from an external database. Approved forecasts from the system will automatically update work order plans and procurement plans in the existing inventory and production control database. The timing of optics exchanges affects the forecast of damage and future exchanges, so an approved exchange plan will be fed back to the demand database and be used to calculate the next demand projection. The system will read the demand data and update the forecast and output files daily. This specification has been divided into two parts. This document, Part 1 lays out the major design decisions and specifies the architectural, component, and data structure designs. Part 2 will add interface designs, quality assurance and testing plans, and deployment details.

  11. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a naïve ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to safety and supply. It is only through an appreciation of the basic needs of transfusion medicine, including the enunciation of appropriate principles to manage, rather than eliminate, risks, that the challenges imposed by globalisation may be overcome. PMID:19081166

  12. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  13. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  14. Blood Transfusions and Organ/Tissue Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... supply is now among the safest in the world: All blood donors are prescreened for HIV risk factors. Blood donations are required to be tested both for presence of antibodies to HIV and for HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA testing detects HIV at an earlier stage ...

  15. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test , RBC Antibody ... or O and whether he or she is Rh positive or Rh negative. Blood typing may be ...

  16. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... has neither A or B markers. continue Plus Rh Factor... Some people have an additional marker, called Rh factor , in their blood. Because each of the ... AB, and O) may or may not have Rh factor, scientists further classify blood as either "positive" ( ...

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells: cellular processes and bioanalytical sensing.

    PubMed

    Premasiri, W R; Lee, J C; Ziegler, L D

    2012-08-01

    SERS spectra of whole human blood, blood plasma, and red blood cells on Au nanoparticle SiO(2) substrates excited at 785 nm have been observed. For the sample preparation procedure employed here, the SERS spectrum of whole blood arises from the blood plasma component only. This is in contrast to the normal Raman spectrum of whole blood excited at 785 nm and open to ambient air, which is exclusively due to the scattering of oxyhemoglobin. The SERS spectrum of whole blood shows a storage time dependence that is not evident in the non-SERS Raman spectrum of whole blood. Hypoxanthine, a product of purine degradation, dominates the SERS spectrum of blood after ~10-20 h of storage at 8 °C. The corresponding SERS spectrum of plasma isolated from the stored blood shows the same temporal release of hypoxanthine. Thus, blood cellular components (red blood cells, white blood cells, and/or platelets) are releasing hypoxanthine into the plasma over this time interval. The SERS spectrum of red blood cells (RBCs) excited at 785 nm is reported for the first time and exhibits well-known heme group marker bands as well as other bands that may be attributed to cell membrane components or protein denaturation contributions. SERS, as well as normal Raman spectra, of oxy- and met-RBCs are reported and compared. These SERS results can have significant impact in the area of clinical diagnostics, blood supply management, and forensics. PMID:22780445

  18. Blood flow in the external auditory canal and tympanic membrane as assess by laser doppler blood flowmetry

    PubMed

    Cook; Mulheran; Fayez

    2000-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Procedures within the external meatus and tympanum constitute a large part of otological surgery. Successful healing after procedures on the tympanic membrane will in large part be dependent on the integrity of local blood flow. However, there appear to have been relatively few studies investigating blood flow in the external auditory meatus and tympanum in normal subjects and those with conditions requiring surgery, e.g. tympanoplasty. The aim of this study is to obtain such data using Laser Doppler Blood Flowmetry. METHOD: Control volunteers (n = 30) and patients requiring tympanoplasty (n = 20) were recruited for the study. Laser Doppler Blood Flowmetry was performed in all patients using a commercially available system (Periflux 5000, Perimed AB, Sweden) at four sites: (1) preauricular skin; (2) cartilaginous ear canal; (3) bony ear canal; and (4) tympanic membrane. Mesotympanic temperature was also measured using a Braun Infrared thermometer. Blood flow (flux) was measured as RBC density 'speed following internal calibration. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that in both the control subjects and pretympanoplasty patients, the ranking of blood flow at the sites was 3, 2, 1 and 4 (highest to lowest). Comparing matched sites, there were no significant differences between the two groups. The amplitude of flow was not found to be correlated with mesotympanic temperature. CONCLUSION: Grafts applied to repair perforations of the tympanic membrane are likely to obtain the majority of their blood supply from the bony external auditory meatus rather than that tympanic membrane. Further studies are ongoing to define local blood flow patterns in order to optimize the results of tympanoplasty. PMID:11123174

  19. Preprototype nitrogen supply subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Fort, J. H.; Schubert, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design and development of a test stand for the Nitrogen Generation Module (NGM) and a series of tests which verified its operation and performance capability are described. Over 900 hours of parametric testing were achieved. The results from this testing were then used to design an advanced NGM and a self contained, preprototype Nitrogen Supply Subsystem. The NGM consists of three major components: nitrogen generation module, pressure controller and hydrazine storage tank and ancillary components. The most important improvement is the elimination of all sealing surfaces, achieved with a total welded or brazed construction. Additionally, performance was improved by increasing hydrogen separating capability by 20% with no increase in overall packaging size.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  1. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  2. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  3. Alternative Blood Products and Clinical Needs in Transfusion Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Carolyn; Vaglio, Stefania; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of national blood programs is the provision of a safe and adequate blood supply. This goal is dependent on regular voluntary donations and a regulatory infrastructure that establishes and enforces standards for blood safety. Progress in ex vivo expansion of blood cells from cell sources including peripheral blood, cord blood, induced pluripotent stem cells, and human embryonic stem cell lines will likely make alternative transfusion products available for clinical use in the near future. Initially, alloimmunized patients and individuals with rare blood types are most likely to benefit from alternative products. However, in developed nations voluntary blood donations are projected to be inadequate in the future as blood usage by individuals 60 years and older increases. In developing nations economic and political challenges may impede progress in attaining self-sufficiency. Under these circumstances, ex vivo generated red cells may be needed to supplement the general blood supply. PMID:22567025

  4. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity History of Blood Transfusion Hosting a Blood Drive What to Expect Hosting ...

  5. What Causes Excessive Blood Clotting?

    MedlinePlus

    ... arteries and veins of the heart and brain. Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which a waxy substance ... blood clots at the site of the damage. Atherosclerosis is a major cause of damage to the ...

  6. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  7. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  8. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePlus

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  9. Cellular and humoral immune responses to well-defined blood stage antigens (major merozoite surface antigen) of Plasmodium falciparum in adults from an Indian zone where malaria is endemic.

    PubMed Central

    Kabilan, L; Sharma, V P; Kaur, P; Ghosh, S K; Yadav, R S; Chauhan, V S

    1994-01-01

    Conserved and variant regions of two blood stage vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, merozoite surface antigen (MSA-1) and ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA), have been shown to be immunogenic. However, the relative immunogenicity of these immunogens in different populations has not been studied. The conserved N-terminal region of MSA-1 was investigated for its immunogenicity by studying cellular (T cell) and humoral (B cell) immune responses in P. falciparum-primed individuals, living in malaria-hyperendemic areas (Orissa State, India), where malaria presents an alarming situation. MSA-1-derived synthetic peptides contained sequences that activated T cells to proliferate and release gamma interferon in vitro. There was considerable variation in the responses to different peptides. However, the highest responses (51% [18 of 35] by proliferation and 34% [12 of 35] by gamma interferon release) were obtained with a synthetic hybrid peptide containing sequences from conserved N- and C-terminal repeat regions of MSA-1 and Pf155/RESA, respectively. Antibody reactivities in an enzyme immunoassay of plasma samples from these donors to different peptides used for T-cell activation were heterogeneous. In general, there was poor correlation between DNA synthesis and either gamma interferon release or antibody responses in individual donors, underlining the importance of examining several parameters of T-cell activation to assess the total T-cell responsiveness of a study population to a given antigen. However, the results from our studies suggest that synthetic constructs containing sequences from the N- and C-terminal regions of MSA-1 and Pf155/RESA representing different erythrocytic stages of the P. falciparum parasite are more immunogenic in humans living in malaria-hyperendemic areas of India who have been primed by natural infection. PMID:8300225

  10. Blood Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... carrying cells and antibodies that fight infection bringing waste products to the kidneys and liver, which filter ... blood cells throughout your body along with nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical messengers such as ...

  11. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain types of blood, even if the A, B, and Rh antigens are matched. A process called cross-matching followed by a Coombs test can help detect these minor antigens and is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations.

  12. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  13. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... And be sure to drink plenty of water, milk, or other liquids. Before donating, you'll need to answer some questions about your medical history, and have your temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and ...

  14. Blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A heuristic treatment of blood flow in the heart and the aorta together with some of the main branches considers the effects of fluid viscosity and vessel elasticity as well as pressure distribution in the typical pulsating flow.

  15. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical News Society News Clinical News Features ASH Self-Assessment Program Read the ASH-SAP, Fifth Edition Pre- ... Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ...

  16. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the tablissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks. PMID:23039955

  17. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the tablissement franais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks. PMID:21411356

  18. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewska, E.

    1976-01-01

    With the development of modern methods of surgery, anaesthesia, and pre- and postoperative care the requirement for blood substitutes is continuously increasing. We present a review of the different blood substitutes which are already in clinical use or in an advanced stage of experimental investigation for possible practical administration. Our own clinical experience with dextrans and experimental studies on stroma-free haemoglobin and hydroxyethyl starch solutions are described. PMID:57736

  19. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  20. Metastases to major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Batsakis, J G; Bautina, E

    1990-06-01

    Secondary neoplastic involvement of the major salivary glands, most often the parotid, can be from regional (supraclavicular) and distant (infraclavicular) primary neoplasms. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas are the most frequent offenders, and their numbers dominate all statistics dealing with metastases to the salivary glands and their lymph nodes. Carcinomas of the lungs, breast, and kidneys are the most frequent infraclavicular neoplasms that metastasize to the major salivary glands, and they most often manifest a hematogenous dissemination. Supraclavicular primary disease metastasizes to the salivary glands and their lymph nodes via a more diverse manner: direct extension, lymphatic spread, or, less often, blood vascular transport. PMID:2350137

  1. Evidence supporting laparoscopic major hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Susannah M; Sucandy, Iswanto; Tsung, Allan; Marsh, J Wallis; Geller, David A

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has been increasing in frequency with over 9,000 cases done worldwide. Benefits of laparoscopic resection include less blood loss, smaller incisions, decreased postoperative morbidity, and shorter length of stay compared to open liver resection. With increased experience, several centers have reported series of laparoscopic major hepatectomy, although this represents only about 25% of total LLR performed. Evidence is accumulating to support laparoscopic major hepatectomy with the understanding that there is a steep learning curve, and surgeons should begin with minor LLR before moving on to laparoscopic major hepatectomy. Controversy still remains concerning indications, techniques, learning curve, risks, and long-term cancer outcomes with laparoscopic major hepatectomy. PMID:27040039

  2. Control units for APS power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Despe, O.D.; Saunders, C.; McGhee, D.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) accelerator facility is made up of five major subsystems in addition to the linac: the positron accumulator ring (PAR), low energy transport (LET), booster synchrotron (SYNCH), high energy transport (HET), the storage ring (SR). Each subsystem has multiple magnet power supply combinations, some requiring multiple of operation. These magnet and power supply combinations computer controlled and monitored. The power supply control unit (PSCU) is the first layer of hardware and software above the power supply itself and is described in this paper. The description includes the basic philosophy for each of operation and how it influences the topology and of implementing control. The design of the analog reference blocks (ARBs) influenced the design of other custom functions well as the feedback controls for vibration and other dynamic corrections. The command set supported by the PSCU is discussed.

  3. Problems and Approaches for Blood Transfusion in the Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David J; Field, Stephen; Delaney, Meghan; Bates, Imelda

    2016-04-01

    A safe supply of blood and the knowledge, skill, and resources for the appropriate use of blood are essential for medical services. Many problems are faced in the development of transfusion services in low- or medium-income countries (LMICs). Unfortunately, in many countries, providing safe blood is made more difficult by a lack of blood donors and the high frequency of transfusion-transmissible infections. The problems are compounded by the frequent need for urgent life-saving transfusions. This article examines the problems in supply, safety, and use of blood and how they are being addressed in LMICs, predominantly focusing on sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27040966

  4. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The first of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in two major areas: (1) plant and soil science and (2) leadership (Future Farmers of America). Typical of the nineteen units included in the first section are the following: Plant Insect Control, Plant…

  5. Studying Three-Phase Supply in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Amit Kumar; Arun, P.

    2009-01-01

    The power distributions of nearly all major countries have accepted three-phase distribution as a standard. With increasing power requirements of instrumentation today even a small physics laboratory requires a three-phase supply. While physics students are given an introduction to this in passing, no experimental work is done with three-phase…

  6. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The second of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in three major areas: (1) Animal Science, (2) Supervised Training Programs--Farm Business Management, and (3) Career Selection/Public Relations. Typical of the sixteen units included in the first…

  7. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The first of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in two major areas: (1) plant and soil science and (2) leadership (Future Farmers of America). Typical of the nineteen units included in the first section are the following: Plant Insect Control, Plant

  8. [Haemovigilance and blood safety in overseas military].

    PubMed

    Sailliol, A; Plang, S; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Vedy, S; Clavier, B; Cellarier, V; Roche, C; Civadier, C; Ausset, S

    2014-11-01

    The French military blood institute (FMBI) is the only military blood supplier in France. FMBI operates independently and autonomously under the Ministry of Defense's supervision, and accordingly, to the French, European and NATO technical and safety guidelines. FMBI is in charge of the collection, preparation and distribution of blood products to supply transfusion support to armed forces, especially during overseas operations. In overseas military, a primary physician is responsible for haemovigilance in permanent relation with an expert in the FMBI to manage any adverse reaction. Additionally, traceability of delivered or collected blood products during overseas operation represents a priority, allowing an appropriate management of transfusion inquiries and assessment of practices aiming to improve and update procedures and training. Transfusion safety in overseas operation is based on regular and specific training of people concerned by blood supply chain in exceptional situation. PMID:25284434

  9. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  10. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role. PMID:24819476

  11. The artery blood supply variant of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery – a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754

  12. Blood flow

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  13. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the groin Brachial artery in the arm The health care provider may test circulation to the hand before taking a sample ... must remain constant for 20 minutes before the test. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any blood-thinning ...

  14. Ethics of Information Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  15. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  16. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  17. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  18. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  19. Fuzzy Entropy Method for Quantifying Supply Chain Networks Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihui; Xu, Junqin

    Supply chain is a special kind of complex network. Its complexity and uncertainty makes it very difficult to control and manage. Supply chains are faced with a rising complexity of products, structures, and processes. Because of the strong link between a supply chain’s complexity and its efficiency the supply chain complexity management becomes a major challenge of today’s business management. The aim of this paper is to quantify the complexity and organization level of an industrial network working towards the development of a ‘Supply Chain Network Analysis’ (SCNA). By measuring flows of goods and interaction costs between different sectors of activity within the supply chain borders, a network of flows is built and successively investigated by network analysis. The result of this study shows that our approach can provide an interesting conceptual perspective in which the modern supply network can be framed, and that network analysis can handle these issues in practice.

  20. Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, Raymond; Praeg, Walter;

    1980-12-12

    Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.

  1. [The supply chain is everybody's business...].

    PubMed

    Coulondre, Antoine

    2007-05-01

    The management of the supply chain is a matter of delicate balance. This is certainly due to its position at the crossroads between suppliers and users requirements, as well as logistic, financial and technical regulations. For a public organisation like EFS, whose annual budget amounts to 697 million euros, there is a lot at stake: supplies represent the second most important item of its budget accounting for 38% of annual expenses. Three quarters of the purchases concern basic activities such as blood collection, testing procedures, transformation and distribution of blood products. The last quarter is spent on more general activities (computer systems, telecommunications...). Professionalisation of the purchasing function has grown since the creation of the government-owned organisation as a single national unit (EFS) in the year 2000. Its consequences can be felt especially in the field of the "core activities". The current stage consists in maintaining close links between all the skills necessary to a high-quality supply chain. The latter will undoubtedly be beneficial to the medical, technical and support departments of EFS, which are the in-house customers to satisfy. PMID:17513156

  2. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... Highlights of Transfusion Medicine History Site Contents Home > Transfusion Medicine > Blood Donation Information > Where to Donate Blood Where to Donate ... transfusion services, and accredits member blood banks and transfusion ... blood donation center. Note: The Armed Services Blood Program holds ...

  3. Blood pressure measurement

    MedlinePlus

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  4. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    Careers About Us Media Center Students Fun & Games ACCOUNT LOGIN Search Español Give Blood. Find a Blood Drive. Donating Blood Learn about Blood Hosting a Blood Drive Volunteer For Hospitals Home > ...

  5. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  6. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  7. Temperature and blood flow distribution in the human leg during passive heat stress.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Scott T; Trangmar, Steven J; González-Alonso, José

    2016-05-01

    The influence of temperature on the hemodynamic adjustments to direct passive heat stress within the leg's major arterial and venous vessels and compartments remains unclear. Fifteen healthy young males were tested during exposure to either passive whole body heat stress to levels approaching thermal tolerance [core temperature (Tc) + 2°C; study 1; n = 8] or single leg heat stress (Tc + 0°C; study 2; n = 7). Whole body heat stress increased perfusion and decreased oscillatory shear index in relation to the rise in leg temperature (Tleg) in all three major arteries supplying the leg, plateauing in the common and superficial femoral arteries before reaching severe heat stress levels. Isolated leg heat stress increased arterial blood flows and shear patterns to a level similar to that obtained during moderate core hyperthermia (Tc + 1°C). Despite modest increases in great saphenous venous (GSV) blood flow (0.2 l/min), the deep venous system accounted for the majority of returning flow (common femoral vein 0.7 l/min) during intense to severe levels of heat stress. Rapid cooling of a single leg during severe whole body heat stress resulted in an equivalent blood flow reduction in the major artery supplying the thigh deep tissues only, suggesting central temperature-sensitive mechanisms contribute to skin blood flow alone. These findings further our knowledge of leg hemodynamic responses during direct heat stress and provide evidence of potentially beneficial vascular alterations during isolated limb heat stress that are equivalent to those experienced during exposure to moderate levels of whole body hyperthermia. PMID:26823344

  8. Streamlining the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lydon

    2003-07-01

    Effective management of the supply chain requires attention to: Product management--formulary development and maintenance, compliance, clinical involvement, standardization, and demand-matching. Sourcing and contracting--vendor consolidation, GPO portfolio management, price leveling, content management, and direct contracting Purchasing and payment-cycle--automatic placement, web enablement, centralization, evaluated receipts settlement, and invoice matching Inventory and distribution management--"unofficial" and "official" locations, vendor-managed inventory, automatic replenishment, and freight management. PMID:12866156

  9. Major concepts of health care economics.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Victor R

    2015-03-01

    This article applies major economic concepts, such as supply, demand, monopoly, monopsony, adverse selection, and moral hazard, to central features of U.S. health care. These illustrations help explain some of the principal problems of health policy-high cost and the uninsured-and why solutions are difficult to obtain. PMID:25732280

  10. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Contact Us Home » Health Information for the Public » Educational Campaigns & Programs » The Heart Truth » Campaign Materials Español Home ...

  11. Blood transfusion between the wars.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William H

    2003-04-01

    This article examines the introduction of blood transfusion into general practice from the end of the First World War to the Second World War. Developments during most of this period were not the result of new discoveries but rather the spread of ideas and the establishment of donor organizations to secure an adequate blood supply. The identification, testing, and organization of potential donors were done in a wide variety of settings that reflected differences in political and cultural experiences. At the end of the 1930s, with war approaching, the resolution of problems with storage of blood and the discovery of new techniques for separating and storing plasma dramatically changed transfusion practice. Thus, the innovations of the Second World War were very much based on the development of broad donor organizations plus the new technical discoveries that had occurred during the interwar period. PMID:12776438

  12. Dynamics of blood flow in normal tissue and tumor during local hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Dan; Luo, Qingming; Weng, Yang

    2003-12-01

    In hyperthermia, blood flow plays a major role in determining the effectiveness of hyperthermia used alone or combined with radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The acidity, the nutritional supply, partial pressure of oxygen and distribution of drugs are closely related to blood flow. To facilitate these issues we put forward a simple optical method to measure dynamical change of blood volume combining laser speckle measurement and CCD microscopic imaging technique. In this study, we selected seven different temperatures (40°C, 42°C, 43°C, 44°C, 45°C, 47°C, 49°C), and monitored variations of blood velocity and diameter of microvessels (15~50μm) on BALB/c mouse"s mesentery and through tumor during 30 minutes at each temperature. The results showed that the critical temperatures of normal and tumor microvessel were 43°C and 42°C. Tumor is more thermal sensitive than normal tissue. And the capacity of tumor blood flow to increase upon heating appears to be rather limited. The increase of blood volume was not more than 2.0-fold.

  13. [Blood regulation in Brazil: contextualization for improvement].

    PubMed

    Silva Júnior, João Batista; Costa, Christiane da Silva; Baccara, João Paulo de Araújo

    2015-10-01

    The use of blood products as essential medicines and the recognition of the high risk associated with blood transfusions require governments to take regulatory action with a focus on quality and safety. In this scenario, regulatory agencies play an essential role in socially advancing the guarantee that blood components will be produced according to current operating rules. Thus, in the effort to manage sanitary risks involved in the processing and use of blood, the Brazilian regulatory model, based on the construction of a national blood policy overseen by the State, has undergone conceptual improvement and review of the tools employed to achieve its goals. With the inclusion of good manufacturing practices as part of the Brazilian norms, as recommended by the World Health Organization, the country has moved forward in its view of blood facilities as manufacturing centers producing blood-derived biologics for therapeutic applications. It has also strengthened the need to develop safety mechanisms for blood donors and recipients. The development of a State-coordinated national blood policy and the institution of a national surveillance system with legitimate power of inspection are essential elements used in Brazil to guarantee the amount, quality, safety, and timeliness of blood supply to the population. The present article aims to discuss the present context of the blood regulatory model in Brazil so as to identify the challenges for improvement of this model. PMID:26758225

  14. Asynchronicity of Facial Blood Perfusion in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Nrhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  15. Blood exposure.

    PubMed

    1999-11-26

    [Name removed], an HIV-positive Illinois man, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for splattering 2 police officers with his blood and threatening to give them AIDS. The police were called to [name removed]'s apartment after receiving a report about an attempted suicide. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to attempted transmission of HIV in a plea bargain agreement, and the prosecutor dropped the more serious charge of attempted battery of a police officer. The officers show no sign of infection to date. PMID:11367115

  16. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling. PMID:22242229

  17. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 1: Management supply, sections 1 - 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the cryogenic supply system for use on space shuttle vehicles was conducted. The major outputs of the analysis are: (1) evaluations of subsystem and integrated system concepts, (2) selection of representative designs, (3) parametric data and sensitivity studies, (4) evaluation of cryogenic cooling in environmental control subsystems, and (5) development of mathematical model.

  18. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  19. Power-Supply-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuations of voltage suppressed in power supplies for precise radio-frequency circuits. Circuit suppresses both periodic and random deviations of dc supply voltage from desired steady level. Highly-stable feedback voltage regulator, conditioner intended in conjunction with conventional power-supply circuit to provide constant voltage to atomic frequency standard or other precise oscillator. Without conditioners, outputs of most commercial power supplies contain fluctuations causing unacceptably-large phase and amplitude modulation of precise oscillators.

  20. The acceptability to women in Mombasa, Kenya, of the donation and transfusion of umbilical cord blood for severe anaemia in young children

    PubMed Central

    Hassall, O; Ngina, L; Kongo, W; Othigo, J; Mandaliya, K; Maitland, K; Bates, I

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives Severe anaemia, for which a blood transfusion can be life saving, is common in hospitalized children in sub-Saharan Africa but blood for transfusion is often in short supply. Umbilical cord blood is usually thrown away but could be a useful source of red cells for small volume transfusions in young children in this setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of women using the maternity services of the provincial hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, towards cord blood donation and transfusion, and essential aspects of this process including informed consent and the acceptability of screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and Methods A structured questionnaire was developed based on data provided by focus group discussions with women attending the hospital's maternity unit and administered to women who had recently delivered at the hospital. Results Of the 180 women who completed a questionnaire, the donation and transfusion of cord blood were acceptable to 81% and 78%, respectively. Ninety per cent of women who supported cord blood donation were willing to undergo further HIV testing at the time of delivery. Seventy-seven per cent of women wanted informed consent to be sought for cord blood donation and 66% of these felt they could make this decision alone. Conclusion The donation of umbilical cord blood and its transfusion are acceptable to the majority of women delivering at Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa. Findings from the study will benefit the planned cord blood donation programme at this facility. PMID:18067489

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  3. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  4. Home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: when? who?

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Gülçin

    2013-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environment, which represents a more reliable assessment of actual blood pressure than office blood pressure. The advantage of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is its unique ability to measure nocturnal blood pressure. Although not fully validated in large-scale clinical trials, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring appears to correlate best with prognosis. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring provide somewhat different information on the subject's blood pressure status, and the two methods should thus be regarded as complementary, rather than competitive or alternative. PMID:25019016

  5. Security of the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

    2009-01-01

    The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food. PMID:19964201

  6. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... Ketoacidosis Blood Glucose Record Getting a Blood Test (Video) Diabetes Center Definition: Blood Glucose Level Blood Glucose ...

  7. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  8. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  9. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  10. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video) Multiple Myeloma Additional Content Medical News Special Blood Donation Procedures By Ravindra Sarode, MD NOTE: This is ... blood, which takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ...

  11. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  12. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  13. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... transports water and nutrients to your body’s tissues. Red blood cells carry oxygen. Red blood cells are ... the presence or absence of certain substances on red blood cells. Blood types are inherited. Another important ...

  14. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  15. Experimental Arrest of Cerebral Blood Flow in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian A.; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Loss of consciousness in pilots during rapid ascent after bombing missions was a major problem in World War II, and experiments were undertaken to study the cause of this phenomenon. Postulating impaired cerebral blood flow as a likely mechanism, the investigators developed a neck device, the KRA Cuff, which when inflated could shut off blood supply to the brain. With cessation of blood flow for up to 100 seconds, the investigators observed a sequence of responses, including unconsciousness, followed by dilated pupils, tonic/clonic movements, loss of bladder and eventually bowel control, and appearance of pathological reflexes. This study, carried out in prisoners and patients with schizophrenia in 1941–42, largely disappeared from public discourse for a number of years. It has received occasional attention subsequently and been considered controversial. Recently discovered records, including extensive written and photographic data from the studies, shed new light on the methods and motives of the research team. We describe here this new information and its implications for the scientific and ethical assessment of the study. PMID:21532128

  16. Human Blood Identification: A Forensic Science Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Francis X.; Kobilinsky, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments (involving immunological and serological techniques) in which a stained fabric is analyzed to determine if blood is present, and if so, whether it is of human origin. The experiments can be performed without expensive or sophisticated equipment and require only a minimal expenditure on consumable supplies. (JN)

  17. Expert Consensus Statement on achieving self-sufficiency in safe blood and blood products, based on voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD).

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    All countries face challenges in making sufficient supplies of blood and blood products available and sustainable, while also ensuring the quality and safety of these products in the face of known and emerging threats to public health. Since 1975, the World Health Assembly (WHA) has highlighted the global need for blood safety and availability. WHA resolutions 63·12, 58·13 and 28·72, The Melbourne Declaration on 100% Voluntary Non-Remunerated Donation of Blood and Blood Components and WHO Global Blood Safety Network recommendations have reaffirmed the achievement of 'Self-sufficiency in blood and blood products based on voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD)' as the important national policy direction for ensuring a safe, secure and sufficient supply of blood and blood products, including labile blood components and plasma-derived medicinal products. Despite some successes, self-sufficiency is not yet a reality in many countries. A consultation of experts, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2011 in Geneva, Switzerland, addressed the urgent need to establish strategies and mechanisms for achieving self-sufficiency. Information on the current situation, and country perspectives and experiences were shared. Factors influencing the global implementation of self-sufficiency, including safety, ethics, security and sustainability of supply, trade and its potential impact on public health, availability and access for patients, were analysed to define strategies and mechanisms and provide practical guidance on achieving self-sufficiency. Experts developed a consensus statement outlining the rationale and definition of self-sufficiency in safe blood and blood products based on VNRBD and made recommendations to national health authorities and WHO. PMID:22690746

  18. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  19. Photovoltaic power supply units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, V.; Schmidt, G.

    1983-09-01

    Photovoltaic power supply systems for terrestrial utilization are reviewed. The efforts to develop cheap photovoltaic systems are concentrated on basic materials (Si, CdS, GaAs); solar cells, modules, and generators; storage systems; and control and energy processing systems. Monocrystalline GaAs-solar cells are nearly exclusively used in highly concentrated systems; they reach efficiencies of 23 to 25%, but are expensive and not always available. The efficiency of Cu2S-CdS-solar cells is 9% maximum and their long term stability is not yet clearly demonstrated. Silicon solar cells reach an efficiency of 16% and are the favorite candidate for the development of cheap solar generators due to their high technological standard and their practically unlimited availability.

  20. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  1. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled “The Global 2000 Report” (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  2. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  3. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  4. Wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Sipin, A J; Fabrey, W J; Smith, S H; Doussourd, J D; Olsen, D B

    1992-08-01

    An experimental wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices has been built and tested. The unit eliminates the need for tethering to a large, stationery driver. The miniaturized air supply is designed for ambulatory patients with implanted pulsatile pneumatic total artificial hearts (TAH) or pneumatic left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD), to permit mobility in clinical and home settings. The device has major short-term utility as a supply for pneumatic TAH or VAD bridges in patients awaiting heart transplants. The system design for the wearable driver includes a novel, fast rotary compressor, driven by a brushless direct current (DC) motor to supply air to the ventricle through an electromagnetically actuated directional valve, all controlled by a microcomputer. Stroke volume from 0 to 200 cc; pulse rate from 60 to 160 bpm, and duty cycle from 33% to 50% are selected on a keyboard, and the selected or measured parameters can be shown on a liquid crystal display. For control of delivery from a single ventricular assist device, stroke volume is controlled by variation of compressor speed. In the wearable air supply for a TAH, a single compressor drives both ventricles alternately through a double-acting directional valve. Air volume delivered to the left ventricle is adjusted by variation of compressor speed, and air volume to the right ventricle by variation of ejection time. The effect on blood flow rate of the lower impedance to the right ventricle is compensated by provision of a two-stage compressor, in which a single stage drives the right ventricle, and both stages connected in parallel drive the left ventricle. The overall dimensions of the prototype air supply for driving either a TAH or LVAD are 4.5 by 7.8 by 4.5 inches, including an emergency battery with a duration of 15 to 30 min depending on load. The weight is presently 5.5 lb, but this will be reduced in a production design and for a dedicated LVAD air supply. The size and weight of a separately worn, rechargeable battery pack depend on the load and desired duration of operation. PMID:10078289

  5. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  6. S-nitrosylation therapy to improve oxygen delivery of banked blood

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, James D.; Bennett, Kyla M.; Cina, Anthony J.; Diesen, Diana L.; Henderson, Matthew B.; Matto, Faisal; Plante, Andrew; Williamson, Rachel A.; Zandinejad, Keivan; Demchenko, Ivan T.; Hess, Douglas T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    From the perspectives of disease transmission and sterility maintenance, the worlds blood supplies are generally safe. However, in multiple clinical settings, red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are associated with adverse cardiovascular events and multiorgan injury. Because ?85 million units of blood are administered worldwide each year, transfusion-related morbidity and mortality is a major public health concern. Blood undergoes multiple biochemical changes during storage, but the relevance of these changes to unfavorable outcomes is unclear. Banked blood shows reduced levels of S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb), which in turn impairs the ability of stored RBCs to effect hypoxic vasodilation. We therefore reasoned that transfusion of SNO-Hbdeficient blood may exacerbate, rather than correct, impairments in tissue oxygenation, and that restoration of SNO-Hb levels would improve transfusion efficacy. Notably in mice, administration of banked RBCs decreased skeletal muscle pO2, but infusion of renitrosylated cells maintained tissue oxygenation. In rats, hemorrhage-induced reductions in muscle pO2 were corrected by SNO-Hbrepleted RBCs, but not by control, stored RBCs. In anemic awake sheep, stored renitrosylated, but not control RBCs, produced sustained improvements in O2 delivery; in anesthetized sheep, decrements in hemodynamic status, renal blood flow, and kidney function incurred following transfusion of banked blood were also prevented by renitrosylation. Collectively, our findings lend support to the idea that transfusions may be causally linked to ischemic events and suggest a simple approach to prevention (i.e., SNO-Hb repletion). If these data are replicated in clinical trials, renitrosylation therapy could have significant therapeutic impact on the care of millions of patients. PMID:23798386

  7. Scheduling Future Water Supply Investments Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertain hydrological impacts of climate change, population growth and institutional changes pose a major challenge to planning of water supply systems. Planners seek optimal portfolios of supply and demand management schemes but also when to activate assets whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Incorporation of scheduling into the planning under uncertainty problem strongly increases its complexity. We investigate some approaches to scheduling with many-objective heuristic search. We apply a multi-scenario many-objective scheduling approach to the Thames River basin water supply system planning problem in the UK. Decisions include which new supply and demand schemes to implement, at what capacity and when. The impact of different system uncertainties on scheme implementation schedules are explored, i.e. how the choice of future scenarios affects the search process and its outcomes. The activation of schemes is influenced by the occurrence of extreme hydrological events in the ensemble of plausible scenarios and other factors. The approach and results are compared with a previous study where only the portfolio problem is addressed (without scheduling).

  8. Cord blood banking for clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, P

    2009-11-01

    Cord blood (CB) stem and progenitor cells from related donors have been transplanted for past 20 years and from unrelated donors issued by public CB banks for 16 years. This brief look at public CB banking highlights aspects of its current status to suggest that accomplishing the currently required tasks, though no small undertaking, is not enough: much remains to be contributed. CB banking started in the 1930s, collecting blood for transfusion and showed that CB could be effectively collected, stored and administered intravenously without negative consequences. The realization that it contains hematopoietic 'stem' cells (actually, colony-forming units) followed discoveries elsewhere in hematopoiesis research, while HLA and unrelated BMT were being investigated. Progress in the exploration of ethnically stratified HLA allele frequencies, together with plausible neonatal (partial) immunological tolerance, seemed to predict initially frequent, unavoidable, but sufficiently tolerable HLA mismatching with CB grafts. Gluckman et al. and Boyse et al. proved that HLA-identical sibling CB grafts led to definitive engraftment. Technical developments in processing and freezing enabled public banks to accumulate large inventories and to supply grafts that could succeed despite major HLA incompatibility and low cell doses and provide hope for universal access to unrelated-donor transplantation. Public CB banking has thrived worldwide. Regulation and accreditation defined Good Tissue Practice in the CB banking environment and provided accepted do's, don't's and how to's. Startling advances continue to be made, not only technical, but including the description of molecular regulation in the function of natural killer and other cells involved in allogeneic recognition that will have dramatic effects and will permit further improvement in CB selection and use. PMID:19802017

  9. Ambiguity of mapping the relative phase of blood pulsations

    PubMed Central

    Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Makarenko, Alexander A.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Kamshilin, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pulsation imaging (BPI) is a non-invasive optical method based on photoplethysmography (PPG). It is used for the visualization of changes in the spatial distribution of blood in the microvascular bed. BPI specifically allows measurements of the relative phase of blood pulsations and using it we detected a novel type of PPG fast waveforms, which were observable in limited areas with asynchronous regional blood supply. In all subjects studied, these fast waveforms coexisted with traditional slow waveforms of PPG. We are therefore presenting a novel lock-in image processing technique of blood pulsation imaging, which can be used for detailed temporal characterization of peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25401026

  10. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  11. [The safety of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor. PMID:21440480

  12. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  13. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  14. Supply Chain Coordination in Hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rego, Nazaré; de Sousa, Jorge Pinho

    This paper presents an innovative approach to support the definition of strategies for the design of alternative configurations of hospital supply chains. This approach was developed around a hybrid Tabu Search / Variable Neighbourhood Search metaheuristic, that uses several neighbourhood structures. The flexibility of the procedure allows its application to supply chains with different topologies and atypical cost characteristics. A preliminary computational experience shows the approach potential in solving large scale supply chain configuration problems. The future incorporation of this approach in a broader Decision Support System (DSS) will provide a tool that can significantly contribute to an increase of healthcare supply chains efficiency and encourage the establishment of collaborative partnerships between their members.

  15. What happened to blood substitutes?

    PubMed

    Stowell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Concerns about the safety and adequacy of the blood supply have fostered twenty years of research into the so-called "blood substitutes" among them the oxygen carriers based on modified hemoglobin. Although none of these materials has yet been licensed for use in North America or Europe, the results of research and clinical trials have increased our understanding of oxygen delivery and its regulation. In particular, the examination of the basis for the vasoactivity observed with some of the hemoglobin based oxygen carriers has led to the insight that several colligative properties of hemoglobin solutions, such as their diffusion coefficient for oxygen, viscosity and colloid oncotic pressure, are important determinants of efficacy. PMID:16326128

  16. Embodied energy comparison of surface water and groundwater supply options.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R; Hokanson, David R

    2011-11-01

    The embodied energy associated with water provision comprises an important part of water management, and is important when considering sustainability. In this study, an input-output based hybrid analysis integrated with structural path analysis was used to develop an embodied energy model. The model was applied to a groundwater supply system (Kalamazoo, Michigan) and a surface water supply system (Tampa, Florida). The two systems evaluated have comparable total energy embodiments based on unit water production. However, the onsite energy use of the groundwater supply system is approximately 27% greater than the surface water supply system. This was primarily due to more extensive pumping requirements. On the other hand, the groundwater system uses approximately 31% less indirect energy than the surface water system, mainly because of fewer chemicals used for treatment. The results from this and other studies were also compiled to provide a relative comparison of embodied energy for major water supply options. PMID:21889184

  17. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  18. Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Arterial pressure compared with ambient bodily-fluid pressure. Implanted apparatus, capable of measuring blood pressure of patient, includes differential-pressure transducer connected to pressure sensor positioned in major artery. Electrical signal is function of differential pressure between blood-pressure sensor and reference-pressure sensor transmitted through skin of patient to recorder or indicator.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  2. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  3. Alternatives to Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Blood Transfusion and Donation + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » TOPICS Document ... Possible risks of blood transfusions Alternatives to blood transfusions Donating blood Blood donation by cancer survivors To learn more References Previous ...

  4. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure What Is High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a common disease in ... the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Types of High Blood Pressure There are two main types of high blood ...

  5. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations. PMID:24578021

  6. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  7. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes. PMID:16225319

  8. The stocker cattle supply chain.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Lawrence L; Anderson, David P

    2006-07-01

    This article discusses supply chain management in the US beef industry and where stocker cattle procurement fits in that chain. The supply chain in the US beef industry is defined as well as grading mechanisms that signal prices used to manage the chain. Sources of stocker cattle are also described. PMID:16814018

  9. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  10. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  11. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... What should my blood pressure be? What lifestyle changes do I need to make to help lower my blood pressure? Is ... National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Accessed ...

  12. Coughing up blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  13. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  14. Cord blood testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... pH levels) Blood sugar level Blood type and Rh Complete blood count ( CBC ) Platelet count ... the mother Mother taking sulfa drugs during pregnancy Rh incompatibility Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  15. CEA blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  16. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  17. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  18. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  19. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... manufacturers commonly produce these blood products. Top What fees are associated with blood? While donated blood is ... donors; and quality assurance. As a result, processing fees are charged to recover costs. Processing fees for ...

  20. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  1. Endothelial dysfunction as assessed with magnetic resonance imaging - A major determinant in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kovačić, Slavica; Plazonić, Željko; Batinac, Tanja; Miletić, Damir; Ružić, Alen

    2016-05-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome resulting from interaction of different structure and functional disturbances leading to decreased heart ability to ensure adequate supply of oxygenized blood to tissues and ensure adequate metabolic needs in the cases of normal or increased afterload. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a pathological condition characterized by general imbalance of all major endothelial mechanisms with key role in development and progression of atherosclerotic disease. ED has been associated with most cardiovascular risk factors. There is increasing interest in assessing endothelial function non-invasively, leading to development and evaluation of new diagnostic methods. We suggest that MRI is safe and reliable test that offers important advantages over ultrasound for the detection of ED and monitoring of the expected therapeutic effect. We believe that ED plays a pivotal role in chronic heart failure development and progression, regardless of its etiology, and that MRI should be introduced as a "gold standard" in diagnostic procedure and treatment. PMID:27063091

  2. Emerging infectious agents: do they pose a risk to the safety of transfused blood and blood products?

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Mary E

    2002-03-15

    The blood supply is safer than it has been at any other time in recent history, and, in the context of other health care-related adverse events, the risks associated with blood transfusion are extremely small. The current high level of safety is the result of successive refinements and improvements in how blood is collected, tested, processed, and transfused; nonetheless, blood and plasma products remain vulnerable to newly identified or reemerging infections. In recent years, numerous infectious agents-including several newly discovered hepatitis viruses, the agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and tickborne pathogens-have been identified as potential threats to the safety of blood and plasma. Continued vigilance is critical to protect the blood supply from known pathogens and to monitor for the emergence of new infectious agents. Recent terrorist activities in the United States add new considerations to maintaining the safety and supply of blood. Education of clinicians and patients regarding the benefits and risks associated with the judicious use of blood and blood products can assist in informed decision making. PMID:11850862

  3. A review on the effects of ionizing radiation on blood and blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Geoffrey P.

    1998-11-01

    The major application of blood irradiation is for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease on immunodeficient patients by the abrogation of T-lymphocytes. Despite screening of blood donations, transfusion associated transmission of infections due to contaminated blood products is common. Hence, there is potential for the application of irradiation for the inactivation of pathogenic microbes in blood products. Literature on the effect of radiation on blood components is reviewed in order to make a rational decision on the feasibility of their irradiation.

  4. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  5. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  6. 76 FR 76732 - Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... tissue test kits or equipment, and a purchaser of blood and blood products from major hospital... assays or other tissue test kits or equipment and a major health care organization that purchases...

  7. Westinghouse programs in pulsed homopolar power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litz, D. C.; Mullan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This document details Westinghouse's ongoing study of homopolar machines since 1929 with the major effort occurring in the early 1970's to the present. The effort has enabled Westinghouse to develop expertise in the technology required for the design, fabrication and testing of such machines. This includes electrical design, electromagnetic analysis, current collection, mechanical design, advanced cooling, stress analysis, transient rotor performance, bearing analysis and seal technology. Westinghouse is using this capability to explore the use of homopolar machines as pulsed power supplies for future systems in both military and commercial applications.

  8. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  9. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  10. Oil and Gas Supply Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S. I.

    1982-05-01

    The theoretical and applied state of the art of oil and gas supply models was discussed. The following areas were addressed: the realities of oil and gas supply, prediction of oil and gas production, problems in oil and gas modeling, resource appraisal procedures, forecasting field size and production, investment and production strategies, estimating cost and production schedules for undiscovered fields, production regulations, resource data, sensitivity analysis of forecasts, econometric analysis of resource depletion, oil and gas finding rates, and various models of oil and gas supply.

  11. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  12. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  14. The brain's supply and demand in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Zug, Sophia; Wischnath, Hannah; Wilhelm, Ines; Hallschmid, Manfred; Entringer, Sonja; Langemann, Dirk; Peters, Achim

    2012-01-10

    During psychosocial stress, the brain demands extra energy from the body to satisfy its increased needs. For that purpose it uses a mechanism referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" (CIS). Specifically, activation of the stress system suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and in this way energy-particularly glucose-is allocated to the brain rather than the periphery. It is unknown, however, how the brain of obese humans organizes its supply and demand during psychosocial stress. To answer this question, we examined 20 obese and 20 normal weight men in two sessions (Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress control condition followed by either a rich buffet or a meager salad). Blood samples were continuously taken and subjects rated their vigilance and mood by standard questionnaires. First, we found a low reactive stress system in obesity. While obese subjects showed a marked hormonal response to the psychosocial challenge, the cortisol response to the subsequent meal was absent. Whereas the brains of normal weight subjects demanded for extra energy from the body by using CIS, CIS was not detectable in obese subjects. Our findings suggest that the absence of CIS in obese subjects is due to the absence of their meal-related cortisol peak. Second, normal weight men were high reactive during psychosocial stress in changing their vigilance, thereby increasing their cerebral energy need, whereas obese men were low reactive in this respect. Third, normal weight subjects preferred carbohydrates after stress to supply their brain, while obese men preferred fat and protein instead. We conclude that the brain of obese people organizes its need, supply, and demand in a low reactive manner. PMID:22408618

  15. The brain's supply and demand in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Zug, Sophia; Wischnath, Hannah; Wilhelm, Ines; Hallschmid, Manfred; Entringer, Sonja; Langemann, Dirk; Peters, Achim

    2012-01-01

    During psychosocial stress, the brain demands extra energy from the body to satisfy its increased needs. For that purpose it uses a mechanism referred to as “cerebral insulin suppression” (CIS). Specifically, activation of the stress system suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and in this way energy—particularly glucose—is allocated to the brain rather than the periphery. It is unknown, however, how the brain of obese humans organizes its supply and demand during psychosocial stress. To answer this question, we examined 20 obese and 20 normal weight men in two sessions (Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress control condition followed by either a rich buffet or a meager salad). Blood samples were continuously taken and subjects rated their vigilance and mood by standard questionnaires. First, we found a low reactive stress system in obesity. While obese subjects showed a marked hormonal response to the psychosocial challenge, the cortisol response to the subsequent meal was absent. Whereas the brains of normal weight subjects demanded for extra energy from the body by using CIS, CIS was not detectable in obese subjects. Our findings suggest that the absence of CIS in obese subjects is due to the absence of their meal-related cortisol peak. Second, normal weight men were high reactive during psychosocial stress in changing their vigilance, thereby increasing their cerebral energy need, whereas obese men were low reactive in this respect. Third, normal weight subjects preferred carbohydrates after stress to supply their brain, while obese men preferred fat and protein instead. We conclude that the brain of obese people organizes its need, supply, and demand in a low reactive manner. PMID:22408618

  16. Clinical use of blood, blood components and blood products.

    PubMed Central

    Blajchman, M A; Shepherd, F A; Perrault, R A

    1979-01-01

    The goal of modern transfusion therapy is to provide appropriate replacement therapy with blood components as opposed to whole blood for patients with specific hematologic deficiencies. A prerequisite of component therapy is, therefore, correct identification of the deficiency. Appropriate use of components avoids many of the hazards associated with the use of whole blood, and at the same time makes maximal use of this valuable resource. Blood components separated from whole blood soon after collection and appropriately stored can, in combination, provide all the factors present in fresh whole blood. Red cell concentrates prepared from multiple packs have a hematocrit of approximately 70%. They may be stored for up to 3 weeks at 4 degrees C and are recommended for most situations requiring red cell transfusions. Platelet concentrates, which can be stored for up to 72 hours at 22 degrees C, may be used for thrombocytopenic patients. Fresh frozen plasma, stored plasma, cryoprecipitated factor VIII, factor VIII concentrate and factor IX complex concentrate are available for the proper treatment of patients with hemorrhagic disorders due to coagulation factor deficiencies. Similarly, albumin and immune serum globulin are available for their oncotic and antibody properties respectively. Thus, the availability and appropriate use of the various blood products allows not only optimal transfusion therapy for each patient, but also fuller utilization of national blood resources. PMID:466591

  17. What is happening? The evolving role of the blood bank in the management of the bleeding patient: The impact of TEG as an early diagnostic predictor for bleeding.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Aurora; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of coagulopathy, the management of the bleeding patient remains as a major challenge. Traditionally, the main task of the blood bank has been to guarantee the supply of high quality blood and blood components/products to the hospital. Decisions regarding the use of blood components have always been the clinicians' responsibility, with little active involvement of the transfusion service. In the last years, many hospitals have implemented the use of "acute transfusion packages" for massively bleeding patients and point-of-care (POC) instruments such as TEG and RoTEM for monitoring coagulation status in this patient group. This, in addition to the implementation of patient blood management programs in the hospitals, has led to an increasing involvement of transfusion medicine specialists in transfusion decision making, especially regarding strategies for monitoring and treatment of the massively bleeding patient. This new trend may contribute to a more optimal management and monitoring of the bleeding patient, as POC testing may be used as an early predictor for blood usage. The blood bank should optimise the use of POC testing to provide accurate information in a cost-effective way. PMID:25457003

  18. Blood-Borne Pathogens: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Geraldine M; Shih, Andrew W; Solh, Ziad; Golder, Mia; Schubert, Peter; Fearon, Margaret; Sheffield, William P

    2016-04-01

    Testing donations for pathogens and deferring selected blood donors have reduced the risk of transmission of known pathogens by transfusion to extremely low levels in most developed countries. Protecting the blood supply from emerging infectious threats remains a serious concern in the transfusion medicine community. Transfusion services can employ indirect measures such as surveillance, hemovigilance, and donor questioning (defense), protein-, or nucleic acid based direct testing (detection), or pathogen inactivation of blood products (destruction) as strategies to mitigate the risk of transmission-transmitted infection. In the North American context, emerging threats currently include dengue, chikungunya, and hepatitis E viruses, and Babesia protozoan parasites. The 2003 SARS and 2014 Ebola outbreaks illustrate the potential of epidemics unlikely to be transmitted by blood transfusion but disruptive to blood systems. Donor-free blood products such as ex vivo generated red blood cells offer a theoretical way to avoid transmission-transmitted infection risk, although biological, engineering, and manufacturing challenges must be overcome before this approach becomes practical. Similarly, next generation sequencing of all nucleic acid in a blood sample is currently possible but impractical for generalized screening. Pathogen inactivation systems are in use in different jurisdictions around the world, and are starting to gain regulatory approval in North America. Cost concerns make it likely that pathogen inactivation will be contemplated by blood operators through the lens of health economics and risk-based decision making, rather than in zero-risk paradigms previously embraced for transfusable products. Defense of the blood supply from infectious disease risk will continue to require innovative combinations of surveillance, detection, and pathogen avoidance or inactivation. PMID:26962008

  19. Religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking. PMID:22558902

  20. Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis [1], [2]. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Methods and Findings Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. Conclusions The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to dramatically improve the safety and accuracy of laboratory diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in resource-poor countries. PMID:19578541

  1. BUN - blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  2. Types of Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePlus

    ... need only that part to treat the illness. Red Blood Cell Transfusions Red blood cells are the most commonly transfused part of the ... waste products. You may need a transfusion of red blood cells if you've lost blood due to an ...

  3. Treating High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  4. Effective Physics Major Recruiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Only the high school students that are in the top 2% in math of those that are college bound do well as physics majors. These students you recruit face to face in April by telling them your program is academically the toughest that they will find at your school. You promise that while crippling their social life and assuring that their lowest grades will be in their physics major, they will get to find out just how good they are. We will discuss:How to get face to face with that top 2% high school student.Why high school teachers and counselors will not help you.Why wait until April to recruit.What parents want to know about your physics program.Which activities are a waste of time when recuiting.By investing 20 hours spread over 2 weeks expect to get about 8 good physics majors.

  5. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the world’s 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  6. Flexible automated platform for blood group genotyping on DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paris, Sandra; Rigal, Dominique; Barlet, Valérie; Verdier, Martine; Coudurier, Nicole; Bailly, Pascal; Brès, Jean-Charles

    2014-05-01

    The poor suitability of standard hemagglutination-based assay techniques for large-scale automated screening of red blood cell antigens severely limits the ability of blood banks to supply extensively phenotype-matched blood. With better understanding of the molecular basis of blood antigens, it is now possible to predict blood group phenotype by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genomic DNA. Development of DNA-typing assays for antigen screening in blood donation qualification laboratories promises to enable blood banks to provide optimally matched donations. We have designed an automated genotyping system using 96-well DNA microarrays for blood donation screening and a first panel of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms to identify 16 alleles in four blood group systems (KEL, KIDD, DUFFY, and MNS). Our aim was to evaluate this system on 960 blood donor samples with known phenotype. Study data revealed a high concordance rate (99.92%; 95% CI, 99.77%-99.97%) between predicted and serologic phenotypes. These findings demonstrate that our assay using a simple protocol allows accurate, relatively low-cost phenotype prediction at the DNA level. This system could easily be configured with other blood group markers for identification of donors with rare blood types or blood units for IH panels or antigens from other systems. PMID:24726279

  7. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOEpatents

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  8. Predictive methodology for supply disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, M.; D'Acierno, J.

    1982-04-01

    Energy supply disruptions do not suddenly arise in a full-blown fashion. Lags in the energy system provide a time horizon which allows for the prediction of a possible supply problem. A simple model is described which can be used to provide a set of indicators for the possible onset of an energy emergency. The methodology was tested on the gasoline shortage of 1979, and the results are presented.

  9. Ergonomics and sustainability--challenges from global supply chains.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains. PMID:22317319

  10. Development of a New Subclavian Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Method for Locally or Recurrent Advanced Breast Cancer Using an Implanted Catheter-Port System After Redistribution of Arterial Tumor Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Kenji Shimamoto, Hiroshi Ogawa, Yukihisa Yoshimatsu, Misako Yagihashi, Kunihiro Nakajima, Yasuo; Kitanosono, Takashi

    2009-09-15

    Locally or recurrent advanced breast cancers can receive arterial blood supply from various arteries, such as the internal thoracic artery (ITA), the lateral thoracic artery, and the other small arterial branches originating from the subclavian artery. Failure to catheterize and subsequent formation of collateral arterial blood supply from various arteries are some of the reasons why the response to conventional selective transarterial infusion chemotherapy is limited and variable. To overcome this problem, we developed a new subclavian arterial infusion chemotherapy method using an implanted catheter-port system after redistribution of arterial tumor blood supply by embolizing the ITA. We named this technique ('redistributed subclavian arterial infusion chemotherapy' (RESAIC)). Using RESAIC, patients can be treated on an outpatient basis for extended periods of time. Eleven patients underwent RESAIC, and the complete remission and partial response rate in 10 evaluable patients was 90%: complete remission [CR] n = 4, partial remission n = 4, stable disease n = 1, and not evaluable n = 1. Three of four patients with CR had no distant metastasis, and modified radical mastectomy was performed 1 month after conclusion of RESAIC. The resected specimens showed no residual cancer cells, and pathologically confirmed complete remission was diagnosed in each of these cases. Although temporary grade-3 myelosuppression was seen in three patients who were previously treated by systemic chemotherapy, there was no other drug-induced toxicity or procedure-related complications. RESAIC produced a better response and showed no major complications compared with other studies despite the advanced stage of the cancers.

  11. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice. PMID:19885962

  12. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport Universitaire Vaudois )

    1988-02-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  13. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ˜1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells’ normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  14. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  15. Major trauma guidance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The National Audit Office states that immediate treatment for major trauma, which comprises serious and multiple injuries that are often life threatening, accounts for up to 400,000 of health expenditure and up to 3.7 billion in lost economic output every year. There is also significant emotional impact on patients and their families during the trauma and rehabilitation phases. PMID:26948204

  16. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  17. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  18. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  19. Low-level chemiluminescent analysis of nondiluted human blood reveals its dynamic system properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Novikov, Cyril N.; Vilenskaya, Natalia D.

    1999-01-01

    Lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence [(LC- CL) and (LM-CL)] in nondiluted human blood was studied. LM-CL was low in fresh blood and disappeared after its storage for 3 h, though the respiratory burst (RB) stimulated in blood was followed by high intensity and long- lasting LM-CL. LC-CL was high in fresh blood and was steadily increasing with blood storage. Blood dilution with saline resulted in LC-CL attenuation and LM-CL elevation. LC-CL did not depend on air supply to blood, while LM-CL elevation during RB needed constant blood aeration. The results suggest that besides a well-known mechanism of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils during RB, another process of electron excited state generation reflected by LC-CL operates in blood. It needs blood integrity for its manifestation and uses oxygen supplied by erythrocytes. Dynamic system properties of blood were revealed also in experiments with blood transfer from one sample to another in the course of RB. Highly nonlinear changes of CL intensity both in a `donor' and in a `recipient' sample resulted in strong differences in CL levels in two samples, one of which was prepared by blood subtraction, and another by blood addition. We suggest that CL data from measurements on nondiluted blood may be informative of integrative properties of blood tissue in addition to its being a measure of some sort of oxidative metabolism in it.

  20. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  1. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  2. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives. PMID:15559449

  3. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Health Information Center High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  5. Does current evidence support the use of intraoperative cell salvage in reducing the need for blood transfusion in caesarean section?

    PubMed Central

    Dhariwal, Sukhjit K.; Khan, Khalid S.; Allard, Shubha; Wilson, Matthew; Moore, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review An important cause of maternal morbidity and direct maternal death is obstetric haemorrhage at caesarean section. Concerns regarding allogeneic blood safety, limited blood supplies and rising health costs have collectively generated enthusiasm for the utility of methods intended to reduce the use of allogeneic blood transfusion in cases of haemorrhage at caesarean section. This can be achieved by intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS). The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the evidence for the efficacy of IOCS during caesarean section, in women at risk of haemorrhage, in reducing the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. Recent findings The majority of the evidence currently available is from case reports and case series. Although this evidence appears to support the use of IOCS in obstetrics, strong clinical evidence or economic effectiveness from clinical trials are essential to support the routine practice of IOCS in obstetrics. Summary Current evidence is limited to reported case series and two small controlled studies. Overall, IOCS may reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusions during caesarean section. Future large randomized trials are required to assess effectiveness, cost effectiveness and safety. The results of the current ongoing SALVO (A randomised controlled trial of intra-operative cell salvage during caesarean section in women at risk of haemorrhage) trial will shed light on these aspects. PMID:25259949

  6. Blood conservation strategies in orthopedic surgeries: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Balaji; Batra, Sahil; Gupta, Rajat; Agrawal, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics management of surgical blood loss is an important aspect which has evolved along with modern surgeries. Replacement of lost blood by transfusion alone is not the answer as was considered earlier. Complications like infection and immune reaction due to blood transfusion are a major concern. Today numerous techniques are available in place of allogenic blood transfusion which can be employed safely and effectively. In this article we have reviewed these techniques, their merits and demerits. PMID:26403876

  7. The blood donor in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Tagny, C T; Owusu-Ofori, S; Mbanya, D; Deneys, V

    2010-02-01

    The high prevalence of numerous endemic and epidemic diseases such as malaria, HIV infection and viral hepatitis in some areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) affects the health status of blood donors. Considering the difficulties in ensuring sufficient and safe blood supply, analysing epidemiological factors that impact blood donors in this community may further bring light on issues of supply and safety, and help in planning for its rational use. This review does not aim to propose new strategies but describes the main characteristics of blood donors in SSA as collected from different reports. Data were mainly obtained from the reports of the World Health Organization and national blood transfusion programmes and also from relevant literature and conference reports. Several characteristics are common in blood donors, such as the predominance of young adult males, the high frequency of Transmission-transmitted Infections (TTIs) and some erythrocytic phenotypes. The data indicate variations in the level of improvement of blood collection and blood safety from one area to another, particularly in the field of donor motivation or screening strategies for TTIs. These data could be useful to supplement previous reports and to provide updates for governments and international organizations' programs involved in the improvement of blood safety in Africa. PMID:19725906

  8. Homopolar generator power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, W. F.; Gully, J. H.

    1985-10-01

    A high-energy, high-current homopolar generator pulsed power supply system that is compact and field portable. The power supply system includes a homopolar generator (HPG), an auxiliary supply and drive system, both mounted on a skid frame, and a control system coupled to the HPG and drive system. The homopolar generator has a split rotor with insulation between the halves and a recess in the periphery. A stator ring and field coil, for producing a magnetic field through which the rotor halves make two simultaneous voltage-generating passes, are disposed within the recess in the rotor. Air-actuated brush mechanisms inside and outside the recess contact surfaces of the rotor and collect discharge current. The auxiliary supply and drive system includes a motoring system comprising hydraulic motors for driving the HPG to speed, a bearing lubrication system, a generator for energizing the field coil, and a brush actuator air supply system, all of which are driven by a prime mover. The control system comprises a logic controller for executing a prescribed sequence of steps including turning on the prime mover, initiating motoring of the HPG, energizing the field coil, and initiating the discharge of electrical current.

  9. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  10. ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION OF WATER FOR SMALL WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the study ultraviolet radiation was considered as an alternative means of disinfection of small drinking water supplies. A major impetus for the study was the large increase in waterborne disease episodes in the United States whose etiologic agent, Giardia lamblia, was found t...

  11. CONCENTRATION AND SIZE OF ASBESTOS IN WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 10 to the 6th power fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that ar...

  12. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Supplies and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 22 curriculum modules in this packet for instruction in agricultural supplies and services contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline, and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A

  13. Report on Physician Manpower in Ohio: Requirements, Supply and Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Physician employment needs in Ohio were reviewed, with attention to supply and demand, medical school enrollments, and attendant costs. The major focus was to develop an information system and methodology that would support planning for medical school education. Specific concerns were: (1) whether physician production in Ohio's medical schools and

  14. Proposal for Supply Chain Concentration in the Traditional MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop and implement a concentration in Supply Chain Management in the existing traditional MBA program effective fall 2012. Houston is the hub for many multinational oil and energy companies, large healthcare systems, wholesale/retail businesses, engineering and construction companies, and is a major city along…

  15. Petroleum supply monthly with data for February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describes production, imports, exports, PAD distruct movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products.

  16. Teacher Supply in Hong Kong: Educational Qualifications and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yue-ping; Hung, Fan-sing

    This paper explores Hong Kong secondary teacher supply patterns related to teacher retention using data collected from 1991-99. Secondary teachers are classified into five categories by initial educational qualifications: registered Graduate Master (trained GM), who are university graduates with majors in a subject discipline; permitted Graduate…

  17. Transport characteristics of guanidino compounds at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: relevance to neural disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Guanidino compounds (GCs), such as creatine, phosphocreatine, guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine, methylguanidine, guanidinosuccinic acid, γ-guanidinobutyric acid, β-guanidinopropionic acid, guanidinoethane sulfonic acid and α-guanidinoglutaric acid, are present in the mammalian brain. Although creatine and phosphocreatine play important roles in energy homeostasis in the brain, accumulation of GCs may induce epileptic discharges and convulsions. This review focuses on how physiologically important and/or neurotoxic GCs are distributed in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions. Transporters for GCs at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) have emerged as substantial contributors to GCs distribution in the brain. Creatine transporter (CRT/solute carrier (SLC) 6A8) expressed at the BBB regulates creatine concentration in the brain, and represents a major pathway for supply of creatine from the circulating blood to the brain. CRT may be a key factor facilitating blood-to-brain guanidinoacetate transport in patients deficient in S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, the creatine biosynthetic enzyme, resulting in cerebral accumulation of guanidinoacetate. CRT, taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A6) and organic cation transporter (OCT3/SLC22A3) expressed at the BCSFB are involved in guanidinoacetic acid or creatinine efflux transport from CSF. Interestingly, BBB efflux transport of GCs, including guanidinoacetate and creatinine, is negligible, though the BBB has a variety of efflux transport systems for synthetic precursors of GCs, such as amino acids and neurotransmitters. Instead, the BCSFB functions as a major cerebral clearance system for GCs. In conclusion, transport of GCs at the BBB and BCSFB appears to be the key determinant of the cerebral levels of GCs, and changes in the transport characteristics may cause the abnormal distribution of GCs in the brain seen in patients with certain neurological disorders. PMID:21352605

  18. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning. PMID:22948101

  19. Requirements for blood and blood components intended for transfusion or for further manufacturing use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-05-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations applicable to blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, to make the donor eligibility and testing requirements more consistent with current practices in the blood industry, to more closely align the regulations with current FDA recommendations, and to provide flexibility to accommodate advancing technology. In order to better assure the safety of the nation's blood supply and to help protect donor health, FDA is revising the requirements for blood establishments to test donors for infectious disease, and to determine that donors are eligible to donate and that donations are suitable for transfusion or further manufacture. FDA is also requiring establishments to evaluate donors for factors that may adversely affect the safety, purity, and potency of blood and blood components or the health of a donor during the donation process. Accordingly, these regulations establish requirements for donor education, donor history, and donor testing. These regulations also implement a flexible framework to help both FDA and industry to more effectively respond to new or emerging infectious agents that may affect blood product safety. PMID:26003966

  20. Detecting tissue deterioration after brain injury: regional blood flow level versus capacity to raise blood flow.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Gramer, Markus; Manning, Andrew; Endepols, Heike; Vollmar, Stefan; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Strong, Antony J; Graf, Rudolf; Backes, Heiko

    2014-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the 'capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain function. We here demonstrate in rats that the 'capacity to raise rCBF' can be determined from real-time measurements of rCBF using laser speckle imaging during an energy challenge induced by cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs) occur with high incidence in stroke and various other brain injuries and cause large metabolic changes. Various conditions of cerebral perfusion were induced, either by modifying microvascular tone, or by altering upstream blood supply independently. The increase in rCBF per unit of time in response to CSD was linearly correlated to the upstream blood supply. In an experimental model of stroke, we found that this marker of the capacity to raise rCBF which, in pathologic tissue may be additionally limited by impaired vasoactive signaling, was a better indicator of the functional status of cerebral tissue than local rCBF levels. PMID:24690942

  1. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines. PMID:24899337

  2. Court upholds $405,000 award against blood banking industry.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    The New Jersey Superior Court has ruled that the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the nation's largest blood bank trade group, was negligent during the early 1980s when it recommended that blood banks not screen and test donors to reduce the chance of HIV contamination of the nation's blood supply. [Name removed], who received HIV-contaminated blood in 1984 as a result of a transfusion at St. Joseph's Hospital in Paterson, sued and reached out-of-court settlements with his doctors and the Bergen Community Blood Center, which provided the blood. Only the AABB suit proceeded to trial, with the jury finding that one-third of the damages were attributable to the AABB's actions. In 1983, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggested that blood banks might reduce the risk of AIDS entering the blood supply by using the surrogate hepatitis B test. The AABB, the American Red Cross, and the Council of Community Blood Centers recommended against testing, saying that evidence of transmission by blood was inconclusive and unproven. In March 1985, the AABB adopted the ELISA test. This is the first time the AABB has been held responsible; the AABB said it may appeal the decision. The court disagreed with AABB's claim that it was immune from liability because it was a charity, saying it also performs a critical governance function in respect of the operation of blood banks. The decision puts considerable liability for the U.S. cases of HIV contracted through tainted blood transfusions on the AABB. PMID:11362633

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  5. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    SciTech Connect

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-06-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure.

  6. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  7. Quality indicators for discarding blood in the National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Morish, Mohammed; Ayob, Yasmin; Naim, Noris; Salman, Huda; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention. Study Designs and Methods: Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed. Results: The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%). Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909) followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at 2.5% (2839), and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620). The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902), 0.6% (37), and 0.29% (14), respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558). Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306), lipemia (25% - 2208), and underweight (4% - 353). Conclusion: Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance. PMID:22623837

  8. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come. PMID:15559580

  9. Air supply distributor for fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, H.A.

    1984-09-18

    An air supply distributor for fireplaces having an opening in the hearth for the supply of relatively cold air is used in combination with means, such as a log holder or grate, for supporting combustible products and comprises a pair of side walls and a top cover. The distributor is adapted to be positioned under the log holder or grate to overlie the hearth opening so that relatively cold air passing through the hearth opening is directed toward the front opening of the fireplace from which it passes to the fire for supporting combustion thereof thereby minimizing the amount of air drawn from the room.

  10. Blood doping : infusions, erythropoietin and artificial blood.

    PubMed

    Eichner, E Randy

    2007-01-01

    As science marches on, athletes and coaches march close behind. Researchers have long been interested in how red cell mass and blood volume affect exercise capacity. Interest in blood doping soared after the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. Studies in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that transfusing red cells could speed endurance performance. Diverse athletes of the time were accused of blood doping. In the late 1980s, recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) began to supplant transfusion for doping. EPO use is a suspect in nearly 20 deaths in 4 years in European cyclists. In the 1998 Tour de France, a team was ejected for using EPO and six other teams quit the race. The beat goes on; in recent years, diverse endurance and sprint athletes have been caught or accused of using EPO. Tests to detect EPO are improving but are not yet foolproof. As EPO tests improve, blood transfusion is back in vogue and some athletes may have infused artificial blood. Tests for detecting artificial blood also exist, but it seems it will take widespread, year-round, unannounced, out-of-competition testing and stern penalties to deter blood doping. PMID:17465616

  11. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePlus

    ... service to the cord-blood bank, and initial processing. Transplantation Cryogenic blood-forming stem cells can be ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  12. How Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... balanced by other reactions that stop the clotting process and dissolve clots after the blood vessel has healed. Without this control system, minor blood vessel injuries could trigger widespread ...

  13. Vitamin A blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Retinol test ... if you have too much or too little vitamin A in your blood. (These conditions are uncommon in ... normal value means you do not have enough vitamin A in your blood. This may cause: Bone or ...

  14. Blood and Lymph Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... in direct contact with the external environment, the circulatory system acts as a transport system for these cells. Two distinct fluids move through the circulatory system: blood and lymph. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients ...

  15. Calcium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the blood is attached to proteins, mainly albumin. A separate test that measures calcium that is ... their hormone) Kidney failure Low blood level of albumin Liver disease Magnesium deficiency Pancreatitis Vitamin D deficiency

  16. Cord Blood and Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... two sources are bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells. Every family who donates their baby’s umbilical cord ... transplant than after a transplant using peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). If you are expecting a baby or ...

  17. CBC blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat high blood pressure Kidney disease with high erythropoietin production Low oxygen level in the blood for a long time, most often due to heart or lung disease Polycythemia vera Smoking Low RBC, hemoglobin, or hematacrit is ...

  18. Low blood pressure

    MedlinePlus

    Hypotension; Blood pressure - low; Postprandial hypotension; Orthostatic hypotension; Neurally mediated hypotension; NMH ... Blood pressure varies from one person to another. A drop as little as 20 mmHg, can cause ...

  19. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  20. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Bar for Blood Glucose Meter Performance Recalls & Alerts Shasta Technologies GenStrip Blood Glucose Test Strips May ... Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases Consumer Updates About FDA Contact FDA ...