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Sample records for major blood supply

  1. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between cholangiocytes and PBP endothelial cells suggests that manipulation of VEGF release and function could represent a therapeutic strategy for human pathological conditions characterized by damage of hepatic artery or the biliary tree. PMID:16773711

  2. Preserving the national blood supply.

    PubMed

    Brittenham, G M; Klein, H G; Kushner, J P; Ajioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of the blood supply in the US and focuses on the potential for augmenting blood availability by attention to the iron status of donors. Increasing demands are being made upon the national blood supply as rates of blood donation are declining, in part because of the loss of blood donors as a result of enhanced screening and testing procedures. Iron-related means of expanding the blood supply include the use of blood from individuals undergoing therapeutic phlebotomy for hereditary hemochromatosis and enhancing the retention and commitment of women of childbearing age as donors by using iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency. In Section I, Dr. Klein discuss the circumstances responsible for a decline in the population of eligible donors, including public attitudes toward donation, factors influencing the retention of donors by blood centers, and the effects of increased screening and testing to maintain the safety of the blood supply. In Section II, Drs. Kushner and Ajioka focus on the consequences of the decision by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to develop recommendations to permit blood centers to collect blood from patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and to distribute this blood obtained without disease labeling if all other screening and testing procedures are passed. After summarizing the pathophysiology of hereditary hemochromatosis, the use by blood centers of blood obtained from heterozygotes and homozygotes for hereditary hemochromatosis is considered. In Section III, Dr. Brittenham reviews the use of low dose, short-term carbonyl iron supplementation for women donors of childbearing age. Replacing the iron lost at donation can help prevent iron deficiency in women of childbearing age and, by decreasing deferral, enhance the retention and commitment of women who give blood regularly. He emphasizes the use by blood centers of iron-related means to enhance recruitment and retention of blood donors. PMID:11722996

  3. Blood Supply to the Chicken Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianzhong; Wang, Xiuli; Toney, C Brian; Seamon, Jesse; Cui, Quanjun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the vascular supply to the femoral head, including the vessels that give rise to the terminal perfusing branches. Using a casting agent, we highlighted the anatomy of the external iliac and ischiatic arteries with their associated branches after anatomic dissection of 24 hips from 12 Leghorn chickens. We confirmed published findings regarding perfusion of the femoral head and identified 3 previously undescribed arterial branches to this structure. The first branch (the acetabular branch of the femoralis artery) was supplied by the femoralis artery and directly perfused the acetabulum and femoral head. The second branch (the lateral retinacular artery) was a tributary of the femoralis artery that directly supplied the femoral head. Finally, we found that the middle femoral nutrient artery supplies a previously undescribed ascending intraosseous branch (the ascending branch of the middle femoral nutrient artery) that perfuses the femoral head. Precise understanding of the major vascular branches to the femoral head would allow for complete or selective ligation of its blood supply and enable the creation of a reproducible bipedal model of femoral head osteonecrosis. PMID:20819379

  4. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are...

  8. Indian Supreme Court demands cleaner blood supply.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S

    1996-01-13

    The government of India recently admitted in parliament that 25% of the country's blood banks remain unlicensed. The Supreme Court has directed the government to establish a National Council for Blood Transfusion in an attempt to curb malpractice, malfunctioning, and corruption in the national blood banking system, and to ensure a safe blood supply. Furthermore, the Court advised the government to enact separate legislation for regulating the collection, processing, storage, distribution, and transportation of blood and the operation of blood banks. Legal action will be taken if any blood banks remain ill equipped or unlicensed after the period of one year. Agencies have been directed to take steps to eliminate professional blood selling within two years. They have also been asked to ensure that there are trained drug inspectors to check upon the banks. To boost funding for the councils, the government has been advised to allow 100% exemption upon income tax to those who donate money to the organizations. The Director General of Health Services has been asked to submit a report on action taken by July 16, 1996, to ensure compliance. PMID:8538304

  9. New, faster blood test may make blood supply safer.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    Major blood suppliers in the United States are investigating a new HIV test that could move the country closer to a zero percent transmission rate. The Milwaukee Blood Center was the first in the nation to use the test, which identifies HIV infection two weeks earlier than standard tests. The test reduces the time period during which HIV infection is undetectable from 22 days to 10. The new test called nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) was developed by Roche Molecular Systems and Chiron Corp. It identifies HIV genetic material circulating in the blood stream. America's Blood Centers has been testing NAT in 16 facilities. The procedure was initially developed to reduce the risk of transmitting hepatitis C, and a single sample can be used for testing both hepatitis C and HIV. The cost of using the new test would be an additional $5 to $7 per blood donation. NAT has not yet been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. PMID:11366982

  10. Blood supply and vasculature of mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Fahal, A H; el Hag, I A; Gadir, A F; el Lider, A R; el Hassan, A M; Baraka, O Z; Mahgoub, E S

    1997-01-01

    The blood supply to the mycetoma lesion and its vasculature were studied in patients with various types of mycetoma using histological, ultrastructural, angiographic and sonographic techniques. The mycetoma lesion proved to be well vascularized. However, certain vascular abnormalities were demonstrated. In histological sections, the small arteries and arterioles showed medial muscular hypertrophy in 83%, intimal fibrosis in 33%, arteritis in 7% and endarteritis obliterans with narrowed lumen in 7% of the patients. No vascular occlusion, ischaemic changes or arteriovenous shunts were observed. These changes were confirmed ultrastructurally. Angiography of the lesion showed a brisk pathological circulation which was more evident in eumycetoma. The vascular Doppler study showed normal blood flow pattern in the affected limb. Regional intra-arterial chemotherapy for mycetoma is suggested as a possible treatment modality. PMID:9147269

  11. Blood supply of the greater trochanter after trochanterotomy.

    PubMed

    Najima, H; Gagey, O; Cottias, P; Huten, D

    1998-04-01

    The human vascular anatomy to the greater trochanter after a trochanterotomy (digastric, standard) was examined using injection techniques. Three major sources of blood supply to the greater trochanter were found: the proximal soft tissues, including the gluteus medius and minimus vascularized mainly from the internal iliac artery system; the distal soft tissues, including the vastus lateralis, vascularized from the descending branches of the lateral circumflex femoral artery; and a third possible source of blood circulation came from the transverse branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. Many vascular structures from the lateral circumflex femoral artery were concentrated in the anterior half of the vastus lateralis muscle. Perfusion with a latex oxide mixture and angiography after trochanterotomy proves that by using a digastric trochanterotomy, the transverse and descending branches of the lateral circumflex femoral artery to the greater trochanter thus can be preserved. With a standard trochanterotomy, the supply from the transverse and descending branches of the lateral circumflex artery are lost. These results therefore suggest that a digastric trochanterotomy is superior to a standard trochanterotomy because the blood supply of the trochanter is preserved. PMID:9584388

  12. Anatomical variant of the liver blood supply

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular variations are significant for liver transplantations, radiological procedures, laparoscopic method of operation and for the healing of penetrating injuries, including the space close to the hepatic area. These variants are very common in the abdominal region, and their description will be useful. During a routine dissection of a 73 year old female cadaver, we found in the subhepatic region that the blood supply of the liver differed from a normal one. The difference was found in the absence of the right liver branch and the cystic artery, which normally arises from the common hepatic artery. After a detailed dissection of the superior mesenteric artery we distinguished a branchthat was routed to the right lobe of the liver. The diameter of this vessel was 3.7 mm and the length 8.2 cm. In the artery pathway, three consecutive branches were observed. The first branch was found about 2.02 cm before the portal region of the liver. The second one became visible after another millimeter and finally the artery made one little curve and became a cystic artery. PMID:26609280

  13. Emerging infectious diseases that threaten the blood supply.

    PubMed

    Alter, Harvey J; Stramer, Susan L; Dodd, Roger Y

    2007-01-01

    Following the devastating effects of blood-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), blood establishments have become increasingly vigilant for the emergence or re-emergence of new threats to the safety of the blood supply. Many agents have fulfilled the broad definition of emerging blood-transmitted infections, including West Nile virus (WNV), Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium spp., Babesia spp., parvovirus B19, dengue virus, and the prions that cause variant Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (vCJD). Other agents such as human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8-Kaposi's sarcoma virus) and Borellia (Lyme disease) and, perhaps, avian flu virus, are known to have a viremic phase, but have not yet been proved to be transfusion-transmitted. In the wake of these threats, transfusion services use a variety of donor screening interventions, including serologic assays, nucleic acid assays, and geographic exclusions based on potential exposure. The ultimate safeguard may be a pre-emptive pathogen inactivation strategy that will disrupt all nucleic acid-containing agents (though not prions). Considerable effort and resources have been invested in this arena, but currently no single technique is effective for inactivation of both liquid and cellular blood products and toxicity issues have not been completely resolved. The blood supply is remarkably safe with the risk of major pathogens such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV now reduced to less than one transmission per 2 to 3 million exposures. However, to approach near-zero infectious disease risk for emerging and re-emerging pathogens, new strategies such as pathogen inactivation or multi-pathogen microarray technology will need to be developed or refined. PMID:17198845

  14. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  15. Impact of vCJD on blood supply.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Rainer; von Auer, Friedger; Blümel, Johannes; Burger, Reinhard; Buschmann, Anne; Dietz, Klaus; Heiden, Margarethe; Hitzler, Walter E; Klamm, Horst; Kreil, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Hans; Nübling, Micha; Offergeld, Ruth; Pauli, Georg; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Volkers, Peter; Zerr, Inga

    2007-04-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is an at present inevitably lethal neurodegenerative disease which can only be diagnosed definitely post mortem. The majority of the approximately 200 victims to date have resided in the UK where most contaminated beef materials entered the food chain. Three cases in the UK demonstrated that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Since BSE and vCJD have spread to several countries outside the UK, it appears advisable that specific risk assessments be carried out in different countries and geographic areas. This review explains the approach adopted by Germany in assessing the risk and considering precautionary measures. A fundamental premise is that the feeding chain of cattle and the food chain have been successfully and permanently cleared from contaminated material. This raises the question of whether transmissions via blood transfusions could have the potential to perpetuate vCJD in mankind. A model calculation based on actual population data showed, however, that this would not be the case. Moreover, an exclusion of transfusion recipients from blood donation would add very little to the safety of blood transfusions, but would have a considerable impact on blood supply. Therefore, an exclusion of transfusion recipients was not recommended in Germany. PMID:17320412

  16. Effects of antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to eye tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, G.C.Y.; Yan, H.Y.

    1986-03-01

    Although it is essential that intraocular pressure (IOP) be reduced in glaucoma treatment, it is also vitally important to provide sufficient blood flow to eye tissues so that healthy visual field is maintained. It is possible for an agent to reduce IOP and blood supply to the eye. In that case, glaucoma appears to be under control since IOP has been reduced to within normal range yet the disease is actually progressing, causing damage to the retina, optic nerve, and other tissues. /sup 85/Sr-Microsphere technique was used to study the effects of several antiglaucoma drugs on blood supply to various eye tissues. Clearly, L-timolol, D-timolol and pilocarpine are good drugs to use in treating glaucoma because they do not reduce blood flow. On the other hand, although moperone reduced IOP effectively, it also decreased blood supply markedly. Therefore, it should not be used for the treatment of glaucoma.

  17. [Blood transfusion and supply chain management safety].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Jean-Franois; Caldani, Cyril; Cabaud, Jean-Jacques; Chavarin, Patricia; Rochette-Eribon, Sandrine

    2015-02-01

    The level of safety attained in blood transfusion now makes this a discipline better managed care activities. This was achieved both by scientific advances and policy decisions regulating and supervising the activity, as well as by the quality system, which we recall that affects the entire organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources in place to achieve quality management. So, an effective quality system provides a framework within which activities are established, performed in a quality-focused way and continuously monitored to improve outcomes. This system quality has to irrigate all the actors of the transfusion, just as much the establishments of blood transfusion than the health establishments. PMID:25578550

  18. Demographic Changes: The Impact for Safe Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Greinacher, Andreas; Fendrich, Konstanze; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Summary The population structure in most European countries is currently changing, with a shift from younger to older age groups. Only sparse data exist on the impact of these demographic changes on future blood demand and supply. Data on blood recipients are sparse and unconnected to data on blood donors. The first part of this review summarizes studies on the effect of the demographic change on blood supply and demand. With respect to studies in North America and Europe on the impact of demographic changes on future blood supply, the demographic trends will affect many regions in the Western world similarly. These effects are most pronounced in the new member states of the European Union where birth rates declined abruptly after 1989. Coordinated efforts will be required to prevent blood shortages based upon these demographic trends in Western societies. The second part of this review is an overview of methodological approaches to obtain data on the sociodemographic background of the blood donor population. PMID:20737017

  19. The Key Role of the Blood Supply to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Marenzana, Massimo; Arnett, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the vascular supply for bone is well-known to orthopaedists but is still rather overlooked within the wider field of skeletal research. Blood supplies oxygen, nutrients and regulatory factors to tissues, as well as removing metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide and acid. Bone receives up to about 10% of cardiac output, and this blood supply permits a much higher degree of cellularity, remodelling and repair than is possible in cartilage, which is avascular. The blood supply to bone is delivered to the endosteal cavity by nutrient arteries, then flows through marrow sinusoids before exiting via numerous small vessels that ramify through the cortex. The marrow cavity affords a range of vascular niches that are thought to regulate the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic and stromal cells, in part via gradients of oxygen tension. The quality of vascular supply to bone tends to decline with age and may be compromised in common pathological settings, including diabetes, anaemias, chronic airway diseases and immobility, as well as by tumours. Reductions in vascular supply are associated with bone loss. This may be due in part to the direct effects of hypoxia, which blocks osteoblast function and bone formation but causes reciprocal increases in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Common regulatory factors such as parathyroid hormone or nitrates, both of which are potent vasodilators, might exert their osteogenic effects on bone via the vasculature. These observations suggest that the bone vasculature will be a fruitful area for future research. PMID:26273504

  20. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  1. Safe to Use Blood Thinner Before Major Cancer Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safe to Use Blood Thinner Before Major Cancer Surgery, Study Finds Results led Sloan Kettering to change ... be given to certain patients before major cancer surgery, a new study suggests. Operations increase risk for ...

  2. The cardiac blood supply-workload balance in children.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Takeda, Atsuhito; Takei, Kohta; Tateno, Shigeru; Kawasoe, Yasutaka; Niwa, Koichiro

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that the reflected pressure wave in small children returns earlier than that in adolescent. The reason of early return of the reflected pressure wave in infancy is their height. The short distance between heart and reflection point makes the reflected pressure wave returning to the heart earlier. In adult, the early return (during systole) of the reflected pressure wave means disadvantage to cardiac blood supply-workload balance. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the early return of the reflected pressure wave in small children impairs the cardiac blood supply-workload balance. This study enrolled 37 small left-to-right shunt patients with normal aortic circulation below 15 years of age. The aortic pressure waveform was recorded using a pressure sensor mounted catheter, and augmentation index and subendocardial viability ratio were calculated. The age of patients was 6.1 ± 3.2 years. The augmentation index was 8.7 ± 14.3 % and the index had a negative correlation with patients' age (r = -0.6243, p < 0.0001). The subendocardial viability ratio, which means the cardiac blood supply-workload balance, was 0.92 ± 0.14 and the index had a positive relationship with patients' age (r = 0.6435, p < 0.0001). The cardiac blood supply-workload balance gradually improves from infancy to young adulthood. One of the causes of the unfavorable cardiac blood supply-workload balance in infancy would be the accelerated aortic pressure wave reflection due to their short height. PMID:24989969

  3. Investigation into the practice of ensuring a steady blood supply for medical rescue during the Wenchuan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Yi, Mei

    2009-08-01

    In the rescue that follows a major natural disaster, blood donation is a unique, necessary method to assist the injured. To achieve effective assurance of the blood supply for medical rescue in an orderly fashion, the current procedure must be adjusted by using scientific prediction, analysis, and adaptation. After the process of ensuring the blood supply for medical rescue during the Wenchuan Earthquake, the Ministry of Health of China, with great efforts, continues to investigate and reflect upon the application of the above principals during actual practice. Objectively, these efforts will lead to better results and establish a standard supplying blood during a disaster rescue. PMID:21349010

  4. Development of arterial blood supply in experimental liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Dezso, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Papp, Veronika; Lszl, Viktria; Dme, Balzs; Tvri, Jzsef; Tmr, Jzsef; Nagy, Pter; Paku, Sndor

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we present a mechanism for the development of arterial blood supply in experimental liver metastases. To analyze the arterialization process of experimental liver metastases, we elucidated a few key questions regarding the blood supply of hepatic lobules in mice. The microvasculature of the mouse liver is characterized by numerous arterioportal anastomoses and arterial terminations at the base of the lobules. These terminations supply one hepatic microcirculatory subunit per lobule, which we call an arterial hepatic microcirculatory subunit (aHMS). The process of arterialization can be divided into the following steps: 1) distortion of the aHMS by metastasis; 2) initial fusion of the sinusoids of the aHMS at the tumor parenchyma interface; 3) fusion of the sinusoids located at the base of the aHMSs, which leads to the disruption of the vascular sphincter (burst pipe); 4) incorporation of the dilated artery and the fused sinusoids into the tumor; and 5) further development of the tumor vasculature (arterial tree) by proliferation, remodeling, and continuous incorporation of fused sinusoids at the tumor-parenchyma interface. This process leads to the inevitable arterialization of liver metastases above the 2000- to 2500-mum size, regardless of the origin and growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:19574433

  5. Development of Arterial Blood Supply in Experimental Liver Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Dezs?, Katalin; Bugyik, Edina; Papp, Veronika; Lszl, Viktria; Dme, Balzs; Tvri, Jzsef; Tmr, Jzsef; Nagy, Pter; Paku, Sndor

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a mechanism for the development of arterial blood supply in experimental liver metastases. To analyze the arterialization process of experimental liver metastases, we elucidated a few key questions regarding the blood supply of hepatic lobules in mice. The microvasculature of the mouse liver is characterized by numerous arterioportal anastomoses and arterial terminations at the base of the lobules. These terminations supply one hepatic microcirculatory subunit per lobule, which we call an arterial hepatic microcirculatory subunit (aHMS). The process of arterialization can be divided into the following steps: 1) distortion of the aHMS by metastasis; 2) initial fusion of the sinusoids of the aHMS at the tumor parenchyma interface; 3) fusion of the sinusoids located at the base of the aHMSs, which leads to the disruption of the vascular sphincter (burst pipe); 4) incorporation of the dilated artery and the fused sinusoids into the tumor; and 5) further development of the tumor vasculature (arterial tree) by proliferation, remodeling, and continuous incorporation of fused sinusoids at the tumorparenchyma interface. This process leads to the inevitable arterialization of liver metastases above the 2000- to 2500-?m size, regardless of the origin and growth pattern of the tumor. PMID:19574433

  6. Potential impact of AUSFTA on Australia's blood supply.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary J; Faunce, Thomas A; Johnston, Kellie

    2006-09-18

    Australia is largely self-sufficient in its supply of safe, fresh blood products because of the goodwill of non-remunerated, volunteer donors, plus rigorous testing and processing standards. CSL Limited is the sole provider of plasma fractionation services in Australia, enjoying exclusive rights under the Plasma Fractionation Agreement with the Australian Government. In the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), Australia agreed to review its current contract with CSL Limited, and to recommend to the states and territories that the process be opened up to overseas tender. Overseas tenders for off-shore fractionation services are likely to be highly competitive due to their low manufacturing costs and accumulated expertise. Off-shore fractionation could compromise the safety of Australia's blood supply through delays in processing and transportation, issues related to quality control, and even the siphoning of stock to overseas markets. This could compromise the long-term care of Australian patients and create a serious national security risk in the event of a terrorist attack or natural disaster. Australia's AUSFTA obligation to recommend changes does not equate to an obligation to actually proceed. The states and territories should carefully consider whether such changes would be in our national interest. The long-term security of the Australian people in the current security environment is dependent on continuance of an on-shore fractionation plant and appropriate back-up facilities. PMID:16999673

  7. Meanings of blood, bleeding and blood donations in Pakistan: implications for national vs global safe blood supply policies

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Zubia; Bowen, Sarah; Mumtaz, Rubina

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary public policy, supported by international arbitrators of blood policy such as the World Health Organization and the International Federation of the Red Cross, asserts that the safest blood is that donated by voluntary, non-remunerated donors from low-risk groups of the population. These policies promote anonymous donation and discourage kin-based or replacement donation. However, there is reason to question whether these policies, based largely on Western research and beliefs, are the most appropriate for ensuring an adequate safe blood supply in many other parts of the world. This research explored the various and complex meanings embedded in blood using empirical ethnographic data from Pakistan, with the intent of informing development of a national blood policy in that country. Using a focused ethnographic approach, data were collected in 26 in-depth interviews, 6 focus group discussions, 12 key informant interviews and 25 hours of observations in blood banks and maternity and surgical wards. The key finding was that notions of caste-based purity of blood, together with the belief that donors and recipients are symbolically knitted in a kin relationship, place a preference on kin-blood. The anonymity inherent in current systems of blood extraction, storage and use as embedded in contemporary policy discourse and practice was problematic as it blurred distinctions that were important within this society. The article highlights the importance—to ensuring a safe blood supply—of basing blood procurement policies on local, context-specific belief systems rather than relying on uniform, one-size-fits-all global policies. Drawing on our empirical findings and the literature, it is argued that the practice of kin-donated blood remains a feasible alternative to the global ideal of voluntary, anonymous donations. There is a need to focus on developing context-sensitive strategies for promoting blood safety, and critically revisit the assumptions underlying contemporary global blood procurement policies. PMID:21372061

  8. Manufacturing blood ex vivo: a futuristic approach to deal with the supply and safety concerns

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal K.; Saini, Abhishek; Tsuji, Kohichiro; Sharma, P. B.; Chandra, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusions are routinely done in every medical regimen and a worldwide established collection, processing/storage centers provide their services for the same. There have been extreme global demands for both raising the current collections and supply of safe/adequate blood due to increasingly demanding population. With, various risks remain associated with the donor derived blood, and a number of post collection blood screening and processing methods put extreme constraints on supply system especially in the underdeveloped countries. A logistic approach to manufacture erythrocytes ex-vivo by using modern tissue culture techniques have surfaced in the past few years. There are several reports showing the possibilities of RBCs (and even platelets/neutrophils) expansion under tightly regulated conditions. In fact, ex vivo synthesis of the few units of clinical grade RBCs from a single dose of starting material such as umbilical cord blood (CB) has been well established. Similarly, many different sources are also being explored for the same purpose, such as embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. However, the major concerns remain elusive before the manufacture and clinical use of different blood components may be used to successfully replace the present system of donor derived blood transfusion. The most important factor shall include the large scale of RBCs production from each donated unit within a limited time period and cost of their production, both of these issues need to be handled carefully since many of the recipients among developing countries are unable to pay even for the freely available donor derived blood. Anyways, keeping these issues in mind, present article shall be focused on the possibilities of blood production and their use in the near future. PMID:25364733

  9. Noncoronary Collateral Myocardial Blood Flow: The Human Heart’s Forgotten Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Picichè, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The “noncoronary collateral circulation” (NCCC) or “noncoronary collateral myocardial blood flow” (NCCMBF), reaches the heart through a micro-vascular network arising from the bronchial, esophageal, pericardial, diaphragmatic, and aortic arteries. The left and right internal thoracic arteries (ITAs) along with their collateral branches also serve as a source of NCCMBF-a feature seen in other mammals. Under certain circumstances the ITAs have a high potential for developing collateral branches. In the case of severe Leriche syndrome or with chronic obstruction of the abdominal aorta, the ITAs can serve as the main or even sole source of blood supply to the lower limbs. It is also possible for the ITAs to develop angiographically visible branches that directly connect with the coronary arteries. In ischemic conditions there is a functional, ischemia-reducing extracardiac coronary artery supply via natural ipsilateral ITA anastomosis. To date we know little about NCCMBF and its potential benefits in clinical applications, which makes this a challenging and intriguing field of research. This paper reviews all available data on noncoronary collateral blood supply to the human heart.

  10. Ovarian function and ovarian blood supply following premenopausal abdominal hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abdelrazak, Khaled M.; Elbiaa, Assem A.M.; Farghali, Mohamed M.; Essam, Amr; Zhurabekova, Gulmira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The issue of conserving the ovaries at hysterectomy in premenopausal women with benign gynecologic disease has been the subject of considerable controversy. Some clinicians prefer prophylactic oophorectomy in premenopausal women during hysterectomy to prevent future development of malignant changes in conserved ovaries. Other clinicians prefer to conserve apparently normal ovaries, because bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women results in an abrupt imbalance, sudden onset of menopausal symptoms, decreased libido, increased cardiovascular risk and osteoporosis. Material and methods Two hundred and twenty multipara women (who had completed their families), with benign uterine pathology were included in this prospective study for abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation. Pre-operative vaginal ultrasound, Doppler studies, diagnostic hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy were done followed by laboratory studies including Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol for all studied women. Doppler studies, AMH, FSH and estradiol were repeated 6 and 12 months post-operative for assessment of the ovarian function and ovarian blood supply after hysterectomy. Results Pre-operative AMH, FSH and estradiol of the studied women were statistically insignificant compared to AMH, FSH and estradiol 6 and 12 months post-operative. Twelve months post-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.92 0.18 and 6.85 0.19 cm3, respectively) were significantly larger than pre-operative right and left ovarian volumes (6.19 0.22 and 5.86 0.23 cm3, respectively), and, 12 months post-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (2.92 0.15 and 2.96 0.16 cm/s, respectively) were significantly lower than pre-operative right and left ovarian pulsatility indices (3.45 0.19 and 3.36 0.2 cm/s, respectively). Eight (3.6%) cases of the studied women developed an ovarian cyst 6 months after hysterectomy, 3 were spontaneously resolved and the remaining 5 (2.27%) cases underwent exploratory laparotomy. Conclusions There is no evidence of ovarian dysfunction affecting conserved ovaries one year after hysterectomy in premenopausal women as evident by AMH, FSH and estradiol. Furthermore, an increased ovarian volume and reduced ovarian pulsatility indices indicate a possible increase in ovarian blood supply, and preserved non-compromised ovarian function. PMID:26848295

  11. Red Cross Takes Steps to Keep Zika Virus Out of Blood Supply

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 157053.html Red Cross Takes Steps to Keep Zika Virus Out of Blood Supply Agency asks potential donors ... statement. "We are closely monitoring the spread of Zika virus." People who give blood and subsequently develop symptoms ...

  12. Tumor-line specific causes of intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply in human melanoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Trude G; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Leinaas, Marit N; Rofstad, Einar K

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of most cancer treatments is strongly influenced by the tumor blood supply. The results of experimental studies using xenografted tumors to evaluate novel cancer treatments may therefore vary considerably depending on the blood supply of the specific tumor model being used. Mechanisms underlying intertumor heterogeneity in the blood supply of xenografted tumors derived from same tumor line are poorly understood, and were investigated here by using intravital microscopy to assess tumor blood supply and vascular morphology in human melanomas growing in dorsal window chambers in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Two melanoma lines, A-07 and R-18, were included in the study. These lines differed substantially in angiogenic profiles. Thus, when the expression of 84 angiogenesis-related genes was investigated with a quantitative PCR array, 25% of these genes showed more than a 10-fold difference in expression. Furthermore, A-07 tumors showed higher vascular density, higher vessel tortuosity, higher vessel diameters, shorter vessel segments, and more chaotic vascular architecture than R-18 tumors. Both lines showed large intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply. In the A-07 line, tumors with low microvascular density, long vessel segment, and high vessel tortuosity showed poor blood supply, whereas in the R-18 line, poor tumor blood supply was associated with low tumor arteriolar diameters. Thus, tumor-line specific causes of intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply were identified in human melanoma xenografts, and these tumor-line specific mechanisms were possibly a result of tumor-line specific angiogenic profiles. PMID:23149341

  13. Arterial blood supply of the infrapatellar fat pad. Anatomy and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Kohn, D; Deiler, S; Rudert, M

    1995-01-01

    The arterial blood supply to the infrapatellar fat pad (Hoffa's fat pad) was investigated in 12 knee joints of human cadavers. The infrapatellar fat pad is supplied by an anastomotic network which displays some striking topographic features. Its vascular blood supply protects it against necrosis, when either reconstructive operations are carried out or extensive surgical exposures of the knee are done. The blood supply to the center of the fat pad is limited. This is of practical importance for the choice of arthroscopic portals. In addition, arthroscopically verified sources of bleeding are described in 57 patients with hemarthrosis without clinically detectable instability. Rupture of the infrapatellar synovial fold can be a cause of posttraumatic hemarthrosis in rare cases. Arteries irregularly found within the fold contribute to the blood supply of the anterior aspect of the synovial membrane covering the cruciate ligaments. PMID:7734236

  14. Unravelling the blood supply to the zebrafish pharyngeal jaws and teeth

    PubMed Central

    Crucke, Jeroen; Huysseune, Ann

    2013-01-01

    We describe the vascular supply to the pharyngeal jaws and teeth in zebrafish, from larval stages to juveniles, using serial high quality semithin sections and 3D reconstructions. We have identified that the arterial blood supply to the last pair of branchial arches, which carries the teeth, issues from the hypobranchial artery. Surprisingly, the arteries supplying the pharyngeal jaws show an asymmetric branching pattern that is modified over ontogeny. Moreover, the blood vessel pattern that serves each jaw can best be described as a sinusoidal cavity encircling the bases of both the functional and replacement teeth. Capillaries branching from this sinusoidal cavity enter the pulp and constitute the intrinsic blood supply to the attached teeth. The role of these blood vessels during tooth development (whether instructive or nutritive) remains to be determined and requires further study. However, we have provided a firm morphological basis that will aid in the interpretation of experiments addressing this question. PMID:23937397

  15. A stochastic simulator of a blood product donation environment with demand spikes and supply shocks.

    PubMed

    An, Ming-Wen; Reich, Nicholas G; Crawford, Stephen O; Brookmeyer, Ron; Louis, Thomas A; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular), immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an 8-week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries), and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during 1996-2005. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts. PMID:21814550

  16. Accelerated apoptosis of blood leukocytes and oxidative stress in blood of patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Słotwińska, Maria; Stachura, Anna; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Dubas-Slemp, Halina; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2008-04-01

    Acceleration of blood leukocyte apoptosis in major depression has been described. The present studies have been undertaken to estimate the level of apoptosis of blood leukocytes in patients with depression and to examine the mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Blood was taken from 29 patients with depression (age 48.2+/-11.2, 14 males, 15 females) and 30 healthy controls (age 41.3+/-4.1, 15 males, 15 females), and apoptosis was estimated by the cytometric method by measurements of annexin V binding, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi), bcl-2, bax, and Fas (CD95) expression in CD4+, CD8+ and CD14+ cells. The amounts of cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were also measured. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from PMNs were examined as was the serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and total peroxidase (PER). Additionally, serum levels of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were estimated. Our experiments indicated accelerated apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ cells (mainly neutrophils) of depressed patients as well as a significant increase in the percent of Fas-expressing cells. Bcl-2 and bax expression was higher in cells of depressed patients than in control, however, bcl-2/bax ratio was significantly decreased in CD14+ cells of depressed patients. PMNs isolated from the blood of the patients produced more ROS spontaneously and after induction with phorbol ester (PMA) than PMNs of the healthy control. A significant increase in serum activity of SOD, CAT and PER was also detected. Overproduction of superoxide anion correlated positively with the level of PMNs apoptosis (measured by cytochrome c release), suggesting that superoxide anion might be an important factor inducing apoptotic death of blood cells. The result of our experiment indicated that apoptosis of immune cells may affect patient's susceptibility to different infections and application of antioxidants in medication of patients with depression will be beneficial for them. The increased level of IL-6 in sera of the depressed patients did not correlate with overproduction of ROS, suggesting that this cytokine is not involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis of leukocytes. PMID:18083280

  17. Red blood cells in sports: effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Mairbäurl, Heimo

    2013-01-01

    During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood's buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called “sports anemia.” This is not anemia in a clinical sense, because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume (PV). The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g., in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise. PMID:24273518

  18. Major Study Calls for Even Tighter Control of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Major Study Calls for Even Tighter Control of High Blood Pressure Aggressive treatment cut rates of heart attack, heart ... Sept. 11, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors should control high blood pressure much more aggressively than current guidelines suggest, to ...

  19. Malaria and blood transfusion: major issues of blood safety in malaria-endemic countries and strategies for mitigating the risk of Plasmodium parasites.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Saleh; Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Malaria inflicts humankind over centuries, and it remains as a major threat to both clinical medicine and public health worldwide. Though hemotherapy is a life-sustaining modality, it continues to be a possible source of disease transmission. Hence, hemovigilance is a matter of grave concern in the malaria-prone third-world countries. In order to pursue an effective research on hemovigilance, a comprehensive search has been conducted by using the premier academic-scientific databases, WHO documents, and English-language search engines. One hundred two appropriate articles were chosen for data extraction, with a particular reference to emerging pathogens transmitted through blood transfusion, specifically malaria. Blood donation screening is done through microscopic examination and immunological assays to improve the safety of blood products by detection major blood-borne pathogens, viz., HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis, and malarial parasites. Transfusion therapy significantly dwindles the preventable morbidity and mortality attributed to various illnesses and diseases, particularly AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Examination of thick and thin blood smears are performed to detect positivity and to identify the Plasmodium species, respectively. However, all of these existing diagnostic tools have their own limitations in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost-effectiveness, and lack of resources and skilled personnel. Globally, despite the mandate need of screening blood and its components according to the blood-establishment protocols, it is seldom practiced in the low-income/poverty-stricken settings. In addition, each and every single phase of transfusion chain carries sizable inherent risks from donors to recipients. Interestingly, opportunities also lie ahead to enhance the safety of blood-supply chain and patients. It can be achieved through sustainable blood-management strategies like (1) appropriate usage of precise diagnostic tools/techniques, (2) promoting hemovigilance system, and (3) adopting novel processes of inactivation technology. Furthermore, selection of the zero-risk donors could pave the way to build a transmissible malaria-free world in the near future. PMID:26531301

  20. The arterial blood supply of human inguinal and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, D; Davies, J D

    1986-01-01

    Injection of the arterial tree supplying human inguinal (superficial) and mesenteric (deep) lymph nodes was performed using a barium sulphate suspension. Radiography and histological examination showed two distinct types of arterial supply to lymph nodes. The superficial inguinal nodes are generally supplied by a single artery which penetrates the hilum and then radiates outwards to the lymph node pulp. The deep mesenteric lymph nodes, in contrast, are invariably supplied by several separate arteries which penetrate the nodal capsule, enter the trabeculae and run centripetally. These differences reflect the microanatomical differences in structure between deep and superficial lymph nodes. The two types of blood supply may be responsible for the different patterns of ischaemia found in deep and superficial lymph nodes. The findings re-emphasise the heterogeneous character of lymph nodes in man. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:3693046

  1. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials.

  2. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle binding to major human blood proteins.

    PubMed

    Hata, Katsutomo; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-Ichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-12-01

    Nanomaterials are used for various biomedical applications because they are often more effective than conventional materials. Recently, however, it has become clear that the protein corona that forms on the surface of nanomaterials when they make contact with biological fluids, such as blood, influences the pharmacokinetics and biological responses induced by the nanomaterials. Therefore, when evaluating nanomaterial safety and efficacy, it is important to analyze the interaction between nanomaterials and proteins in biological fluids and to evaluate the effects of the protein corona. Here, we evaluated the interaction of silica nanoparticles, a commonly used nanomaterial, with the human blood proteins albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and IgG. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to the silica particles increased as the particle size decreased under conditions where the silica particle mass remained the same. However, under conditions in which the specific surface area remained constant, there were no differences in the binding of human plasma proteins to the silica particles tested, suggesting that the binding of silica particles with human plasma proteins is dependent on the specific surface area of the silica particles. Furthermore, the amount of albumin, transferrin, and IgG binding to silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 70nm (nSP70) and a functional amino group was lower than that with unmodified nSP70, although there was no difference in the binding between nSP70 with the surface modification of a carboxyl functional group and nSP70. These results suggest that the characteristics of nanomaterials are important for binding with human blood proteins; this information may contribute to the development of safe and effective nanomaterials. PMID:26089000

  3. Factors regulating viable cell density in the intervertebral disc: blood supply in relation to disc height

    PubMed Central

    Boubriak, Olga A; Watson, Natasha; Sivan, Sarit S; Stubbens, Naomi; Urban, Jill P G

    2013-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is an avascular tissue, maintained by a small population of cells that obtain nutrients mainly by diffusion from capillaries at the disc–vertebral body interface. Loss of this nutrient supply is thought to lead to disc degeneration, but how nutrient supply influences viable cell density is unclear. We investigated two factors that influence nutrient delivery to disc cells and hence cell viability: disc height and blood supply. We used bovine caudal discs as our model as these show a gradation in disc height. We found that although disc height varied twofold from the largest to the smallest disc studied, it had no significant effect on cell density, unlike the situation found in articular cartilage. The density of blood vessels supplying the discs was markedly greater for the largest disc than the smallest disc, as was the density of pores allowing capillary penetration through the bony endplate. Results indicate that changes in blood vessels in the vertebral bodies supplying the disc, as well as changes in endplate architecture appear to influence density of cells in intervertebral discs. PMID:23311982

  4. Self-Deferral, HIV Infection, and the Blood Supply: Evaluating an AIDS Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Edward H.; Novick, Alvin

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of self-deferral, a social screen implemented to protect the U.S. blood supply from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prior to the advent of laboratory testing. Mathematical models are developed to estimate the number of infectious transfusions ultimately leading to AIDS prior to self-deferral.

  5. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches. PMID:21864330

  6. Arterial blood supply of hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with efficacy of sorafenib therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Zhang, Xianghua; Li, Jing; Huang, Liang; Yan, Jianjun; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the efficacy of sorafenib in treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its relationship with the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of HCC, analyze the prognostic factors of HCC patients treated with sorafenib, and investigate the relationship between imaging findings and outcomes. Methods A total of 38 HCC patients who were treated with sorafenib from April 2009 to December 2010 were included in this study. HCCs were classified as good arterial supply and poor arterial supply according to the intensity enhancement on CT scan or MRI. Clinical data were collected and the survival time was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Results Among these 38 patients [35 (92.1%) were males] treated with sorafenib, the median age was (53.311.1) years. Tumors in 17 patients had good arterial supply while those in the remained 21 patients had poor arterial supply. The median survival time (MST) was 10.7 months (95% CI, 8.7-12.7) and the 1-year overall survival (OS) was 41.0%. The MST and 1-year OS in patients with tumors with good arterial supply were 12 months (range, 4-20 months) and 52.9%, respectively, compared with those of 7 months (range, 1-16 months) and 23.8% in patients with tumors with poor arterial supply (P=0.002). Patients with BCLC stage B tumors had longer MST and higher OS than those with BCLC stage C tumors, although the differences were not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis showed that arterial supply of tumors remained statistically predictive for OS (HR =0.22; 95% CI, 0.07-0.67; P=0.008). Conclusions Arterial blood supply is an independent predictor for survival in HCC patients treated with sorafenib, and patients with tumors with good arterial supply benefit more than those with tumors with poor arterial supply. PMID:26697445

  7. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  8. A Functional Perspective on the Embryology and Anatomy of the Cerebral Blood Supply.

    PubMed

    Menshawi, Khaled; Mohr, Jay P; Gutierrez, Jose

    2015-05-01

    The anatomy of the arterial system supplying blood to the brain can influence the development of arterial disease such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia and atherosclerosis. As the arteries supplying blood to the brain develop during embryogenesis, variation in their anatomy may occur and this variation may influence the development of arterial disease. Angiogenesis, which occurs mainly by sprouting of parent arteries, is the first stage at which variations can occur. At day 24 of embryological life, the internal carotid artery is the first artery to form and it provides all the blood required by the primitive brain. As the occipital region, brain stem and cerebellum enlarge; the internal carotid supply becomes insufficient, triggering the development of the posterior circulation. At this stage, the posterior circulation consists of a primitive mesh of arterial networks that originate from projection of penetrators from the distal carotid artery and more proximally from carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses. These anastomoses regress when the basilar artery and the vertebral arteries become independent from the internal carotid artery, but their persistence is not uncommon in adults (e.g., persistent trigeminal artery). Other common remnants of embryological development include fenestration or duplication (most commonly of the basilar artery), hypoplasia (typically of the posterior communicating artery) or agenesis (typically of the anterior communicating artery). Learning more about the hemodynamic consequence that these variants may have on the brain territories they supply may help understand better the underlying physiopathology of cerebral arterial remodeling and stroke in patients with these variants. PMID:26060802

  9. A modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap technique with improved vascular supply and an extended rotation arc for oral defects: A case report

    PubMed Central

    KANNO, TAKAHIRO; NARIAI, YOSHIKI; TATSUMI, HIROTO; KARINO, MASAAKI; YOSHINO, AYA; SEKINE, JOJI

    2015-01-01

    The pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is versatile, and is widely used for the treatment of surgical defects following oral cancer resection. Although free-tissue transfer of a vascularized free flap is often preferred, the clinical benefits of the PMMC flap should not be overlooked. The conventional technique of harvesting a PMMC flap involves a single vascular supply from the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery. However, this approach compromises the distal skin island of the flap, and requires an indirect blood supply via communicating vessels, which increases the potential risk of partial distal flap necrosis. When harvesting a PMMC flap for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction, preservation of the lateral thoracic artery and use of the subclavian route are alternatives that ensure sufficient blood supply and an increased rotation arc. Such an approach enables the harvesting of a PMMC flap that can reach the entire oral cavity, including the infraorbital region, palate, middle pterygopalatine fossa and nasopharynx, with no risk of vascular insufficiency to the distal skin island. In conclusion, the technique described in the present study was able to improve the blood supply of the distal PMMC flap and increase its rotation arc. PMID:26722234

  10. Emerging Infectious Threats to the Blood Supply: Seroepidemiological Studies in Iran a Review

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Gharib; Gharehbaghian, Ahmad; Tafti, Mohammad Fallah; Vafaiyan, Vida

    2013-01-01

    Summary The risk of transfusion-transmitted infections has been greatly reduced by improvements in donor screening and testing. However, newly recognized blood-borne infectious agents can be threats to blood safety. In order to evaluate the prevalence some of these agents in blood donors, a systematic review was conducted. Data were obtained from published papers related to HGV, Torque Teno virus (TTV), HTLV, West Nile virus (WNV) and SEN virus (SEN-V). Based on these studies, the prevalence of HGV varied from 1 to 8.6% for anti-E2 and from 0 to 4.8% for HGV RNA. The prevalence of TTV DNA and HTLV-I varied from 2.7 to 79.5% and from 0.013 to 2.3%, respectively. The WNV-specific IgM antibody and WNV RNA are negative in blood donors. Prevalence rates of SEN-V in Iranian blood donors range from 23 to 90.8%. Consequences of these infectious agents for blood safety are different. Thus, the need to perform laboratory screening as well as effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory tests depend on pathogenicity level and epidemiological conditions of emerging infections. However, being prepared based on the current level of risk and interventions to reduce the risk can be effective in reducing the potential threat for blood supply. PMID:23922546

  11. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuck T.; Kitson, Alex P.; Hopperton, Kathryn E.; Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Trpanier, Marc-Olivier; Lin, Lauren E.; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Thies, Frank; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite being critical for normal brain function, the pools that supply docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain are not agreed upon. Using multiple kinetic models in free-living adult rats, we first demonstrate that DHA uptake from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool predicts brain uptake of DHA upon oral administration, which enters the plasma NEFA pool as well as multiple plasma esterified pools. The rate of DHA loss by the brain is similar to the uptake from the plasma NEFA pool. Furthermore, upon acute iv administration, although more radiolabeled lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-DHA enters the brain than NEFA-DHA, this is due to the longer plasma half-life and exposure to the brain. Direct comparison of the uptake rate of LPC-DHA and NEFA-DHA demonstrates that uptake of NEFA-DHA into the brain is 10-fold greater than LPC-DHA. In conclusion, plasma NEFA-DHA is the major plasma pool supplying the brain. PMID:26511533

  12. Infundibula of equine maxillary cheek teeth. Part 1: Development, blood supply and infundibular cementogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suske, A; Pöschke, A; Schrock, P; Kirschner, S; Brockmann, M; Staszyk, C

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in diseases of infundibula of equine maxillary cheek teeth. Imperfect infundibular cementogenesis has been recognized as an aetiopathological factor for the onset of infundibular necrosis. In this article, infundibular development was examined with particular attention to infundibular blood vessels and cementogenesis. Forty-one deciduous maxillary premolars prior to eruption were investigated using routine histological and immunohistological methods to visualize blood vessels and the enamel organ. Selected specimens were scanned by micro-computed tomography to analyze the three-dimensional configuration of the developing infundibulum. Before eruption, the infundibula are supplied by a central infundibular artery entering the infundibulum from an occlusal direction and by arteries entering the mesial infundibulum from the mesial aspect, and the distal infundibulum from the distal aspect. The central infundibular artery is destroyed shortly after tooth eruption but the lateral arteries remain vital for a time after eruption. As the arteries of the distal infundibulum are located in a more apical position, blood is received for a longer period compared with the mesial infundibulum. Cementogenesis starts first at distinct enamel in-foldings in the occlusal part of the infundibula, advancing in an apical direction. The results suggest a distinct asymmetry between the infundibula with the mesial infundibulum prone to incomplete cementogenesis due to early blood supply cessation. PMID:26832811

  13. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  14. Effect on blood volume of maintaining a high central venous pressure after major aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fluck, David C.; Bescos, L. Lopez; Gilkes, R.

    1973-01-01

    Fluck, D. C., Lopez Bescos, L., and Gilkes, R. (1973).Thorax,28, 762-767. Effect on blood volume of maintaining a high central venous pressure after major aortic valve surgery. Serial blood volume measurements were made in 15 patients undergoing major aortic valve surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. In all patients the plasma volume was measured by iodine-125 (125I) labelled albumin and in 10 the red cell mass was measured by chromium-51 (51Cr) labelled red cells. Close correlation was found between the blood volume derived from the plasma volume and central venous haematocrits and the blood volume derived by addition of the plasma volume and red cell mass. Postoperatively blood was given to maintain the right atrial pressure at between 10 and 15 cm H2O. Before operation the red cell mass, and plasma and blood volumes related to body weight were within the normal range. In the postoperative phase the first measurement two hours after the end of the operation showed a significant decrease in mean blood volume, red cell mass, and plasma volume as compared with the preoperative level. By the second postoperative measurement six hours after the end of operation the mean blood volume had risen to the preoperative level. Subsequently, over postoperative days 1 to 6 the mean blood volume remained steady, although the red cell mass tended to fall. After blood transfusion had ceased the red cell mass usually showed a progressive fall. It was considered that although there was little relationship between the right atrial pressure and the blood volume there was little or no clinical value in performing serial postoperative measurements of blood volume in addition to venous pressure monitoring in these patients. Images PMID:4787988

  15. 77 FR 31026 - Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood Supply in Support of Planning for Emergency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood Supply... (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Use of Computer Simulation of the United States Blood...: Mark Walderhaug, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-210), Food and Drug...

  16. Blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the laboratory mouse using corrosion and dissection techniques.

    PubMed

    Flesarova, Slavka; Mazensky, David; Teleky, Jana; Almasiova, Viera; Holovska, Katarina; Supuka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Mice are used frequently as experimental models in the study of ischemic spinal cord injury. The aim of the present study was to describe the arterial blood supply to the thoracolumbar spinal cord in the mouse. The study was carried out on 20 adult mice using the corrosion and dissection technique. Dorsal intercostal arteries were found as branches of the thoracic aorta: as 7 pairs in 80% of cases, as 8 pairs in 15% of cases and as 9 pairs in 5% of cases. The paired lumbar arteries arising from the abdominal aorta were present as 5 pairs in all cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, we observed left-sided branches entering the ventral spinal artery in 64.2% and right-sided branches in 35.8% of cases. Along the entire thoracic and lumbar spinal regions, the branches entering the dorsal spinal arteries were left-sided in 60.8% of cases and right-sided in 39.2% of cases. We found some variations in the site of origin of the artery of Adamkiewicz and in the number of dorsal spinal arteries. Documenting the anatomical variations in spinal cord blood supply in the laboratory mouse will aid the planning of future experimental studies and in determining the clinical relevance of such studies. PMID:25636913

  17. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Local oxygen supply and blood flow regulation in contracting muscle in dogs and rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D K; Birkenhake, S; Knauf, S K; Kessler, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Multiwire surface electrodes were used to measure local hydrogen clearance curves and tissues PO2 in the sartorius muscle in dogs under resting conditions and during stimulation of the muscle at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 20 Hz via the femoral nerve. Tissue oxygen supply was assessed by means of PO2 histograms; evaluation of the initial slopes of the hydrogen clearance curves enabled the measurement of capillary blood flow. 2. In a further model, the analysis of hydrogen clearance curves measured in the femoral vein using intravascular needle electrodes in rabbits enabled the distribution of blood flow to be evaluated both under resting conditions and during direct 2 Hz stimulation of the vastus medialis muscle. 3. Increased oxygen consumption, induced by stimulation, caused increases in capillary flow which were not necessarily accompanied by augmentation of femoral artery flow. 4. PO2 histograms provided no evidence of cellular anoxia even at the maximum level of oxygen consumption. 5. A two-compartment distribution of flow was measured under resting conditions, whereas only one compartment could be resolved during 2 Hz stimulation of the vastus medialis muscle in the rabbit experiments. A clear redistribution of flow was observed in the absence of any increase in total flow. 6. A model for oxygen-dependent regulation of capillary blood flow involving high-flow and normal-flow compartments is proposed. PMID:2352180

  19. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Hernandez Avila, M; Romieu, I; Rios, C; Rivero, A; Palazuelos, E

    1991-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 micrograms/dL, with a mean of 10.6 micrograms/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 micrograms/dL and 22% over 15 micrograms/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status (presence of telephone in the house, t-test, p = 0.01) and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food (t-test, p less than 0.005). There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC (test for trend, p = 0.0008). Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (less than 15 micrograms/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery. PMID:1954921

  20. Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Avila, M; Romieu, I; Rios, C; Rivero, A; Palazuelos, E

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main contributors to blood lead levels in a population of women from middle to low socioeconomic status in the southwestern part of Mexico City. Within this area, the authors selected a random sample of 200 women. Age ranged from 21 to 57 years, with a mean of 36 years. Among 99 women who agreed to participate in this study, blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 52 micrograms/dL, with a mean of 10.6 micrograms/dL. Five percent of the women had a blood lead level over 25 micrograms/dL and 22% over 15 micrograms/dL. There was no significant trend in blood levels according to age. The main determinants of blood lead levels were higher socioeconomic status (presence of telephone in the house, t-test, p = 0.01) and using lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to prepare food (t-test, p less than 0.005). There was a significant increasing trend in blood lead levels with increasing frequency of consumption of food prepared in LGC (test for trend, p = 0.0008). Among the dishes prepared in LGC, the main determinant was the consumption of stew. Time spent outdoors and consumption of tap water and of canned food were not important determinants of blood lead levels. The population attributable risk of high blood level (less than 15 micrograms/dL) due to the use of LGC was 58%. These findings demonstrate the major role of traditional pottery as a contributor to blood lead levels in this population and emphasize the need for interventions to produce lead-free pottery. PMID:1954921

  1. Climate change could threaten blood supply by altering the distribution of vector-borne disease: an Australian case-study

    PubMed Central

    Bambrick, Hilary J.; Woodruff, Rosalie E.; Hanigan, Ivan C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to promote more intense and prolonged outbreaks of vector-borne disease, and alter the geographic boundaries of transmission. This has implications for the safety and supply of fresh blood products around the world. In Australia, a recent outbreak of dengue fever caused a prolonged regional shortage in the supply of fresh blood products. Objective To highlight the potential for climate change to affect the safety and supply of blood globally through its impact on vector-borne disease, using the example of dengue in Australia as a case-study. Design We modelled geographic regions in Australia suitable for dengue transmission over the coming century under four climate change scenarios, estimated changes to the population at risk and effect on blood supply. Results Geographic regions with climates that are favourable to dengue transmission could expand to include large population centres in a number of currently dengue-free regions in Australia and reduce blood supply across several states. Conclusion Unless there is strong intergovernmental action on greenhouse gas reduction, there could be an eight-fold increase in the number of people living in dengue prone regions in Australia by the end of the century. Similar impacts will be experienced elsewhere and for other vector-borne diseases, with regions currently on the margins of transmission zones most affected. Globally, climate change is likely to compound existing problems of blood safety and supply in already endemic areas and cause future shortages in fresh blood products through its impact on transmission of vector-borne disease. PMID:20052315

  2. Increased food energy supply as a major driver of the obesity epidemic: a global analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D; Umali, Elaine; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective We investigated associations between changes in national food energy supply and in average population body weight. Methods We collected data from 24 high-, 27 middle- and 18 low-income countries on the average measured body weight from global databases, national health and nutrition survey reports and peer-reviewed papers. Changes in average body weight were derived from study pairs that were at least four years apart (various years, 1971–2010). Selected study pairs were considered to be representative of an adolescent or adult population, at national or subnational scale. Food energy supply data were retrieved from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations food balance sheets. We estimated the population energy requirements at survey time points using Institute of Medicine equations. Finally, we estimated the change in energy intake that could theoretically account for the observed change in average body weight using an experimentally-validated model. Findings In 56 countries, an increase in food energy supply was associated with an increase in average body weight. In 45 countries, the increase in food energy supply was higher than the model-predicted increase in energy intake. The association between change in food energy supply and change in body weight was statistically significant overall and for high-income countries (P < 0.001). Conclusion The findings suggest that increases in food energy supply are sufficient to explain increases in average population body weight, especially in high-income countries. Policy efforts are needed to improve the healthiness of food systems and environments to reduce global obesity. PMID:26170502

  3. Blood transcriptomic markers for major depression: from animal models to clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Redei, Eva E; Mehta, Neha S

    2015-05-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder and, similar to other spectrum disorders, its manifestation varies by age of onset, severity, comorbidity, treatment responsiveness, and other factors. A laboratory blood test based on specific biomarkers for major depressive disorder (MDD) and its subgroups could increase diagnostic accuracy and expedite the initiation of treatment. We identified candidate blood biomarkers by examining genome-wide expression differences in the blood of animal models representing both the genetic and environmental/stress etiologies of depression. Human orthologs of the resulting transcript panel were tested in pilot studies. Transcript abundance of 11 blood markers differentiated adolescent subjects with early-onset MDD from adolescents with no disorder (ND). A set of partly overlapping transcripts distinguished adolescent patients who had comorbid anxiety disorders from those with only MDD. In adults, blood levels of nine transcripts discerned subjects with MDD from ND controls. Even though cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) resulted in remission of some patients, the levels of three transcripts consistently signaled prior MDD status. A coexpression network of transcripts seems to predict responsiveness to CBT. Thus, our approach can be developed into clinically valid diagnostic panels of blood transcripts for different manifestations of MDD, potentially reducing diagnostic heterogeneity and advancing individualized treatment strategies. PMID:25823952

  4. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder among HTLV-I/II infected former blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Guiltinan, Anne M.; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Behan, Dee; Marosi, Cheryl; Hutching, Sheila; Kaiser, Mandi; Moore, Elane; DeVita, Deborah; Murphy, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Other studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety among human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infected subjects, and have even suggested that HTLV-I causes psychiatric disease. Study design and methods We interviewed HTLV-I, HTLV-II and demographically similar HTLV seronegative blood donors with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Prevalences of major depression and generalized anxiety disorder in each group were calculated and compared to published U.S. population data. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) controlling for educational achievement, alcohol intake and self-reported health status were calculated with multivariate logistic regression. Results Major depression was diagnosed in 5 (5.4%) of 93 HTLV-I positive subjects (aOR = 2.19, 95% CI 0.637.55) and 17 (6.6%) of 256 HTLV-II positive subjects (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI 0.663.927), compared to 12 (2.1%) of 585 HTLV seronegative blood donors. The prevalence of major depression among infected subjects was comparable to the 6.7% prevalence in the U.S. general population. Generalized anxiety disorder was diagnosed in 5 (5.4%) HTLV-I positive subjects (OR= 2.32, 95% CI 0.747.26) and 12 (4.7%) HTLV-II positive subjects (OR = 1.65 95% CI 0.684.01), compared to 15 (2.6%) seronegatives and 3.1% in the U.S. general population. Conclusion Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were not significantly more prevalent among HTLV-I and HTLV-II infected former blood donors after controlling for health status and other confounding variables. HTLV seronegative blood donors had lower prevalence of these conditions than the U.S. population, probably due to a healthy blood donor effect. PMID:22554308

  5. How to maintain blood supply during computer network breakdown: a manual backup system.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, T; Slonka, J; Brgi, H R; Kretschmer, V

    2000-12-01

    Electronic data management systems using computer network systems and client/server architecture are increasingly used in laboratories and transfusion services. Severe problems arise if there is no network access to the database server and critical functions are not available. We describe a manual backup system (MBS) developed to maintain the delivery of blood products to patients in a hospital transfusion service in case of a computer network breakdown. All data are kept on a central SQL database connected to peripheral workstations in a local area network (LAN). Request entry from wards is performed via machine-readable request forms containing self-adhesive specimen labels with barcodes for test tubes. Data entry occurs on-line by bidirectional automated systems or off-line manually. One of the workstations in the laboratory contains a second SQL database which is frequently and incrementally updated. This workstation is run as a stand-alone, read-only database if the central SQL database is not available. In case of a network breakdown, the time-graded MBS is launched. Patient data, requesting ward and ordered tests/requests, are photocopied through a template from the request forms on special MBS worksheets serving as laboratory journal for manual processing and result report (a copy is left in the laboratory). As soon as the network is running again the data from the off-line period are entered into the primary SQL server. The MBS was successfully used at several occasions. The documentation of a 90-min breakdown period is presented in detail. Additional work resulted from the copy work and the belated manual data entry after restoration of the system. There was no delay in issue of blood products or result reporting. The backup system described has been proven to be simple, quick and safe to maintain urgent blood supply and distribution of laboratory results in case of unexpected network breakdown. PMID:11123812

  6. Obstructions in Vascular Networks: Relation Between Network Morphology and Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Torres Rojas, Aimee M.; Meza Romero, Alejandro; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Travasso, Rui D. M.; Corvera Poiré, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    We relate vascular network structure to hemodynamics after vessel obstructions. We consider tree-like networks with a viscoelastic fluid with the rheological characteristics of blood. We analyze the network hemodynamic response, which is a function of the frequencies involved in the driving, and a measurement of the resistance to flow. This response function allows the study of the hemodynamics of the system, without the knowledge of a particular pressure gradient. We find analytical expressions for the network response, which explicitly show the roles played by the network structure, the degree of obstruction, and the geometrical place in which obstructions occur. Notably, we find that the sequence of resistances of the network without occlusions strongly determines the tendencies that the response function has with the anatomical place where obstructions are located. We identify anatomical sites in a network that are critical for its overall capacity to supply blood to a tissue after obstructions. We demonstrate that relatively small obstructions in such critical sites are able to cause a much larger decrease on flow than larger obstructions placed in non-critical sites. Our results indicate that, to a large extent, the response of the network is determined locally. That is, it depends on the structure that the vasculature has around the place where occlusions are found. This result is manifest in a network that follows Murray’s law, which is in reasonable agreement with several mammalian vasculatures. For this one, occlusions in early generation vessels have a radically different effect than occlusions in late generation vessels occluding the same percentage of area available to flow. This locality implies that whenever there is a tissue irrigated by a tree-like in vivo vasculature, our model is able to interpret how important obstructions are for the irrigation of such tissue. PMID:26086774

  7. Blood Transcriptomic Markers in Patients with Late-Onset Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Shigeo; Kurachi, Masashi; Okano, Yoshiko; Sakurai, Noriko; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Harada, Kenichiro; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Koji; Takahashi, Keisuke; Narita, Kosuke; Fukuda, Masato; Ishizaki, Yasuki; Mikuni, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated transcriptomic markers of late-onset major depressive disorder (LOD; onset age of first depressive episode ≥ 50 years) from the genes expressed in blood cells and identified state-dependent transcriptomic markers in these patients. We assessed the genes expressed in blood cells by microarray and found that the expression levels of 3,066 probes were state-dependently changed in the blood cells of patients with LOD. To select potential candidates from those probes, we assessed the genes expressed in the blood of an animal model of depression, ovariectomized female mice exposed to chronic ultra-mild stress, by microarray and cross-matched the differentially expressed genes between the patients and the model mice. We identified 14 differentially expressed genes that were similarly changed in both patients and the model mice. By assessing statistical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), the following 4 genes were selected as candidates: cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector c (CIDEC), ribonuclease 1 (RNASE1), solute carrier family 36 member-1 (SLC36A1), and serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting-like 1 (STYXL1). The discriminating ability of these 4 candidate genes was evaluated in an independent cohort that was validated. Among them, CIDEC showed the greatest discriminant validity (sensitivity 91.3% and specificity 87.5%). Thus, these 4 biomarkers should be helpful for properly diagnosing LOD. PMID:26926397

  8. Methodology for determining major constituents of ayahuasca and their metabolites in blood.

    PubMed

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2012-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in potential medical applications of ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea with a long cultural history of indigenous medical and religious use. Clinical research into ayahuasca will require specific, sensitive and comprehensive methods for the characterization and quantitation of these compounds and their metabolites in blood. A combination of two analytical techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and/or fluorescence detection and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection) has been used for the analysis of some of the constituents of ayahuasca in blood following its oral consumption. We report here a single methodology for the direct analysis of 14 of the major alkaloid components of ayahuasca, including several known and potential metabolites of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and the harmala alkaloids in blood. The method uses 96-well plate/protein precipitation/filtration for plasma samples, and analysis by HPLC-ion trap-ion trap-mass spectrometry using heated electrospray ionization to reduce matrix effects. The method expands the list of compounds capable of being monitored in blood following ayahuasca administration while providing a simplified approach to their analysis. The method has adequate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility to make it useful for clinical research with ayahuasca. PMID:21710581

  9. Sociodemographic and Health Characteristics, Rather Than Primary Care Supply, are Major Drivers of Geographic Variation in Preventable Hospitalizations in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Louisa R.; Douglas, Kirsty A.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Elliott, Robert F.; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Geographic rates of preventable hospitalization are used internationally as an indicator of accessibility and quality of primary care. Much research has correlated the indicator with the supply of primary care services, yet multiple other factors may influence these admissions. Objective: To quantify the relative contributions of the supply of general practitioners (GPs) and personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, to geographic variation in preventable hospitalization. Methods: Self-reported questionnaire data for 267,091 participants in the 45 and Up Study, Australia, were linked with administrative hospital data to identify preventable hospitalizations. Multilevel Poisson models, with participants clustered in their geographic area of residence, were used to explore factors that explain geographic variation in hospitalization. Results: GP supply, measured as full-time workload equivalents, was not a significant predictor of preventable hospitalization, and explained only a small amount (2.9%) of the geographic variation in hospitalization rates. Conversely, more than one-third (36.9%) of variation was driven by the sociodemographic composition, health, and behaviors of the population. These personal characteristics explained a greater amount of the variation for chronic conditions (37.5%) than acute (15.5%) or vaccine-preventable conditions (2.4%). Conclusions: Personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, rather than GP supply, are major drivers of preventable hospitalization. Their contribution varies according to condition, and if used for performance comparison purposes, geographic rates of preventable hospitalization should be reported according to individual condition or potential pathways for intervention. PMID:25793270

  10. Effects of Blood Transfusion on Exercise Capacity in Thalassemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Daniela; Rao, Carmelo Massimo; Cefalù, Claudia; Aguglia, Demetrio Oreste; Cattadori, Gaia; D’Ascola, Domenico Giuseppe; Benedetto, Frank Antonio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Sciomer, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Anemia has an important role in exercise performance. However, the direct link between rapid changes of hemoglobin and exercise performance is still unknown.To find out more on this topic, we studied 18 beta-thalassemia major patients free of relevant cardiac dysfunction (age 33.5±7.2 years,males = 10). Patients performed a maximal cardiopulmolmonary exercise test (cycloergometer, personalized ramp protocol, breath-by-breath measurements of expired gases) before and the day after blood transfusion (500 cc of red cell concentrates). After blood transfusion, hemoglobin increased from 10.5±0.8 g/dL to 12.1±1.2 (p<0.001), peak VO2 from 1408 to 1546mL/min (p<0.05), and VO2 at anaerobic threshold from 965 to 1024mL/min (p<0.05). No major changes were observed as regards heart and respiratory rates either at peak exercise or at anaerobic threshold. Similarly, no relevant changes were observed in ventilation efficiency, as evaluated by the ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production relationship, or in O2 delivery to the periphery as analyzed by the VO2 vs. workload relationship. The relationship between hemoglobin and VO2 changes showed, for each g/dL of hemoglobin increase, a VO2 increase = 82.5 mL/min and 35 mL/min, at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold, respectively. In beta-thalassemia major patients, an acute albeit partial anemia correction by blood transfusion determinates a relevant increase of exercise performance, observed both at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold. PMID:26010540

  11. Major surgery in an osteosarcoma patient refusing blood transfusion: case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of osteosarcoma in a Jehovah's Witness patient who underwent chemotherapy and major surgery without the need for blood transfusion. This 16-year-old girl presented with osteosarcoma of the right proximal tibia requiring proximal tibia resection, followed by endoprosthesis replacement. She was successfully treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery with the support of haematinics, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant erythropoietin and intraoperative normovolaemic haemodilution. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining effective, open communication and exploring acceptable therapeutic alternative in the management of these patients, whilst still respecting their beliefs. PMID:21059231

  12. Parallel renal and extremity blood supply abnormalities in nonmodulation: responses to ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ramiro A; Ramos, Felipe; Giannone, Carlos; Fischer, Patricia; Masnatta, Lucas; Baglivo, Hugo P; Ramírez, Agustín J; Hollenberg, Norman K

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain, in nonmodulating essential hypertension, whether the abnormality in the renal blood supply is extended to the extremities and showed a similar response to ACE inhibition and whether these abnormalities could be identified in normotensive offspring of hypertensives, as non-modulation is a familial process with genetic underpinnings. We measured forearm vascular blood flow (FBF) and forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by plethysmography and urinary albumin excretion in 20 normotensive without family story of hypertension (NT: 25+/-9 years), 10 modulating offspring of hypertensive parents (MHO: 25+/-6 years), 10 nonmodulating offspring of hypertensive parents (NMHO: 26+/-5 years), 12 modulating essential hypertensives (MHT: 34+/-5 years), and 11 nonmodulating essential hypertensives (NMHT: 32+/-4 years). Measurements were repeated in hypertensives after 3-month treatment with ramipril (5 mg daily). Nonmodulating individuals showed lower maximum FBF (NMHT: 41.96+/-3.3 mL/100 g per minute and NMHO: 35.6+/-9.0 mL/100 g per minute) than modulating subjects (MHT: 57.5+/-10.0 mL/100 g per minute and MHO: 51.8+/-7.0 mL/100 g per minute; P<0.003). Likewise, all nonmodulating subjects showed higher minimum FVR (NMHT: 2.5+/-0.2 AU; NMO: 2.8+/-0.5 AU) than modulating individuals (MHT: 1.9+/-0.5 AU; MHO, 1.8+/-0.3AU; P<0.025). Urinary albumin excretion was higher in NMHT and NMHO than MHT, MHO, and NT (P<0.05). Ramipril increased maximum FBF to 53.8+/-8.0 mL/100 g per minute and reduced minimum FVR to 1.9+/-0.5 AU in NMHT (P<0.01). Likewise, ramipril increased effective renal plasma flow and reduced renal vascular resistance and urinary albumin excretion only in NMHT (P<0.05). These results have shown an early involvement of the peripheral circulation in association with increased urinary albumin excretion not only in essential hypertensives but also in NMHO. The effectiveness of ramipril in reducing minimum FVR and urinary albumin excretion in NMHT also suggests a common mechanism. PMID:12642507

  13. Blood transcriptomic biomarkers in adult primary care patients with major depressive disorder undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Redei, E E; Andrus, B M; Kwasny, M J; Seok, J; Cai, X; Ho, J; Mohr, D C

    2014-01-01

    An objective, laboratory-based diagnostic tool could increase the diagnostic accuracy of major depressive disorders (MDDs), identify factors that characterize patients and promote individualized therapy. The goal of this study was to assess a blood-based biomarker panel, which showed promise in adolescents with MDD, in adult primary care patients with MDD and age-, gender- and race-matched nondepressed (ND) controls. Patients with MDD received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clinical assessment using self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The measures, including blood RNA collection, were obtained before and after 18 weeks of CBT. Blood transcript levels of nine markers of ADCY3, DGKA, FAM46A, IGSF4A/CADM1, KIAA1539, MARCKS, PSME1, RAPH1 and TLR7, differed significantly between participants with MDD (N=32) and ND controls (N=32) at baseline (q< 0.05). Abundance of the DGKA, KIAA1539 and RAPH1 transcripts remained significantly different between subjects with MDD and ND controls even after post-CBT remission (defined as PHQ-9 <5). The ROC area under the curve for these transcripts demonstrated high discriminative ability between MDD and ND participants, regardless of their current clinical status. Before CBT, significant co-expression network of specific transcripts existed in MDD subjects who subsequently remitted in response to CBT, but not in those who remained depressed. Thus, blood levels of different transcript panels may identify the depressed from the nondepressed among primary care patients, during a depressive episode or in remission, or follow and predict response to CBT in depressed individuals. PMID:25226551

  14. Blood transcriptomic biomarkers in adult primary care patients with major depressive disorder undergoing cognitive behavioral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Redei, E E; Andrus, B M; Kwasny, M J; Seok, J; Cai, X; Ho, J; Mohr, D C

    2014-01-01

    An objective, laboratory-based diagnostic tool could increase the diagnostic accuracy of major depressive disorders (MDDs), identify factors that characterize patients and promote individualized therapy. The goal of this study was to assess a blood-based biomarker panel, which showed promise in adolescents with MDD, in adult primary care patients with MDD and age-, gender- and race-matched nondepressed (ND) controls. Patients with MDD received cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and clinical assessment using self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire9 (PHQ-9). The measures, including blood RNA collection, were obtained before and after 18 weeks of CBT. Blood transcript levels of nine markers of ADCY3, DGKA, FAM46A, IGSF4A/CADM1, KIAA1539, MARCKS, PSME1, RAPH1 and TLR7, differed significantly between participants with MDD (N=32) and ND controls (N=32) at baseline (q< 0.05). Abundance of the DGKA, KIAA1539 and RAPH1 transcripts remained significantly different between subjects with MDD and ND controls even after post-CBT remission (defined as PHQ-9 <5). The ROC area under the curve for these transcripts demonstrated high discriminative ability between MDD and ND participants, regardless of their current clinical status. Before CBT, significant co-expression network of specific transcripts existed in MDD subjects who subsequently remitted in response to CBT, but not in those who remained depressed. Thus, blood levels of different transcript panels may identify the depressed from the nondepressed among primary care patients, during a depressive episode or in remission, or follow and predict response to CBT in depressed individuals. PMID:25226551

  15. Toward a more stable blood supply: charitable incentives, donation rates, and the experience of September 11.

    PubMed

    Sass, Reuben G

    2013-01-01

    Although excess blood collection has characterized U.S. national disasters, most dramatically in the case of September 11, periodic shortages of blood have recurred for decades. In response, I propose a new model of medical philanthropy, one that specifically uses charitable contributions to health care as blood donation incentives. I explain how the surge in blood donations following 9/11 was both transient and disaster-specific, failing to foster a greater continuing commitment to donate blood. This underscores the importance of considering blood donation incentives. I defend charitable incentives as an alternative to financial incentives, which I contend would further extend neoliberal market values into health care. I explain my model's potential appeal to private foundations or public-private partnerships as a means for expanding both the pool of blood donors and the prosocial benefit of each act of blood donation. Finally I link my analysis to the empirical literature on blood donation incentives. PMID:23641850

  16. Late Holocene development of a major fluvial discontinuity in floodplain wetlands of the Blood River, eastern South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, Stephen; McCarthy, Terence; Rodnight, Helena; Keen-Zebert, Amanda; Rowberry, Matthew; Brandt, Dion

    2014-01-01

    In dryland settings, most floodplain wetlands form in low gradient, low energy environments that are characterised by strong interactions between flow, sediment and biota. Some floodplain wetlands are only partly channelled or largely unchannelled, and represent major discontinuities in drainage networks, fundamentally influencing downvalley water and sediment transfer. In the > 15 km2 Blood River floodplain wetlands, located in subhumid to semiarid eastern South Africa, field investigations, aerial photographs, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages provide evidence for development of a major discontinuity during the very late Holocene. Between ~ 800 and 100 years ago, the wetlands were characterised by a through-going, meandering channel set within a floodplain up to 2.5 km wide. A sinuous channel remains in the lower part of the wetlands but during the last ~ 100 years major morphological and sedimentary changes have occurred upvalley. The former through-going, meandering channel has been replaced by a straighter channel that decreases in size downstream and terminates in a 'floodout', characterised here by an unchannelled reedbed. Small tributaries supply water and limited sediment to this floodout and another floodout located farther downvalley. Organo-clastic sediments > 3 m thick have accumulated in the floodouts as broad lobes, in places burying the former meander-belt sediments. On the steepened, downvalley sides of these lobes, small headcutting channels convey water that filters through the reedbeds. If headcutting through the lobes continues, a through-going channel may re-establish upvalley, possibly eventually linking with the sinuous but now moribund channel in the lower part of the wetlands. Along the Blood River, the initial cause(s) of the sequence of changes is not known, but these channel-floodplain adjustments are partially analogous to the system-scale, autogenic morphological and sedimentary dynamics of those dryland fluvial systems that are also characterised by a combination of channelled and unchannelled landforms (e.g. discontinuous ephemeral streams, erosion cells). Knowledge of these historical changes can provide scientific underpinning for present-day management of wetlands, including assessments of ecosystem service provision and the suitability of measures to control erosion.

  17. Compensation of CD55 Underexpression on Red Blood Cells of ?-Thalassemia Major Patients.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Jamil M A S; Abo El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghanem, Amal M; El-Hadidi, Abeer S; Mersal, Basma H M

    2015-01-01

    ?-Thalassemia (?-thal), is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations at the ? gene locus. ?-Thalassemia major (?-TM) is a severe form of the disease, characterized by severe hypochromic and hemolytic anemia with an increased need for transfusion. Hemolysis is caused by intoxication, whereas mechanical removal of the affected cells caused by macrophage. Immunological implications are also reported and occur via antibodies and complement. We found previously that complement inhibitor receptor CD55 is underexpressed in these patients. This study concerns the compensatory mechanisms of this diminished expression upon flow cytometry analysis of CD55 and CD59 on the red blood cells (RBCs) of ?-thal patients. This study was conducted on 24 patients and 10 healthy controls. Full history and transfusion data was obtained, then a complete blood count (CBC) and flow cytometry analysis of CD55 and CD59 on erythrocytes were carried out. Within our 24 patients, we found a diminished expression of CD55 with a normal expression of CD59. The percentage of cells that express CD55 was significantly different from that of the controls. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of CD55 and CD59 with correlation studies reveals that different factors affect the underexpression of CD55 and also revealed compensatory changes of the defect to minimize the hemolysis occurring in ?-thal patients. Compensation of CD55 underexpression in the deficient patients occurred when an increase in the MFI of both the receptor CD55, on the positive cells, and another complement inhibitor receptor CD59. PMID:25897480

  18. Major gene analysis of quantitative variation in blood clotting factor X levels.

    PubMed Central

    Siervogel, R M; Elston, R C; Lester, R H; Graham, J B

    1979-01-01

    Blood clotting factor ten (X) levels measured in 149 people in six pedigrees were found to fit a mixture of normal distributions. No environmental effect could be identified to account for the wide separation in the means of these distributions. Pedigree analysis reveals that the data are compatible with an autosomal, one locus, two allele genetic model affecting factor X activity. Goodness of fit tests suggest that the allele for low levels of factor X is dominant, though on the basis of likelihood tests, mean heterozygote levels are different from mean homozygote levels. A similar bimodal distribution for factor X levels observed previously in a separate sample of 207 young men, indicated that the proposed dominant allele has an estimated population gene frequency of .53. The earlier estimate is remarkably similar to that obtained with the currently ascertained pedigrees. The postulated major gene accounts for more than half of the variation in factor X levels. PMID:453203

  19. Blood diagnostic biomarkers for major depressive disorder using multiplex DNA methylation profiles: discovery and validation

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Shusuke; Ishii, Kazuo; Tajima, Atsushi; Iga, Jun-ichi; Kinoshita, Makoto; Watanabe, Shinya; Umehara, Hidehiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Okada, Satoshi; Boku, Shuken; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Shimodera, Shinji; Imoto, Issei; Morinobu, Shigeru; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) has been reported in several previous studies. However, no comprehensive studies using medication-free subjects with MDD have been conducted. Furthermore, the majority of these previous studies has been limited to the analysis of the CpG sites in CpG islands (CGIs) in the gene promoter regions. The main aim of the present study is to identify DNA methylation markers that distinguish patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of peripheral leukocytes was conducted in two set of samples, a discovery set (20 medication-free patients with MDD and 19 controls) and a replication set (12 medication-free patients with MDD and 12 controls), using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Significant diagnostic differences in DNA methylation were observed at 363 CpG sites in the discovery set. All of these loci demonstrated lower DNA methylation in patients with MDD than in the controls, and most of them (85.7%) were located in the CGIs in the gene promoter regions. We were able to distinguish patients with MDD from the control subjects with high accuracy in the discriminant analysis using the top DNA methylation markers. We also validated these selected DNA methylation markers in the replication set. Our results indicate that multiplex DNA methylation markers may be useful for distinguishing patients with MDD from non-psychiatric controls. PMID:25587773

  20. Perioperative factors and outcome associated with massive blood loss during major liver resections

    PubMed Central

    Blondeau, B; Wittek, BJ

    2004-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity rates from major liver resections have decreased sharply over the past 25 years. This improvement is due to a better understanding of liver anatomy and the introduction of new operative techniques, but also to improved anesthetic perioperative support. Certain cases are still associated with voluminous blood loss. These patients may be at higher risk for postoperative problems and increased length of stay (LOS) in hospital. Methods We have retrospectively reviewed 115 patients undergoing major hepatic resections (three or more anatomic segments) with respect to operative blood loss (EBL). Those with an EBL ?5000 ml (group 1; n = 39) were compared to those with an EBL ?2000 ml (group 2; n=42). Type of resection, age (?70 years), tumor size, mortality, morbidity, and hospital LOS were examined. Operative reports were examined for any explanation for excessive blood loss. Anesthetic support often entailed the use of a rapid infusion system. Results The EBL was 76923848 ml for group 1 and 1359514 ml for group 2. Primary liver tumors were resected in 20 patients in group 1 and in 18 patients in group 2. The remaining resections were for metastatic tumors, primarily colorectal in origin. In group 1, 13/39 patients had a left hepatectomy compared to 10/42 patients in group 2 (p=0.34). The overall mortality was 5/1 15. Four deaths occurred in group 1 and one in group 2 (p=0.16). Two deaths in group 1 were intra-operative (hemorrhage, air embolism). There was no difference in the number of patients with complications, 12/ 39 in group 1 and 8/42 in group 2 (p=0.22). Two patients in group 1 required re-operation for bleeding; there were none in group 2. Largest tumor size did not differ between the two groups (p=0.08), nor did the proportion of patients aged 70 years or older (p=0.06). There was no difference in hospital LOS (10.546.1 vs 8.904.7 days, p=0.2l). Review of operative notes in group 1 indicated no unusual problems in 13/39, large tumors or proximity to the inferior vena cava in 10/39, and bleeding from the middle hepatic vein in 7/39. Three patients in group 1 required total vascular exclusion for tumor removal; there were none in group 2. Discussion Massive EBL during major liver resection seems to be provoked by tumors near the inferior vena cava or major hepatic veins, or injury to the middle hepatic vein during operation, and not by patient age, tumor size alone, or type of hepatectomy. However, by avoiding prolonged hypotension and hypothermia with the use of rapid infusion devices, the perioperative course of these patients does not differ from those with much less EBL. PMID:18333073

  1. Scintiangiographic demonstration of parasitization of systemic blood supply by inflammatory lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Lee, V.W.; Shapiro, J.H.

    1985-03-01

    An unusual case in which a computed tomogram demonstrated abnormal, enlarged vessels in the right lower lobe of the lung and suggested an arteriovenous malformation is presented. A scintiangiogram showed abnormal systemic supply to this area in the aortic phase. Contrast angiography demonstrated hypertrophy of the right inferior phrenic artery with abnormal systemic supply to the pleura and parenchyma of the right lower lobe, presumably on the basis of old infection.

  2. The functioning in unanaesthetized sheep of the popliteal lymph node after the surgical removal of its blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, J. G.; Sinnett, H. D.

    1987-01-01

    Operations were performed to cannulate the efferent duct of the popliteal node of sheep and, at the same time, the blood vascular system was removed surgically from the popliteal fossa so that the node was deprived of it blood supply. Twelve preparations were technically successful in that lymph flowed spontaneously from the unanaesthetised sheep for from 3 to 30 days after the operation. Eight control preparations were established in which the blood supply of the node with the cannulated efferent duct was left intact. In only four of the test preparations was the function of the node decisively impaired so that dendritic macrophages appeared in the lymph, the output of lymphocytes remained very low, and later histological examination showed the nodes to be grossly depleted of lymphocytes. In two of these four preparations the surgical devascularization of the node was aided by arterial embolization. In the remaining eight test preparations the outputs of lymphocytes in the lymph gradually regained normal values, and the nodes then responded normally to antigenic stimuli. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3814497

  3. Targeting growth factor supply in keratopathy treatment: comparison between maternal peripheral blood and cord blood as sources for the preparation of topical eye drops

    PubMed Central

    Versura, Piera; Buzzi, Marina; Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Terzi, Adriana; Fresina, Michela; Velati, Claudio; Campos, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epitheliotrophic growth factors (GF) can be supplied topically to patients with severe keratopathy through a variety of blood-derived products. We compared GF content in adult peripheral blood serum (PB-S) and cord blood serum (CB-S) as potential sources of GF. To limit inter-individual variability the assessment was performed in maternal-child pairs at the time of delivery. Material and methods The amounts of epidermal GF (EGF), insulin-like GF (IGF), transforming GF-beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) in CB units collected from the umbilical vein and PB from mothers (each group n=30) were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Obstetric characteristics and haematological data were recorded from the archives of the Emilia Romagna Cord Blood Bank. Statistical evaluations were performed by Wilcoxon’s test and correlations between variables were determined using Spearman’s (ρ) coefficient; p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results EGF, TGF-β and VEGF levels were significantly higher in CB-S than in PB-S (median 1,254.4 vs 646.0 pg/mL, 51.3 vs 38.4 μg/mL and 686.8 vs 30 pg/mL, respectively; all p<0.0001) whereas IGF content was significantly higher in PB-S than in CB-S (159.9 vs 53.5 pg/mL, respectively; p<0.0001). In CB-S, the CD34+ cell concentration appeared to be related to EGF, IGF and TGF-β levels whereas white blood cell count appeared to be related to EGF and TGF-β levels. VEGF levels showed no relation to the haematological parameters considered. Platelet counts were not related to GF level in either CB or PB. Discussion The GF content in the two blood sources was different, with CB containing larger amounts. Each GF selectively regulates cellular processes involved in corneal healing, so the use of PB or CB should be targeted to supply specific GF on the basis of the type and severity of the keratopathy. PMID:26192781

  4. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  5. Rapid multispectral endoscopic imaging system for near real-time mapping of the mucosa blood supply in the lung.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Yasser; Lam, Stephen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a fast multispectral endoscopic imaging system that is capable of acquiring images in 18 optimized spectral bands spanning 400-760 nm by combining a customized light source with six triple-band filters and a standard color CCD camera. A method is developed to calibrate the spectral response of the CCD camera. Imaging speed of 15 spectral image cubes/second is achieved. A spectral analysis algorithm based on a linear matrix inversion approach is developed and implemented in a graphics processing unit (GPU) to map the mucosa blood supply in the lung in vivo. Clinical measurements on human lung patients are demonstrated. PMID:26309761

  6. Designing and Constructing an Optical Monitoring System of Blood Supply to Tissues under Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Akbari; Amin, Younessi Heravi Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Reduced blood flow due to obstruction is in most cases a primary factor in pressure ulcer formation and creation of bedsores. The aim of this study is to design and manufacture a care system for tissue under pressure, based on variations in blood flow at different depths of tissue. In the manufacture of the system two infrared light transmitters and receivers were located between 5 and 10 mm depth to measure the flow of blood at different in the under- pressure heel tissue. In addition, blood flow was evaluated in an unloaded and loaded condition, with 30 mmHg and 60.0 mmHg. A total of 15 people participated with a mean age of 50. Of these 15; 9 (60%) were men and 6 (40%) were women. Primary measurement results showed different individual differences in variation of blood flow in the tissue. To study signal amplitude changes significantly influenced by external pressure the PPG, P-value was measured. It was noted that there were significant changes in PPG signal amplitude during loading both pressures of 30 and 60 mmHg. Further development of this system would be possible with the use of a more flexible probe and by using a stronger optical receiver and transmitter to access more depth. PMID:23626948

  7. How to approach major surgery where patients refuse blood transfusion (including Jehovah's Witnesses).

    PubMed Central

    Gohel, M. S.; Bulbulia, R. A.; Slim, F. J.; Poskitt, K. R.; Whyman, M. R.

    2005-01-01

    Jehovah's Witnesses do not permit the use of allogeneic blood products. An increasing number of patients are refusing blood transfusion for non-religious reasons. In addition, blood stores are decreasing, and costs are increasing. Transfusion avoidance strategies are, therefore, desirable. Bloodless surgery refers to the co-ordinated peri-operative care of patients aiming to avoid blood transfusion, and improve patient outcomes. These principles are likely to gain popularity, and become standard practice for all patients. This review offers a practical approach to the surgical management of Jehovah's Witnesses, and an introduction to the principles of bloodless surgery that can be applied to the management of all patients. PMID:15720900

  8. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  9. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  10. Clinical significance of blood supply to the internal capsule and basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Djuleji?, Vuk; Marinkovi?, Slobodan; Georgievski, Biljana; Stijak, Lazar; Aksi?, Milan; Puka, Laslo; Mili?, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Although the general vascular supply of the basal ganglia and internal capsule is well known, precise data are lacking regarding the variations of the vascular territories in the two regions. Twelve hemispheres were studied following an injection of coloured ink into the main cerebral arteries, namely the anterior cerebral (ACA), middle cerebral (MCA), anterior choroidal (AChA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Serial sections of the injected hemispheres were taken in the axial or coronal plane. In 75% of the hemispheres, ACA perforators were seen to supply the inferomedial part of the head of the caudate nucleus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule, as well as the anterior and inferior portions of the putamen and globus pallidus. The MCA vessels perfused the superolateral part of the head and body of the caudate nucleus, the superior part of the entire internal capsule, most of the putamen and part of the globus pallidus. The AChA perforators perfused the medial segment of the globus pallidus, the inferior part of the posterior limb, the retrolenticular and sublenticular portions of the internal capsule, and occasionally its genu. The same segment of the globus pallidus and the inferior part of the genu of the internal capsule were most likely supplied by the perforators of the internal carotid artery. A predominance of ACA territory was noticed in one specimen (8.33%) and a predominance of MCA territory in two specimens (16.67%). The obtained anatomical data may help radiologic determination of perforators involved in ischemic events, as well as a better understanding of the neurological deficits in the same events. PMID:26596401

  11. Drought-related impacts on municipal and major self-supplied industrial water withdrawals in Tennessee. Parts A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, F.M.; Keck, L.A.; Conn, L.G.; Wentz, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    During 1981, 463 public community water facilities supplied water to approximately 3,814,000 people or 83% of the 1980 population of Tennessee. Total water supplied was 566.1 million gallons per day of which 346.8 millions gallons per day or 61% was from surface-water sources and 219.3 million gallons per day or 39% was from ground water. Ground water was used for public supply statewide, however, it was the sole source of public supply west of the Tennessee River basin. Of the 219.3 million gallons per day used statewide, 164.0 million gallons per day or 75% was used in West Tennessee. Statewide 129 companies indicated a self-supplied water use of 0.1 million gallons per day or more. The total self-supplied water used by these companies was 1,106.7 million gallons per day of which 1,006.8 million gallons per day or 91% was surface water while 99.9 million gallons per day or 9% was ground water. Analysis of the study results and findings indicates that many communities in Tennessee do experience occasional water-supply, quantity-related shortages. Some type of problem was reported at 107 of the public water suppliers and 23 of the self-supplied commercial and industrial water users. Altogether, 172 problems were reported which could be grouped into 18 types. Occasional turbidity, inadequate storage capacity, inadequate water supply during droughts, and excessive water losses due to leaks in distribution lines accounted for 110 or 64% of the problems reported. Twenty-five or 15% of the problems reported were related to water shortage. Only two large, self-supplied industries reported experiencing water shortage during periods of droughts. Both were located in the Tennessee River basin. No problems were reported by industry in the West Tennessee area or in the Cumberland River basin.

  12. Projection of Morbidity 2030 and 2050: Impact for the National Health System and Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Katalinic, Alexander; Peters, Elke; Beske, Fritz; Pritzkuleit, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background The German population will decrease by 16% until 2050, and the ratio of young to old people is shifting towards the elderly. Because risk of disease rises with age, an aging society will be confronted with a higher burden of diseases. Methods A projection of status quo case numbers and crude rates of selected diseases was done for the years 2030 and 2050. Actual sex- and age-specific rates were transferred to the predicted population figures (11th coordinated population prediction). Results Cancer incidence will rise from 461,000 (2007) to 588,000 cases (2050) (+27%). Crude incidence rate will increase by 52%. Number of femoral neck fractures will rise by 88% (rate +122%). For other diseases incidence and prevalence will increase up to 144%. Conclusion Blood (products) will be necessary for the therapy of many of the presented diseases. Therefore, it can be assumed that future demand of blood will rise in a similar manner as the rising number of diseases. The projected developments describe an extraordinary challenge for the German health care system and in particular for transfusion medicine. It is necessary to develop new concepts to meet this future demands and to ensure a high-performance health care system. PMID:20737019

  13. Drought-related impacts on municipal and major self-supplied industrial water withdrawals in Tennessee -- Part A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Frank M.; Keck, Lee A.; Conn, Lewis G.; Wentz, Stanley J.

    1984-01-01

    A state-wide water use survey was conducted of all public water suppliers and large, self-supplied industries in Tennessee. This report contains a summation of the data received from 463 public-water suppliers and 129 self-supplied water users. Analysis of the study results and findings indicate that many communities in Tennessee do experience occasional water supply, quantity-related shortages. A total of 142 problems were reported by 107 of the public water suppliers. However, only 22 of the problems were a result of inadequate source supply. Although only three industries reported a water shortage problem , 20 were identified as having a potential water-supply source problem. West Tennessee was the only section of the state where all communities and industries surveyed reported an adequate water supply. The effects of a drought on the environment--specifically, wetlands, fish wildlife, and recreational-users--are briefly described, although there was no evidence that water withdrawn by communities or industry would directly affect the environment. This study appears to verify the conclusions that an extended drought, although directly affecting the supply to some communities and industries, may actually affect water quality and wastewater treatment more accurately by decreasing the ability of the source to assimilate wastes. (USGS)

  14. Drought-related impacts on municipal and major self-supplied industrial water withdrawals in Tennessee -- Part B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Frank M.; Keck, Lee A.; Conn, Lewis G.; Wentz, Stanley J.

    1984-01-01

    A state-wide water use survey was conducted of all public water suppliers and large, self-supplied industries in Tennessee. This report contains a summation of the data received from 463 public-water suppliers and 129 self-supplied water users. Analysis of the study results and findings indicate that many communities in Tennessee do experience occasional water supply, quantity-related shortages. A total of 142 problems were reported by 107 of the public water suppliers. However, only 22 of the problems were a result of inadequate source supply. Although only three industries reported a water shortage problem , 20 were identified as having a potential water-supply source problem. West Tennessee was the only section of the state where all communities and industries surveyed reported an adequate water supply. The effects of a drought on the environment--specifically, wetlands, fish wildlife, and recreational-users--are briefly described, although there was no evidence that water withdrawn by communities or industry would directly affect the environment. This study appears to verify the conclusions that an extended drought, although directly affecting the supply to some communities and industries, may actually affect water quality and wastewater treatment more accurately by decreasing the ability of the source to assimilate wastes. (USGS)

  15. Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula of the Scalp in the Left Temporoparietal Region with Intra- and Extracranial Blood Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Feng; Augustus Pitts, Herbert; Goldbrunner, Roland; Krischek, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic AVF of the scalp is a rare abnormal vascular disease. It is defined as a communication between the high flow arterial system and the low flow venous network, which directly connects the arterial feeding vessels of the scalp and the draining veins without an intervening capillary bed. The superficial temporal artery (STA) was involved in 90% of the cases, and 71% of the patients only had one dominant feeding STA. Here, we report the case of a rare large traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) of the scalp that is fed by intra- and extracranial blood supply. The clinical and radiological features are presented, and the possible pathogenesis and surgical technique are discussed. PMID:26885435

  16. Family History Fails to Detect the Majority of Children with High Capillary Blood Total Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Dennis M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    To examine the predictive value of family history in detecting children with high blood cholesterol, finger-stick screening was done in children (n=1,118) ages 9-10 with parental and grandparental history of cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Findings showed that screening only children with positive family histories will leave most problems

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S. )

    1990-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms.

  18. Safety of the blood supply. Surrogate testing and transmission of hepatitis C in patients after massive transfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J A; Wilcox, T R; Reed, G W; Hunter, E B; Wallas, C H; Steane, E A; Shotts, S D; Vitsky, J L

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define a risk profile for post-transfusion hepatitis C in patients receiving massive transfusion. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Hepatitis C accounts for more than 90% of post-transfusion hepatitis. METHODS: Two-hundred twenty-one of 8,765 consecutive trauma admissions to a Level I trauma center received more than 20 units of erythrocytes. Sixty-nine survivors had positive viral serologic tests at least 1 year after transfusion. Surrogate testing for hepatitis C using alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (Core) began in October 1986 and January 1987, respectively. Donor blood for group 1 (pre-ALT/Core) was transfused before surrogate screening was introduced. Donor blood for group 2 (post-ALT/Core) was transfused after surrogate screening. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients received blood products from 4,987 donors (mean, 72.3 units of exposure). No patient tested positive for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen, human immunodeficiency virus, or human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1. However 23.2% tested positive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) as measured by a second-generation enzyme immunoassay (HCV 2.0) and a recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA), and 21.7% tested positive by HCV 1.0. Antibodies to Core were found in 8.7% of patients. The risk for post-transfusion hepatitis C per unit of exposure is estimated to be 1.52% group 1 (pre-ALT/Core) and 0.239% for group 2 (post-ALT/Core). CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of ALT/Core donor screening by a blood bank reduced the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis C by 84%. The risk for post-transfusion hepatitis C depends on units of exposure, screening techniques, and prevalence of hepatitis C in the donor population. In our community, the risk for post-transfusion hepatitis C is less than 0.2% per unit of exposure. The population of massively transfused patients may serve as our effective resource for monitoring the safety of the blood supply. PMID:7514394

  19. Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscositya Major Factor in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Gatan; Sinatra, Stephen T.; Delany, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Emerging research is revealing that direct physical contact of the human body with the surface of the earth (grounding or earthing) has intriguing effects on human physiology and health, including beneficial effects on various cardiovascular risk factors. This study examined effects of 2 hours of grounding on the electrical charge (zeta potential) on red blood cells (RBCs) and the effects on the extent of RBC clumping. Design/interventions Subjects were grounded with conductive patches on the soles of their feet and palms of their hands. Wires connected the patches to a stainless-steel rod inserted in the earth outdoors. Small fingertip pinprick blood samples were placed on microscope slides and an electric field was applied to them. Electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs was determined by measuring terminal velocities of the cells in video recordings taken through a microscope. RBC aggregation was measured by counting the numbers of clustered cells in each sample. Settings/location Each subject sat in a comfortable reclining chair in a soundproof experiment room with the lights dimmed or off. Subjects Ten (10) healthy adult subjects were recruited by word-of-mouth. Results Earthing or grounding increased zeta potentials in all samples by an average of 2.70 and significantly reduced RBC aggregation. Conclusions Grounding increases the surface charge on RBCs and thereby reduces blood viscosity and clumping. Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events. PMID:22757749

  20. ?-alanine and l-histidine transport across the inner blood-retinal barrier: potential involvement in L-carnosine supply.

    PubMed

    Usui, Takuya; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The supply of L-carnosine, a bioactive dipeptide of ?-alanine and l-histidine, to the retina across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was studied. The in vivo and in vitro studies revealed low uptake activities for [(3)H]Gly-Sar, a representative dipeptide, suggesting that l-carnosine transport plays only a minor role at the BRB. The in vivo study using rats showed approximately 18- and 23-fold greater retinal uptake indexes (RUI) for [(3)H]?-alanine and [(3)H]l-histidine compared with that of a paracellular marker, respectively. The RUI of [(3)H]?-alanine was taurine- and ?-aminobutyric acid-sensitive, and the in vitro uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells showed time- concentration- and temperature-dependent [(3)H]?-alanine uptake, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved in ?-alanine transport across the inner BRB. [(3)H]?-Alanine uptake was inhibited by taurine and ?-guanidinopropionic acid, suggesting that taurine transporter (TAUT/SLC6A6) is responsible for the influx transport of ?-alanine across the inner BRB. Regarding l-histidine, the l-leucine-sensitive RUI of [(3)H]l-histidine was identified, and the in vitro [(3)H]l-histidine uptake by TR-iBRB2 cells suggested that a carrier-mediated process was involved in l-histidine transport across the inner BRB. The inhibition profile suggested that L-type amino acid transporter (LAT1/SLC7A5) is responsible for the influx transport of l-histidine across the inner BRB. These results show that the influx transports of ?-alanine and l-histidine across the inner BRB is carried out by TAUT and LAT1, respectively, suggesting that the retinal l-carnosine is supplied by enzymatic synthesis from two kinds of amino acids transported across the inner BRB. PMID:23773890

  1. The effect of hepatic vascular exclusion on hepatic blood flow and oxygen supply--uptake ratio in the pig.

    PubMed

    Lpez Santamaria, M; Gamez, M; Murcia, J; Paz Cruz, J A; Bueno, J; Canser, E; Qi, B; Lobato, R; Martinez, L; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1997-10-01

    The hemodynamic disturbances produced by total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE) for 40 minutes were studied in 7 pigs (19-22 kg). THVE was produced by clamping the hepatic pedicle and inferior vena cava, above and below the liver, for a 40-minutes period, followed by unclamping. Compared to baseline values, 30 minutes after onset of THVE, there was a decrease in cardiac output (3.86 +/- 0.55 vs 1.23 +/- 0.23 L x min-1), systemic arterial pressure (97.54 +/- 13.58 vs 43.43 +/- 11.38 mm Hg), and pulmonary artery pressure (16.57 +/- 6.38 vs 12.57 +/- 3.58) and an increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (1772 +/- 198 vs 2351 +/- 462, and 182 +/- 66 vs 361 +/- 124 dyn x s x cm-5 respectively). As a result of diminished cardiac output, the systemic oxygen supply decreased (461 +/- 131 vs 101 +/- 46 ml x min-1), but the systemic oxygen extraction rate rose from 17.3% t0 31.2%. Thirty minutes after unclamping, the changes had reversed and all the parameters tended to normalize. Total hepatic blood flow 30 minutes after unclamping was higher than at baseline (5.08 +/- 1.2 vs 6.66 +/- 0.67 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1), because of the increase in portal blood flow (4.52 +/- 1.21 vs 6.07 +/- 0.70 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1). There were no significant differences in hepatic oxygen supply and uptake at baseline and after unclamping (152.6 +/- 23.0 vs 187.0 +/- 34.7 and 22.7 +/- 4.9 vs 28.7 +/- 8.4 ml O2 respectively). AST rose (29 +/- 7 vs 136 +/- 91 U/l), but there was no change in the remaining liver enzymes, glucose, creatinine and serum electrolytes, so we conclude that the hemodynamic disturbances produced by 40 minutes of THVE are manageable and spontaneously reversible. Liver metabolism was not greatly disturbed, so THVE was judged to be a viable technique to be added to the surgeon's range of options. PMID:9402483

  2. Supply with Platelet Concentrates from the Point of View of a Blood Donation Service of the Bavarian Red Cross

    PubMed Central

    Weinauer, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background It is known that pooled platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat (PCs) have several disadvantages compared to platelet concentrates produced by platelet apheresis (APCs). Therefore, all blood products issued by the Bavarian Red Cross blood banks (BSD/BRK) (18,000 products/year) were produced by single donor apheresis. The main reason not to produce PCs was the elevated viral and bacterial infection risk during the last decade. But also the four-fold increased exposition to HLA and PLA antigens and the poor quality (in the sense of white and red cell contamination) of PCs (especially the ones produced with the platelet-rich plasma method) played a role to abstain from these products. Material and Methods We performed a risk assessment to evaluate both products with regard to the actual testing and production methods, considering recently published data. However, a statistical calculation of the risks associated with the use of PCs or APCs with regard to different infectious agents with various prevalences was not done. Results The dramatically reduced risk for the transmission of HIV, HBV or HCV accompanying the implementation of improved antibody tests and of NAT minipool testing, the introduction of 100% leukocyte filtration, the conversion of PC production from the platelet-rich to the buffy coat method, and recent data on the risk of transmission of bacterial infections resulted in a equal assessment of APCs and PCs. Conclusion As a consequence of this revised risk assessment, we supply our hospitals with both products APCs and buffy coat-derived PCs (pools of 4 donors). For clinical use we considered both products as equally effective, except for patients who have multiple antibodies and need HLA-typed platelets. PMID:21512638

  3. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo of six human melanoma xenograft lines: tumour bioenergetic status and blood supply.

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, H.; Olsen, D. R.; Southon, T. E.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1993-01-01

    Six human melanoma xenograft lines grown s.c. in BALB/c-nu/nu mice were subjected to 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy in vivo. The following resonances were detected: phosphomonoesters (PME), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), phosphocreatine (PCr) and nucleoside triphosphate gamma, alpha and beta (NTP gamma, alpha and beta). The main purpose of the work was to search for possible relationships between 31P-NMR resonance ratios and tumour pH on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The latter parameter was measured by using the 86Rb uptake method. Tumour bioenergetic status [the (PCr + NTP beta)/Pi resonance ratio], tumour pH and blood supply per viable tumour cell decreased with increasing tumour volume for five of the six xenograft lines. The decrease in tumour bioenergetic status was due to a decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio as well as an increase in the Pi/total resonance ratio. The decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio was mainly a consequence of a decrease in the PCr/total resonance ratio for two lines and mainly a consequence of a decrease in the NTP beta/total resonance ratio for three lines. The magnitude of the decrease in the (PCr + NTP beta)/total resonance ratio and the magnitude of the decrease in tumour pH were correlated to the magnitude of the decrease in blood supply per viable tumour cell. Tumour pH decreased with decreasing tumour bioenergetic status, and the magnitude of this decrease was larger for the tumour lines showing a high than for those showing a low blood supply per viable tumour cell. No correlations across the tumour lines were found between tumour pH and tumour bioenergetic status or any other resonance ratio on the one hand and blood supply per viable tumour cell on the other. The differences in the 31P-NMR spectrum between the tumour lines were probably caused by differences in the intrinsic biochemical properties of the tumour cells rather than by the differences in blood supply per viable tumour cell. Biochemical properties of particular importance included rate of respiration, glycolytic capacity and tolerance to hypoxic stress. On the other hand, tumour bioenergetic status and tumour pH were correlated to blood supply per viable tumour cell within individual tumour lines. These observations suggest that 31P-NMR spectroscopy may be developed to be a clinically useful method for monitoring tumour blood supply and parameters related to tumour blood supply during and after physiological intervention and tumour treatment. However, clinically useful parameters for prediction of tumour treatment resistance caused by insufficient blood supply can probably not be derived from a single 31P-NMR spectrum since correlations across tumour lines were not detected; additional information is needed. PMID:8260356

  4. Solid hemangioblastoma in the cerebellopontine angle: Importance of external carotid blood supply with regard to the probable site of origin and preoperative embolization

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Rajesh Kumar; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Gupta, Vivek; Anirudh, Srinivasan; Chatterjee, Debajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemangioblastoma (HBL) is rare in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) with questionable origin and limited access for circumferential dissection and “en-bloc” excision. We report a case of surgical removal of large solid CPA-HBL and discuss the pattern of blood supply suggesting its origin and indicating preoperative embolization. Case Description: The solid and highly vascular CPA-HBL had feeders mainly from neuromeningeal division of ascending pharyngeal branch of external carotid artery, suggesting true extra-axial origin. We could achieve “en-bloc” excision without significant blood loss or morbidity using preoperative embolization. Conclusion: Large solid HBL is rare in CPA necessitating arduous “en-bloc” excision. The pattern of blood supply probably indicates the site of origin and safety of preoperative embolization. PMID:26862451

  5. Major acid endopeptidases of the blood-feeding monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae).

    PubMed

    Jedličková, Lucie; Dvořáková, Hana; Kašný, Martin; Ilgová, Jana; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Mikeš, Libor

    2016-04-01

    In parasitic flatworms, acid endopeptidases are involved in crucial processes, including digestion, invasion, interactions with the host immune system, etc. In haematophagous monogeneans, however, no solid information has been available about the occurrence of these enzymes. Here we aimed to identify major cysteine and aspartic endopeptidase activities in Eudiplozoon nipponicum, an invasive haematophagous parasite of common carp. Employing biochemical, proteomic and molecular tools, we found that cysteine peptidase activities prevailed in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products (ESP) of E. nipponicum; the major part was cathepsin L-like in nature supplemented with cathepsin B-like activity. Significant activity of the aspartic cathepsin D also occurred in soluble protein extracts. The degradation of haemoglobin in the presence of ESP and worm protein extracts was completely inhibited by a combination of cysteine and aspartic peptidase inhibitors, and diminished by particular cathepsin L, B and D inhibitors. Mass spectrometry revealed several tryptic peptides in ESP matching to two translated sequences of cathepsin L genes, which were amplified from cDNA of E. nipponicum and bioinformatically annotated. The dominance of cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L type in E. nipponicum resembles the situation in, e.g. fasciolid trematodes. PMID:26888494

  6. Differential patterns of relaxation by atrial natriuretic peptide in major blood vessels of two distantly related teleosts.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, A; Helle, K B

    1994-09-22

    In order to elucidate the role of the atrial hormone in the teleost circulation, the vascular effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been compared in major blood vessels of the cod (Gadus morhua) and of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The relaxing effects of ANP from eel (eANP) have been examined in ventral aorta (VA) versus dorsal aorta (DA) in the cod and in VA versus the coeliaco mesenteric artery (CMA), a major branch of DA, in the salmon. The vessels were precontracted by acetylcholine (ACh) and adrenaline (A) and by the mammalian endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1). The role of endothelial integrity for these responses has been assessed in vessels either mechanically probed or chemically impaired by indomethacin or the L-arginine analogue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Adrenaline and noradrenaline (NA) failed to contract the salmon VA. In the salmon vessels, eANP was without relaxing effects in ACh-contracted VA, while completely relaxing CMA when precontracted with ACh. The eANP was also a relaxant of A-contracted CMA and of ET-1-contracted VA. The cod vessels, which were insensitive to ACh were markedly relaxed by eANP when precontracted with either A (VA) or ET-1 (DA). In DA also the resting tension was reversed, an effect of eANP that was highly potentiated in mechanical probed vessels. Otherwise the relaxing effects of eANP in these vessels were seemingly independent of endothelial factors. In conclusion ANP is not a general relaxant of the precontracted VA which in teleosts is the first possible target vessel for the myocardial release of this hormone. On the arterial side ANP serves as a relaxant both in the salmon and the cod vessels, indicating that myocardial release of ANP in teleosts may have an important role in regulation of blood flow via diverse, species-specific effects on major blood vessels on both sides of the gills. PMID:7831502

  7. Genetic demonstration of intestinal NPC1L1 as a major determinant of hepatic cholesterol and blood atherogenic lipoprotein levels

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ping; Zhu, Hongling; Jia, Lin; Ma, Yinyan; Tang, Weiqing; Wang, Youlin; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Objective The correlation between intestinal cholesterol absorption values and plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remains controversial. Niemann-Pick-C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption, and is the target of ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor. However, studies with NPC1L1 knockout mice or ezetimibe cannot definitively clarify this correlation because NPC1L1 expression is not restricted to intestine in humans and mice. In this study we sought to genetically address this issue. Methods and results We developed a mouse model that lacks endogenous (NPC1L1) and LDL receptor (LDLR) (DKO), but transgenically expresses human NPC1L1 in gastrointestinal tract only (DKO/L1IntOnly mice). Our novel model eliminated potential effects of non-intestinal NPC1L1 on cholesterol homeostasis. We found that human NPC1L1 was localized at the intestinal brush border membrane of DKO/L1IntOnly mice. Cholesterol feeding induced formation of NPC1L1-positive vesicles beneath this membrane in an ezetimibe-sensitive manner. Compared to DKO mice, DKO/L1IntOnly mice showed significant increases in cholesterol absorption and blood/hepatic/biliary cholesterol. Increased blood cholesterol was restricted to very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and LDL fractions, which was associated with increased secretion and plasma levels of apolipoproteins B100 and B48. Additionally, DKO/L1IntOnly mice displayed decreased fecal cholesterol excretion and hepatic/intestinal expression of cholesterologenic genes. Ezetimibe treatment virtually reversed all of the transgene-related phenotypes in DKO/L1IntOnly mice. Conclusion Our findings from DKO/L1IntOnly mice clearly demonstrate that NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption is a major determinant of blood levels of apolipoprotein B-containing atherogenic lipoproteins, at least in mice. PMID:25463095

  8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow with Chaihu-Shugan-San in the treatment of major depression

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Juan; Hu, Sui-Yu; Shi, Guang-Qing; Wang, Su-e

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chaihu-Shugan-San (CHSGS) is a well-known Chinese traditional prescription used for depression. Objective: To observe the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes in patients with major depression and to investigate rCBF and clinical response to CHSGS. Materials and Methods: A total of 33 unmedicated patients with major depression and 12 healthy comparison subjects underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. A total of 33 unmedicated patients with major depression all met the diagnostic criteria of stagnation of liver qi of traditional Chinese medicine and were divided into two groups: CHSGS group (n = 20) and fluoxetine group (n = 13). SPECT imaging was restudied in posttreatment. Results: SPECT detected abnormalities in all (100.0%) patients both in CHSGS group and fluoxetine group. All healthy subjects were normal results. The depressed patients showed rCBF decreased in the multiple regions. The semiquantitative values of bilateral frontal and left temporal lobes both in CHSGS group and fluoxetine group were lower than that in healthy group (P < 0.05). Reexamined SPECT after 8 weeks treatment with CHSGS showed the consistency between the increase in perfusion defects and the improvement of clinical cerebral symptoms. The semiquantitative values increased in posttreatment, when compared with pretreatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: SPECT represents a sensitive tool to detect the major depressive disorder, which show the rCBF decreased. rCBF perfusion defects can be reversed and clinical symptoms can be improved by CHSGS treatment. CHSGS treatment is effective, well-tolerated, and safe for depression. By semiquantitative analysis, SPECT can objectively detect rCBF changes that is useful for guiding treatment. PMID:25422553

  9. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a bleeding disorder. Common bleeding disorders include: Hemophilia (pronounced: hee-muh-FIL-ee-uh), an inherited ... clotting factors in the blood. People with severe hemophilia are at risk for excessive bleeding and bruising ...

  10. Differential expression of microRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as specific biomarker for major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui-min; Sun, Xin-yang; Guo, Wei; Zhong, Ai-fang; Niu, Wei; Zhao, Lin; Dai, Yun-hua; Guo, Zhong-min; Zhang, Li-yi; Lu, Jim

    2014-12-01

    Currently, diagnosis and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) are based on the patients' description of symptoms, mental status examinations, and clinical behavioral observations, which increases the chance of misdiagnosis. There is a serious need to find a practical biomarker for the proper diagnosis of MDD. This study aimed to explore the possibility of microRNA (miRNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as specific blood-based biomarker for MDD patients. By using an Affymetrix array that covers 723 human miRNAs, we identified 26 miRNAs with significant changes in expression in PBMCs of MDD patients. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis in a larger cohort of 81 MDD patients and 46 healthy controls confirmed that the expression levels of 5 miRNAs (miRNA-26b, miRNA-1972, miRNA-4485, miRNA-4498, and miRNA-4743) were up-regulated. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the combining area under the ROC curve (AUC) of these five miRNAs was 0.636 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.90]. MiRNA target gene prediction and functional annotation analysis showed that there was a significant enrichment in several pathways associated with nervous system and brain functions, supporting the hypothesis that differentially-regulated miRNAs may be involved in mechanism underlying development of MDD. We conclude that altered expression of miRNAs in PMBCs might be involved in multiple stages of MDD pathogenesis, and thus might be able to serve as specific biomarker for diagnosis of MDD. PMID:25201637

  11. Careful treatment planning enables safe ablation of liver tumors adjacent to major blood vessels by percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE)

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Bor; Voigt, Peter; Miklavcic, Damijan; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a tissue ablation method, which relies on the phenomenon of electroporation. When cells are exposed to a sufficiently electric field, the plasma membrane is disrupted and cells undergo an apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Although heating effects are known IRE is considered as non-thermal ablation technique and is currently applied to treat tumors in locations where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. Materials and methods. The manufacturer of the only commercially available pulse generator for IRE recommends a voltage-to-distance ratio of 1500 to 1700 V/cm for treating tumors in the liver. However, major blood vessels can influence the electric field distribution. We present a method for treatment planning of IRE which takes the influence of blood vessels on the electric field into account; this is illustrated on a treatment of 48-year-old patient with a metastasis near the remaining hepatic vein after a right side hemi-hepatectomy. Results Output of the numerical treatment planning method shows that a 19.9 cm3 irreversible electroporation lesion was generated and the whole tumor was covered with at least 900 V/cm. This compares well with the volume of the hypodense lesion seen in contrast enhanced CT images taken after the IRE treatment. A significant temperature raise occurs near the electrodes. However, the hepatic vein remains open after the treatment without evidence of tumor recurrence after 6 months. Conclusions Treatment planning using accurate computer models was recognized as important for electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. An important finding of this study was, that the surface of the electrodes heat up significantly. Therefore the clinical user should generally avoid placing the electrodes less than 4 mm away from risk structures when following recommendations of the manufacturer. PMID:26401128

  12. Female sex work and international sport events - no major changes in demand or supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Important unanswered questions remain on the impact of international sporting events on the sex industry. Speculation about increased demand and supply of sex work often generates significant attention, but also additional funding for HIV programmes. This study assessed whether changes occurred in the demand and supply of paid sex during the 2010 Soccer World Cup in South Africa. Methods Trained sex worker interviewers conducted face-to-face semi-structured interviews among consenting female sex workers during May-September 2010. Using bivariate analyses we compared supply, demand, sexual risk-taking, and police and health services contact pre-World Cup, to levels during the World Cup and after the event. Results No increases were detected in indicators of sex work supply, including the proportion of sex workers newly arrived in the city (< 2.5% in each phase) or those recently entering the trade (? 1.5%). Similarly, demand for sex work, indicated by median number of clients (around 12 per week) and amount charged per transaction ($13) remained similar in the three study periods. Only a third of participants reported observing any change in the sex industry ascribed to the World Cup. Self-reported condom-use with clients remained high across all samples (> 92.4% in all phases). Health-care utilisation decreased non-significantly from the pre- to during World Cup period (62.4% to 57.0%; P?=?0.075). Across all periods, about thirty percent of participants had interacted with police in the preceding month, two thirds of whom had negative interactions. Conclusions Contrary to public opinion, no major increases were detected in the demand or supply of paid sex during the World Cup. Although the study design employed was unable to select population-based samples, these findings do not support the public concern and media speculation prior to the event, but rather signal a missed opportunity for public health action. Given the media attention on sex work, future sporting events offer strategic opportunities to implement services for sex workers and their clients, especially as health service utilisation might decrease in this period. PMID:22967260

  13. The March of Extrahepatic Collaterals: Analysis of Blood Supply to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located in the Bare Area of the Liver After Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro Yamashiro, Masashi; Okuda, Miho; Yoshie, Yuichi; Nakashima, Yoshiko; Ikeno, Hiroshi; Orito, Nobuaki; Matsui, Osamu

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in vascular supply to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the bare area of the liver in patients who were mainly treated with chemoembolization. Twenty-six patients with HCC showing a mean diameter of 3.1 {+-} 1.4 cm (mean {+-} standard deviation) were mainly treated with chemoembolization. All patients underwent 2.7 {+-} 2.3 chemoembolization sessions over 40.1 {+-} 25.2 months. Tumor feeding branches demonstrated in each chemoembolization session were retrospectively evaluated. Initially, 18 tumors (59.2%) were supplied by the hepatic artery (H) and 8 (30.8%) by both the hepatic and the extrahepatic arteries (H + C). Fourteen tumors (53.8%) recurred at the posterior aspect of the tumor and were supplied by H (n = 4), H + C (n = 5), and extrahepatic collaterals (C) (n = 5). Several tumors recurred despite repeated chemoembolization, and these were supplied by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 7), and C (n = 2) at the second recurrence, by H (n = 1), H + C (n = 2), and C (n = 3) at the third, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fourth, by H + C (n = 2) and C (n = 2) at the fifth, and by H (n = 1) and C (n = 1) at the sixth. One tumor was supplied by H at the seventh and by H + C at the eighth recurrence. As the number of local recurrences increased, the feeding vessel shifted from H to C. Especially, the right inferior phrenic artery (IPA) and renal capsular artery (RCA) supplied the tumor early, while the small right RCAs, adrenal arteries, and intercostal and lumbar artery supplied late recurrences in turns. In conclusion, HCCs located in the bare area are frequently supplied by extrahepatic vessels initially, while recurrence after chemoembolization is mainly due to extrahepatic blood supply. The right IPA and RCA are common feeding vessels demonstrated early, while other extrahepatic collateral supply from the retroperitoneal circulation occurs in turns during the later course.

  14. Multilayer-strategy to enhance optimal safety of the blood supply: The role of pathogen inactivation for optimizing recipient safety and helping health care cost containment: Moderator views.

    PubMed

    Seghatchian, Jerard

    2015-04-01

    This brief paper is based on the Coimbra 'conference presentation by the moderator', prior to the two main lectures on pathogen reduction treatment [PRT] of plasma. Being an educationist and teacher in core and having a great interest to simplify the message convey to conference' participants and readers I decided to maintain the slide format of the presentation. To highlight most effectively the role played by pathogen reduction to supplement the multilayer-strategy already in place, emphasizes were placed by going back to basic focusing on: where we were, where we are now and where we are going!. The unresolved problems of viral safety of blood components and criteria of universal acceptability of PRT are highlighted so is the need for further DDR strategies both in incremental and innovative ways. Finally the issue of who would benefit from implementation of PRT is described based on published data and also providing some visionary foresights for the long term benefits of PRT in both optimizing the safety of blood supply and helping at least in health care containment. I hope this new approach will be useful to readers, providing at least some conceptual and technical supports in understanding the role of PRT in optimizing the safety of blood supply. PMID:25748230

  15. New insights into the ear region anatomy and cranial blood supply of advanced stem Strepsirhini: evidence from three primate petrosals from the Eocene of Chambi, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Julien; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Lebrun, Renaud; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Marivaux, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    We report the discovery of three isolated primate petrosal fragments from the fossiliferous locality of Chambi (Tunisia), a primate-bearing locality dating from the late early to the early middle Eocene. These fossils display a suite of anatomical characteristics otherwise found only in strepsirhines, and as such might be attributed either to Djebelemur or/and cf. Algeripithecus, the two diminutive stem strepsirhine primates recorded from this locality. Although damaged, the petrosals provide substantial information regarding the ear anatomy of these advanced stem strepsirhines (or pre-tooth-combed primates), notably the patterns of the pathway of the arterial blood supply. Using ?CT-scanning techniques and digital segmentation of the structures, we show that the transpromontorial and stapedial branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) were present (presence of bony tubes), but seemingly too small to supply enough blood to the cranium alone. This suggests that the ICA was not the main cranial blood supply in stem strepsirhines, but that the pharyngeal or vertebral artery primitively ensured a great part of this role instead, an arterial pattern that is reminiscent of modern cheirogaleid, lepilemurid lemuriforms and lorisiforms. This could explain parallel loss of the ICA functionality among these families. Specific measurements made on the cochlea indicate that the small strepsirhine primate(s) from Chambi was (were) highly sensitive to high frequencies and poorly sensitive to low frequencies. Finally, variance from orthogonality of the plane of the semicircular canals (SCs) calculated on one petrosal (CBI-1-569) suggests that Djebelemur or cf. Algeripithecus likely moved (at least its head) in a way similar to that of modern mouse lemurs. PMID:23938180

  16. The dominant erosion processes supplying fine sediment to three major rivers in tropical Australia, the Daly (NT), Mitchell (Qld) and Flinders (Qld) Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caitcheon, Gary G.; Olley, Jon M.; Pantus, Francis; Hancock, Gary; Leslie, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    The tropics of northern Australia have received relatively little attention with regard to the impact of soil erosion on the many large river systems that are an important part of Australia's water resource, especially given the high potential for erosion when long dry seasons are followed by intense wet season rain. Here we use 137Cs concentrations to determine the erosion processes supplying sediment to two major northern Australian Rivers; the Daly River (Northern Territory), and the Mitchell River (Queensland). We also present data from five sediment samples collected from a 100 km reach of the Cloncurry River, a major tributary of the Flinders River (Queensland). Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface soil and subsurface (channel banks and gully) samples were used to derive 'best fit' probability density functions describing their distributions. These modelled distributions are then used to estimate the relative contribution of these two components to the river sediments. Our results are consistent with channel and gully erosion being the dominant source of sediment, with more than 90% of sediment transported along the main stem of these rivers originating from subsoil. We summarize the findings of similar studies on tropical Australian rivers and conclude that the primary source of sediment delivered to these systems is gully and channel bank erosion. Previously, as a result of catchment scale modelling, sheet-wash and rill erosion was considered to be the major sediment source in these rivers. Identifying the relative importance of sediment sources, as shown in this paper, will provide valuable information for land management planning in the region. This study also reinforces the importance of testing model predictions before they are used to target investment in remedial action.

  17. Trends in access to water supply and sanitation in 31 major sub-Saharan African cities: an analysis of DHS data from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background By 2050, sub-Saharan Africas (SSA) urban population is expected to grow from 414 million to over 1.2 billion. This growth will likely increase challenges to municipalities attempting to provide access to water supply and sanitation (WS&S). This study aims to characterize trends in access to WS&S in SSA cities and identify factors affecting those trends. Methods DHS data collected between 2000 and 2012 were used for this analysis of thirty-one cities in SSA. Four categories of household access to WS&S were studied using data from demographic and health surveys these included: 1) household access to an improved water supply, 2) households time spent collecting water, 3) household access to improved sanitation, and 4) households reporting to engage in open defecation. An exploratory analysis of these measures was then conducted to assess the relationship of access to several independent variables. Results Among the 31 cities, there was wide variability in coverage levels and trends in coverage with respect to the four categories of access. The majority of cities were found to be increasing access in the categories of improved water supply and improved sanitation (65% and 83% of cities, respectively), while fewer were making progress in reducing the amount of time spent collecting water and reducing open defecation (50% and 38% of cities, respectively). Additionally, the prevalence of open defecation in study cities was found to be, on average, increasing. Conclusions Based on DHS data, cities appeared to be making the most progress in gaining access to WS&S along metrics which reflect specified targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Nearly half of the cities, however, did not make progress in reducing open defecation or the time spent collecting water. This may reflect that the MDGs have led to a focus on improved services while other measures, potentially more relevant to the extreme poor, are being neglected. This study highlights the need to better characterize access, beyond definitions of improved and unimproved, as well as the need to target resources to cities where changes in WS&S access have stalled, or in some cases regressed. PMID:24576260

  18. Morphometric study of the blood supply of pedunculated colon polyps: What is the optimal position on the stalk for snare resection?

    PubMed Central

    Isohata, Noriyuki; Nemoto, Daiki; Utano, Kenichi; Endo, Shungo; Tanaka, Gaku; Hewett, David G.; Togashi, Kazutomo

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Bleeding after colonoscopic resection of pedunculated polyps cannot be easily predicted. The aims of this study were to evaluate the blood supply in pedunculated polyps and to clarify the optimal position on the polyp stalk for snare placement to prevent post-polypectomy hemorrhage. ]Patients and methods: In one institution, 11 pedunculated polyps from 11 patients were studied prospectively. All polyps were resected at the base of the stalk using a snare wire with electrocautery. Histologic axial sections from the apex and base of the stalk were examined with hematoxylin eosin and elastica stains. Elastica stains were used to identify blood vessels. The cross-sectional area of the stalk, total vessel area, maximum diameter of artery/arteriole lumen, number of thick (??0.1?mm) vessels, and number of arteries/arterioles were measured in each section with image processing software. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparison. Results: The median polyp diameter was 16?mm (range 7 to 24?mm) and median length of the stalk was 11?mm (range 7 to 23?mm). Two invasive cancers (T1) were included. The maximum diameter of the arterial/arteriolar lumen was greater at the base (P?=?0.0044), whereas the ratio of the vessel area to the cross-section area was greater at the apex (P?=?0.016). The number of thick vessels and arteries/arterioles were equivalent between apex and base. Conclusions: Morphometric study of the blood supply of pedunculated polyps confirmed that the optimal site for the excision of pedunculated polyps is in the middle of the stalk. PMID:26716131

  19. Major Transcriptome Changes Accompany the Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Blood from Patients with Severe Thermal Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kruczek, Cassandra; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Dissanaike, Sharmila; Dzvova, Nyaradzo; Griswold, John A.; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.; Hamood, Abdul N.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts including severely burned patients. After multiplying within the burn wound, P. aeruginosa translocate into the bloodstream causing bacterial sepsis frequently leading to organ dysfunction and septic shock. Although the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infection of thermally-injured wounds has been extensively analyzed, little is known regarding the ability of P. aeruginosa to adapt and survive within the blood of severely burned patients during systemic infection. To identify such adaptations, transcriptome analyses (RNA-seq) were conducted on P. aeruginosa strain PA14 that was grown in whole blood from a healthy volunteer or three severely burned patients. Compared with growth in blood from healthy volunteers, growth of PA14 in the blood from severely burned patients significantly altered the expression of 2596 genes, with expression of 1060 genes enhanced, while that of 1536 genes was reduced. Genes whose expression was significantly reduced included genes related to quorum sensing, quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors and transport of heme, phosphate, and phosphonate. Genes whose expression was significantly enhanced were related to the type III secretion system, the pyochelin iron-acquisition system, flagellum synthesis, and pyocyanin production. We confirmed changes in expression of many of these genes using qRT-PCR. Although severe burns altered the levels of different blood components in each patient, the growth of PA14 in their blood produced similar changes in the expression of each gene. These results suggest that, in response to changes in the blood of severely burned patients and as part of its survival strategy, P. aeruginosa enhances the expression of certain virulence genes and reduces the expression of others. PMID:26933952

  20. [Structure of nocturnal sleep if there is a violation of the blood supply in the territory of internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Berezina, I Iu; Sumski?, L I; Kudriashova, N E

    2013-01-01

    The work examines the influence of degree ofstenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of noc- turnal sleep and discusses possible neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disorders when blood flow in ca- rotid system. 24 patients (19 male and 5 female) were examined. The mean age of men was 49.75 6.55; women--46.67 5.86. Six patients with a single unilateral internal carotid stenosis (ICA) 50%; seven patients--stenosis of ICA 50-70%; eleven patients--occlusion of ICA completed the study. Polysomnography was recorded with "Neuro-Spectr-5/EP" ("NeuroSoft", Russia) and "Delta Flash" ("Deltamed", France) according to international recommendation. Stages of sleep were identified according to Re- chtschaffen A., Kales A. (1968) criteria. Patients were asked to fill in the questionnaire prior to clinical and polysomnographic evaluation. Regional cerebral blood flow (mL/100g/min) with 99mTechnetium (Gamma-camera, DST-Xli "General electric", USA) was study by single photon emission CT imaging. The result of this study showed that with stenosis of the ICA to 50% structure of nocturnal sleep is not changed: records all phases and stages of sleep, quantitative parameters that match the normative data; or decline in the representation of only the stage II sleep; at stenosis ICA of 50-70% is violation of mostly stage II sleep and slow-wave sleep, and with occlusion ICA violation slow-wave sleep and in 45% of cases--REM-sleep. PMID:25509172

  1. Plasmin-dependent modulation of the bloodbrain barrier: a major consideration during tPA-induced thrombolysis?

    PubMed Central

    Niego, Be'eri; Medcalf, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmin, the principal downstream product of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), is known for its potent fibrin-degrading capacity but is also recognized for many non-fibrinolytic activities. Curiously, plasmin has not been conclusively linked to bloodbrain barrier (BBB) disruption during recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced thrombolysis in ischemic stroke. This is surprising given the substantial involvement of tPA in the modulation of BBB permeability and the co-existence of tPA and plasminogen in both blood and brain throughout the ischemic event. Here, we review the work that argues a role for plasmin together with endogenous tPA or rtPA in BBB alteration, presenting the overall controversy around the topic yet creating a rational case for an involvement of plasmin in this process. PMID:24896566

  2. Applied anatomical study of the vascularized ulnar nerve and its blood supply for cubital tunnel syndrome at the elbow region

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei-xiu-li; He, Qiong; Hu, Zhong-lin; Chen, Sheng-hua; Lv, Yun-cheng; Liu, Zheng-hai; Wen, Yong; Peng, Tian-hong

    2015-01-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is often accompanied by paresthesia in ulnar nerve sites and hand muscle atrophy. When muscle weakness occurs, or after failure of more conservative treatments, anterior transposition is used. In the present study, the ulnar nerve and its blood vessels were examined in the elbows of 18 adult cadavers, and the external diameter of the nutrient vessels of the ulnar nerve at the point of origin, the distances between the origin of the vessels and the medial epicondyle of the humerus, and the length of the vessels accompanying the ulnar nerve in the superior ulnar collateral artery, the inferior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior ulnar recurrent artery were measured. Anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve was performed to treat cubital tunnel syndrome. The most appropriate distance that the vascularized ulnar nerve can be moved to the subcutaneous tissue under tension-free conditions was 1.8 0.6 cm (1.12.5 cm), which can be used as a reference value during the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome with anterior transposition of the vascularized ulnar nerve. PMID:25788935

  3. The anterolateral approach leads to less disruption of the femoral head-neck blood supply than the posterior approach during hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Steffen, R; O'Rourke, K; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

    2007-10-01

    In 12 patients, we measured the oxygen concentration in the femoral head-neck junction during hip resurfacing through the anterolateral approach. This was compared with previous measurements made for the posterior approach. For the anterolateral approach, the oxygen concentration was found to be highly dependent upon the position of the leg, which was adjusted during surgery to provide exposure to the acetabulum and femoral head. Gross external rotation of the hip gave a significant decrease in oxygenation of the femoral head. Straightening the limb led to recovery in oxygen concentration, indicating that the blood supply was maintained. The oxygen concentration at the end of the procedure was not significantly different from that at the start. The anterolateral approach appears to produce less disruption to the blood flow in the femoral head-neck junction than the posterior approach for patients undergoing hip resurfacing. This may be reflected subsequently in a lower incidence of fracture of the femoral neck and avascular necrosis. PMID:17957066

  4. Exploring the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi: comparative analysis of expression profiles of sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho-Ortigo, Marcelo; Jochim, Ryan C; Anderson, Jennifer M; Lawyer, Phillip G; Pham, Van-My; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2007-01-01

    Background In sandflies, the blood meal is responsible for the induction of several physiologic processes that culminate in egg development and maturation. During blood feeding, infected sandflies are also able to transmit the parasite Leishmania to a suitable host. Many blood-induced molecules play significant roles during Leishmania development in the sandfly midgut, including parasite killing within the endoperitrophic space. In this work, we randomly sequenced transcripts from three distinct high quality full-length female Phlebotomus papatasi midgut-specific cDNA libraries from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania major-infected sandflies. Furthermore, we compared the transcript expression profiles from the three different cDNA libraries by customized bioinformatics analysis and validated these findings by semi-quantitative PCR and real-time PCR. Results Transcriptome analysis of 4010 cDNA clones resulted in the identification of the most abundant P. papatasi midgut-specific transcripts. The identified molecules included those with putative roles in digestion and peritrophic matrix formation, among others. Moreover, we identified sandfly midgut transcripts that are expressed only after a blood meal, such as microvilli associated-like protein (PpMVP1, PpMVP2 and PpMVP3), a peritrophin (PpPer1), trypsin 4 (PpTryp4), chymotrypsin PpChym2, and two unknown proteins. Of interest, many of these overabundant transcripts such as PpChym2, PpMVP1, PpMVP2, PpPer1 and PpPer2 were of lower abundance when the sandfly was given a blood meal in the presence of L. major. Conclusion This tissue-specific transcriptome analysis provides a comprehensive look at the repertoire of transcripts present in the midgut of the sandfly P. papatasi. Furthermore, the customized bioinformatic analysis allowed us to compare and identify the overall transcript abundance from sugar-fed, blood-fed and Leishmania-infected sandflies. The suggested upregulation of specific transcripts in a blood-fed cDNA library were validated by real-time PCR, suggesting that this customized bioinformatic analysis is a powerful and accurate tool useful in analysing expression profiles from different cDNA libraries. Additionally, the findings presented in this work suggest that the Leishmania parasite is modulating key enzymes or proteins in the gut of the sandfly that may be beneficial for its establishment and survival. PMID:17760985

  5. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  6. Discovery of blood transcriptomic markers for depression in animal models and pilot validation in subjects with early-onset major depression.

    PubMed

    Pajer, K; Andrus, B M; Gardner, W; Lourie, A; Strange, B; Campo, J; Bridge, J; Blizinsky, K; Dennis, K; Vedell, P; Churchill, G A; Redei, E E

    2012-01-01

    Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious and prevalent psychiatric illness in adolescents and young adults. Current treatments are not optimally effective. Biological markers of early-onset MDD could increase diagnostic specificity, but no such biomarker exists. Our innovative approach to biomarker discovery for early-onset MDD combined results from genome-wide transcriptomic profiles in the blood of two animal models of depression, representing the genetic and the environmental, stress-related, etiology of MDD. We carried out unbiased analyses of this combined set of 26 candidate blood transcriptomic markers in a sample of 15-19-year-old subjects with MDD (N=14) and subjects with no disorder (ND, N=14). A panel of 11 blood markers differentiated participants with early-onset MDD from the ND group. Additionally, a separate but partially overlapping panel of 18 transcripts distinguished subjects with MDD with or without comorbid anxiety. Four transcripts, discovered from the chronic stress animal model, correlated with maltreatment scores in youths. These pilot data suggest that our approach can lead to clinically valid diagnostic panels of blood transcripts for early-onset MDD, which could reduce diagnostic heterogeneity in this population and has the potential to advance individualized treatment strategies. PMID:22832901

  7. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Southeastern Funeral Mountains, California-Nevada, and Implications for the Major Water-Supply Springs in Death Valley National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridrich, C.; Workman, J.; Blakely, R.; Bredehoeft, J.; Jansen, J.; Thompson, R.; King, M.

    2003-12-01

    We are using a combination of geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, hydrologic computer modeling, and a drilling-and-testing program to evaluate the hydrologic framework of the southeastern Funeral Mountains. Our work addresses: (1) the hydrologic connection of the Furnace Creek springs on the south side of the Funeral Mountains to the regional aquifer system on the north side, and (2) potential impacts on these springs from human activities, including possible leakage from the proposed radioactive waste repository under Yucca Mountain, ~50 km to the northeast, and ongoing agricultural overdrafting of groundwater in the southern Amargosa Desert, ~25 km to the northeast. Discharge from the springs at Furnace Creek provides the major water supply for Death Valley National Park and, at 5000 acre-ft/yr, is at least 10 times larger than that attributable to recharge in the adjacent, arid Funeral Mountains. Moreover, hydrochemical data indicate that the spring water is derived mainly from interbasin groundwater flow through the regional carbonate aquifer. This aquifer extends northeastward across much of southeastern Nevada. Our geologic map data indicate that the carbonate aquifer is continuous under the southeastern Funeral Mountains. The base of this aquifer is, however, structurally uplifted under the axis of the range, to an elevation that is much higher than most of the springs at Furnace Creek, but that is locally lower than the water table on the opposite (northeast) side of the range. Rather than forming a barrier that blocks groundwater flow under the Funeral Mountains, as previously interpreted, this uplift evidently forms a spillway. The ~700 m drop in the water-table elevation across this range, into Death Valley, thus does not indicate the presence of any feature that would divert or slow groundwater flow. Because of the spillway mechanism, flow from the springs at Furnace Creek may be sensitive to the water-mining activities that have been progressively lowering the hydraulic head on the northeast side of the Funeral Mountains. DOE proposes to emplace nuclear waste in Yucca Mountain, above a volcanic aquifer, which is separated from the underlying regional carbonate aquifer by a leaky volcanic confining unit. An upward hydraulic gradient, from the carbonate aquifer to the overlying volcanic aquifer, has been measured in a single well. This upward gradient is inferred to act as a natural barrier that will keep radionuclides from leaking into the regional carbonate aquifer. There are reasons to question the efficacy and durability of this mechanism. First, with data from only one well penetration into the carbonates, it is unknowable whether the observed upward gradient is a regional feature, or a relatively local one. Second, if recent trends in water mining in this region are projected into the future, it is plausible that the current upward gradient, even if it is regionally effective today, could be reversed. We hope to shed some light on these issues by: (1) testing the chemistry of water in the carbonate aquifer under the Funeral Mountains to see if volcanic-aquifer water from nearby areas such as Yucca Mountain is entering the carbonate aquifer, and (2) developing better computer models of this hydrologic system that could be used to forecast potential long-term impacts of water mining.

  8. Emergence of non-major-histocompatibility-complex-restricted lytic CD8+ cells in the blood of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lakhdar, M; Thameur, H; Maalej, M; Ben Ayed, F; Ladgham, A

    1993-07-01

    A large body of evidence has suggested that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is strongly associated with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Immunologically, this neoplasia is characterized by the absence of anti-EBV circulating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), despite a high number of peripheral activated CD8+ cells, as previously determined in our laboratory. In order to determine whether the absence of anti-EBV CTL is related to a reduced number of circulating anti-EBV effector cells, we attempted to expand these hypothetical specific T cells by induction of proliferation with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), in the, absence of any stimulator cells. Optimal conditions for stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of nasopharyngeal patients were obtained with 100 U/ml rIL-2 during 10 days of culture. PBL treated with rIL-2 induced a selective expansion of CD8+ cells and generated a potent cytotoxicity towards autologous or HLA-compatible lymphoblastoid cell lines, used as target cells in a chromium-release thest. However, this cytolysis was non-MHC-restricted, since, the monoclonal antibodies anti-(HLA class I) and anti-(HLA class II) were inefficient in inhibiting this cytotoxicity. Interestingly, purified CD8+ cells acquired the capacity for non-MHC-restricted cytolysis. PMID:8391392

  9. Study on effectiveness of transfusion program in thalassemia major patients receiving multiple blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neeraj; Mishra, Anupa; Chauhan, Dhaval; Vora, C.; Shah, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children suffering from beta-thalassemia major require repeated blood transfusions which may be associated with dangers like iron overload and contraction of infections such as HIV, HCV, and HBsAg which ultimately curtail their life span. On the other hand, inadequate transfusions lead to severe anemia and general fatigue and debility. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from 142 beta-thalassemia major patients aged 3 years or more receiving regular blood transfusions at a transfusion centre in Western India from 1 April 2009 to 30 June 2009. The clinical data and laboratory results were subsequently analyzed. Results: Of the 142 patients, 76 (53.5%) were undertransfused (mean Hb <10 gm%). 96 (67%) of the patients were taking some form of chelation therapy but out of them only 2 (2%) were adequately chelated (S. ferritin <1000 ng/ml). 5 (3.5%) of the patients were known diabetics on insulin therapy. 103 (72%) of the patients were retarded in terms of growth. The prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) such as HCV, HIV, and HBsAg was respectively 45%, 2%, and 2%, with the prevalence of HCV being significantly more than the general population. The HCV prevalence showed positive correlation with the age of the patients and with the total no of blood transfusions received. As many as 15% (6 out of 40) children who were born on or after 2002 were HCV positive despite the blood they received being subjected to screening for HCV. Conclusions: The study suggests the need to step up the transfusions to achieve hemoglobin goal of 10 gm% (as per the moderate transfusion regimen) and also to institute urgent and effective chelation measures with the aim of keeping serum ferritin levels below 1000 ng/ml to avoid the systemic effects of iron overload. In addition, strict monitoring of the children for endocrinopathy and other systemic effects of iron overload should be done. Rigid implementation of quality control measures for the ELISA kits used to detect HCV in donor blood needs to be done urgently. Alternately, more sensitive and specific measures (like NAT testing) should be employed for detection of HCV. In the absence of a definitive cure accessible and available to all patients, strict implementation of the above suggested measures will go a long way in improving the quality (and quantity) of life in patients of beta-thalassemia major. PMID:20859507

  10. Blood Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... short supply. Back to Top Facts about the blood donation process Donating blood is a safe process. A ... only once for each donor and then discarded. Blood donation is a simple four-step process: registration, medical ...

  11. Technique of multilevel adjustment calculation of the heat-hydraulic mode of the major heat supply systems with the intermediate control stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarev, V. V.; Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-01-01

    A new technique for heat-hydraulic calculation to organize the normal operating modes of the heat supply systems intended to decide the tasks of planning and mode selecting, which ensures the required thermal loads at adherence of all restrictions on its parameters, is proposed. The main feature of the technique is in the determination of the parameters of throttling devices on the network and inlets into the buildings of consumers taking into account the differentiated corrections to the flow rates on the compensation of the heat losses in the network. The technique involves the decision of the multilevel adjustment calculation task, in which the deviations of the boundary mode parameters (pressure, flow rate, temperature) in place of the decomposition of the heat supply system model on the levels of main and distribution heating networks taking into account the intermediate control stages on the central heat points (CHP) are minimized. At each level, the task of single-level adjustment heat-hydraulic calculation is decided, which is mathematically defined as an optimization task where the internal air temperature deviation is minimized of the required value with the given accuracy a priori. The technique is realized as part of the ANGARA-TS data-computing system and allows developing the adjusting procedures to improve the heat supply quality and availability of heating consumers, determining the minimum necessary values of heads on the sources and pumping stations.

  12. Increased serum NKG2D-ligands and downregulation of NKG2D in peripheral blood NK cells of patients with major burns.

    PubMed

    Haik, Josef; Nardini, Gil; Goldman, Noga; Galore-Haskel, Gilli; Harats, Moti; Zilinsky, Isaac; Weissman, Oren; Schachter, Jacob; Winkler, Eyal; Markel, Gal

    2016-01-19

    Immune suppression following major thermal injury directly impacts the recovery potential. Limited data from past reports indicate that natural killer cells might be suppressed due to a putative soluble factor that has remained elusive up to date. Here we comparatively study cohorts of patients with Major and Non-Major Burns as well as healthy donors. MICB and ULBP1 are stress ligands of NKG2D that can be induced by heat stress. Remarkably, serum concentration levels of MICB and ULBP1 are increased by 3-fold and 20-fold, respectively, already within 24h post major thermal injury, and are maintained high for 28 days. In contrast, milder thermal injuries do not similarly enhance the serum levels of MICB and ULBP1. This kinetics coincides with a significant downregulation of NKG2D expression among peripheral blood NK cells. Downregulation of NKG2D by high concentration of soluble MICB occurs in cancer patients and during normal pregnancy due to over production by cancer cells or extravillous trophoblasts, respectively, as an active immune-evasion mechanism. In burn patients this seems an incidental outcome of extensive thermal injury, leading to reduced NKG2D expression. Enhanced susceptibility of these patients to opportunistic viral infections, particularly herpes viruses, could be explained by the reduced NKG2D expression. Further studies are warranted for translation into innovative diagnostic or therapeutic technologies. PMID:26745675

  13. The plaque protein myozap identified as a novel major component of adhering junctions in endothelia of the blood and the lymph vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Rickelt, Steffen; Heid, Hans; Claycomb, William C; Zimbelmann, Ralf; Kuhn, Caecilia; Winter-Simanowski, Stefanie; Kuhn, Christian; Frey, Norbert; Franke, Werner W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recently the protein myozap, a 54-kD polypeptide which is not a member of any of the known cytoskeletal and junctional protein multigene families, has been identified as a constituent of the plaques of the composite junctions in the intercalated disks connecting the cardiomyocytes of mammalian hearts. Using a set of novel, highly sensitive and specific antibodies we now report that myozap is also a major constituent of the cytoplasmic plaques of the adherens junctions (AJs) connecting the endothelial cells of the mammalian blood and lymph vascular systems, including the desmoplakin-containing complexus adhaerentes of the virgultar cells of lymph node sinus. In light and electron microscopic immunolocalization experiments we show that myozap colocalizes with several proteins of desmosomal plaques as well as with AJ-specific transmembrane molecules, including VE-cadherin. In biochemical analyses, rigorous immunoprecipitation experiments have revealed N-cadherin, desmoplakin, desmoglein-2, plakophilin-2, plakoglobin and plectin as very stably bound complex partners. We conclude that myozap is a general component of cell–cell junctions not only in the myocardium but also in diverse endothelia of the blood and lymph vascular systems of adult mammals, suggesting that this protein not only serves a specific role in the heart but also a broader set of functions in the vessel systems. We also propose to use myozap as an endothelial cell type marker in diagnoses. PMID:21992629

  14. A novel O-linked glycan modulates Campylobacter jejuni major outer membrane protein-mediated adhesion to human histo-blood group antigens and chicken colonization

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Jafar; Pirinccioglu, Necmettin; Oldfield, Neil J.; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Stoof, Jeroen; Aslam, Akhmed; Self, Tim; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; Petrovska, Liljana; Colborne, Natalie; Sihlbom, Carina; Borén, Thomas; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis; strategies to prevent infection are hampered by a poor understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen. Previous work showed that C. jejuni could bind human histo-blood group antigens (BgAgs) in vitro and that BgAgs could inhibit the binding of C. jejuni to human intestinal mucosa ex vivo. Here, the major flagella subunit protein (FlaA) and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were identified as BgAg-binding adhesins in C. jejuni NCTC11168. Significantly, the MOMP was shown to be O-glycosylated at Thr268; previously only flagellin proteins were known to be O-glycosylated in C. jejuni. Substitution of MOMP Thr268 led to significantly reduced binding to BgAgs. The O-glycan moiety was characterized as Gal(β1–3)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAcα1-Thr268; modelling suggested that O-glycosylation has a notable effect on the conformation of MOMP and this modulates BgAg-binding capacity. Glycosylation of MOMP at Thr268 promoted cell-to-cell binding, biofilm formation and adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and was required for the optimal colonization of chickens by C. jejuni, confirming the significance of this O-glycosylation in pathogenesis. PMID:24451549

  15. Neurovascular unit dysfunction with blood-brain barrier hyperpermeability contributes to major depressive disorder: a review of clinical and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    About one-third of people with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail at least two antidepressant drug trials at 1 year. Together with clinical and experimental evidence indicating that the pathophysiology of MDD is multifactorial, this observation underscores the importance of elucidating mechanisms beyond monoaminergic dysregulation that can contribute to the genesis and persistence of MDD. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are mechanistically linked to the presence of neurovascular dysfunction with blood-brain barrier (BBB) hyperpermeability in selected neurological disorders, such as stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast to other major psychiatric disorders, MDD is frequently comorbid with such neurological disorders and constitutes an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in disorders characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus). Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are implicated in the neurobiology of MDD. More recent evidence links neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to MDD without neurological comorbidity. We review this emerging literature and present a theoretical integration between these abnormalities to those involving oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in MDD. We discuss our hypothesis that alterations in endothelial nitric oxide levels and endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling are central mechanistic links in this regard. Understanding the contribution of neurovascular dysfunction with BBB hyperpermeability to the pathophysiology of MDD may help to identify novel therapeutic and preventative approaches. PMID:24289502

  16. Preferential expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34-positive cells on major histocompatibility complex-matched amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizokami, Tomomi; Hisha, Hiroko; Okazaki, Satoshi; Takaki, Takashi; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Chang-Ye; Li, Qing; Kato, Junko; Hosaka, Naoki; Inaba, Muneo; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Ikehara, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously found in a murine hematopoietic system that hematopoietic stem cells show high differentiation and proliferation capacity on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells/stromal cells (microenvironment) with self major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Design and Methods We examined whether amnion-derived adherent cells have the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells, and whether these adherent cells can support the proliferation of umbilical cord blood-derived lineage-negative and CD34-positive cells (LinCD34+ cells) obtained from the same fetus to a greater extent than those derived from other fetuses. Results Culture-expanded amnion-derived adherent cells expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and HLA-ABC molecules and could differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocyte-like cells, indicating that the cells have the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. The LinCD34+ cells purified from the frozen umbilical cord blood were strongly positive for HLA-ABC, and contained a large number of hematopoietic stem cells. When the LinCD34+ cells were cultured on the autologous (MHC-matched) or MHC-mismatched amnion-derived adherent cells in short-term assays (hematopoietic stem cell-proliferation) and long-term culture-initiating cell assays, greater expansion of the LinCD34+ cells was observed in the MHC-matched combination than in MHC-mismatched combinations. The concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the culture supernatants of the long-term culture-initiating cell assays was significantly higher in the MHC-matched combination than in MHC-mismatched combinations. Conclusions It is likely that a MHC restriction exists between hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells/stromal cells in the human hematopoietic system and that granulocute-macropage colony-stimulating factor contributes to some extent to the preferential hematopoiesis-supporting ability of the MHC-matched amnion-derived adherent cells. PMID:19336739

  17. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the “synaptic transmission” pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research. PMID:26728011

  18. Blood-based gene expression signatures of medication-free outpatients with major depressive disorder: integrative genome-wide and candidate gene analyses.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Teraishi, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Noriko; Nakamura, Seiji; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Several microarray-based studies have investigated gene expression profiles in major depressive disorder (MDD), yet with highly variable findings. We examined blood-based genome-wide expression signatures of MDD, focusing on molecular pathways and networks underlying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and behaviours of hypothesis-driven, evidence-based candidate genes for depression. Agilent human whole-genome arrays were used to measure gene expression in 14 medication-free outpatients with MDD who were at least moderately ill and 14 healthy controls matched pairwise for age and sex. After filtering, we compared expression of entire probes between patients and controls and identified DEGs. The DEGs were evaluated by pathway and network analyses. For the candidate gene analysis, we utilized 169 previously prioritized genes and examined their case-control separation efficiency and correlational co-expression network in patients relative to controls. The 317 screened DEGs mapped to a significantly over-represented pathway, the "synaptic transmission" pathway. The protein-protein interaction network was also significantly enriched, in which a number of key molecules for depression were included. The co-expression network of candidate genes was markedly disrupted in patients. This study provided evidence for an altered molecular network along with several key molecules in MDD and confirmed that the candidate genes are worthwhile targets for depression research. PMID:26728011

  19. Voxel-wise meta-analyses of brain blood flow and local synchrony abnormalities in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Qi; Du, Ming-Ying; Zhao, You-Jin; Huang, Xiao-Qi; Li, Jing; Lui, Su; Hu, Jun-Mei; Sun, Huai-Qiang; Liu, Jia; Kemp, Graham J.; Gong, Qi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background Published meta-analyses of resting-state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) have included patients receiving antidepressants, which might affect brain activity and thus bias the results. To our knowledge, no meta-analysis has investigated regional homogeneity changes in medication-free patients with MDD. Moreover, an association between regional homogeneity and rCBF has been demonstrated in some brain regions in healthy controls. We sought to explore to what extent resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity changes co-occur in the depressed brain without the potential confound of medication. Methods Using the effect-size signed differential mapping method, we conducted 2 meta-analyses of rCBF and regional homogeneity studies of medication-free patients with MDD. Results Our systematic search identified 14 rCBF studies and 9 regional homogeneity studies. We identified conjoint decreases in resting-state rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus in medication-free patients with MDD compared with controls. Other changes included altered resting-state rCBF in the precuneus and in the frontallimbicthalamicstriatal neural circuit as well as altered regional homogeneity in the uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Meta-regression revealed that the percentage of female patients with MDD was negatively associated with resting-state rCBF in the right anterior cingulate cortex and that the age of patients with MDD was negatively associated with rCBF in the left insula and with regional homogeneity in the left uncus. Limitations The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the included studies were heterogeneous. Conclusion The conjoint alterations of rCBF and regional homogeneity in the insula and superior temporal gyrus may be core neuropathological changes in medication-free patients with MDD and serve as a specific region of interest for further studies on MDD. PMID:25853283

  20. Interleukin-1-beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, islet-cell antibody, and insulin secretion in children with thalassemia major on long-term blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    el Nawawy, A; Soliman, A T; el Azzouni, O; Abbassy, A A; Massoud, M N; Marzouk, S; Ibrahim, F; Helal, L

    1996-12-01

    In vitro, cytokines like interleukin-1-beta (IL-1-B) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-A) inhibit insulin release and can destroy islet B-cells. We measured blood levels of IL-1-B, TNF-A, and islet cell antibody (ICA) in 20 children with IDDM, 20 of their non-diabetic siblings, 20 children with thalassemia major on long-term hypertransfusion therapy and iron chelation, and 10 normal age-matched children. In the non-diabetic and thalassemic children we investigated the early phase of insulin release after i.v. glucose (0.5 g/kg, 30 per cent solution) and evaluated tolerance to oral glucose (1.75 g/ kg). Circulating IL-1-B and TNF-A concentrations were significantly higher in IDDM-siblings (33.7 +/- 12.7 pg/ml and 655 +/- 165 pg/ml, respectively) v. normal children (21.1 +/- 6.4 pg/ml and 383 +/- 122 pg/ml, respectively). Thalassemic children had no detectable circulating ICA. The prevalence of ICA was 30 per cent in children with IDDM and 60 per cent of their siblings. Impaired oral glucose tolerance was detected in five children with thalassemia (25 per cent), but in none of the IDDM-siblings. The early phase of insulin release was significantly depressed in thalassemic children (peak insulin = 29.2 +/- 5.1 mIU/ml) v. normal children (52.3 +/- 9.5 mIU/ml) and IDDM-siblings (45.3 +/- 12.4 mIU/ml). It appears that thalassemic children had significantly decreased insulin secretion and impaired glucose tolerance, however, the mechanism of B-cell dysfunction is not mediated by ICA nor by cytokines. PMID:9009565

  1. Non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic activity of blood mononuclear cells stimulated with secreted mycobacterial proteins and other mycobacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, P; Pedersen, B K

    1994-01-01

    Several observations indicate that non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity, mediated for example by natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells, may serve as an important antimicrobial defense mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of different mycobacterial antigens on non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity and further to investigate the ways by which various lymphocyte subpopulations contribute to the development of this cytotoxicity. Non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity was induced following stimulation of mononuclear cells with tuberculin purified protein derivative, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG), short- and long-term culture filtrates of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and 30-31-kDa secreted mycobacterial protein. These antigens also induced proliferation and production of gamma interferon. The CD4+ cells proliferated and expressed interleukin-2 receptors following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens. Depletion studies after antigen stimulation showed that the cytotoxic effector cells were CD16+ CD56+ and CD4-; the CD4+ cells alone did not mediate non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. To evaluate the influence of CD4+ cells on the development of non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity, blood mononuclear cells were depleted of CD4+ cells before antigen stimulation. When mononuclear cells were incubated with purified protein derivative or short-term culture filtrate in the absence of CD4+ cells, cytotoxic activity was reduced. This reduction was abolished by interleukin-2 but not by gamma interferon. We conclude that several mycobacterial antigens are able to induce non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. This study indicates that non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens is induced by cytokines released by antigen-specific activated CD4+ cells. PMID:7960109

  2. Energy Supply and Development: A Major Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews (1) problems created by United States dependence on foreign oil, (2) recent progress in oil and natural gas development in the U.S., and (3) alternative sources of energy such as the sun, coal, and uranium. (AV)

  3. National blood program in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, K S; Kim, S I

    1999-03-01

    Transfusion requirements for red cells and platelets have been completely fulfilled by voluntary donations since 1980 in Korea. However, Korea imports 300,000 liters of plasma each year to produce plasma fractionation products. Korean Red Cross Blood Center supplies 96 percent of blood consumed in Korea. The remaining 4 percent is supplied by 95 hospital blood centers. Measures to supply safer blood, to achieve national self-sufficiency of plasma, and to improve quality assurance are under way. PMID:10092939

  4. Migration Patterns of Hepatitis C Virus in China Characterized for Five Major Subtypes Based on Samples from 411 Volunteer Blood Donors from 17 Provinces and Municipalities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Xia, Wenjie; Tian, Linwei; Xu, Ru; Li, Chunhua; Wang, Jingxing; Rong, Xia; Xiong, Huaping; Huang, Ke; Huang, Jieting; Nakano, Tatsunori; Bennett, Phil; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Linqi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We investigated the migration patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in China. Partial E1 and/or NS5B sequences from 411 volunteer blood donors sampled in 17 provinces and municipalities located in five large regions, the north-northeast, northwest, southwest, central south, and southeast, were characterized. The sequences were classified into eight subtypes (1a, n = 3; 1b, n = 183; 2a, n = 83; 3a, n = 30; 3b, n = 44; 6a, n = 55; 6n, n = 10; 6v, n = 1) and a new subtype candidate. Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees of the E1 sequences of the five major subtypes revealed distinct migration patterns. Subtype 1b showed four groups: one is prevalent nationwide with possible origins in the north-northeast; two are locally epidemic in the central south and northwest, respectively, and have spread sporadically to other regions; and the fourth one is likely linked to the long-distance dispersion among intravenous drug users from the northwest. Subtype 2a showed two groups: the larger one was mainly restricted to the northwest and seemed to show a trend toward migration via the Silk Road; the smaller one was geographically mixed and may represent descendants of those that spread widely during the contaminated plasma campaign in the 1990s. Subtype 3a exhibited three well-separated geographic groups that may be epidemically unrelated: one showed origins in the northwest, one showed origins in the southwest, and the other showed origins in the central south. In contrast, subtype 3b had a mixture of geographic origins, suggesting migrations from the southwest to the northwest and sporadically to other regions. Structurally resembling the tree for subtype 3a, the tree for subtype 6a showed four groups that may indicate migrations from the central south to southeast, southwest, and northwest. Strikingly, no subtype 6a strain was identified in the north-northeast. IMPORTANCE With a population of greater than 1.3 billion and a territory of >9.6 million square kilometers, China has a total of 34 provinces and municipalities. In such a vast country, the epidemic history and migration trends of HCV are thought to be unique and complex but variable among regions and are unlikely to be represented by those observed in only one or at best a few provinces and municipalities. However, due to the difficulties in recruiting patients, all previous studies for this purpose have been based only on data from limited regions, and therefore, geographical biases were unavoidable. In this study, such biases were greatly reduced because we utilized samples collected from volunteer blood donors in 17 provinces and municipalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the HCV isolates represented such a large portion of the country, and thus, the results should shed light on the current understanding of HCV molecular epidemiology. PMID:24719413

  5. Blood smear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in red blood cells that carry oxygen (hemoglobinopathies) Iron deficiency Liver disease Spleen removal Presence of sphere-shaped ... of teardrop-shaped cells may indicate: Myelofibrosis Severe iron deficiency Thalassemia major The presence of Howell-Jolly bodies ...

  6. Somatic-cell selection is a major determinant of the blood-cell phenotype in heterozygotes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations causing severe enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Filosa, S.; Giacometti, N.; Wangwei, C.; De Mattia, D.; Pagnini, D.; Alfinito, F.; Schettini, F.; Luzzatto, L.; Martini, G.

    1996-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation in mammals is regarded as an essentially random process, but the resulting somatic-cell mosaicism creates the opportunity for cell selection. In most people with red-blood-cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the enzyme-deficient phenotype is only moderately expressed in nucleated cells. However, in a small subset of hemizygous males who suffer from chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, the underlying mutations (designated class I) cause more-severe G6PD deficiency, and this might provide an opportunity for selection in heterozygous females during development. In order to test this possibility we have analyzed four heterozygotes for class I G6PD mutations: two with G6PD Portici (1178G-->A) and two with G6PD Bari (1187C-->T). We found that in fractionated blood cell types (including erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cell lineages) there was a significant excess of G6PD-normal cells. The significant concordance that we have observed in the degree of imbalance in the different blood-cell lineages indicates that a selective mechanism is likely to operate at the level of pluripotent blood stem cells. Thus, it appears that severe G6PD deficiency affects adversely the proliferation or the survival of nucleated blood cells and that this phenotypic characteristic is critical during hematopoiesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8808605

  7. Somatic-cell selection is a major determinant of the blood-cell phenotype in heterozygotes for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations causing severe enzyme deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Filosa, S.; Giacometti, N.; Wangwei, C.; Martini, G.

    1996-10-01

    X-chromosome inactivation in mammals is regarded as an essentially random process, but the resulting somatic-cell mosaicism creates the opportunity for cell selection. In most people with red-blood-cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the enzyme-deficient phenotype is only moderately expressed in nucleated cells. However, in a small subset of hemizygous males who suffer from chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia, the underlying mutations (designated class I) cause more-severe G6PD deficiency, and this might provide an opportunity for selection in heterozygous females during development. In order to test this possibility we have analyzed four heterozygotes for class I G6PD mutations: two with G6PD Portici (1178G{r_arrow}A) and two with G6PD Bari (1187C{r_arrow}T). We found that in fractionated blood cell types (including erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid cell lineages) there was a significant excess of G6PD-normal cells. The significant concordance that we have observed in the degree of imbalance in the different blood-cell lineages indicates that a selective mechanism is likely to operate at the level of pluripotent blood stem cells. Thus, it appears that severe G6PD deficiency affects adversely the proliferation or the survival of nucleated blood cells and that this phenotypic characteristic is critical during hematopoiesis. 65 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Simultaneous Detection of Major Drug Resistance Mutations of HIV-1 Subtype B Viruses from Dried Blood Spot Specimens by Multiplex Allele-Specific Assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Fangping; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jing; Nkengasong, John; Gao, Feng; Yang, Chunfu

    2016-01-01

    A multiplex allele-specific (MAS) assay has been developed for the detection of HIV-1 subtype C drug resistance mutations (DRMs). We have optimized the MAS assay to determine subtype B DRMs in dried blood spots (DBS) collected from patients on antiretroviral therapy. The new assay accurately detected DRMs, including low-abundance mutations that were often missed by Sanger sequencing. PMID:26560533

  9. A low blood volume LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of fentanyl and its major metabolites norfentanyl and despropionyl fentanyl in children.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Claudia F; Thomas, James Joseph; Cromie, Meghan; Schniedewind, Bjrn; Hoffman, Keith L; Christians, Uwe; Galinkin, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    Preterm and term neonates often require surgical procedures and analgesia. However, our knowledge about neonatal pharmacokinetics of fentanyl, the most commonly used drug for these procedures, and its metabolites is still incomplete. To facilitate pharmacokinetic studies of fentanyl and its metabolites in neonates and other children, we developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method based on minimally invasive, low blood volume sampling. LC-MS/MS was used for the simultaneous analysis of fentanyl, despropionyl fentanyl (DPF), and norfentanyl from dried blood samples (DBS) collected on filter paper. Positive ions were monitored using multiple reaction monitoring. Since the standard matrix for measuring fentanyl blood concentrations is plasma, the assay was developed and validated in plasma, whole blood, and then DBS. Our method was able to measure clinically relevant levels of fentanyl and its metabolites. In DBS, the lower limits of quantification were 100 pg/mL for fentanyl with a range of reliable response from 0.1 to 100 ng/mL (r(2)>0.99) and 250 pg/mL for both DPF and norfentanyl with a range of reliable response from 0.25 to 100 ng/mL (r(2)>0.99). In plasma and in DBS inter-day accuracy and precisions of fentanyl met predefined acceptance criteria and also indicated comparable assay performance in both matrices. PMID:21916010

  10. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and Their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, A.; Kousba, A.; Timchalk, C.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF)(O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioate, CAS 2921-88-2), and diazinon (DZN)(O,O-diethyl-O-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl thiophosphate, CAS 333-41-5) are commonly encountered organophosphorus insecticides whose oxon metabolites (CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon) have the ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Chlorpyrifos-oxon and DZN-oxon are highly unstable compounds that degrade via hepatic, peripheral blood, and intestinal metabolism to the more stable metabolites, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, CAS not assigned) and IMHP (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, CAS 2814-20-2), respectively. Studies have been performed to understand and model the chronic and acute toxic effects of CPF and DZN individually but little is known about their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) computational models by quantifying concentrations of CPF and DZN and their metabolites TCP and IMHP in whole rat blood, following exposure to the chemicals individually or as a mixture. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 60 mg/kg of CPF, DZN, or a mixture of these two pesticides. When administered individually DZN and CPF were seen to reach their maximum concentration at ~3 hours post-dosing. When given as a mixture, both DZN and CPF peak blood concentrations were not achieved until ~6 hours post-dosing and the calculated blood area under the curve (AUC) for both chemicals exceeded those calculated following the single dose. Blood concentrations of IMHP and TCP correlated with these findings. It is proposed that the higher AUC obtained for both CPF and DZN as a mixture resulted from competition for the same metabolic enzyme systems.

  11. [The treatment of a post-burn deformity and contracture of the neck, using extended flaps with axial type of blood supply].

    PubMed

    Zhernov, A A; Zhernov, An A

    2012-03-01

    Experience of treatment of 24 patients, suffering neck deformity and contracture, using stretched flaps with axial type of blood circulation, was summarized. In total 43 expanders were implanted. The cutaneo-fascial flaps stretching was performed in the neck and thorax. In all the flaps a nutrition artery was included. The neck-brachial flaps, including supraclavicular artery, were applied in 25 (58.1%) patients, the neck-thoracic flaps, using superficial neck artery--in 12 (27.91%), the occipital-neck flaps on a musculocutaneous perforating vessels of occipital artery--in 6 (13.95%). The methods of the expander implantation, the stretching, transposition regimes of plastic material and its fixation were elaborated. The donor sites were closed using stretched tissues, left in place after formation of flaps. Flaps were fixed, using mechanical method of the tissues connection with duplicature formation from deepidermized portion of cicatrix or with polypropylene mesh, which played a role of a dense framework. Then a strong connective tissue bolt was formed, securely fixing transposedstretched tissues. While application of a complex-component vascularized flaps a suppuration have occurred in 3 (6.97%), partial necrosis--in 2 (4.64%) observations. Inclusion of nutritive vessels permit to form large size flaps with a small risk of necrosis occurrence. The stretched perforant flaps application permits to achieve positive result in 95.3% of observations--in immediate and in 81.82%--in far remote period. PMID:22702123

  12. Lead (Pb) contamination of self-supply groundwater systems in coastal Madagascar and predictions of blood lead levels in exposed children.

    PubMed

    Akers, D Brad; MacCarthy, Michael F; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Annis, Jonathan; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-01

    Thousands of households in coastal Madagascar rely on locally manufactured pitcher-pump systems to provide water for drinking, cooking, and household use. These pumps typically include components made from lead (Pb). In this study, concentrations of Pb in water were monitored at 18 household pitcher pumps in the city of Tamatave over three sampling campaigns. Concentrations of Pb frequently exceeded the World Health Organization's provisional guideline for drinking water of 10 μg/L. Under first-draw conditions (i.e., after a pump had been inactive for 1 h), 67% of samples analyzed were in excess of 10 μg/L Pb, with a median concentration of 13 μg/L. However, flushing the pump systems before collecting water resulted in a statistically significant (p < 0.0001) decrease in Pb concentrations: 35% of samples collected after flushing exceeded 10 μg/L, with a median concentration of 9 μg/L. Based on measured Pb concentrations, a biokinetic model estimates that anywhere from 15% to 70% of children living in households with pitcher pumps may be at risk for elevated blood lead levels (>5 μg/dL). Measured Pb concentrations in water were not correlated at statistically significant levels with pump-system age, well depth, system manufacturer, or season of sample collection; only the contact time (i.e., flushed or first-draw condition) was observed to correlate significantly with Pb concentrations. In two of the 18 systems, Pb valve weights were replaced with iron, which decreased the observed Pb concentrations in the water by 57-89% in one pump and by 89-96% in the other. Both systems produced samples exclusively below 10 μg/L after substitution. Therefore, relatively straightforward operational changes on the part of the pump-system manufacturers and pump users might reduce Pb exposure, thereby helping to ensure the continued sustainability of pitcher pumps in Madagascar. PMID:25608177

  13. The Relevance of a Novel Quantitative Assay to Detect up to 40 Major Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Directly in Clinical Nasopharyngeal and Blood Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Albrich, Werner C.; van der Linden, Mark P. G.; Bénet, Thomas; Chou, Monidarin; Sylla, Mariam; Barreto Costa, Patricia; Richard, Nathalie; Klugman, Keith P.; Endtz, Hubert P.; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Telles, Jean-Noël

    2016-01-01

    For epidemiological and surveillance purposes, it is relevant to monitor the distribution and dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Conventional serotyping methods do not provide rapid or quantitative information on serotype loads. Quantitative serotyping may enable prediction of the invasiveness of a specific serotype compared to other serotypes carried. Here, we describe a novel, rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the 40 most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes and the assay impacts in pneumonia specimens from emerging and developing countries. Eleven multiplex PCR to detect 40 serotypes or serogroups were optimized. Quantification was enabled by reference to standard dilutions of known bacterial load. Performance of the assay was evaluated to specifically type and quantify S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and blood samples from adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with pneumonia (n = 664) from five different countries. Serogroup 6 was widely represented in nasopharyngeal specimens from all five cohorts. The most frequent serotypes in the French, South African, and Brazilian cohorts were 1 and 7A/F, 3 and 19F, and 14, respectively. When both samples were available, the serotype in blood was always present as carriage with other serotypes in the nasopharynx. Moreover, the ability of a serotype to invade the bloodstream may be linked to its nasopharyngeal load. The mean nasopharyngeal concentration of the serotypes that moved to the blood was 3 log-fold higher than the ones only found in the nasopharynx. This novel, rapid, quantitative assay may potentially predict some of the S. pneumoniae serotypes invasiveness and assessment of pneumococcal serotype distribution. PMID:26986831

  14. The Relevance of a Novel Quantitative Assay to Detect up to 40 Major Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Directly in Clinical Nasopharyngeal and Blood Specimens.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Melina; Milenkov, Milen; Albrich, Werner C; van der Linden, Mark P G; Bénet, Thomas; Chou, Monidarin; Sylla, Mariam; Barreto Costa, Patricia; Richard, Nathalie; Klugman, Keith P; Endtz, Hubert P; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Telles, Jean-Noël

    2016-01-01

    For epidemiological and surveillance purposes, it is relevant to monitor the distribution and dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Conventional serotyping methods do not provide rapid or quantitative information on serotype loads. Quantitative serotyping may enable prediction of the invasiveness of a specific serotype compared to other serotypes carried. Here, we describe a novel, rapid multiplex real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the 40 most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes and the assay impacts in pneumonia specimens from emerging and developing countries. Eleven multiplex PCR to detect 40 serotypes or serogroups were optimized. Quantification was enabled by reference to standard dilutions of known bacterial load. Performance of the assay was evaluated to specifically type and quantify S. pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal and blood samples from adult and pediatric patients hospitalized with pneumonia (n = 664) from five different countries. Serogroup 6 was widely represented in nasopharyngeal specimens from all five cohorts. The most frequent serotypes in the French, South African, and Brazilian cohorts were 1 and 7A/F, 3 and 19F, and 14, respectively. When both samples were available, the serotype in blood was always present as carriage with other serotypes in the nasopharynx. Moreover, the ability of a serotype to invade the bloodstream may be linked to its nasopharyngeal load. The mean nasopharyngeal concentration of the serotypes that moved to the blood was 3 log-fold higher than the ones only found in the nasopharynx. This novel, rapid, quantitative assay may potentially predict some of the S. pneumoniae serotypes invasiveness and assessment of pneumococcal serotype distribution. PMID:26986831

  15. Resuscitate early with plasma and platelets or balance blood products gradually: Findings from the Prospective, Observational, Multicenter, Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) Study

    PubMed Central

    del Junco, Deborah J.; Holcomb, John B.; Fox, Erin E.; Brasel, Karen J.; Phelan, Herb A.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Muskat, Peter; Alarcon, Louis H.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Wade, Charles E.; Myers, John G.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The trauma transfusion literature has yet to resolve which is more important for hemorrhaging patients: transfusing plasma and platelets along with red blood cells (RBCs) early in resuscitation or gradually balancing blood product ratios. In a previous report of PROMMTT results, we found 1) plasma and platelet:RBC ratios increased gradually over the 6 hours following admission, and 2) patients achieving ratios >1:2 (relative to ratios <1:2) had significantly decreased 624 hour mortality adjusting for baseline and time-varying covariates. To differentiate the association of in-hospital mortality with early plasma or platelet transfusion from that with delayed but gradually balanced ratios, we developed a separate analytic approach. Methods Using PROMMTT data and multi-level logistic regression to adjust for center effects, we related in-hospital mortality to the early receipt of plasma or platelets within the first 36 transfusion units (including RBCs) and 2.5 hours of admission. We adjusted for the same covariates as in our previous report: injury severity score, age, time and total number of blood product transfusions upon entry to the analysis cohort, and bleeding from the head, chest or limb. Results Of 1245 PROMMTT patients, 619 were eligible for this analysis. Early plasma was associated with decreased 24 hour and 30 day mortality (adjusted odds ratios, ORs=0.47, p=0.009; 0.44, p=0.002 respectively). Too few patients (24) received platelets early for meaningful assessment. In the subgroup of 222 patients receiving no early plasma but continuing transfusions beyond hour 2.5, achieving gradually balanced plasma and platelet:RBC ratios ?1:2 by hour 4 was not associated with 30 day mortality (adjusted ORs=0.9 and 1.1 respectively). There were no significant center effects. Conclusion Plasma transfusion early in resuscitation had a protective association with mortality whereas delayed but gradually balanced transfusion ratios did not. Further research will require considerably larger numbers of patients receiving platelets early. Level of Evidence Prospective, Level II PMID:23778507

  16. Cerebral blood flow in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and modulation of the mood-regulatory networks in a successful rTMS treatment for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shun; Ukai, Satoshi; Tsuji, Tomikimi; Kose, Asami; Shoyama, Masaru; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Okumura, Masatoshi; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (Cg25) has been reported to be a node of mood-regulatory networks. Using a responder and a non-responder of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for depression, we examined pre/post-treatment cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the Cg25 and treatment-related CBF changes in cortical/subcortical regions. In the responder, pre-treatment Cg25 perfusion was higher and was decreased after treatment, in addition, CBF was increased in the frontal and parietal regions and decreased in the hippocampus and basal ganglia. Our results suggest that rTMS treatment response may be related to pre-treatment Cg25 activity and modulation of the Cg25 and mood-regulatory networks. PMID:22512803

  17. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Power supply

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul (Seminole, FL); Hamilton, Pamela Jane (Seminole, FL); Brubaker, Michael Allen (Loveland, CO)

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  20. Major depression

    MedlinePLUS

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Ferri FF. Major depression. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015.

  1. BLOOD GAS, LACTATE, AND HEMATOLOGY EFFECTS OF VENIPUNCTURE TIMING AND LOCATION AFTER MIST-NET CAPTURE OF MOURNING DOVES (ZENAIDA MACROURA), BOAT-TAILED GRACKLES (QUISCALUS MAJOR), AND HOUSE SPARROWS (PASSER DOMESTICUS).

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jinks, Maggie R; Harms, Ronald V

    2016-04-01

    Venous blood gas partial pressures, pH, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations, packed cell volume, white blood cell differential counts, and heterophil/lymphocyte ratios were measured from Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), Boat-tailed Grackles (Quiscalus major), and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus). Birds were bled promptly after mist-net capture and banding or following a targeted delay of 45-60 min, in order to assess the impacts of a brief holding period commonly practiced in large-scale bird banding operations. Additionally, effects of venipuncture location (basilic [=ulnar] vein versus jugular vein) were evaluated in male Boat-tailed Grackles sampled promptly after capture and banding. All comparisons were with unpaired samples; no birds were subjected to more than one venipuncture. All three species exhibited moderate improvements in blood gas and acid-base status after the delay, with reductions in lactate concentrations with or without concurrent increases in pH and bicarbonate. Boat-tailed Grackles exhibited an increased proportion of heterophils in the differential white blood cell count following a delay in sampling, suggestive of a stress leukogram. There were no significant differences between basilic and jugular venipuncture results from male Boat-tailed Grackles. Most metabolic, respiratory, and acid-base alterations were minor, but a small number of birds exhibited values (e.g., temperature-corrected pH <7.3, lactate >10 mmol/L) that could be of concern if combined with other adverse conditions. For such birds, a short delay between capture and processing could benefit their blood gas and acid-base status, although loss of time foraging or feeding young and greater activation of the hypophyseal-pituitary-adrenal axis are additional considerations. PMID:26845300

  2. A Maurer's cleftassociated protein is essential for expression of the major malaria virulence antigen on the surface of infected red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Brian M.; Buckingham, Donna W.; Glenister, Fiona K.; Fernandez, Kate M.; Bannister, Lawrence H.; Marti, Matthias; Mohandas, Narla; Coppel, Ross L.

    2006-01-01

    The high mortality of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the result of a parasite ligand, PfEMP1 (P. falciparum) erythrocyte membrane protein 1), on the surface of infected red blood cells (IRBCs), which adheres to the vascular endothelium and causes the sequestration of IRBCs in the microvasculature. PfEMP1 transport to the IRBC surface involves Maurer's clefts, which are parasite-derived membranous structures in the IRBC cytoplasm. Targeted gene disruption of a Maurer's cleft protein, SBP1 (skeleton-binding protein 1), prevented IRBC adhesion because of the loss of PfEMP1 expression on the IRBC surface. PfEMP1 was still present in Maurer's clefts, and the transport and localization of several other Maurer's cleft proteins were unchanged. Maurer's clefts were altered in appearance and were no longer found as close to the periphery of the IRBC. Complementation of mutant parasites with sbp1 led to the reappearance of PfEMP1 on the IRBC surface and the restoration of adhesion. Our results demonstrate that SBP1 is essential for the translocation of PfEMP1 onto the surface of IRBCs and is likely to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria. PMID:16520384

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant properties of major dietary polyphenols and their protective effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Hatia, S; Septembre-Malaterre, A; Le Sage, F; Badiou-Bnteau, A; Baret, P; Payet, B; Lefebvre d'hellencourt, C; Gonthier, M P

    2014-04-01

    Obesity has been associated with a marked risk of metabolic diseases and requires therapeutic strategies. Changes in redox status with increased oxidative stress in adipose tissue have been linked with obesity-related disorders. Thus, the biological effect of antioxidants such as polyphenols is of high interest. We aimed to measure antioxidant capacities of 28 polyphenols representative of main dietary phenolic acids, flavonoids, stilbenes and curcuminoids. Then, 14 molecules were selected for the evaluation of their effect on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human red blood cells exposed to oxidative stress. Analysis of reducing and free radical-scavenging capacities of compounds revealed antioxidant properties related to their structure, with higher activities for flavonoids such as quercetin and epicatechin. Their effects on preadipocytes' viability also depended on their structure, dose and time of exposure. Interestingly, most of the compounds exhibited a protective effect on preadipocytes exposed to oxidative stress, by reversing H?O?-induced anti-proliferative action and reactive oxygen species production. Polyphenols also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect on preadipocytes exposed to H?O? by reducing IL-6 secretion. Importantly, such antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were observed in co-exposition (polyphenol and prooxidant during 24 h) or pretreatment (polyphenol during 24 h, then prooxidant for 24 h) conditions. Moreover, compounds protected erythrocytes from AAPH radical-induced lysis. Finally, these results led to demonstrate that antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols may depend on structure, dose, time of exposure and cell conditioning with oxidative stress. Such findings should be considered for a better understanding of polyphenols' benefits in strategies aiming to prevent obesity-related diseases. PMID:24393006

  4. Blood Rheology in Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Castellini, Michael A.; Baskurt, Oguz; Castellini, Judith M.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    The field of blood oxygen transport and delivery to tissues has been studied by comparative physiologists for many decades. Within this general area, the particular differences in oxygen delivery between marine and terrestrial mammals has focused mainly on oxygen supply differences and delivery to the tissues under low blood flow diving conditions. Yet, the study of the inherent flow properties of the blood itself (hemorheology) is rarely discussed when addressing diving. However, hemorheology is important to the study of marine mammals because of the critical nature of the oxygen stores that are carried in the blood during diving periods. This review focuses on the essential elements of hemorheology, how they are defined and on fundamental rheological applications to marine mammals. While the comparative rationale used throughout the review is much broader than the particular problems associated with diving, the basic concepts focus on how changes in the flow properties of whole blood would be critical to oxygen delivery during diving. This review introduces the reader to most of the major rheological concepts that are relevant to the unique and unusual aspects of the diving physiology of marine mammals. PMID:21423386

  5. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bren d’Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008–2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  6. Genome-Wide Linkage Screen for Systolic Blood Pressure in the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES) of Mexican-Americans and Confirmation of a Major Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 6q14.1

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Sobha; Coletta, Dawn K.; Schneider, Jennifer; Hu, Shirley L.; Farook, Vidya S.; Dyer, Thomas D.; Arya, Rector; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hypertension or high blood pressure is a strong correlate of diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. We conducted a genome-wide linkage screen to identify susceptibility genes influencing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Mexican-Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Methods Using data from 1,089 individuals distributed across 266 families, we performed a multipoint linkage analysis to localize susceptibility loci for SBP and DBP by applying two models. In model 1, we added a sensible constant to the observed BP values in treated subjects [Tobin et al.; Stat Med 2005;24:2911–2935] to account for antihypertensive use (i.e. 15 and 10 mm Hg to SBP and DBP values, respectively). In model 2, we fixed values of 140 mm Hg for SBP and 90 mm Hg for DBP, if the treated values were less than the standard referenced treatment thresholds of 140/90 mm Hg for hypertensive status. However, if the observed treated BP values were found to be above these standard treatment thresholds, the actual observed treated BP values were retained in order not to reduce them by substitution of the treatment threshold values. Results The multipoint linkage analysis revealed strong linkage signals for SBP compared with DBP. The strongest evidence for linkage of SBP (model 1, LOD = 5.0; model 2, LOD = 3.6) was found on chromosome 6q14.1 near the marker D6S1031 (89 cM) in both models. In addition, some evidence for SBP linkage occurred on chromosomes 1q, 4p, and 16p. Most importantly, our major SBP linkage finding on chromosome 6q near marker D6S1031 was independently confirmed in a Caucasian population (LOD = 3.3). In summary, our study found evidence for a major locus on chromosome 6q influencing SBP levels in Mexican-Americans. PMID:21293138

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This publication the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data presented are divided into Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos and their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic Models.

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2004-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase due to the effects of their active oxon metabolites. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase results in a buildup of acetylcholine within the nerve synapses leading to a variety of neurotoxic effects (Mileson et al., 1998). These effects are most clearly seen following acute high dose exposures but they can also be observed in lower dose chronic cases as well. Chlorpyrifos is the active ingredient in commonly used organophosphorous (OP) insecticides like DURSBAN and LORSBAN (Timchalk et. al, 2002). Chlorpyrifos and diazinon are used to eliminate pests in agricultural applications like cotton and fruit crops. Every year globally there are approximately 3 million cases of organophosphate poisoning reported resulting in 200,000 deaths (Haywood et al., 2000). The public is exposed to these chemicals on a regular basis at chronic low levels from food and water contamination, dermal contact and inhalation. The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that of approximately 3,600 persons from all 64 NHANES III locations, 70% tested positive for TCP in urine, suggesting exposure to chlorpyrifos (NHANES III, 1994). The chemical structures of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and their major metabolites trichlorpyridinol (TCP), and isopropyl-methyl-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) are shown in Figure 1. The parent compounds, CPF and DZN, are metabolized to their potent inhibiting oxon forms via a desulfuration reaction initiated by cytochrome P450 (CYP)(Poet et al., 2003; Amitai et al., 1998). Competing with the formation of oxon is the detoxification metabolism of CPF to TCP and DZN to IMHP via a dearylation reaction utilizing the same enzymes. A-esterase (PON1) and other B-esterases also contribute to the production of TCP and IMHP through the metabolism of CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon, respectively (Poet et al., 2003; Ma et al., 1994). The ratio between the toxification/detoxification reactions determines the degree of enzyme inhibition and can be used to evaluate metabolism processes (Timchalk et al., 2002).

  11. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors especially donors with certain blood types are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis Blood Types Natural Disasters: How to Help Contact Us Print ...

  12. Blood Clots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and Travel DVT Myths vs. ... Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood clotting, or coagulation, is an important process that prevents ...

  13. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy. PMID:25467858

  14. [Blood transfusion: the challenges for tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Folla, Gilles; Garraud, Olivier; Tiberghien, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    As any therapeutic means, blood transfusion requires regular evaluation, particularly for its indications, effectiveness and risks. The availability of randomized clinical trials, the evolution of the quality of blood components, and the economic constraints shared by all countries, all lead to rethink both transfusion therapy as a whole and the organization of the transfusion chain from donor to recipient. The main tools available to improve transfusion and the transfusion chain management are the following: programs of patient blood management (PBM) to optimize the use of blood products with a patient centred approach, blood supply management tools to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfusion chain, donor management tools to adapt donor collections to the patients' needs in compliance with safety requirements for patients and donors, and coordination of these activities. A better understanding of these tools and their implementation will certainly be major challenges for transfusion medicine in the near future. Integrating these evolutions in regulations through the revision of the European Directives on blood and blood components (the review process is expected to be launched in 2015) should enroll them in the long term, for the benefit of patients, donors and all other stakeholders involved in the transfusion chain. PMID:25578549

  15. Development and validation of a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl in urine and whole blood in forensic context.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Tytgat, Jan

    2010-07-15

    Fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl often occur in low doses in biological samples. Therefore, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and fully validated. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge with an additional alkaline wash step to decrease matrix effects and thus increase sensitivity. Ionization of fentanyl and norfentanyl with electrospray ionization (ESI) was more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher ESI signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed. A comparison of columns with different internal diameter and/or smaller particles showed optimal resolution and sensitivity when an Acquity C18 column (1.7 microm, 2.1 mm x 50 mm) was used. Deuterium labeled internal standards were used, but with careful evaluation of their stability since loss of deuteriums was seen. With limits of detection of 0.25 pg/ml for fentanyl and 2.5 pg/ml for norfentanyl in urine and 5 pg/ml for fentanyl and norfentanyl in whole blood the presented method is highly appropriate for the analysis of fentanyl and norfentanyl in forensic urine and blood samples. PMID:20542478

  16. The mitochondrial genomes of Nuttalliella namaqua (Ixodoidea: Nuttalliellidae) and Argas africolumbae (Ixodoidae: Argasidae): estimation of divergence dates for the major tick lineages and reconstruction of ancestral blood-feeding characters.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; de Klerk, Daniel; Pienaar, Ronel; de Castro, Minique H; Latif, Abdalla A

    2012-01-01

    Ixodida are composed of hard (Ixodidae), soft (Argasidae) and the monotypic Nuttalliellidae (Nuttalliella namaqua) tick families. Nuclear 18S rRNA analysis suggested that N. namaqua was the closest extant relative to the last common ancestral tick lineage. The mitochondrial genomes of N. namaqua and Argas africolumbae were determined using next generation sequencing and de novo assembly to investigate this further. The latter was included since previous estimates on the divergence times of argasids lacked data for this major genus. Mitochondrial gene order for both was identical to that of the Argasidae and Prostriata. Bayesian analysis of the COI, Cytb, ND1, ND2 and ND4 genes confirmed the monophyly of ticks, the basal position of N. namaqua to the other tick families and the accepted systematic relationships of the other tick genera. Molecular clock estimates were derived for the divergence of the major tick lineages and supported previous estimates on the origins of ticks in the Carboniferous. N. namaqua larvae fed successfully on lizards and mice in a prolonged manner similar to many argasids and all ixodids. Excess blood meal-derived water was secreted via the salivary glands, similar to ixodids. We propose that this prolonged larval feeding style eventually gave rise to the long feeding periods that typify the single larval, nymphal and adult stages of ixodid ticks and the associated secretion of water via the salivary glands. Ancestral reconstruction of characters involved in blood-feeding indicates that most of the characteristics unique to either hard or soft tick families were present in the ancestral tick lineage. PMID:23145176

  17. Perioperative blood management

    PubMed Central

    Manjuladevi, M; Vasudeva Upadhyaya, KS

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative anaemia and allogenic blood transfusion (ABT) are known to increase the risk of adverse clinical outcomes. The quality, cost and availability of blood components are also major limitations with regard to ABT. Perioperative patient blood management (PBM) strategies should be aimed at minimizing and improving utilization of blood components. The goals of PBM are adequate preoperative evaluation and optimization of haemoglobin and bleeding parameters, techniques to minimize blood loss, blood conservation technologies and use of transfusion guidelines with targeted therapy. Attention to these details can help in cost reduction and improved patient outcome. PMID:25535419

  18. Blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  19. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Transfusions Print A ... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood As blood moves throughout the body, it carries ...

  20. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... This kind of donation is also called homologous blood donation. Many communities have a blood bank at which ... safe, some people choose a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you , which ...

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the uterine vascular supply through vascular casting and thin slice computed tomography scanning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Lin; Guo, Hong-Xia; Liu, Ping; Huang, Rui; Yang, Zhen-Bo Ou; Tang, Lei; Li, Ze-Yu; Liu, Chang; Wu, Kun-Cheng; Zhong, Guang-Ming; Hong, Hui-Wen; Hu, Jie-Wei; Li, Jian-Yi; Yu, Yan-Hong; Zhong, Shi-Zheng; McLucas, Bruce; Beller, Mark

    2009-01-01

    It was the objective of this study to construct a model of the uterine vascular supply through vascular casting and thin slice computed tomography scanning. This will provide a teaching aide for the understanding of uterine artery embolization (UAE) procedures, as well as normal uterine and ovarian arterial anatomy. Using 20% chlorinated poly vinyl chloride, we infused and cast a set of a normal uterus, vagina and bilateral adnexa through the uterine artery and ovarian artery. After thin slice CT scanning, we obtained the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction by maximum intensity projection (MIP) and surface-shaded display (SSD), and then observed its figure and characteristics. A model of the uterine vascular supply can be successfully reconstructed by vascular casting and thin slice CT scanning. The 3D reconstruction offers a clear view of the course of the uterine artery and its blood supply distribution. It has two major branches: The intramuscular uterine branch and the cervicovaginal branch (1). Blood supply is generally unilateral, with communicating branches between the two sides and possible anastomoses between the arterial blood supply of the uterus and the ovaries. The major blood supply of the cervix comes from the cervicovaginal branch of the uterine artery, while the vaginal arterial supply derives directly from the internal iliac artery. The CT technique allows real-time 360 degrees rotation and changes in model for in-depth study of the vascular network and its adjacent tissues. It is possible to construct an in vitro uterine arterial network by vascular casting and CT scanning, which can provide unique insight into the female genitourinary system arterial network. Based on this, we can create reconstructions as well as models for different diseases such as leiomyomata, adenomyosis, and endometrial cancer. These models will provide morphological evidence to the interventional therapy and UAE teaching in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:19418349

  3. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  4. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urethra at the neck of the bladder and supplies fluid that goes into semen polycystic kidney disease— ... aspirin and other pain relievers, blood thinners, and antibiotics strenuous exercise such as long-distance running a ...

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  6. Blood Smear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood smear typically include a description of the appearance of the red blood cells, white blood cells, ... center after staining the blood smear. When the appearance of RBCs (RBC morphology) is normal, it is ...

  7. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can give blood every 56 days. Before Donating Blood donation starts before you walk in the door of ... regenerate the red blood cells lost during a blood donation. An iron-fortified diet plus daily iron tablets ...

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: Petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Supply chain: optimization through collaboration.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A panel of hospital leaders and other experts discuss how organizations can reduce costs and enhance the value of their supply purchases--an imperative at a time of rising prices and tightening reimbursements. One major challenge: How to gain greater physician support for those efforts. PMID:25181907

  11. Blood Tracer Kinetics in the Arterial Tree

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Elias; Gall, Peter; Günther, Matthias; Reisert, Marco; Mader, Irina; Fleysher, Roman; Kiselev, Valerij G.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of blood supply of different organs relies on labeling blood with a suitable tracer. The tracer kinetics is linear: Tracer concentration at an observation site is a linear response to an input somewhere upstream the arterial flow. The corresponding impulse response functions are currently treated empirically without incorporating the relation to the vascular morphology of an organ. In this work we address this relation for the first time. We demonstrate that the form of the response function in the entire arterial tree is reduced to that of individual vessel segments under approximation of good blood mixing at vessel bifurcations. The resulting expression simplifies significantly when the geometric scaling of the vascular tree is taken into account. This suggests a new way to access the vascular morphology in vivo using experimentally determined response functions. However, it is an ill-posed inverse problem as demonstrated by an example using measured arterial spin labeling in large brain arteries. We further analyze transport in individual vessel segments and demonstrate that experimentally accessible tracer concentration in vessel segments depends on the measurement principle. Explicit expressions for the response functions are obtained for the major middle part of the arterial tree in which the blood flow in individual vessel segments can be treated as laminar. When applied to the analysis of regional cerebral blood flow measurements for which the necessary arterial input is evaluated in the carotid arteries, present theory predicts about 20% underestimation, which is in agreement with recent experimental data. PMID:25299048

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum supply annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Fully automated determination of nicotine and its major metabolites in whole blood by means of a DBS online-SPE LC-HR-MS/MS approach for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Tretzel, Laura; Thomas, Andreas; Piper, Thomas; Hedeland, Mikael; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-05-10

    Dried blood spots (DBS) represent a sample matrix collected under minimal-invasive, straightforward and robust conditions. DBS specimens have been shown to provide appropriate test material for different analytical disciplines, e.g., preclinical drug development, therapeutic drug monitoring, forensic toxicology and diagnostic analysis of metabolic disorders in newborns. However, the sample preparation has occasionally been reported as laborious and time consuming. In order to minimize the manual workload and to substantiate the suitability of DBS for high sample-throughput, the automation of sample preparation processes is of paramount interest. In the current study, the development and validation of a fully automated DBS extraction method coupled to online solid-phase extraction using the example of nicotine, its major metabolites nornicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and the tobacco alkaloids anabasine and anatabine is presented, based on the rationale that the use of nicotine-containing products for performance-enhancing purposes has been monitored by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for several years. Automation-derived DBS sample extracts were directed online to liquid chromatography high resolution/high mass accuracy tandem mass spectrometry, and target analytes were determined with support of four deuterated internal standards. Validation of the method yielded precise (CV <7.5% for intraday and <12.3% for interday measurements) and linear (r(2)>0.998) results. The limit of detection was established at 5ngmL(-1) for all studied compounds, the extraction recovery ranged from 25 to 44%, and no matrix effects were observed. To exemplify the applicability of the DBS online-SPE LC-MS/MS approach for sports drug testing purposes, the method was applied to authentic DBS samples obtained from smokers, snus users, and e-cigarette users. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results indicated differences in metabolic behavior depending on the route of administration (inhalative versus buccal absorption) in terms of the ratio of nicotine and nornicotine. PMID:26896632

  20. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James

    2014-05-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  1. Fate of blood meal iron in mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guoli; Kohlhepp, Pete; Geiser, Dawn; Frasquillo, Maria del Carmen; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2007-01-01

    Iron is an essential element of living cells and organisms as a component of numerous metabolic pathways. Hemoglobin and ferric-transferrin in vertebrate host blood are the two major iron sources for female mosquitoes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and radioisotope-labeling to quantify the fate of iron supplied from hemoglobin or as transferrin in Aedes aegypti. At the end of the first gonotrophic cycloe, ~87% of the ingested total meal heme iron was excreted, while 7% was distributed into the eggs and 6% was stored in different tissues. In contrast, ~8% of the iron provided as transferrin was excreted and of that absorbed, 77% was allocated to the eggs and 15% distributed in the tissues. Further analyses indicate that of the iron supplied in a blood meal, ~7% appears in the eggs and of this iron 98% is from hemoglobin and 2% from ferric-transferrin. Whereas of iron from a blood meal retained in body of the female, ~97% is from heme and <1 % is from transferrin. Evaluation of iron-binding proteins in hemolymph and egg following intake of 59Fe-transferrin revealed that ferritin is iron loaded in these animals, and indicate that this protein plays a critical role in meal iron transport and iron storage in eggs in A. aegypti. PMID:17689557

  2. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Division of Geriatrics and Clinical Gerontology Division of Neuroscience FAQs Funding Opportunities Intramural Research Program Office of ... to major health problems. Make a point of learning what blood pressure should be. And, remember: High ...

  3. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  4. PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY WELLS ON TRIBAL RESERVATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tribes provided lat./longs. for all federally-regulated water supply wells on Tribal Reservations, or provided quad maps with those wells identified thereupon. Scale: 1:24,000. Extent: ID/OR/WA. Major Attributes: Tribe name, public water supply name (EPA) & number, tribes we...

  5. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  6. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... person with O blood can only get a transfusion with O blood. Type O-negative blood can be given to people with any blood type. That's because it has none of the markers that can set off a reaction. People with this blood type are considered "universal ...

  7. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

  8. Blood Donor Management in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  9. Management of blood shortages in a tertiary care academic medical center: the Yale-New Haven Hospital frozen blood reserve.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Michelle L; Champion, Melanie H; Klein, Roger; Ross, Rebecca L; Neal, Zena M; Snyder, Edward L

    2008-10-01

    Threats to national and local blood supplies in America mandate development of an effective blood management system for emergency preparedness and efficient blood inventory management. Seasonal or acute blood shortages could be compounded by the unavoidable distribution inefficiencies of the blood pipeline during an emergency. The Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH) Blood Bank has developed a comprehensive emergency blood management plan, which includes maintenance of a tactical, limited frozen blood supply. A computer spreadsheet-based disaster prediction model has been designed to guide the use of the frozen reserve by testing various emergency scenarios. The frozen blood reserve can likely support normal hospital red blood cell (RBC) demands during typical (3-4 days) seasonal shortages, provide a reduced supply for up to 10 days, or meet an unexpected transient increased RBC demand without requiring intensive support from the regional blood center. However, the frozen blood supply is not designed to meet the massive transfusion demand associated with extreme or sustained disasters. Rather, it serves as a short-term bridge-over supply until blood center support can be reestablished. We review the reasons for initiating a blood management plan and describe how YNHH has implemented and sustains a frozen blood reserve as part of a comprehensive disaster management plan. Despite the operational complexity, the benefits of self-sufficiency, the ability to support routine hospital requirements, and the security of having a backup supply justify the expense and difficulty of maintaining a frozen blood reserve. PMID:18631164

  10. Vomiting blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the esophagus lining (esophagitis) or the stomach lining (gastritis) Swallowing blood (for example, after a nosebleed) Tumors ... a lot of blood, you may need emergency treatment. This may include: Administration of oxygen Blood transfusions ...

  11. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  12. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

  13. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  14. Bartonella spp. Bacteremia in Blood Donors from Campinas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435

  15. Prion diseases are efficiently transmitted by blood transfusion in sheep.

    PubMed

    Houston, Fiona; McCutcheon, Sandra; Goldmann, Wilfred; Chong, Angela; Foster, James; Sis, Silvia; Gonzlez, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2008-12-01

    The emergence of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, following on from the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, led to concerns about the potential risk of iatrogenic transmission of disease by blood transfusion and the introduction of costly control measures to protect blood supplies. We previously reported preliminary data demonstrating the transmission of BSE and natural scrapie by blood transfusion in sheep. The final results of this experiment, reported here, give unexpectedly high transmission rates by transfusion of 36% for BSE and 43% for scrapie. A proportion of BSE-infected transfusion recipients (3 of 8) survived for up to 7 years without showing clinical signs of disease. The majority of transmissions resulted from blood collected from donors at more than 50% of the estimated incubation period. The high transmission rates and relatively short and consistent incubation periods in clinically positive recipients suggest that infectivity titers in blood were substantial and/or that blood transfusion is an efficient method of transmission. This experiment has established the value of using sheep as a model for studying transmission of variant Creutzfeld-Jakob disease by blood products in humans. PMID:18647958

  16. Blood donors' motivation and attitude to non-remunerated blood donation in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Buciuniene, Ilona; Stonien, Laimut; Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Kazlauskaite, Ruta; Skudiene, Vida

    2006-01-01

    Background In the Soviet period, the blood donation system operated in Lithuania exclusively on a remunerative basis. After joining the EU, Lithuania committed itself to meeting the EU requirements to provide all consumers within its boundaries with safe blood products made from voluntary unpaid blood donations. However, the introduction of a non-remunerated donation system may considerably affect donors' motivation and retention. Thus the aim of the current research was to determine blood donation motives among the present donors and investigate their attitude towards non-remunerated donation. Methods A questionnaire survey of 400 blood donors. Survey data processed using SPSS statistical analysis package. Statistical data reliability checked using Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). Results Paid donors comprised 89.9%, while non-paid ones made 10.1% of the respondents. Research findings show that 93 per cent of the paid donors give blood on a regular basis; while among the non-remunerated donors the same figure amounted merely to 20.6 per cent. The idea of the remuneration necessity is supported by 78.3 per cent of the paid donors, while 64.7 per cent of the non-remunerated respondents believe that remuneration is not necessary. The absolute majority of the paid donors (92%) think they should be offered a monetary compensation for blood donation, while more than half of the non-remunerated donors (55.9) claim they would be content with a mere appreciation of the act. Provided no remuneration were offered, 28.44 per cent of the respondents would carry on doing it, 29.6 per cent would do it only in emergency, 29.6 per cent would donate blood merely for their family or friends, and 12.3 per cent would quit it completely. Conclusion Most respondents admitted having donated blood for the following reasons: willingness to help the ill or monetary compensation. Majority would consent to free blood donation only in case of emergency or as a family replacement, which leads to a conclusion that provided monetary remuneration is completely terminated part of the currently active paid donors would withdraw from this activity, which might seriously affect the national supply of blood and its products. PMID:16792814

  17. Petroluem Supply Monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-04

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  19. National supply-chain survey of drug manufacturer back orders.

    PubMed

    Wellman, G S

    2001-07-01

    The impact of manufacturer back orders on the supply chain for pharmaceuticals in the institutional setting was studied. A questionnaire was distributed during May and June 2000 to 600 institutional pharmacies affiliated with a major national drug and supply group purchasing organization. The instrument included questions on basic institutional demographics, perceptions about the frequency of manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals, the quality of communication with manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders, the two most significant back orders that had occurred in the 12 months preceding the survey, and the reasons for and impact of back orders. A total of 170 usable surveys were returned (net response rate, 28.3%). Reported manufacturer back orders included an array of drug classes, including blood products, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepine antagonists, thrombolytics, corticosteroids, and antihypertensives. Respondents perceived significant back orders as increasing in frequency. Communication by manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders was reported to be relatively poor. A raw-material shortage was the most common reason given by manufacturers for back orders (36.5%), followed by a regulatory issue (23.2%). In most cases (92%), medical staff members had to be contacted, indicating an interruption in the normal drug distribution process. In over a third of instances, respondents stated that the back order resulted in less optimal therapy. A survey found that manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals were increasing in frequency and that information flow within the supply chain was insufficient to meet the needs of end users. PMID:11449880

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  2. [European Blood Alliance (EBA) and EuroNet TMS: what challenges for the transfusion of tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Folla, G; de Wit, J; Rouger, P

    2011-04-01

    The primary mission of the European Blood Alliance (EBA) is to contribute to the safety and efficiency of the supply of blood products, cells and tissues, in developing an active network of blood establishments in Europe (25 countries). Its strategic objectives are to improve performance (through working groups and projects funded by the European Union), to engage in regulatory affairs (particularly at the European Commission level) to promote best practices and to facilitate a network to collect and share knowledge and experiences. The main objective of EuroNet TMS, combining the blood scientific societies from more than 30 countries in Europe, is to update and publish regularly, intended for policymakers, a White Book on the transfusion chain from donor to patient and probable or possible changes in the coming 5 years. Since 2008, EBA and EuroNet TMS actively collaborate on the drafting of the 2nd edition to be published in 2011. The two presidents jointly drafted the final chapter outlining the major issues of transfusion for tomorrow, summarized thereafter. Transfusion will still be useful for a long time and for reasons of safety and ethics the voluntary and unpaid donations, with non-profit blood establishments, will remain, the cornerstone of the supply of blood products. This renders crucial the continuous improvement of donor management and optimal blood use. On the regulatory side, after 5 years of implementation, EU directives must be independently evaluated and the Blood Guide of the Council of Europe should gradually become a regulatory standard. Finally, if a competition should be introduced for the blood products, it should be strictly regulated to prevent any threat to the security of their supply and quality for patients. PMID:21458349

  3. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  4. Proceedings: 1987 fuel supply seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.

    1988-08-01

    The seventh annual EPRI Fuel Supply Seminar was held in Baltimore, Maryland, from October 6 to 8, 1987. The major emphasis of the meeting was on identifying fuel market risks and planning concerns in order to cope with inherent uncertainties and make informed fuel supply decisions. Sessions dealt with the natural gas markets including the prospects for continued availability of gas as a boiler fuel, the relationship of gas and oil prices and the relevance of different regulatory issues. Other sessions addressed the political dimensions of world oil supply and the role of oil inventories in price dynamics, the interaction of world trade cycles, interest rates and currency fluctuations on utility fuel planning, and the role of strategic fuel planning in various utilities. The changing coal transportation market was the subject of several presentations, concluding with a review of utility experiences in integrating coal transportation and coal supply procurement. Presentations were made by various specialists including EPRI research contractors reporting on the results of ongoing research, speakers drawn from the utility, coal and natural gas industries, and independent consultants. The principal purpose of the seminar continues to be to provide utility fuel planners and fuel procurement managers with data and insights into the structure, operations and uncertainties of the fuel markets, thereby supporting their development of flexible fuel strategies and contributing to integrated utility decision making. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the energy data base.

  5. Blood Typing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  6. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  7. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a lack of certain nutrients in your diet. Types of blood disorders include Platelet disorders, excessive clotting, and bleeding ... myeloma Eosinophilic disorders, which are problems with one type of white blood cell.

  8. Immunofixation - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the same immunoglobulin is usually due to different types of blood cancer. Immunoglobulins are antibodies that help your body ... no monoclonal (meaning an excess of one specific type of) immunglobulins are seen in the blood sample.

  9. Blood Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for further testing and treatment. back to top Plasma The liquid component of blood is called plasma, a mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, and salts. The main job of the plasma is to transport blood cells throughout your body ...

  10. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Transmission of Viral Infections Transmission of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Transmission of Bacterial Infections Graft-Versus-Host Disease ( ... needed for individual patients, such as for cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies. Blood Transfusion I page 9 In mid- ...

  11. Coronary blood flow in the anesthetized American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Elfwing, Magnus; Elsey, Ruth M; Wang, Tobias; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary circulation of the heart evolved early within ectothermic vertebrates and became of vital importance to cardiac performance in some teleost fish, mammals and birds. In contrast, the role and function of the coronary circulation in ectothermic reptiles remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the systemic and coronary arterial responses of five anesthetized juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to hypoxia, acetylcholine, adenosine, sodium nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. We recorded electrocardiograms, monitored systemic blood pressure, blood flows in both aortae, and blood flow in a major coronary artery supplying most of the right ventricle. Coronary arterial blood flow was generally forward, but there was a brief retrograde flow during a ventricular contraction. Blood pressure was significantly changed in all conditions. Acetylcholine decreased coronary forward flow, but this response was confounded by the concomitant lowered work of the ventricles due to decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Coronary forward flow was poorly correlated with heart rate and mean arterial pressure across treatments. Overall changes in coronary forward flow, significant and not significant, were generally in the same direction as mean arterial pressure and ventricular power, approximated as the product of systemic cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26436857

  12. Controlling supply expenses through capitated supply contracting.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, J C

    1997-07-01

    Some providers dealing with the financial challenges of managed care are attempting to control supply expenses through capitated supply contracting and similar risk/reward sharing arrangements. Under such arrangements, a supplier sells products and services to a provider for a fixed, prospective price in exchange for the provider's exclusive business. If expenses exceed the prospectively established amount, the supplier and provider share the loss. Conversely, if expenses are less than the fixed amount, they share the savings. For a capitated supply arrangement to be successful, providers must be able to identify and track supply expense drivers, such as clinical pathways, technology utilization, and product selection and utilization. Sophisticated information systems are needed to capture data, such as total and per-transaction product usage/volume; unit price per item; average and cost per item; average and total cost per transaction; and total cost per outcome. Providers also will need to establish mutually cooperative relationships with the suppliers with whom they contract. PMID:10168443

  13. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... important for other components such as platelets and plasma, where most of the red blood cells have ...

  14. A computerized national Blood Donor Deferral Register.

    PubMed

    Ellis, F R; Friedman, L I; Wirak, B F; Hellinger, M J; Malin, W S; Greenwalt, T J

    1975-05-19

    With blood given exclusively by volunteer donors, the American National Red Cross (ANRC) Blood Program aims to supply patients needing transfusion with blood products of the highest quality. The use of blood from volunteers, with its established greater safety, combined with laboratory testing to detect carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB-SAg) and modern computer technology, creates an effective system to reduce the risk of post-transfusion hepatitis. The ANRC has devised a national Donor Deferral System, which is designed to minimize the transmission of hepatitis by blood and blood products. PMID:1173170

  15. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  16. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  1. Petroleum supply monthly with data from October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This publication provides information on the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports, exports, PAD district movements, and inventories by major suppliers of petroleum products.

  2. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system at a level of detail that can be used for construction and deployment. Test and quality assurance plans are also included to insure that the system delivers all requirements when it is built. The design is for an automated forecasting prototype that allocates inventory and processing resources in response to potentially daily changes in the forecasted optics exchanges required to operate NIF. It will automatically calculate future inventory levels and processing rates based on current inventory and projected exchanges, procurements, and capacities. It will include screens that allow users to readily assess the feasibility of the forecast, identify failures to meet the demand, revise input data, and re-run the automated forecast calculation. In addition, the system will automatically retrieve the current exchange demand from an external database. Approved forecasts from the system will automatically update work order plans and procurement plans in the existing inventory and production control database. The timing of optics exchanges affects the forecast of damage and future exchanges, so an approved exchange plan will be fed back to the demand database and be used to calculate the next demand projection. The system will read the demand data and update the forecast and output files daily. This specification has been divided into two parts. This document, Part 1 lays out the major design decisions and specifies the architectural, component, and data structure designs. Part 2 will add interface designs, quality assurance and testing plans, and deployment details.

  3. Major coexisting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env gene subpopulations in the peripheral blood are produced by cells with similar turnover rates and show little evidence of genetic compartmentalization.

    PubMed

    Ince, William L; Harrington, Patrick R; Schnell, Gretja L; Patel-Chhabra, Milloni; Burch, Christina L; Menezes, Prema; Price, Richard W; Eron, Joseph J; Swanstrom, Ronald I

    2009-05-01

    A distinctive feature of chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the presence of multiple coexisting genetic variants, or subpopulations, that comprise the HIV-1 population detected in the peripheral blood. Analysis of HIV-1 RNA decay dynamics during the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been a valuable tool for modeling the life span of infected cells that produce the bulk HIV-1 population. However, different HIV-1 target cells may have different turnover rates, and it is not clear whether the bulk HIV-1 RNA decay rate actually represents a composite of the decay rates of viral subpopulations compartmentalized in different cellular subsets with different life spans. Using heteroduplex tracking assays targeting the highly variable V3 or V4-V5 regions of the HIV-1 env gene in eight subjects, we found that all detectable coexisting HIV-1 variants in the peripheral blood generally decayed at similar rates during the initiation of HAART, suggesting that all of the variants were produced by cells with similar life spans. Furthermore, single genome amplification and coreceptor phenotyping revealed that in two subjects coexisting HIV-1 variants with distinct CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor phenotypes decayed with similar rates. Also, in nine additional subjects, recombination and a lack of genetic compartmentalization between X4 and R5 variants were observed, suggesting an overlap in host cell range. Our results suggest that the HIV-1 env subpopulations detectable in the peripheral blood are produced by cells with similar life spans and are not genetically isolated within particular cell types. PMID:19211740

  4. Power supply conditioning circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R.

    1987-01-01

    A power supply conditioning circuit that can reduce Periodic and Random Deviations (PARD) on the output voltages of dc power supplies to -150 dBV from dc to several KHz with no measurable periodic deviations is described. The PARD for a typical commercial low noise power supply is -74 dBV for frequencies above 20 Hz and is often much worse at frequencies below 20 Hz. The power supply conditioning circuit described here relies on the large differences in the dynamic impedances of a constant current diode and a zener diode to establish a dc voltage with low PARD. Power supplies with low PARD are especially important in circuitry involving ultrastable frequencies for the Deep Space Network.

  5. Spatial Data Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajulu, P.; Azeem Saqiq, M.; Yu, F.; McMeekin, D. A.; West, G.; Arnold, L.; Moncrieff, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes current research into the supply of spatial data to the end user in as close to real time as possible via the World Wide Web. The Spatial Data Infrastructure paradigm has been discussed since the early 1990s. The concept has evolved significantly since then but has almost always examined data from the perspective of the supplier. It has been a supplier driven focus rather than a user driven focus. The current research being conducted is making a paradigm shift and looking at the supply of spatial data as a supply chain, similar to a manufacturing supply chain in which users play a significant part. A comprehensive consultation process took place within Australia and New Zealand incorporating a large number of stakeholders. Three research projects that have arisen from this consultation process are examining Spatial Data Supply Chains within Australia and New Zealand and are discussed within this paper.

  6. Analyzing nonrenewable resource supply

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D.R.; Toman, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Starting with their vision of a useful model of supply behavior as dynamic and market oriented, the authors examine the literature to see what it offers, to fill in some of the missing elements, and to direct attention to the research that is required. Following an introduction, separate chapters deal with the basic theory of supply behavior; joint products, externalities, and technical change; uncertainty, expectations, and supply behavior; aggregate supply and market behavior; and empirical methods and problems. The authors argue that practical understanding of nonrenewable resource supply is hampered by gaps among theory, methodology, and data, and offer a standard designed to achieve consistency among theory, data, and estimation methods. Their recommendations for additional research focus on general specification issues, uncertainty and expectations, market-level analysis, and strategic behavioral issues. 151 references, 9 figures.

  7. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  8. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  9. How much blood is needed?

    PubMed

    Seifried, E; Klueter, H; Weidmann, C; Staudenmaier, T; Schrezenmeier, H; Henschler, R; Greinacher, A; Mueller, M M

    2011-01-01

    Demographic changes in developed countries as their populations age lead to a steady increase in the consumption of standard blood components. Complex therapeutic procedures like haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, cardiovascular surgery and solid organ transplantation are options for an increasing proportion of older patients nowadays. This trend is likely to continue in coming years. On the other hand, novel aspects in transplant regimens, therapies for malignant diseases, surgical procedures and perioperative patient management have led to a moderate decrease in blood product consumption per individual procedure. The ageing of populations in developed countries, intra-society changes in the attitude towards blood donation as an important altruistic behaviour and the overall alterations in our societies will lead to a decline in regular blood donations over the next decades in many developed countries. Artificial blood substitutes or in vitro stem cell-derived blood components might also become alternatives in the future. However, such substitutes are still in early stages of development and will therefore probably not alleviate this problem within the next few years. Taken together, a declining donation rate and an increase in the consumption of blood components require novel approaches on both sides of the blood supply chain. Different blood donor groups require specific approaches and, for example, inactive or deferred donors must be re-activated. Optimal use of blood components requires even more attention. PMID:21175652

  10. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

  11. Automating power supply checkout

    SciTech Connect

    Laster, J.; Bruno, D.; D'Ottavio, T.; Drozd, J.; Marr, G.; Mi, C.

    2011-03-28

    Power Supply checkout is a necessary, pre-beam, time-critical function. At odds are the desire to decrease the amount of time to perform the checkout while at the same time maximizing the number and types of checks that can be performed and analyzing the results quickly (in case any problems exist that must be addressed). Controls and Power Supply Group personnel have worked together to develop tools to accomplish these goals. Power Supply checkouts are now accomplished in a time-frame of hours rather than days, reducing the number of person-hours needed to accomplish the checkout and making the system available more quickly for beam development. The goal of the Collider-Accelerator Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is to provide experimenters with collisions of heavy-ions and polarized protons. The Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) magnets are controlled by 100's of varying types of power supplies. There is a concentrated effort to perform routine maintenance on the supplies during shutdown periods. There is an effort at RHIC to streamline the time needed for system checkout in order to quickly arrive at a period of beam operations for RHIC. This time-critical period is when the checkout of the power supplies is performed as the RHIC ring becomes cold and the supplies are connected to their physical magnets. The checkout process is used to identify problems in voltage and current regulation by examining data signals related to each for problems in settling and regulation (ripple).

  12. Supply chain planning classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  13. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  14. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    R.D. Clark

    1996-02-06

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined.

  15. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xue; Shen, Yu-meng; Jiang, Meng-nan; Lou, Xiang-feng; Shen, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described. PMID:26576295

  16. Blood Clots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  17. Globalisation and blood safety.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2009-05-01

    Globalisation may be viewed as the growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology. Globalisation is not just an economic phenomenon, although it is frequently described as such, but includes commerce, disease and travel, and immigration, and as such it affects blood safety and supply in various ways. The relatively short travel times offered by modern aviation can result in the rapid spread of blood-borne pathogens before measures to counteract transmission can be put in place; this would have happened with SARS if the basic life cycle of the SARS virus included an asymptomatic viraemia. This risk can be amplified by ecological factors which effect the spread of these pathogens once they are transferred to a nave ecosystem, as happened with West Nile Virus (WNV) in North America. The rationalization and contraction of the plasma products industry may be viewed as one aspect of globalisation imposed by the remorseless inevitability of the market; the effect of this development on the safety and supply of products has yet to be seen, but the oversight and assurance of a shrinking number of players will present particular challenges. Similarly, the monopolization of technology, through patent enforcement which puts access beyond the reach of developing countries, can have an effect on blood safety. The challenges presented to blood safety by globalisation are heightening the tensions between the traditional focus on the product safety - zero risk paradigm and the need to view the delivery of safe blood as an integrated process. As an illustration of this tension, donor deferral measures imposed by globalisation-induced risks such as vCJD and WNV have resulted in the loss of the safest and most committed portion of the blood donor population in many Western countries, leading to an increased risk to safety and supply. It is only through an appreciation of the basic needs of transfusion medicine, including the enunciation of appropriate principles to manage, rather than eliminate, risks, that the challenges imposed by globalisation may be overcome. PMID:19081166

  18. Where to Donate Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Membership Directory Team Sites My Account Blood FAQ Blood Donation Information Why Donate Blood? Where to Donate Blood Currently selected Blood Donation FAQs Blood Donation Process Organize a Blood Drive ...

  19. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, W R; Matthews, J N; O'Sullivan, J J; Wren, C

    1993-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in adults is proving to be useful. The aim of this study was to determine if ABPM is accurate in the lower blood pressure range encountered in children and, equally important, whether it is acceptable to children. Thirty one children, between the ages of 6 and 18 years, were assessed using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor that uses an auscultatory method. Blood pressure was measured in the contralateral arm with a mercury sphygmomanometer and an oscillometric device at the beginning and end of the study for comparison. Over a blood pressure range of 90-130 mm Hg systolic and 40-80 mm Hg diastolic, a close agreement was found with the sphygmomanometer; the limits of agreement (+/- 2 SD) were 11.6 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and 13.6 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure. The bias was less than 1.0 mm Hg. The ambulatory device was worn by all patients for at least 16 hours with an average of 52 recordings per patient. The majority found the device comfortable to wear and were not woken from sleep. Images PMID:8285783

  1. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you'd like to help, learn more about blood donation . It's one way to be an everyday superhero and save lives! Reviewed by: Maureen F. Edelson, MD Date reviewed: June 2014 previous ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Health Care: What Do ...

  2. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App HS Leadership Program SleevesUp Submit a Video or Story Website Feedback Contact Us Find a blood drive now No, thank you ";sg_div.id = "sg-popup";sg_div.style.position = "absolute";sg_div.style.top = "0";sg_ ...

  3. Modulation of erythropoietin formation by changes in blood volume in conscious dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Ehmke, H; Just, A; Eckardt, K U; Persson, P B; Bauer, C; Kirchheim, H R

    1995-01-01

    1. A possible influence of the filling of the circulatory system on the plasma concentration of erythropoietin, which is the major regulator of erythrocyte formation, was investigated in conscious dogs. 2. Over an experimental period of 5 h, the animals were subjected to either haemorrhage (hypovolaemia), blood volume expansion (hypervolaemia), or exchange transfusion of blood with dextran (isovolaemic anaemia). 3. A reduction of blood volume by 20% induced by haemorrhage increased plasma erythropoietin levels approximately 1.5-fold in the absence of significant changes in haematocrit. 4. An expansion of blood volume by 12% induced by an intravenous infusion of dextran did not change plasma erythropoietin levels, although the haematocrit decreased by 0.04. 5. A reduction of the haematocrit by 0.12 in the absence of changes in blood volume induced by an isovolaemic exchange transfusion (dextran vs. blood) increased plasma erythropoietin levels approximately 3-fold. 6. Total renal oxygen supply did not change in any of the three experimental protocols. 7. These data indicate that in dogs the erythropoietin production rate is modulated by changes in blood volume, and suggest a possible role of erythropoietin in the regulation of blood volume. PMID:8568654

  4. Blood safety and availability: continuing challenges in China's blood banking system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jing-Xing; Stevens, Lori; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-02-01

    Social and economic development, along with increased health care coverage, has caused a sharp increase in the clinical demand for blood in China. Whole blood collection has increased rapidly in the past decade but has failed to keep pace with the ever-increasing demand. Overall, the country's blood safety has been improved with 99% of whole blood donations collected from voluntary unpaid donors. However, the unmet clinical demand for blood and the increasing incidence of human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis in the general population pose new challenges to China's blood banking system. To ensure a safe and adequate blood supply, continued efforts are required to recruit and retain a sufficient number of low-risk voluntary blood donors, improve donor prescreening and blood testing process, ease donor restrictions, and strengthen patient blood management. PMID:23710600

  5. Alternative blood products and clinical needs in transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Carolyn; Vaglio, Stefania; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of national blood programs is the provision of a safe and adequate blood supply. This goal is dependent on regular voluntary donations and a regulatory infrastructure that establishes and enforces standards for blood safety. Progress in ex vivo expansion of blood cells from cell sources including peripheral blood, cord blood, induced pluripotent stem cells, and human embryonic stem cell lines will likely make alternative transfusion products available for clinical use in the near future. Initially, alloimmunized patients and individuals with rare blood types are most likely to benefit from alternative products. However, in developed nations voluntary blood donations are projected to be inadequate in the future as blood usage by individuals 60 years and older increases. In developing nations economic and political challenges may impede progress in attaining self-sufficiency. Under these circumstances, ex vivo generated red cells may be needed to supplement the general blood supply. PMID:22567025

  6. Alternative Blood Products and Clinical Needs in Transfusion Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Carolyn; Vaglio, Stefania; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of national blood programs is the provision of a safe and adequate blood supply. This goal is dependent on regular voluntary donations and a regulatory infrastructure that establishes and enforces standards for blood safety. Progress in ex vivo expansion of blood cells from cell sources including peripheral blood, cord blood, induced pluripotent stem cells, and human embryonic stem cell lines will likely make alternative transfusion products available for clinical use in the near future. Initially, alloimmunized patients and individuals with rare blood types are most likely to benefit from alternative products. However, in developed nations voluntary blood donations are projected to be inadequate in the future as blood usage by individuals 60 years and older increases. In developing nations economic and political challenges may impede progress in attaining self-sufficiency. Under these circumstances, ex vivo generated red cells may be needed to supplement the general blood supply. PMID:22567025

  7. What Causes Excessive Blood Clotting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... arteries and veins of the heart and brain. Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which a waxy substance ... blood clots at the site of the damage. Atherosclerosis is a major cause of damage to the ...

  8. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The second of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in three major areas: (1) Animal Science, (2) Supervised Training Programs--Farm Business Management, and (3) Career Selection/Public Relations. Typical of the sixteen units included in the first…

  9. Public-supply pumpage in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, C.L.; Ellefson, B.R.; Cotter, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Of the water pumped for public supplies, 95 percent comes from two major aquifers--the sand-and-gravel and the sandstone aquifers. Lesser amounts of water come from the Silurian dolomite, which is present onlyl in a narrow band in eastern Wisconsin, and from the generally low-yielding Precambrian basement rock that underlies the entire state.

  10. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The first of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in two major areas: (1) plant and soil science and (2) leadership (Future Farmers of America). Typical of the nineteen units included in the first section are the following: Plant Insect Control, Plant

  11. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 2 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The second of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in three major areas: (1) Animal Science, (2) Supervised Training Programs--Farm Business Management, and (3) Career Selection/Public Relations. Typical of the sixteen units included in the first

  12. Agriculture Supplies & Services. Volume 1 of 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan.

    The first of three volumes included in a secondary agricultural supplies and services curriculum guide, this volume contains units of instruction in two major areas: (1) plant and soil science and (2) leadership (Future Farmers of America). Typical of the nineteen units included in the first section are the following: Plant Insect Control, Plant…

  13. Studying Three-Phase Supply in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singhal, Amit Kumar; Arun, P.

    2009-01-01

    The power distributions of nearly all major countries have accepted three-phase distribution as a standard. With increasing power requirements of instrumentation today even a small physics laboratory requires a three-phase supply. While physics students are given an introduction to this in passing, no experimental work is done with three-phase

  14. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the tablissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks. PMID:23039955

  15. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the tablissement franais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks. PMID:21411356

  16. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you have symptoms of a serious blood infection ( sepsis ). Symptoms include high fever, chills, rapid breathing and ... usually means that you have an infection called sepsis. Sepsis is a severe illness in which your ...

  17. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the day (no hard workouts!). Your local blood bank or Red Cross can give you more information on what it's like and what you need to do. Are There Any Risks? A person can't get an infection or ...

  18. Blood typing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). ...

  19. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... catch the blood when you scrape your knee! Plasma Plasma (say: PLAZ-muh) is a yellowish liquid that ... bones and muscles to grow. Many proteins in plasma are really important to your body, like the ...

  20. Amylase - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  1. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... viruses like HIV (the virus that causes AIDS), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and West Nile virus. Since ... Is It Possible to Donate Blood After Having Hepatitis B? Hepatitis How Do People Get AIDS? Hemophilia Stem ...

  2. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewska, E.

    1976-01-01

    With the development of modern methods of surgery, anaesthesia, and pre- and postoperative care the requirement for blood substitutes is continuously increasing. We present a review of the different blood substitutes which are already in clinical use or in an advanced stage of experimental investigation for possible practical administration. Our own clinical experience with dextrans and experimental studies on stroma-free haemoglobin and hydroxyethyl starch solutions are described. PMID:57736

  3. Moving blood.

    PubMed

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  4. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  5. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  6. Supply chain quality.

    PubMed

    Feary, Simon

    2009-01-01

    As the development of complex manufacturing models and virtual companies become more prevalent in today's growing global markets, it is increasingly important to support the relationships between manufacturer and supplier. Utilising these relationships will ensure that supply chains operate more effectively and reduce costs, risks and time-to-market time frames, whilst maintaining product quality. PMID:20058652

  7. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  8. The artery blood supply variant of the upper limb

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754

  9. Taxol commercial supply strategy.

    PubMed

    DeFuria, M D; Horovitz, Z

    1993-01-01

    Evidence of Taxol's safety and efficacy for treatment of refractory ovarian cancer convinced the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to seek a pharmaceutical partner and approval. After an open competition, NCI entered a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) to obtain approval of a New Drug Application (NDA) so that Taxol could be marketed as well as to provide supplies for clinical trials and compassionate use. To assure a successful commercialization of Taxol, BMS developed a strategic plan for expanding drug supplies. The strategy included immediately increasing the amount of Taxol derived from yew bark and establishing a broad research program to evaluate alternative sourcing options and their commercial feasibility. The options included precursor isolation and semisynthesis, yew plantations for biomass production, plant cell culture, and total synthesis. A number of both academic and industrial investigators, already interested in various Taxol supply issues, were enlisted for collaborations with the company. Progress on this research during the first 18 months has enabled BMS to do the following: 1) double the yield of Taxol from bark extraction; 2) exceed NCI's request for drug supplies in 1991, permitting establishment of an ovarian cancer treatment referral center (TRC) with a national network of comprehensive cancer centers; 3) increase NCI supplies from 5000 to 50,000 vials/month in 1992, permitting establishment of TRC protocol for breast cancer; 4) identify several potentially viable alternative sources; 5) schedule production of large amounts of Taxol by precursor conversion during 1993; and 6) ensure that sufficient quantities of the product will be available for treatment and continued clinical research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7912526

  10. Power Supplies for Precooler Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Fuja, Raymond; Praeg, Walter;

    1980-12-12

    Eight power supplies will energize the antiproton Precooler ring. there will be two series connected supplies per quadrant. These supplies will power 32 dipole and 19 quadrupole magnets. The resistance and inductance per quadrant is R = 1.4045 Ohms and L = 0.466. Each powr supply will have 12-phase series bridge rectifiers and will be energized from the 480 V 3-phase grid. The total of eight power supplies are numbered IA, IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IB, IIB, IIIB, and IVB. Each quadrant will contain one A and one B supply. A block diagram of the Precooler ring with its power supplies is shown in Figure 1.

  11. [Haemovigilance and blood safety in overseas military].

    PubMed

    Sailliol, A; Plang, S; Martinaud, C; Pouget, T; Vedy, S; Clavier, B; Cellarier, V; Roche, C; Civadier, C; Ausset, S

    2014-11-01

    The French military blood institute (FMBI) is the only military blood supplier in France. FMBI operates independently and autonomously under the Ministry of Defense's supervision, and accordingly, to the French, European and NATO technical and safety guidelines. FMBI is in charge of the collection, preparation and distribution of blood products to supply transfusion support to armed forces, especially during overseas operations. In overseas military, a primary physician is responsible for haemovigilance in permanent relation with an expert in the FMBI to manage any adverse reaction. Additionally, traceability of delivered or collected blood products during overseas operation represents a priority, allowing an appropriate management of transfusion inquiries and assessment of practices aiming to improve and update procedures and training. Transfusion safety in overseas operation is based on regular and specific training of people concerned by blood supply chain in exceptional situation. PMID:25284434

  12. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  13. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  14. Blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Andre F; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2014-07-11

    The toxic side effects of early generations of red blood cell substitutes have stimulated development of more safe and efficacious high-molecular-weight polymerized hemoglobins, poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated hemoglobins, and vesicle-encapsulated hemoglobins. Unfortunately, the high colloid osmotic pressure and blood plasma viscosity of these new-generation materials limit their application to blood concentrations that, in general, are not sufficient for full restoration of oxygen-carrying and -delivery capacity. However, these materials may serve as oxygen therapeutics for treating tissues affected by ischemia and trauma, particularly when the therapeutics are coformulated with antioxidants. These new oxygen therapeutics also possess additional beneficial effects owing to their optimal plasma expansion properties, which induce systemic supraperfusion that increases endothelial nitric oxide production and improves tissue washout of metabolic wastes, further contributing to their therapeutic role. PMID:24819476

  15. High voltage power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, A. P.; Young, K. M. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage power supply is formed by three discrete circuits energized by a battery to provide a plurality of concurrent output signals floating at a high output voltage on the order of several tens of kilovolts. In the first two circuits, the regulator stages are pulse width modulated and include adjustable ressistances for varying the duty cycles of pulse trains provided to corresponding oscillator stages while the third regulator stage includes an adjustable resistance for varying the amplitude of a steady signal provided to a third oscillator stage. In the first circuit, the oscillator, formed by a constant current drive network and a tuned resonant network included a step up transformer, is coupled to a second step up transformer which, in turn, supplies an amplified sinusoidal signal to a parallel pair of complementary poled rectifying, voltage multiplier stages to generate the high output voltage.

  16. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  17. Blood flow

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    As the heart pumps, the arteries carry oxygen-rich blood (shown in red) away from the heart and toward the body’s tissues and vital organs. ... brain, liver, kidneys, stomach, and muscles, including the heart muscle itself. At the same time, the veins ...

  18. Blood gases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the groin Brachial artery in the arm The health care provider may test circulation to the hand before taking a sample ... must remain constant for 20 minutes before the test. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any blood-thinning ...

  19. How Blood Clots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Blood Clotting Process How Blood Clots Resources In This Article ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Blood Clotting Process How Blood Clots Bruising and Bleeding Hemostasis ...

  20. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Description of High Blood Pressure Español High blood pressure is a common disease ... vessels (arteries) at higher than normal pressures. Measuring Blood Pressure Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing ...

  1. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cross chapter closest to you. Can't Donate Blood? A financial donation can also help save lives. Donate Now Find ... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics ...

  2. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Transfusion Medicine > Blood Donation Information > Blood Donation Process Blood Donation Process Page Content Donating blood is a safe, ... making your appointment. When You Arrive at the Blood Donation Center When you sign in, you will be ...

  3. Food and water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  4. Power-Supply-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, L. E.; Loveland, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuations of voltage suppressed in power supplies for precise radio-frequency circuits. Circuit suppresses both periodic and random deviations of dc supply voltage from desired steady level. Highly-stable feedback voltage regulator, conditioner intended in conjunction with conventional power-supply circuit to provide constant voltage to atomic frequency standard or other precise oscillator. Without conditioners, outputs of most commercial power supplies contain fluctuations causing unacceptably-large phase and amplitude modulation of precise oscillators.

  5. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P.

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  8. Perioperative neonatal and paediatric blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Avnish; Khandelwal, Mamta; Bhargava, Suresh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric patients undergoing surgical procedures commonly require some volume of blood or blood component replacement in the perioperative period. Paediatric patients undergoing major surgery associated with substantial blood loss should be evaluated pre-operatively. Pre-operative correction of anaemia may be done considering the age, plasma volume status, clinical status and comorbidities. Maximum allowable blood loss (MABL) for surgery must be calculated, and appropriate quantity of blood and blood components should be arranged. Intraoperative monitoring of blood loss should be done, and volume of transfusion should be calculated in a protocol based manner considering the volemia and the trigger threshold for transfusion for the patient and the MABL. Early haemostasis should be achieved by judicious administration of red blood cells, blood components and pharmacological agents. PMID:25535431

  9. Security of the food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Setola, Roberto; De Maggio, Maria Carla

    2009-01-01

    The food supply chain could became a dangerous weapon in the hands of enemies, for this reason the strategies developed to fight food adulteration (food safety) should be complemented with specific actions devoted to improve food "security" in the sense of food defence. This paper illustrate the methodological approach used in the EU project SecuFood to analyze threats, vulnerabilities and countermeasures existing in major European countries about what concerns deliberate attacks and manipulations of food. PMID:19964201

  10. Future natural gas supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despite recent optimism about the outlook for the future supply of domestic conventional natural gas, the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) finds insufficient evidence to clearly justify either an optimistic or a pessimistic view. In a technical memorandum entitled U.S. Natural Gas Availability: Conventional Gas Supply Through the Year 2000, released recently by Rep. Philip R. Sharp (D-Ind,), chairman of the Subcommittee on Fossil and Synthetic Fuels of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, OTA concluded that substantial technical uncertainties prevented a reliable estimation of the likely natural gas production rates for later in this century. Even ignoring the potential for significant changes in gas prices and technology, OTA estimated that conventional gas production by the lower 48 states in the year 2000 could range from 9 to 19 trillion cubic feet (TCF) (0.25 to 0.53 trillion cubic meters), compared to 1982 production of 17.5 TCF. Similarly, production in the year 1990 could range from 13 to 20 TCF.

  11. Blood transfusion between the wars.

    PubMed

    Schneider, William H

    2003-04-01

    This article examines the introduction of blood transfusion into general practice from the end of the First World War to the Second World War. Developments during most of this period were not the result of new discoveries but rather the spread of ideas and the establishment of donor organizations to secure an adequate blood supply. The identification, testing, and organization of potential donors were done in a wide variety of settings that reflected differences in political and cultural experiences. At the end of the 1930s, with war approaching, the resolution of problems with storage of blood and the discovery of new techniques for separating and storing plasma dramatically changed transfusion practice. Thus, the innovations of the Second World War were very much based on the development of broad donor organizations plus the new technical discoveries that had occurred during the interwar period. PMID:12776438

  12. Redistribution of lymphocytes after major surgical stress.

    PubMed

    Toft, P; Svendsen, P; Tnnesen, E; Rasmussen, J W; Christensen, N J

    1993-04-01

    Major surgery evokes an endocrine stress response, characterized by increased serum cortisol, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline. Furthermore, surgical stress is accompanied by lymphopenia and granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The changes in peripheral white blood cells have been demonstrated after surgery as well as after cortisol infusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which tissues/organs peripheral blood lymphocytes are redistributed after major surgery. From 20 rabbits lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood, labelled with indium-111-tropolene and reinjected intravenously into the rabbits. Ten of the rabbits underwent major surgery (upper laparatomy) during general anaesthesia, while the control group (n = 10) was anaesthetized without surgery. The endocrine stress response to surgery was measured as serum cortisol, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline. The redistribution of lymphocytes was imaged with a gamma camera and calculated with a connected computer before, 2, 4, and 7 h after the skin incision. Compared to preoperative values, laparotomy resulted in an increase in serum cortisol from 116.6 to 461.9 nmol/l (mean) and a decrease in the fraction/percentage of lymphocytes in peripheral blood from 43.8% to 14.7% 7 h after surgery. Simultaneously, the activity of the heart and lungs together decreased to 76.1% of initial values, while the spleen activity was unaffected. The radioactivity of the lymphatic tissue increased to 137.8% and 134.7%, respectively, 4 and 7 h after the start of surgery. The results indicate that major surgery induces a redistribution of lymphocytes from peripheral blood to lymphatic tissue. It is suggested that the endocrine stress response may be of major importance. PMID:8517098

  13. Power supply regulation by microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, J.; Langenbach, H.

    1983-08-01

    Many small magnet power supplies are regulated by using a microprocessor system to generate control voltages to continuously servoregulate each power supply. The power supplies are of very simple design since all regulation and feedback hardware are parts of the microprocessor system. Most of the supplies are bipolar transistor followers, powered by a common unregulated D.C. power supply, and are used to power trim steering magnets on the three NSLS synchrotron rings. Twelve bit accuracy is obtained using commercially available microprocessor P.C. cards.

  14. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    PubMed

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A; Kamshilin, Alexei A; Nrhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  15. Asynchronicity of Facial Blood Perfusion in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Zaproudina, Nina; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Nrhi, Matti; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI) technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology. PMID:24324592

  16. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large core databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  17. Managing your blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  18. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  19. New York electricity supply

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    New York was one of the earliest states to consider externalities and has developed a computerized model that can be used to estimate the value of externalities for a specific location. The state relies on a diverse set of fuels to generate electricity. According to the 1994 state energy plan, 22% of New York`s electricity came from coal, 21% from natural gas, 19% from hydroelectric power, 17% from nuclear energy, and 12% from petroleum. Imported electricity contributed 8%, while renewable resources and conservation, or demand-side management, programs accounted for 2%. A collaborative effort by the New York State Energy Office, the State Department of Environmental Conservation, and the New York State Department of Public Service, the state energy plan presents an energy blueprint to ensure that New Yorkers have a safe, affordable, and reliable supply of energy that will promote future economic growth and protect the environment.

  20. World petroleum supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    A number of conclusions by political conservatives about the fate of world petroleum supplies have been emerging lately. Among the most recent of them arose from discussions, held at the 1983 spring meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), which focused on the environment and resource study entitled The Global 2000 Report (New Scientist, June 9, 1983). Fred Singer, representing the Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C., criticized the report, which predicted shortages in the near future, saying that the current world-wide oil glut will continue beyond the year 2000. Alternatives to the use of petroleum are a part of the cause. Singer argued that conservation, nuclear energy, and other petroleum substitutes will continue to suppress the demand for petroleum. In addition, according to other evaluations, exploration for petroleum and natural gas has not really begun.

  1. Photovoltaic power supply units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordes, V.; Schmidt, G.

    1983-09-01

    Photovoltaic power supply systems for terrestrial utilization are reviewed. The efforts to develop cheap photovoltaic systems are concentrated on basic materials (Si, CdS, GaAs); solar cells, modules, and generators; storage systems; and control and energy processing systems. Monocrystalline GaAs-solar cells are nearly exclusively used in highly concentrated systems; they reach efficiencies of 23 to 25%, but are expensive and not always available. The efficiency of Cu2S-CdS-solar cells is 9% maximum and their long term stability is not yet clearly demonstrated. Silicon solar cells reach an efficiency of 16% and are the favorite candidate for the development of cheap solar generators due to their high technological standard and their practically unlimited availability.

  2. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  3. NNSA TRITIUM SUPPLY CHAIN

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, Steven; Cordaro, Joseph; Founds, Nanette; Chambellan, Curtis

    2013-08-21

    Savannah River Site plays a critical role in the Tritium Production Supply Chain for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The entire process includes: • Production of Tritium Producing Burnable Absorber Rods (TPBARs) at the Westinghouse WesDyne Nuclear Fuels Plant in Columbia, South Carolina • Production of unobligated Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) at the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) in Portsmouth, Ohio • Irradiation of TPBARs with the LEU at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Watts Bar Reactor • Extraction of tritium from the irradiated TPBARs at the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) at Savannah River Site • Processing the tritium at the Savannah River Site, which includes removal of nonhydrogen species and separation of the hydrogen isotopes of protium, deuterium and tritium.

  4. Power Supply Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    The Cuk DC to DC Switching Converter was developed by Caltech Professors, Slobodan Cuk and R. D. Middlebrook. The converter changes unsuitable dc voltage into one or more voltages suitable for powering electronic equipment; it can also be used in converting dc current to ac and vice versa. It was named one of the 100 most significant technical advances of 1979. The Cuk converter is more efficient than previous conversion devices, simpler, smaller, lighter, cheaper and highly reliable. The first application of the technology is in the Compucorp 685 word/data processor, manufactured by Compucorp. NASA waived title rights; Caltech granted exclusive license to the inventors, who in turn, transferred their rights to a company they founded called TESLA Company, which sublicenses the converter design and related technology to companies making power supplies for use in their own products.

  5. The acceptability to women in Mombasa, Kenya, of the donation and transfusion of umbilical cord blood for severe anaemia in young children

    PubMed Central

    Hassall, O; Ngina, L; Kongo, W; Othigo, J; Mandaliya, K; Maitland, K; Bates, I

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives Severe anaemia, for which a blood transfusion can be life saving, is common in hospitalized children in sub-Saharan Africa but blood for transfusion is often in short supply. Umbilical cord blood is usually thrown away but could be a useful source of red cells for small volume transfusions in young children in this setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of women using the maternity services of the provincial hospital in Mombasa, Kenya, towards cord blood donation and transfusion, and essential aspects of this process including informed consent and the acceptability of screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and Methods A structured questionnaire was developed based on data provided by focus group discussions with women attending the hospital's maternity unit and administered to women who had recently delivered at the hospital. Results Of the 180 women who completed a questionnaire, the donation and transfusion of cord blood were acceptable to 81% and 78%, respectively. Ninety per cent of women who supported cord blood donation were willing to undergo further HIV testing at the time of delivery. Seventy-seven per cent of women wanted informed consent to be sought for cord blood donation and 66% of these felt they could make this decision alone. Conclusion The donation of umbilical cord blood and its transfusion are acceptable to the majority of women delivering at Coast Provincial General Hospital, Mombasa. Findings from the study will benefit the planned cord blood donation programme at this facility. PMID:18067489

  6. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling. PMID:22242229

  7. Home and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: when? who?

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Glin

    2013-12-01

    Blood pressure measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension, including the technique required for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, will be reviewed in this article. Home and ambulatory measurements are widely used, both to confirm the diagnosis and to improve adherence to therapy. The major advantage of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring is that it provides a large number of blood pressure measurements away from the medical environment, which represents a more reliable assessment of actual blood pressure than office blood pressure. The advantage of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is its unique ability to measure nocturnal blood pressure. Although not fully validated in large-scale clinical trials, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring appears to correlate best with prognosis. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring provide somewhat different information on the subject's blood pressure status, and the two methods should thus be regarded as complementary, rather than competitive or alternative. PMID:25019016

  8. Oxygen supplies in disaster management.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Branson, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Mass casualty events and disasters, both natural and human-generated, occur frequently around the world and can generate scores of injured or ill victims in need of resources. Of the available medical supplies, oxygen remains the critical consumable resource in disaster management. Strategic management of oxygen supplies in disaster scenarios remains a priority. Hospitals have large supplies of liquid oxygen and a supply of compressed gas oxygen cylinders that allow several days of reserve, but a large influx of patients from a disaster can strain these resources. Most backup liquid oxygen supplies are attached to the main liquid system and supply line. In the event of damage to the main system, the reserve supply is rendered useless. The Strategic National Stockpile supplies medications, medical supplies, and equipment to disaster areas, but it does not supply oxygen. Contracted vendors can deliver oxygen to alternate care facilities in disaster areas, in the form of concentrators, compressed gas cylinders, and liquid oxygen. Planning for oxygen needs following a disaster still presents a substantial challenge, but alternate care facilities have proven to be valuable in relieving pressure from the mass influx of patients into hospitals, especially for those on home oxygen who require only an electrical source to power their oxygen concentrator. PMID:23271827

  9. Experimental Arrest of Cerebral Blood Flow in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian A.; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Loss of consciousness in pilots during rapid ascent after bombing missions was a major problem in World War II, and experiments were undertaken to study the cause of this phenomenon. Postulating impaired cerebral blood flow as a likely mechanism, the investigators developed a neck device, the KRA Cuff, which when inflated could shut off blood supply to the brain. With cessation of blood flow for up to 100 seconds, the investigators observed a sequence of responses, including unconsciousness, followed by dilated pupils, tonic/clonic movements, loss of bladder and eventually bowel control, and appearance of pathological reflexes. This study, carried out in prisoners and patients with schizophrenia in 1941–42, largely disappeared from public discourse for a number of years. It has received occasional attention subsequently and been considered controversial. Recently discovered records, including extensive written and photographic data from the studies, shed new light on the methods and motives of the research team. We describe here this new information and its implications for the scientific and ethical assessment of the study. PMID:21532128

  10. Wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Sipin, A J; Fabrey, W J; Smith, S H; Doussourd, J D; Olsen, D B

    1992-08-01

    An experimental wearable air supply for pneumatic artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices has been built and tested. The unit eliminates the need for tethering to a large, stationery driver. The miniaturized air supply is designed for ambulatory patients with implanted pulsatile pneumatic total artificial hearts (TAH) or pneumatic left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD), to permit mobility in clinical and home settings. The device has major short-term utility as a supply for pneumatic TAH or VAD bridges in patients awaiting heart transplants. The system design for the wearable driver includes a novel, fast rotary compressor, driven by a brushless direct current (DC) motor to supply air to the ventricle through an electromagnetically actuated directional valve, all controlled by a microcomputer. Stroke volume from 0 to 200 cc; pulse rate from 60 to 160 bpm, and duty cycle from 33% to 50% are selected on a keyboard, and the selected or measured parameters can be shown on a liquid crystal display. For control of delivery from a single ventricular assist device, stroke volume is controlled by variation of compressor speed. In the wearable air supply for a TAH, a single compressor drives both ventricles alternately through a double-acting directional valve. Air volume delivered to the left ventricle is adjusted by variation of compressor speed, and air volume to the right ventricle by variation of ejection time. The effect on blood flow rate of the lower impedance to the right ventricle is compensated by provision of a two-stage compressor, in which a single stage drives the right ventricle, and both stages connected in parallel drive the left ventricle. The overall dimensions of the prototype air supply for driving either a TAH or LVAD are 4.5 by 7.8 by 4.5 inches, including an emergency battery with a duration of 15 to 30 min depending on load. The weight is presently 5.5 lb, but this will be reduced in a production design and for a dedicated LVAD air supply. The size and weight of a separately worn, rechargeable battery pack depend on the load and desired duration of operation. PMID:10078289

  11. Low Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  12. Blood (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of veins and arteries is whole blood, which contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ( ... fluid called plasma, which is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  13. Glucagon blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood. Glucagon is produced by cells in the pancreas. It helps control your blood sugar level by ... As the level of blood sugar decreases, the pancreas releases more glucagon. And as blood sugar increases, ...

  14. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  15. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  16. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infections (see Fever in Adults ). Decreased platelets or blood clotting factors can cause abnormal bleeding and bruising (see ... viscosity (thickening of the blood) Increased platelets or blood clotting factors can cause thrombosis (inappropriate excessive blood clotting) ...

  17. High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your ... beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the ...

  18. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) ... Hypertension Treated? Can I Prevent It? What Is Blood Pressure? We all need blood pressure to live. ...

  19. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions Print A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  20. High blood pressure medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension - medicines ... blood vessel diseases. You may need to take medicines to lower your blood pressure if lifestyle changes ... blood pressure to the target level. WHEN ARE MEDICINES FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE USED Most of the ...

  1. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common ...

  2. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Blood Drive Volunteer For Hospitals Home > Donating Blood > Donation Process Printable Version Donation Process View Video Getting ... both enjoy the benefits of giving blood. Relax! Blood donation is a simple and very safe procedure so ...

  3. Blood donation before surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... public. This kind of donation is called homologous blood donation. If you choose this method of receiving donated ... people choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which ...

  4. Cord Blood and Transplants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... network Recruitment centers International donor centers Cord blood banks Cooperative registries Transplant centers Standards Donor centers Our ... umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank. We have 209,000 cord blood units listed ...

  5. What Is Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Staff Our Member Blood Centers Our Partners What is blood? PUBLICATIONS PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... are inherited. Another important blood antigen for transfusion is the Rh (or D) blood antigen. According to ...

  6. Scheduling Future Water Supply Investments Under Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertain hydrological impacts of climate change, population growth and institutional changes pose a major challenge to planning of water supply systems. Planners seek optimal portfolios of supply and demand management schemes but also when to activate assets whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Incorporation of scheduling into the planning under uncertainty problem strongly increases its complexity. We investigate some approaches to scheduling with many-objective heuristic search. We apply a multi-scenario many-objective scheduling approach to the Thames River basin water supply system planning problem in the UK. Decisions include which new supply and demand schemes to implement, at what capacity and when. The impact of different system uncertainties on scheme implementation schedules are explored, i.e. how the choice of future scenarios affects the search process and its outcomes. The activation of schemes is influenced by the occurrence of extreme hydrological events in the ensemble of plausible scenarios and other factors. The approach and results are compared with a previous study where only the portfolio problem is addressed (without scheduling).

  7. Reliability Estimates for Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Peter I. Petersen

    2005-09-01

    Failure rates for large power supplies at a fusion facility are critical knowledge needed to estimate availability of the facility or to set priorties for repairs and spare components. A study of the "failure to operate on demand" and "failure to continue to operate" failure rates has been performed for the large power supplies at DIII-D, which provide power to the magnet coils, the neutral beam injectors, the electron cyclotron heating systems, and the fast wave systems. When one of the power supplies fails to operate, the research program has to be either temporarily changed or halted. If one of the power supplies for the toroidal or ohmic heating coils fails, the operations have to be suspended or the research is continued at de-rated parameters until a repair is completed. If one of the power supplies used in the auxiliary plasma heating systems fails the research is often temporarily changed until a repair is completed. The power supplies are operated remotely and repairs are only performed when the power supplies are off line, so that failure of a power supply does not cause any risk to personnel. The DIII-D Trouble Report database was used to determine the number of power supply faults (over 1,700 reports), and tokamak annual operations data supplied the number of shots, operating times, and power supply usage for the DIII-D operating campaigns between mid-1987 and 2004. Where possible, these power supply failure rates from DIII-D will be compared to similar work that has been performed for the Joint European Torus equipment. These independent data sets support validation of the fusion-specific failure rate values.

  8. Human Blood Identification: A Forensic Science Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Francis X.; Kobilinsky, Lawrence

    1984-01-01

    Presents a series of experiments (involving immunological and serological techniques) in which a stained fabric is analyzed to determine if blood is present, and if so, whether it is of human origin. The experiments can be performed without expensive or sophisticated equipment and require only a minimal expenditure on consumable supplies. (JN)

  9. Zapping the food supply

    SciTech Connect

    Louria, D.B. )

    1990-09-01

    The idea of exposing food to gamma radiation is over 30 years old, and in 1963 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to permit the irradiation of wheat. Over the years, a few more foodstuffs such as spices and tea were added, but in 1984 the FDA started to approve irradiation of a much broader list of products which now includes meat, poultry, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Simultaneously the FDA has increased the levels of radiation that may be used. The FDA's recent willingness to allow most of the food supply to be irradiated - and at high doses - has triggered an acrimonious debate. The amount of radiation involved is substantial, with intensities millions of times greater than that of an ordinary chest X-ray. The announced goal of promoters of food irradiation is to obtain general approval for the use of up to one million rad. Irradiation does not make food radioactive, nor has alleged radioactivity been at issue in the debate. But there is concern that foods processed by irradiation may contain radiolytic products that could have toxic effects. 12 refs.

  10. Expert Consensus Statement on achieving self-sufficiency in safe blood and blood products, based on voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD).

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    All countries face challenges in making sufficient supplies of blood and blood products available and sustainable, while also ensuring the quality and safety of these products in the face of known and emerging threats to public health. Since 1975, the World Health Assembly (WHA) has highlighted the global need for blood safety and availability. WHA resolutions 6312, 5813 and 2872, The Melbourne Declaration on 100% Voluntary Non-Remunerated Donation of Blood and Blood Components and WHO Global Blood Safety Network recommendations have reaffirmed the achievement of 'Self-sufficiency in blood and blood products based on voluntary non-remunerated blood donation (VNRBD)' as the important national policy direction for ensuring a safe, secure and sufficient supply of blood and blood products, including labile blood components and plasma-derived medicinal products. Despite some successes, self-sufficiency is not yet a reality in many countries. A consultation of experts, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 2011 in Geneva, Switzerland, addressed the urgent need to establish strategies and mechanisms for achieving self-sufficiency. Information on the current situation, and country perspectives and experiences were shared. Factors influencing the global implementation of self-sufficiency, including safety, ethics, security and sustainability of supply, trade and its potential impact on public health, availability and access for patients, were analysed to define strategies and mechanisms and provide practical guidance on achieving self-sufficiency. Experts developed a consensus statement outlining the rationale and definition of self-sufficiency in safe blood and blood products based on VNRBD and made recommendations to national health authorities and WHO. PMID:22690746

  11. Overview of blood components and their preparation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debdatta; Kulkarni, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    The whole blood which is a mixture of cells, colloids and crystalloids can be separated into different blood components namely packed red blood cell (PRBC) concentrate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate. Each blood component is used for a different indication; thus the component separation has maximized the utility of one whole blood unit. Different components need different storage conditions and temperature requirements for therapeutic efficacy. A variety of equipments to maintain suitable ambient conditions during storage and transportation are in vogue. The blood components being foreign to a patient may produce adverse effects that may range from mild allergic manifestations to fatal reactions. Such reactions are usually caused by plasma proteins, leucocytes, red cell antigens, plasma and other pathogens. To avoid and reduce such complications, blood products are modified as leukoreduced products, irradiated products, volume reduced products, saline washed products and pathogen inactivated products. The maintenance of blood inventory forms a major concern of blood banking particularly of rare blood groups routinely and common blood groups during disasters. PRBCs can be stored for years using cryopreservation techniques. New researches in red cell cultures and blood substitutes herald new era in blood banking. PMID:25535413

  12. Advanced Accessory Power Supply Topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Marlino, L.D.

    2010-06-15

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) began December 8, 2000 and ended September 30, 2009. The total funding provided by the Participant (General Motors Advanced Technology Vehicles [GM]) during the course of the CRADA totaled $1.2M enabling the Contractor (UT-Battelle, LLC [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a.k.a. ORNL]) to contribute significantly to the joint project. The initial task was to work with GM on the feasibility of developing their conceptual approach of modifying major components of the existing traction inverter/drive to develop low cost, robust, accessory power. Two alternate methods for implementation were suggested by ORNL and both were proven successful through simulations and then extensive testing of prototypes designed and fabricated during the project. This validated the GM overall concept. Moreover, three joint U.S. patents were issued and subsequently licensed by GM. After successfully fulfilling the initial objective, the direction and duration of the CRADA was modified and GM provided funding for two additional tasks. The first new task was to provide the basic development for implementing a cascaded inverter technology into hybrid vehicles (including plug-in hybrid, fuel cell, and electric). The second new task was to continue the basic development for implementing inverter and converter topologies and new technology assessments for hybrid vehicle applications. Additionally, this task was to address the use of high temperature components in drive systems. Under this CRADA, ORNL conducted further research based on GM’s idea of using the motor magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply that is nongalvanically coupled to the terminals of the high voltage dc-link battery of hybrid vehicles. In order not to interfere with the motor’s torque, ORNL suggested to use the zero-sequence, highfrequency harmonics carried by the main fundamental motor current for producing the accessory power. Two studies were conducted at ORNL. One was to put an additional winding in the motor slots to magnetically link with the high frequency of the controllable zero-sequence stator currents that do not produce any zero-sequence harmonic torques. The second approach was to utilize the corners of the square stator punching for the high-frequency transformers of the dc/dc inverter. Both approaches were successful. This CRADA validated the feasibility of GM’s desire to use the motor’s magnetic core and windings to produce bidirectional accessory power supply. Three joint U.S. patents with GM were issued to ORNL and GM by the U.S. Patent Office for the research results produced by this CRADA.

  13. Sources of emergency water supplies in San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    San Mateo County has several densely populated urban areas that get most of their water supplies from surface-water sources that could by damaged by a major earthquake or other general disaster. In the event of such a disaster, limited supplies of potable water may be obtained from selected wells, springs, and perennial streams. This report outlines the principal sources of existing water supplies, gives information on the need for emergency water-supply procedures, presents general criteria needed for selecting emergency water-supply wells, summarizes information for 60 selected water wells, numerous springs, and perennial streams that can be used as sources of water, and describes emergency water-purification procedures that can be used by individuals or small groups of people.

  14. Embodied energy comparison of surface water and groundwater supply options.

    PubMed

    Mo, Weiwei; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R; Hokanson, David R

    2011-11-01

    The embodied energy associated with water provision comprises an important part of water management, and is important when considering sustainability. In this study, an input-output based hybrid analysis integrated with structural path analysis was used to develop an embodied energy model. The model was applied to a groundwater supply system (Kalamazoo, Michigan) and a surface water supply system (Tampa, Florida). The two systems evaluated have comparable total energy embodiments based on unit water production. However, the onsite energy use of the groundwater supply system is approximately 27% greater than the surface water supply system. This was primarily due to more extensive pumping requirements. On the other hand, the groundwater system uses approximately 31% less indirect energy than the surface water system, mainly because of fewer chemicals used for treatment. The results from this and other studies were also compiled to provide a relative comparison of embodied energy for major water supply options. PMID:21889184

  15. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. S-nitrosylation therapy to improve oxygen delivery of banked blood

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, James D.; Bennett, Kyla M.; Cina, Anthony J.; Diesen, Diana L.; Henderson, Matthew B.; Matto, Faisal; Plante, Andrew; Williamson, Rachel A.; Zandinejad, Keivan; Demchenko, Ivan T.; Hess, Douglas T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Stamler, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    From the perspectives of disease transmission and sterility maintenance, the worlds blood supplies are generally safe. However, in multiple clinical settings, red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are associated with adverse cardiovascular events and multiorgan injury. Because ?85 million units of blood are administered worldwide each year, transfusion-related morbidity and mortality is a major public health concern. Blood undergoes multiple biochemical changes during storage, but the relevance of these changes to unfavorable outcomes is unclear. Banked blood shows reduced levels of S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb), which in turn impairs the ability of stored RBCs to effect hypoxic vasodilation. We therefore reasoned that transfusion of SNO-Hbdeficient blood may exacerbate, rather than correct, impairments in tissue oxygenation, and that restoration of SNO-Hb levels would improve transfusion efficacy. Notably in mice, administration of banked RBCs decreased skeletal muscle pO2, but infusion of renitrosylated cells maintained tissue oxygenation. In rats, hemorrhage-induced reductions in muscle pO2 were corrected by SNO-Hbrepleted RBCs, but not by control, stored RBCs. In anemic awake sheep, stored renitrosylated, but not control RBCs, produced sustained improvements in O2 delivery; in anesthetized sheep, decrements in hemodynamic status, renal blood flow, and kidney function incurred following transfusion of banked blood were also prevented by renitrosylation. Collectively, our findings lend support to the idea that transfusions may be causally linked to ischemic events and suggest a simple approach to prevention (i.e., SNO-Hb repletion). If these data are replicated in clinical trials, renitrosylation therapy could have significant therapeutic impact on the care of millions of patients. PMID:23798386

  19. Cord blood banking for clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, P

    2009-11-01

    Cord blood (CB) stem and progenitor cells from related donors have been transplanted for past 20 years and from unrelated donors issued by public CB banks for 16 years. This brief look at public CB banking highlights aspects of its current status to suggest that accomplishing the currently required tasks, though no small undertaking, is not enough: much remains to be contributed. CB banking started in the 1930s, collecting blood for transfusion and showed that CB could be effectively collected, stored and administered intravenously without negative consequences. The realization that it contains hematopoietic 'stem' cells (actually, colony-forming units) followed discoveries elsewhere in hematopoiesis research, while HLA and unrelated BMT were being investigated. Progress in the exploration of ethnically stratified HLA allele frequencies, together with plausible neonatal (partial) immunological tolerance, seemed to predict initially frequent, unavoidable, but sufficiently tolerable HLA mismatching with CB grafts. Gluckman et al. and Boyse et al. proved that HLA-identical sibling CB grafts led to definitive engraftment. Technical developments in processing and freezing enabled public banks to accumulate large inventories and to supply grafts that could succeed despite major HLA incompatibility and low cell doses and provide hope for universal access to unrelated-donor transplantation. Public CB banking has thrived worldwide. Regulation and accreditation defined Good Tissue Practice in the CB banking environment and provided accepted do's, don't's and how to's. Startling advances continue to be made, not only technical, but including the description of molecular regulation in the function of natural killer and other cells involved in allogeneic recognition that will have dramatic effects and will permit further improvement in CB selection and use. PMID:19802017

  20. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations. PMID:24578021

  1. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  2. Repetitive resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

  3. Building an efficient supply chain.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes. PMID:16225319

  4. Ambiguity of mapping the relative phase of blood pulsations

    PubMed Central

    Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Makarenko, Alexander A.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Kamshilin, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pulsation imaging (BPI) is a non-invasive optical method based on photoplethysmography (PPG). It is used for the visualization of changes in the spatial distribution of blood in the microvascular bed. BPI specifically allows measurements of the relative phase of blood pulsations and using it we detected a novel type of PPG fast waveforms, which were observable in limited areas with asynchronous regional blood supply. In all subjects studied, these fast waveforms coexisted with traditional slow waveforms of PPG. We are therefore presenting a novel lock-in image processing technique of blood pulsation imaging, which can be used for detailed temporal characterization of peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25401026

  5. Reduction of blood serum cholesterol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    By feeding a human subject as the sole source of sustenance a defined diet wherein the carbohydrate consists substantially entirely of glucose, maltose or a polysaccharide of glucose, the blood serum cholesterol level of the human subject is substantially reduced. If 25 percent of the carbohydrate is subsequently supplied in the form of sucrose, an immediate increase from the reduced level is observed. The remainder of the defined diet normally includes a source of amino acids, such as protein or a protein hydrolysate, vitamins, minerals and a source of essential fatty acid.

  6. [The safety of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the tablissement Franais du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor. PMID:21440480

  7. What happened to blood substitutes?

    PubMed

    Stowell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Concerns about the safety and adequacy of the blood supply have fostered twenty years of research into the so-called "blood substitutes" among them the oxygen carriers based on modified hemoglobin. Although none of these materials has yet been licensed for use in North America or Europe, the results of research and clinical trials have increased our understanding of oxygen delivery and its regulation. In particular, the examination of the basis for the vasoactivity observed with some of the hemoglobin based oxygen carriers has led to the insight that several colligative properties of hemoglobin solutions, such as their diffusion coefficient for oxygen, viscosity and colloid oncotic pressure, are important determinants of efficacy. PMID:16326128

  8. Implanted Blood-Pressure-Measuring Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Arterial pressure compared with ambient bodily-fluid pressure. Implanted apparatus, capable of measuring blood pressure of patient, includes differential-pressure transducer connected to pressure sensor positioned in major artery. Electrical signal is function of differential pressure between blood-pressure sensor and reference-pressure sensor transmitted through skin of patient to recorder or indicator.

  9. DCTD Major Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Major Initiatives Search Grants Search Clinical Trials Ongoing Projects NCI Grants Policies Grant Application and Review Process DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

  10. Westinghouse programs in pulsed homopolar power supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litz, D. C.; Mullan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This document details Westinghouse's ongoing study of homopolar machines since 1929 with the major effort occurring in the early 1970's to the present. The effort has enabled Westinghouse to develop expertise in the technology required for the design, fabrication and testing of such machines. This includes electrical design, electromagnetic analysis, current collection, mechanical design, advanced cooling, stress analysis, transient rotor performance, bearing analysis and seal technology. Westinghouse is using this capability to explore the use of homopolar machines as pulsed power supplies for future systems in both military and commercial applications.

  11. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the numbers mean? How do I control my high blood ... can tell if you need to take medicines. Understanding your blood pressure: What do the numbers mean? When you have your blood pressure taken ...

  12. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  13. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    SciTech Connect

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  14. International experience for laparoscopic major liver resection.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Ibrahim; Gayet, Brice; Tzanis, Dimitrios; Tranchart, Hadrien; Fuks, David; Soubrane, Olivier; Han, Ho-Seong; Kim, Ki-Hun; Cherqui, Daniel; O'Rourke, Nicholas; Troisi, Roberto I; Aldrighetti, Luca; Bjorn, Edwin; Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Belli, Giulio; Kaneko, Hironori; Jarnagin, William R; Lin, Charles; Pekolj, Juan; Buell, Joseph F; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-10-01

    Although minor laparoscopic liver resections (LLRs) appear as standardized procedures, major LLRs are still limited to few expert teams. The aim of this study was to report the combined data of 18 international centers performing major LLR. Variables evaluated were number and type of LLR, surgical indications, number of synchronous colorectal resections, details on technical points, conversion rates, operative time, blood loss and surgical margins. From 1996 to 2014, a total of 5388 LLR were carried out including 1184 major LLRs. The most frequent indication for laparoscopic right hepatectomy (LRH) was colorectal liver metastases (37.0%). Seven centers used hand assistance or hybrid approach selectively for LRH mostly at the beginning of their experience. Seven centers apply Pringle's maneuver routinely. The conversion rate for all major LLRs was 10% and mean operative time was 291?min. Mean estimated blood loss for all major LLR was 327?ml and negative surgical margin rate was 96.5%. Major LLRs still remain challenging procedures requiring important experience in both laparoscopy and liver surgery. Stimulating the younger generation to learn and accomplish these techniques is the better way to guarantee further development of this surgical field. PMID:25098667

  15. Determination of Rate and Causes of Wastage of Blood and Blood Products in Iranian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Far, Rafat Mohebbi; Rad, Fatemeh Samiee; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Kohan, Mohamad Mehdi Daneshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and causes of wastage of blood and blood products (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate) in Qazvin hospitals. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in all hospitals in Qazvin, including 5 teaching hospitals, 2 social welfare hospitals, 3 private hospitals, 1 charity hospital, and 1 military hospital. This descriptive study was based on available data from hospital blood banks in the province of Qazvin. The research instrument was a 2-part questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic characteristics of hospitals and the second part elicited information about blood and blood component wastage. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistic methods and SPSS 11.5. Results: Blood wastage may occur for a number of reasons, including time expiry, wasted imports, blood medically or surgically ordered but not used, stock time expired, hemolysis, or miscellaneous reasons. Data indicated that approximately 77.9% of wasted pack cell units were wasted for the reason of time expiry. Pack cell wastage in hospitals is reported to range from 1.93% to 30.7%. Wastage at all hospitals averaged 9.8% among 30.913 issued blood products. Overall blood and blood product (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate) wastage was 3048 units and average total wastage per participant hospital for all blood groups was 254 units per year. Conclusion: Blood transfusion is an essential part of patient care. The blood transfusion system has made significant advancements in areas such as donor management, storage of blood, cross-matching, rational use of blood, and distribution. In order to improve the standards of blood banks and the blood transfusion services in Iran, comprehensive standards have been formulated to ensure better quality control in collection, storage, testing, and distribution of blood and its components for the identified major factors affecting blood product wastage. PMID:25035674

  16. Material & equipment, procurement & maintenance: Impact on blood safety.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Blood Transfusion Safety is dependent on effectively organised and managed blood services, which have adequate financial resources, skilled manpower, appropriate infrastructure and quality management systems in place. 80% of the world's population has access to 20% of the supply blood products, of which little is consistently safe. HIV highlighted the importance of blood safety. The lack of effective blood services in low human development index (LHDI), developing countries, has lead to international funding and capacity building for more than three decades. The initial strategies focused on providing HIV testing reagents to prevention transmission, however this only addresses one part of blood safety. Blood safety is not only dependent on preventing HIV transmission. In many populations there are other infectious agents, which have a higher prevalence. Ensuring the correct blood is provided to the patient depends on: well managed services with effective leadership and adequate budgets; capacity building and retention of skilled experienced staff; availability of laboratory equipment, correctly maintained; blood cold chain systems; procedures for tendering, purchasing and ensuring an unbroken supply of reagents and consumables; and quality management systems. Barriers for simplified effective tendering, procurement and contracting require urgent attention and coordination of all funding organisations to ensure an unbroken supply of reagents. PMID:20079663

  17. Options and cost effectiveness of multicomponent blood collection.

    PubMed

    Matthes, Gert A

    2002-10-01

    Multicomponent blood collection (MCBC) has the potential to collect more than one blood component in one session resulting in high-quality blood products. For some protocols, an appropriate donor selection is required. Collection efficiency data of red cell apheresis show values >82%. Quality control data (hemolysis and biochemical parameter) prove that MCBC products fit European guidelines. MCBC provides standardized blood products tailored to needs of patients. MCBC is already the cost-effective alternative for filtered and double unit blood components. MCBC will lead to saving of staff, space, and equipment. It can improve logistics of blood collection and banking. MCBC increases blood supply at lower transfusion risk for national blood self-sufficiency with limited human resources and shrinking donor population. PMID:12350046

  18. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  19. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    Data presented in this publication describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United states and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the U.S. The report includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Both summary and detailed statistics are presented. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  1. Emerging infectious agents: do they pose a risk to the safety of transfused blood and blood products?

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Mary E

    2002-03-15

    The blood supply is safer than it has been at any other time in recent history, and, in the context of other health care-related adverse events, the risks associated with blood transfusion are extremely small. The current high level of safety is the result of successive refinements and improvements in how blood is collected, tested, processed, and transfused; nonetheless, blood and plasma products remain vulnerable to newly identified or reemerging infections. In recent years, numerous infectious agents-including several newly discovered hepatitis viruses, the agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, and tickborne pathogens-have been identified as potential threats to the safety of blood and plasma. Continued vigilance is critical to protect the blood supply from known pathogens and to monitor for the emergence of new infectious agents. Recent terrorist activities in the United States add new considerations to maintaining the safety and supply of blood. Education of clinicians and patients regarding the benefits and risks associated with the judicious use of blood and blood products can assist in informed decision making. PMID:11850862

  2. Blood Donation by Elderly Repeat Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, Thomas; Lander-Kox, Jutta; Alt, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Upper age limits for blood donors are intended to protect elderly blood donors from donor reactions. However, due to a lack of data about adverse reactions in elderly blood donors, upper age limits are arbitrary and vary considerably between different countries. Methods Here we present data from 171,231 voluntary repeat whole blood donors beyond the age of 68 years. Results Blood donations from repeat blood donors beyond the age of 68 years increased from 2,114 in 2005 to 38,432 in 2012 (from 0,2% to 4.2% of all whole blood donations). Adverse donor reactions in repeat donors decreased with age and were lower than in the whole group (0.26%), even in donors older than 71 years (0.16%). However, from the age of 68 years, the time to complete recovery after donor reactions increased. Donor deferrals were highest in young blood donors (21.4%), but increased again in elderly blood donors beyond 71 years (12.6%). Conclusion Blood donation by regular repeat blood donors older than 71 years may be safely continued. However, due to a lack of data for donors older than 75 years, blood donation in these donors should be handled with great caution. PMID:25254019

  3. The brain's supply and demand in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kubera, Britta; Hubold, Christian; Zug, Sophia; Wischnath, Hannah; Wilhelm, Ines; Hallschmid, Manfred; Entringer, Sonja; Langemann, Dirk; Peters, Achim

    2012-01-01

    During psychosocial stress, the brain demands extra energy from the body to satisfy its increased needs. For that purpose it uses a mechanism referred to as “cerebral insulin suppression” (CIS). Specifically, activation of the stress system suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, and in this way energy—particularly glucose—is allocated to the brain rather than the periphery. It is unknown, however, how the brain of obese humans organizes its supply and demand during psychosocial stress. To answer this question, we examined 20 obese and 20 normal weight men in two sessions (Trier Social Stress Test and non-stress control condition followed by either a rich buffet or a meager salad). Blood samples were continuously taken and subjects rated their vigilance and mood by standard questionnaires. First, we found a low reactive stress system in obesity. While obese subjects showed a marked hormonal response to the psychosocial challenge, the cortisol response to the subsequent meal was absent. Whereas the brains of normal weight subjects demanded for extra energy from the body by using CIS, CIS was not detectable in obese subjects. Our findings suggest that the absence of CIS in obese subjects is due to the absence of their meal-related cortisol peak. Second, normal weight men were high reactive during psychosocial stress in changing their vigilance, thereby increasing their cerebral energy need, whereas obese men were low reactive in this respect. Third, normal weight subjects preferred carbohydrates after stress to supply their brain, while obese men preferred fat and protein instead. We conclude that the brain of obese people organizes its need, supply, and demand in a low reactive manner. PMID:22408618

  4. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Of ThiS page. If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  5. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... There are two numbers in each blood pressure measurement: The first (top) number is the systolic blood ... when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure measurements are written this way: 120/80. One or ...

  6. High Blood Cholesterol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  7. Blood Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... manufacturers commonly produce these blood products. Top What fees are associated with blood? While donated blood is ... donors; and quality assurance. As a result, processing fees are charged to recover costs. Processing fees for ...

  8. Coughing up blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  9. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  10. Antithrombin III blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... AT III) is a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of ... may mean you have an increased risk of blood clotting. This can occur when there is not enough ...

  11. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Deal With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture ... fungi has been determined. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  12. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... fungi has been determined. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  13. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  14. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Complications History of Blood Transfusion Iron and Blood Donation Iron Info. for All Donors Iron Info. for ... Cross chapter closest to you. Can't Donate Blood? A financial donation can also help save lives. Donate Now Find ...

  15. Low blood sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into the cells. This leads to symptoms of diabetes. Low blood sugar occurs due to any of the following: Your ... blood sugar. In people who do not have diabetes, low blood sugar may be caused by: Drinking alcohol Insulinoma , which ...

  16. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  17. CEA blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  18. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  19. Ketones blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  20. A review on the effects of ionizing radiation on blood and blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Geoffrey P.

    1998-11-01

    The major application of blood irradiation is for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease on immunodeficient patients by the abrogation of T-lymphocytes. Despite screening of blood donations, transfusion associated transmission of infections due to contaminated blood products is common. Hence, there is potential for the application of irradiation for the inactivation of pathogenic microbes in blood products. Literature on the effect of radiation on blood components is reviewed in order to make a rational decision on the feasibility of their irradiation.

  1. The 3He Supply Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the main uses for 3He is in gas proportional counters for neutron detection. Radiation portal monitors deployed for homeland security and non-proliferation use such detectors. Other uses of 3He are for research detectors, commercial instruments, well logging detectors, dilution refrigerators, for targets or cooling in nuclear research, and for basic research in condensed matter physics. The US supply of 3He comes almost entirely from the decay of tritium used in nuclear weapons by the US and Russia. A few other countries contribute a small amount to the worlds 3He supply. Due to the large increase in use of 3He for homeland security, the supply has dwindled, and can no longer meet the demand. This white paper reviews the problems of supply, utilization, and alternatives.

  2. TRANSISTOR HIGH VOLTAGE POWER SUPPLY

    DOEpatents

    Driver, G.E.

    1958-07-15

    High voltage, direct current power supplies are described for use with battery powered nuclear detection equipment. The particular advantages of the power supply described, are increased efficiency and reduced size and welght brought about by the use of transistors in the circuit. An important feature resides tn the employment of a pair of transistors in an alternatefiring oscillator circuit having a coupling transformer and other circuit components which are used for interconnecting the various electrodes of the transistors.

  3. Signalment and Blood Types in Cats Being Evaluated as Blood Donors at Two Italian University Blood Banks

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Eva; Miglio, Arianna; Proverbio, Daniela; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Ferro, Elisabetta; Mangili, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Data from potential feline blood donors presented at two university blood banks in Italy were recorded. Blood typing was performed using an immunochromatographic method. Over the three years of the study 357 cats representing 15 breeds, 45.3% female and 54.7% male, with a mean age of 3.8 years were evaluated. Of these 90.5% were blood type A, 5.6% type B, and 3.9% type AB. The majority of the cats (54.6%) were European DSH (92.3% were type A, 5.1% type B, and 2.6% type AB), and 21% were Maine Coon (MCO) cats (100% blood type A). The estimated frequencies of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion between DSH (donors and recipients), MCO (donor and recipients), DSH donors and MCO recipients, and MCO donors and DSH recipients were 4.8%, 0%, 0%, and 5.1% for major reactions and 7.2%, 0%, 7.7%, and 0% for minor transfusions reactions, respectively. In a population of blood donors that includes DSH and MCO the risk of transfusion reaction is between 5% and 8% if typing is not performed on donor and recipient blood. Blood typing should therefore be performed before transfusion to remove the risk of transfusion reactions due to blood type incompatibilities. PMID:24757577

  4. Blood Glutamate Scavenging: Insight into Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Leibowitz, Akiva; Boyko, Matthew; Shapira, Yoram; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brains extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging. PMID:22949847

  5. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  6. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  7. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M

    2009-10-01

    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice. PMID:19885962

  8. Ergonomics and sustainability--challenges from global supply chains.

    PubMed

    Hasle, Peter; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2012-01-01

    The development of globalised supply chains is a major challenge for sustainability. For several years, there has been discussion within the profession whether and how ergonomics and human factors can play a role. Based on our research, we have identified five major challenges from global supply chains especially related to the social aspects of sustainability: (1) criteria for social sustainability, (2) the role of key performance indicators in the management of supply chains, (3) the constant changes in supply chains, (4) the challenge in establishing participation, and (5) the development of agency and regulatory mechanisms. There are obviously no clear and simple solutions to these challenges. One possible avenue for progress might lie in acquiring a greater understanding of the challenges from global supply chains and developing a strategy which combines social and long-term business sustainability. Starting from such a basis, the next step would be to find ways for the ergonomics and human factors community to create international collaboration which can impact specific global supply chains. PMID:22317319

  9. Molecular biology of the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers: similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Efficient processing of information by the central nervous system (CNS) represents an important evolutionary advantage. Thus, homeostatic mechanisms have developed that provide appropriate circumstances for neuronal signaling, including a highly controlled and stable microenvironment. To provide such a milieu for neurons, extracellular fluids of the CNS are separated from the changeable environment of blood at three major interfaces: at the brain capillaries by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is localized at the level of the endothelial cells and separates brain interstitial fluid (ISF) from blood; at the epithelial layer of four choroid plexuses, the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB), which separates CSF from the CP ISF, and at the arachnoid barrier. The two barriers that represent the largest interface between blood and brain extracellular fluids, the BBB and the BCSFB, prevent the free paracellular diffusion of polar molecules by complex morphological features, including tight junctions (TJs) that interconnect the endothelial and epithelial cells, respectively. The first part of this review focuses on the molecular biology of TJs and adherens junctions in the brain capillary endothelial cells and in the CP epithelial cells. However, normal function of the CNS depends on a constant supply of essential molecules, like glucose and amino acids from the blood, exchange of electrolytes between brain extracellular fluids and blood, as well as on efficient removal of metabolic waste products and excess neurotransmitters from the brain ISF. Therefore, a number of specific transport proteins are expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells and CP epithelial cells that provide transport of nutrients and ions into the CNS and removal of waste products and ions from the CSF. The second part of this review concentrates on the molecular biology of various solute carrier (SLC) transport proteins at those two barriers and underlines differences in their expression between the two barriers. Also, many blood-borne molecules and xenobiotics can diffuse into brain ISF and then into neuronal membranes due to their physicochemical properties. Entry of these compounds could be detrimental for neural transmission and signalling. Thus, BBB and BCSFB express transport proteins that actively restrict entry of lipophilic and amphipathic substances from blood and/or remove those molecules from the brain extracellular fluids. The third part of this review concentrates on the molecular biology of ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters and those SLC transporters that are involved in efflux transport of xenobiotics, their expression at the BBB and BCSFB and differences in expression in the two major blood-brain interfaces. In addition, transport and diffusion of ions by the BBB and CP epithelium are involved in the formation of fluid, the ISF and CSF, respectively, so the last part of this review discusses molecular biology of ion transporters/exchangers and ion channels in the brain endothelial and CP epithelial cells. PMID:21349151

  10. Major trauma guidance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The National Audit Office states that immediate treatment for major trauma, which comprises serious and multiple injuries that are often life threatening, accounts for up to 400,000 of health expenditure and up to 3.7 billion in lost economic output every year. There is also significant emotional impact on patients and their families during the trauma and rehabilitation phases. PMID:26948204

  11. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  12. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar

  13. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  14. Mobilizing the Moral Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Robert C.

    The Moral Majority has been more successful in mobilizing conservative Christians than three other evangelical groups--Third Century Publishers, Christian Voice, and the Religious Roundtable. According to the literature on social movements, four possible explanations for the success of such groups are that they have access to financial resources,

  15. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge

  16. Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) power supply design and development

    SciTech Connect

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is an advanced tokamak project aimed at the production of quasi-steady state plasmas with advanced shape, heating, and particle control. TPX is to be built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) using many of the facilities from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). TPX will be the first tokamak to utilize superconducting (SC) magnets in both the toroidal field (TF) and poloidal field (PF) systems. This new feature requires a departure from the traditional tokamak power supply schemes. This paper describes the plan for the adaptation of the PPPL/FTR power system facilities to supply TPX. Five major areas are addressed, namely the AC power system, the TF, PF and Fast Plasma Position Control (FPPC) power supplies, and quench protection for the TF and PF systems. Special emphasis is placed on the development of new power supply and protection schemes.

  17. Development of a New Subclavian Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Method for Locally or Recurrent Advanced Breast Cancer Using an Implanted Catheter-Port System After Redistribution of Arterial Tumor Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Kenji Shimamoto, Hiroshi Ogawa, Yukihisa Yoshimatsu, Misako Yagihashi, Kunihiro Nakajima, Yasuo; Kitanosono, Takashi

    2009-09-15

    Locally or recurrent advanced breast cancers can receive arterial blood supply from various arteries, such as the internal thoracic artery (ITA), the lateral thoracic artery, and the other small arterial branches originating from the subclavian artery. Failure to catheterize and subsequent formation of collateral arterial blood supply from various arteries are some of the reasons why the response to conventional selective transarterial infusion chemotherapy is limited and variable. To overcome this problem, we developed a new subclavian arterial infusion chemotherapy method using an implanted catheter-port system after redistribution of arterial tumor blood supply by embolizing the ITA. We named this technique ('redistributed subclavian arterial infusion chemotherapy' (RESAIC)). Using RESAIC, patients can be treated on an outpatient basis for extended periods of time. Eleven patients underwent RESAIC, and the complete remission and partial response rate in 10 evaluable patients was 90%: complete remission [CR] n = 4, partial remission n = 4, stable disease n = 1, and not evaluable n = 1. Three of four patients with CR had no distant metastasis, and modified radical mastectomy was performed 1 month after conclusion of RESAIC. The resected specimens showed no residual cancer cells, and pathologically confirmed complete remission was diagnosed in each of these cases. Although temporary grade-3 myelosuppression was seen in three patients who were previously treated by systemic chemotherapy, there was no other drug-induced toxicity or procedure-related complications. RESAIC produced a better response and showed no major complications compared with other studies despite the advanced stage of the cancers.

  18. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  19. Blood-Borne Pathogens: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Geraldine M; Shih, Andrew W; Solh, Ziad; Golder, Mia; Schubert, Peter; Fearon, Margaret; Sheffield, William P

    2016-04-01

    Testing donations for pathogens and deferring selected blood donors have reduced the risk of transmission of known pathogens by transfusion to extremely low levels in most developed countries. Protecting the blood supply from emerging infectious threats remains a serious concern in the transfusion medicine community. Transfusion services can employ indirect measures such as surveillance, hemovigilance, and donor questioning (defense), protein-, or nucleic acid based direct testing (detection), or pathogen inactivation of blood products (destruction) as strategies to mitigate the risk of transmission-transmitted infection. In the North American context, emerging threats currently include dengue, chikungunya, and hepatitis E viruses, and Babesia protozoan parasites. The 2003 SARS and 2014 Ebola outbreaks illustrate the potential of epidemics unlikely to be transmitted by blood transfusion but disruptive to blood systems. Donor-free blood products such as ex vivo generated red blood cells offer a theoretical way to avoid transmission-transmitted infection risk, although biological, engineering, and manufacturing challenges must be overcome before this approach becomes practical. Similarly, next generation sequencing of all nucleic acid in a blood sample is currently possible but impractical for generalized screening. Pathogen inactivation systems are in use in different jurisdictions around the world, and are starting to gain regulatory approval in North America. Cost concerns make it likely that pathogen inactivation will be contemplated by blood operators through the lens of health economics and risk-based decision making, rather than in zero-risk paradigms previously embraced for transfusable products. Defense of the blood supply from infectious disease risk will continue to require innovative combinations of surveillance, detection, and pathogen avoidance or inactivation. PMID:26962008

  20. Religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking. PMID:22558902

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  2. Hair Sheep Blood, Citrated or Defibrinated, Fulfills All Requirements of Blood Agar for Diagnostic Microbiology Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A.; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis [1], [2]. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Methods and Findings Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. Conclusions The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to dramatically improve the safety and accuracy of laboratory diagnosis of pathogenic bacteria in resource-poor countries. PMID:19578541

  3. Blood inventory management: hospital best practice.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Sebastian H W; Yates, Nicola; Wilding, Richard; Cotton, Sue

    2012-04-01

    Blood is a perishable product, and hence good management of inventories is crucial. Blood inventory management is a trade-off between shortage and wastage. The challenge is to keep enough stock to ensure a 100% supply of blood while keeping time expiry losses at a minimum. This article focuses on inventory management of red blood cells in hospital transfusion laboratories to derive principles of best practice and makes recommendations that will ensure losses due to time expiry are kept to a minimum. The literature was reviewed to identify available models for perishable inventory management. Historical data from the UK blood supply chain was analyzed to identify hospitals with good inventory management practice and low wastage levels. Transfusion laboratory managers in the selected hospitals were interviewed in 7 case studies with the aim of identifying drivers for low wastage and good inventory management practice. The findings from the case studies were compared with the literature. The extant literature asserts that the drivers for good inventory performance are the use of complex inventory models and algorithms. This study has found this not to be the case. Instead, good performance is driven by the quality of transfusion laboratory staff, who must be skilled, regularly trained, and experienced. Electronic crossmatching, transparency of the inventory, and simple management procedures also facilitate good performance. PMID:22018647

  4. Major SSC tunneling begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project.

  5. Expression and hypoxic regulation of hif1alpha and hif2alpha during early blood and endothelial cell differentiation in chick.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kanako; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun

    2007-08-01

    HIF1 and HIF2 are major mediators for hypoxia sensing and response. Their roles in early differentiation of two key cell types involved in oxygen supply in amniotes, the primitive blood cells and endothelial cells, are unclear. We show that, in pre-circulation avian embryos, hif1alpha and hif2alpha are expressed in embryonic and extraembryonic tissues, respectively. hif2alpha, first identified as epas1, is not present in endothelial cells at any pre-circulation stage under either normoxia or hypoxia conditions. Differentiating blood cells express low levels of hif2alpha under normoxia, but show a strong and rapid upregulation under hypoxia. Blood cell differentiation, however, is not affected under either hypoxia or hyperoxia conditions. PMID:17625986

  6. BUN - blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  7. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of blood loss. If you are having a surgery that you're able to schedule months in advance, your doctor may ask whether you would like to use your own blood, instead of donated ... or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for ...

  8. Homopolar generator power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, W. F.; Gully, J. H.

    1985-10-01

    A high-energy, high-current homopolar generator pulsed power supply system that is compact and field portable. The power supply system includes a homopolar generator (HPG), an auxiliary supply and drive system, both mounted on a skid frame, and a control system coupled to the HPG and drive system. The homopolar generator has a split rotor with insulation between the halves and a recess in the periphery. A stator ring and field coil, for producing a magnetic field through which the rotor halves make two simultaneous voltage-generating passes, are disposed within the recess in the rotor. Air-actuated brush mechanisms inside and outside the recess contact surfaces of the rotor and collect discharge current. The auxiliary supply and drive system includes a motoring system comprising hydraulic motors for driving the HPG to speed, a bearing lubrication system, a generator for energizing the field coil, and a brush actuator air supply system, all of which are driven by a prime mover. The control system comprises a logic controller for executing a prescribed sequence of steps including turning on the prime mover, initiating motoring of the HPG, energizing the field coil, and initiating the discharge of electrical current.

  9. Flexible automated platform for blood group genotyping on DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Paris, Sandra; Rigal, Dominique; Barlet, Valérie; Verdier, Martine; Coudurier, Nicole; Bailly, Pascal; Brès, Jean-Charles

    2014-05-01

    The poor suitability of standard hemagglutination-based assay techniques for large-scale automated screening of red blood cell antigens severely limits the ability of blood banks to supply extensively phenotype-matched blood. With better understanding of the molecular basis of blood antigens, it is now possible to predict blood group phenotype by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genomic DNA. Development of DNA-typing assays for antigen screening in blood donation qualification laboratories promises to enable blood banks to provide optimally matched donations. We have designed an automated genotyping system using 96-well DNA microarrays for blood donation screening and a first panel of eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms to identify 16 alleles in four blood group systems (KEL, KIDD, DUFFY, and MNS). Our aim was to evaluate this system on 960 blood donor samples with known phenotype. Study data revealed a high concordance rate (99.92%; 95% CI, 99.77%-99.97%) between predicted and serologic phenotypes. These findings demonstrate that our assay using a simple protocol allows accurate, relatively low-cost phenotype prediction at the DNA level. This system could easily be configured with other blood group markers for identification of donors with rare blood types or blood units for IH panels or antigens from other systems. PMID:24726279

  10. [Extrapair paternity in Parus major].

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Xian; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Peng; Li, Jing; Wan, Dong-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Mating systems, as an evolutionary stable strategy, play an important role in animal reproductive process and result from an animal's adaption to their environment, including their inter-specific environment. In the 1980s, extrapair paternity (EPP) was first noted in the eurychoric species, the Great Tit, Parus major. As earlier studies indicated, morphology, physiology, behavior, ecological characteristics and mating systems of eurychoric species differ greatly between areas or populations. Accordingly, we analyzed the mating system of the Great Tit (P.m.minor) in Fairy Cave National Nature Reserve, Liaoning, China. We collected total parent-offspring blood samples from 22 broods. We used 8 hypervariable loci, which were selected from 11 reported microsatellite loci for paternity test. In conjunction with the known genetic pattern of the female parent, the accuracy of the paternity testing reached 99.98% with this genetic data. Results of paternity testing showed that 7 of 22 broods (31.8%) had extra-pair nestling, with 16 of 197 nestlings (8.12%) a result of extra-pair fertilizations. The EPP rate of the Great Tit we noted in Liaoning is obviously lower than those in other passerine forest birds (less than 10%). Though between 55.6% and 9.1% extrapair offspring were found among the different nests, we were, however, unable to find any explanatory rule. PMID:23389978

  11. Proposal for Supply Chain Concentration in the Traditional MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, K. V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to develop and implement a concentration in Supply Chain Management in the existing traditional MBA program effective fall 2012. Houston is the hub for many multinational oil and energy companies, large healthcare systems, wholesale/retail businesses, engineering and construction companies, and is a major city along…

  12. Report on Physician Manpower in Ohio: Requirements, Supply and Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Physician employment needs in Ohio were reviewed, with attention to supply and demand, medical school enrollments, and attendant costs. The major focus was to develop an information system and methodology that would support planning for medical school education. Specific concerns were: (1) whether physician production in Ohio's medical schools and

  13. CONCENTRATION AND SIZE OF ASBESTOS IN WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of the results of over 1500 asbestos analyses from U.S. water supplies suggests that the majority of water consumers are not exposed to asbestos concentrations in their drinking water over 10 to the 6th power fibers per liter. There are, however, some populations that ar...

  14. Teacher Supply in Hong Kong: Educational Qualifications and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Yue-ping; Hung, Fan-sing

    This paper explores Hong Kong secondary teacher supply patterns related to teacher retention using data collected from 1991-99. Secondary teachers are classified into five categories by initial educational qualifications: registered Graduate Master (trained GM), who are university graduates with majors in a subject discipline; permitted Graduate

  15. Modeling EU electricity market competition using the residual supply index

    SciTech Connect

    Swinand, Gregory; Scully, Derek; Ffoulkes, Stuart; Kessler, Brian

    2010-11-15

    An econometric approach to related hourly Residual Supply Index to price-cost margins in the major EU electricity generation markets suggests that market structure, as measured by the RSI, is a significant explanatory factor for markups, even when scarcity and other explanatory variables are included. (author)

  16. Modules in Agricultural Education for Agricultural Supplies and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    Each of the 22 curriculum modules in this packet for instruction in agricultural supplies and services contains a brief description of the module content, a list of the major division or units, the overall objectives, objectives by units, content outline, and suggested teaching methods, student application activities, and evaluation procedures. A

  17. Petroleum supply monthly with data for February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describes production, imports, exports, PAD distruct movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products.

  18. Understanding and reducing the risk of supply chain disruptions.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters can wreck havoc on business operations. When civil unrest swept the UK in August 2011, the effect on business was stark, losing the retail sector £300m in unexpected costs and lost revenues. On the other side of the world, the natural disaster that hit Japan in early 2011 is estimated to have run up costs in the region of £189bn in repairs. Beyond this, the earthquake and its aftermath shattered supply chains, with technology companies expecting delays of up to six months before business could resume fully. It is impossible to predict incidents like these, but businesses can help mitigate disruption in the supply chain by undertaking business continuity management (BCM). A flexible supply chain is essential when it comes to BCM - whether it means being able to cope with altering transport routes at short notice, or finding or replacing a supplier at the last minute. Understanding the supply chain is critical when responding to major impacts that affect supply chains in multiple points - like IT system failures and country-wide fuel strikes. Businesses should carry out detailed business impact assessments and risk assessments right across the end-to-end supply chain and not just at key single points of failure. It is an intensive process that needs dedicated resources and ownership at the highest level. Recognising this, DHL has designed a 10-step process, which it has implemented across its global supply chain business. This paper provides an overview of what a supply chain really looks like, what can cause disruptions and how far up/down the supply chain companies need to go with their BCM planning. PMID:22948101

  19. Surface coating for blood-contacting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Ajit Kumar Balakrishnan

    The major problems always encountered with the blood-contacting surfaces are their compatibility, contact blood damage, and thrombogenicity. Titanium nitride (TiN) is a hard, inert, ceramic material that is widely used in the engineering industry. TiN has been proven to be a good biomaterial in its crystalline form, in orthopedic, and in tissue implant applications. This dissertation describes a method to coat amorphous TiN on the blood-contacting surfaces of certain medical devices using the room-temperature sputtering process and to characterize, to test, and to evaluate the coating for a reliable, durable, and compatible blood-contacting surface The blood-compatibility aspects were evaluated with standard, established protocols and procedures to prove the feasibility. An amorphous TiN coating is developed, characterized, tested, and blood compatibility evaluated by applying to the blood-contacting surfaces of stainless steel, catheters, and blood filters. The flexibility characteristics were proven by applying it to the diaphragms of the pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device. The results show that amorphous titanium nitride is flexible and adherent to polymeric substrates like polyurethane and polyester. Blood compatibility evaluation showed comparable results with catheters and superior behavior with stainless steel and polyester filters. It is concluded that amorphous titanium nitride can be considered to be applied to the surfaces of some of the medical devices in order to improve blood compatibility.

  20. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ˜1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells’ normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  1. Microsphere estimates of blood flow: Methodological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    von Ritter, C.; Hinder, R.A.; Womack, W.; Bauerfeind, P.; Fimmel, C.J.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.; Blum, A.L. Louisianna State Univ. Medical Center, Shreveport Universitaire Vaudois )

    1988-02-01

    The microsphere technique is a standard method for measuring blood flow in experimental animals. Sporadic reports have appeared outlining the limitations of this method. In this study the authors have systematically assessed the effect of blood withdrawals for reference sampling, microsphere numbers, and anesthesia on blood flow estimates using radioactive microspheres in dogs. Experiments were performed on 18 conscious and 12 anesthetized dogs. Four blood flow estimates were performed over 120 min using 1 {times} 10{sup 6} microspheres each time. The effects of excessive numbers of microspheres pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, and replacement of volume loss for reference samples with dextran 70 were assessed. In both conscious and anesthetized dogs a progressive decrease in gastric mucosal blood flow and cardiac output was observed over 120 min. This was also observed in the pancreas in conscious dogs. The major factor responsible for these changes was the volume loss due to the reference sample withdrawals. Replacement of the withdrawn blood with dextran 70 led to stable blood flows to all organs. The injection of excessive numbers of microspheres did not modify hemodynamics to a greater extent than did the injection of 4 million microspheres. Anesthesia exerted no influence on blood flow other than raising coronary flow. The authors conclude that although blood flow to the gastric mucosa and the pancreas is sensitive to the minor hemodynamic changes associated with the microsphere technique, replacement of volume loss for reference samples ensures stable blood flow to all organs over a 120-min period.

  2. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. Leading a supply chain turnaround.

    PubMed

    Slone, Reuben E

    2004-10-01

    Just five years ago, salespeople at Whirlpool were in the habit of referring to their supply chain organization as the "sales disablers." Now the company excels at getting products to the right place at the right time--while managing to keep inventories low. How did that happen? In this first-person account, Reuben Slone, Whirlpool's vice president of Global Supply Chain, describes how he and his colleagues devised the right supply chain strategy, sold it internally, and implemented it. Slone insisted that the right focal point for the strategy was the satisfaction of consumers at the end of the supply chain. Most supply chain initiatives do the opposite: They start with the realities of a company's manufacturing base and proceed from there. Through a series of interviews with trade customers large and small, his team identified 27 different capabilities that drove industry perceptions of Whirlpool's performance. Knowing it was infeasible to aim for world-class performance across all of them, Slone weighed the costs of excelling at each and found the combination of initiatives that would provide overall competitive advantage. A highly disciplined project management office and broad training in project management were key to keeping work on budget and on benefit. Slone set an intense pace--three "releases" of new capabilities every month--that the group maintains to this day. Lest this seem like a technology story, however, Slone insists it is just as much a "talent renaissance." People are proud today to be part of Whirlpool's supply chain organization, and its new generation of talent will give the company a competitive advantage for years to come. PMID:15559580

  5. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  6. AIDS prevention is thicker than blood. Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, J

    1992-01-01

    Usually, giving blood is generous. Sometimes, however, it is lethal. In countries such as the US, India and Brazil, where blood donors can get paid by the pint, drug addicts, street dwellers and others who have little to sell except their bodies flock to for-profit blood centers. Many of these people carry the AIDS virus. A survey in the Indian state of Maharashtra revealed that 27% of blood donors tested positive for AIDS antibodies--a slightly higher rate than the same survey found among prostitutes. If 1 private blood bank tests for AIDS antibodies and turns HIV-positive volunteers away--forget about treating them--those poor and desperate enough can often find another, less scrupulous clinic. Or a clinic that doesn't do the testing properly. Although the 1988 Brazilian constitution banned the sale of blood, private clinics continue to flourish and nobody knows whose veins the blood is flowing from. The inevitable result is a frightening rate of contamination. An estimated 85% of Brazilian hemophiliacs have become infected with the HIV virus by contaminated blood or blood products. Even in countries that eschew blood sales and rely on donated supplies, the danger of HIV contamination is still present. HIV infection often does not generate antibodies for weeks; sometimes months or even years. In many 3rd World communities without adequate equipment, blood storage is impossible. The cost of testing emergency donations is so high that the choice may be narrowed--either go without testing or do without blood. Despite all these obstacles, Zimbabwe has shown that a 3rd World country where public health care takes precedence over private profit can make the blood supply network a force for reducing the spread of AIDS rather than increasing it. All blood donations in Zimbabwe were voluntary even before AIDS became an issue. When AIDS was accorded recognition as a serious issue, the country had no clinic for HIV testing. Concerned with the rapid spread of AIDS among the general population, the National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS) began testing in 1985. Zimbabwe was the 3rd country in the world to begin routine testing. The NBTS is a nonprofit organization headed by representatives from the ministry of health, the Red Cross, and private donors. Because the NBTS was the only group in the country testing blood, many people who suspected they might be infected volunteered to donate blood just so they could have the test. Unfortunately, their suspicions were often justified. The service has found that regular donors now have a far lower incidence of HIV-positive since 1989, when alternative testing services were opened. Analysts believe much of the credit goes to the AIDS counseling given before each blood donation. Each individual is interviewed by a nurse who takes a comprehensive medical history. The education session also includes how AIDS might be contracted. The NBTS quickly discovered that the incidence of HIV antibodies was far lower among students aged 17-19. Since then, the service has thrown much of its resources into school blood campaigns. The service has also opened 5 new collection branches, 1 in each province. Samples from each donation are sent to 1 of the 2 national centers for testing. AIDS is still spreading in Zimbabwe, but thanks to the efforts of NBTS, hospital patients can feel secure. PMID:12159269

  7. Does current evidence support the use of intraoperative cell salvage in reducing the need for blood transfusion in caesarean section?

    PubMed Central

    Dhariwal, Sukhjit K.; Khan, Khalid S.; Allard, Shubha; Wilson, Matthew; Moore, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review An important cause of maternal morbidity and direct maternal death is obstetric haemorrhage at caesarean section. Concerns regarding allogeneic blood safety, limited blood supplies and rising health costs have collectively generated enthusiasm for the utility of methods intended to reduce the use of allogeneic blood transfusion in cases of haemorrhage at caesarean section. This can be achieved by intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS). The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the evidence for the efficacy of IOCS during caesarean section, in women at risk of haemorrhage, in reducing the need for allogeneic blood transfusion. Recent findings The majority of the evidence currently available is from case reports and case series. Although this evidence appears to support the use of IOCS in obstetrics, strong clinical evidence or economic effectiveness from clinical trials are essential to support the routine practice of IOCS in obstetrics. Summary Current evidence is limited to reported case series and two small controlled studies. Overall, IOCS may reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusions during caesarean section. Future large randomized trials are required to assess effectiveness, cost effectiveness and safety. The results of the current ongoing SALVO (A randomised controlled trial of intra-operative cell salvage during caesarean section in women at risk of haemorrhage) trial will shed light on these aspects. PMID:25259949

  8. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The Health Information Center High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy What Is High Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is ... Are the Effects of High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy? Although many pregnant women with high blood pressure ...

  9. Food Supply and Food Safety Issues in China

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China’s connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  10. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Food supply and food safety issues in China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hon-Ming; Remais, Justin; Fung, Ming-Chiu; Xu, Liqing; Sun, Samuel Sai-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Food supply and food safety are major global public health issues, and are particularly important in heavily populated countries such as China. Rapid industrialisation and modernisation in China are having profound effects on food supply and food safety. In this Review, we identified important factors limiting agricultural production in China, including conversion of agricultural land to other uses, freshwater deficits, and soil quality issues. Additionally, increased demand for some agricultural products is examined, particularly those needed to satisfy the increased consumption of animal products in the Chinese diet, which threatens to drive production towards crops used as animal feed. Major sources of food poisoning in China include pathogenic microorganisms, toxic animals and plants entering the food supply, and chemical contamination. Meanwhile, two growing food safety issues are illegal additives and contamination of the food supply by toxic industrial waste. China's connections to global agricultural markets are also having important effects on food supply and food safety within the country. Although the Chinese Government has shown determination to reform laws, establish monitoring systems, and strengthen food safety regulation, weak links in implementation remain. PMID:23746904

  13. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, with data for September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1995 with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1995 with data for May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  1. Blood conservation strategies in orthopedic surgeries: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Balaji; Batra, Sahil; Gupta, Rajat; Agrawal, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    In orthopedics management of surgical blood loss is an important aspect which has evolved along with modern surgeries. Replacement of lost blood by transfusion alone is not the answer as was considered earlier. Complications like infection and immune reaction due to blood transfusion are a major concern. Today numerous techniques are available in place of allogenic blood transfusion which can be employed safely and effectively. In this article we have reviewed these techniques, their merits and demerits. PMID:26403876

  2. The Management of Groundwater Supplies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    The manager of a groundwater supply system must be involved in many different disciplines if he or she is to manage the system effectively. In areas in which specialized expertise is necessary, it can be obtained from consultants or government agencies. (BB)

  3. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  4. Supply Curves of Conserved Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan Kevin

    1982-05-01

    Supply curves of conserved energy provide an accounting framework that expresses the potential for energy conservation. The economic worthiness of a conservation measure is expressed in terms of the cost of conserved energy, and a measure is considered economical when the cost of conserved energy is less than the price of the energy it replaces. A supply curve of conserved energy is independent of energy prices; however, the economical reserves of conserved energy will depend on energy prices. Double-counting of energy savings and error propagation are common problems when estimating conservation potentials, but supply curves minimize these difficulties and make their consequences predictable. The sensitivity of the cost of conserved energy is examined, as are variations in the optimal investment strategy in response to changes in inputs. Guidelines are presented for predicting the consequences of such changes. The conservation supply curve concept can be applied to peak power, water, pollution, and other markets where consumers demand a service rather than a particular good.

  5. School Supplies on a Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the challenge that parents, teachers, and district administrators face in continuing to provide essential school supplies to their students despite budget cuts. At the Verona Area (Wisconsin) School District, administrators, teachers, and parents have recently faced this common challenge. Increasingly dependent on funding

  6. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  7. Transport characteristics of guanidino compounds at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: relevance to neural disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Guanidino compounds (GCs), such as creatine, phosphocreatine, guanidinoacetic acid, creatinine, methylguanidine, guanidinosuccinic acid, γ-guanidinobutyric acid, β-guanidinopropionic acid, guanidinoethane sulfonic acid and α-guanidinoglutaric acid, are present in the mammalian brain. Although creatine and phosphocreatine play important roles in energy homeostasis in the brain, accumulation of GCs may induce epileptic discharges and convulsions. This review focuses on how physiologically important and/or neurotoxic GCs are distributed in the brain under physiological and pathological conditions. Transporters for GCs at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) have emerged as substantial contributors to GCs distribution in the brain. Creatine transporter (CRT/solute carrier (SLC) 6A8) expressed at the BBB regulates creatine concentration in the brain, and represents a major pathway for supply of creatine from the circulating blood to the brain. CRT may be a key factor facilitating blood-to-brain guanidinoacetate transport in patients deficient in S-adenosylmethionine:guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase, the creatine biosynthetic enzyme, resulting in cerebral accumulation of guanidinoacetate. CRT, taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A6) and organic cation transporter (OCT3/SLC22A3) expressed at the BCSFB are involved in guanidinoacetic acid or creatinine efflux transport from CSF. Interestingly, BBB efflux transport of GCs, including guanidinoacetate and creatinine, is negligible, though the BBB has a variety of efflux transport systems for synthetic precursors of GCs, such as amino acids and neurotransmitters. Instead, the BCSFB functions as a major cerebral clearance system for GCs. In conclusion, transport of GCs at the BBB and BCSFB appears to be the key determinant of the cerebral levels of GCs, and changes in the transport characteristics may cause the abnormal distribution of GCs in the brain seen in patients with certain neurological disorders. PMID:21352605

  8. Injector power supplies reliability improvements at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillman, A.; Pasky, S.; Sereno, N.; Soliday, R.; Wang, J.

    2006-01-01

    Operational goals for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) facility include 97% availability and a mean time between unscheduled beam losses (faults) of 70 hours, with more than 5000 user hours of scheduled beam per year. To meet this objective, our focus has been maximizing the mean time between faults (MTBF). We have made various hardware and software improvements to better operate and monitor the injector power supply systems. These improvements have been challenging to design and implement in light of the facility operating requirements but are critical to maintaining maximum reliability and availability of beam for user operations. This paper presents actions taken as well as future plans to continue improving injector power supply hardware and software to meet APS user operation goals. The Advanced Photon Source (APS) has two major components. The storage ring (SR) accelerator is the primary accelerator that delivers X-ray beams to users and uses over 1,400 power supplies. The injector accelerators provide beam to the SR and use 361 different supplies. The control system ranges from the standard VME-IOC and Allen Bradley to GESPAC with additional mini-PLCs for monitoring. Injector power supplies range from {approx}30 watts DC to a ramped peak of 4.6 megawatts in 250 ms. Finally, all accelerators use pulsed supplies, and some of them deliver peak power in megawatts. In the SR, each multipole and corrector magnet is separately powered, with only the main dipole magnets on a common bus. Independent power supplies provide increased flexibility, but place additional demands on power supply reliability. The APS reliability goals are 97% availability and 70 hours mean time to unscheduled beam loss. There are 5,129 user hours scheduled per year, 1,315 hours used for machine studies, and the remaining 2,316 hours used for maintenance. The present annual operating schedule provides for three user runs (typically 10 to 12 weeks long), and three machine shutdowns (typically 3 to 5 weeks long). There is one 48-hour period, one 16-hour period, and one 8-hour period of machine studies/intervention for every three weeks of user operation. Reliability goals for the magnet power supply systems are 99.1% availability, with a mean time between beam losses of 240 hours. This goal translates to a required mean time between power-supply-related beam trips during top-up operations (MTBF) of better than 422,640 hours for each magnet power supply. The failure of any SR magnet power supply can cause loss of beam or, in the injector, prohibit top-up operation.

  9. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  10. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  11. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  12. 10 CFR 218.11 - Supply orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supply orders. 218.11 Section 218.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL STANDBY MANDATORY INTERNATIONAL OIL ALLOCATION Supply Orders 218.11 Supply orders. (a) A...) The DOE shall serve a copy of the supply order on the firm directed to act as stated therein. (c)...

  13. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  14. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  15. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  16. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  17. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  18. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  19. Syrtis Major Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows barchan sand dunes west of the Meroe Patera volcanic caldera in central Syrtis Major. The winds that shape these dunes blow from the right/upper right (northeast). The surface across which the dunes have traveled is probably composed of volcanic rocks; the dunes, too, may have volcanic materials, such as sand-sized grains of tephra-volcanic ash-in them. This October 2003 view is located near 7.4oN, 292.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  20. Blood alcohol stability in postmortem blood samples.

    PubMed

    Sutlovic, Davorka; Versic-Bratincevic, Maja; Definis-Gojanovic, Marija

    2014-03-01

    The effect of long-term storage on alcohol stability in postmortem blood samples was investigated. Seventy-nine blood samples were used in this study. For the first time, blood alcohol concentrations were measured within 1 to 4 days after being taken at the Laboratory of Forensic Toxicology. After storage (ranging from 191 to 468 days), each sample was reanalyzed for blood alcohol concentration, and results were compared with the original analysis. Results showed good agreement between the experimental measurements. About 90% of the results lie within 95% limits, and 10% were outside. Despite these positive correlations, the results of some blood samples showed a high variation in ethanol concentration. Deviation in alcohol concentration between replicates of up to 10% (observed in 39% samples) is not acceptable as precise forensic evidence. PMID:24457583

  1. Supply chain challenges. building relationships.

    PubMed

    Beth, Scott; Burt, David N; Copacino, William; Gopal, Chris; Lee, Hau L; Lynch, Robert Porter; Morris, Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Supply chain management is all about software and systems, right? Put in the best technology, sit back, and watch as your processes run smoothly and the savings roll in? Apparently not. When HBR convened a panel of leading thinkers in the field of supply chain management, technology was not top of mind. People and relationships were the dominant issues of the day. The opportunities and problems created by globalization, for example, are requiring companies to establish relationships with new types of suppliers. The ever-present pressure for speed and cost containment is making it even more important to break down stubbornly high internal barriers and establish more effective cross-functional relationships. The costs of failure have never been higher. The leading supply chain performers are applying new technology, new innovations, and process thinking to far greater advantage than the laggards, reaping tremendous gains in all the variables that affect shareholder value: cost, customer service, asset productivity, and revenue generation. And the gap between the leaders and the losers is growing in almost every industry. This roundtable gathered many of the leading thinkers and doers in the field of supply chain management, including practitioners Scott Beth of Intuit, Sandra Morris of Intel, and Chris Gopal of Unisys. David Burt of the University of San Diego and Stanford's Hau Lee bring the latest research from academia. Accenture's William Copacino and the Warren Company's Robert Porter Lynch offer the consultant's perspectives. Together, they take a wide-ranging view of such topics as developing talent, the role of the chief executive, and the latest technologies, exploring both the tactical and the strategic in the current state of supply chain management. PMID:12858712

  2. Detecting tissue deterioration after brain injury: regional blood flow level versus capacity to raise blood flow.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Delphine; Takagaki, Masatoshi; Gramer, Markus; Manning, Andrew; Endepols, Heike; Vollmar, Stefan; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Strong, Antony J; Graf, Rudolf; Backes, Heiko

    2014-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is spatially and temporally adjusted to local energy needs. This coupling involves dilation of vessels both at the site of metabolite exchange and upstream of the activated region. Deficits in upstream blood supply limit the 'capacity to raise rCBF' in response to functional activation and therefore compromise brain function. We here demonstrate in rats that the 'capacity to raise rCBF' can be determined from real-time measurements of rCBF using laser speckle imaging during an energy challenge induced by cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs). Cortical spreading depolarizations (CSDs) occur with high incidence in stroke and various other brain injuries and cause large metabolic changes. Various conditions of cerebral perfusion were induced, either by modifying microvascular tone, or by altering upstream blood supply independently. The increase in rCBF per unit of time in response to CSD was linearly correlated to the upstream blood supply. In an experimental model of stroke, we found that this marker of the capacity to raise rCBF which, in pathologic tissue may be additionally limited by impaired vasoactive signaling, was a better indicator of the functional status of cerebral tissue than local rCBF levels. PMID:24690942

  3. LNG links remote supplies and markets

    SciTech Connect

    Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N.; Rethore, T.J.

    1997-06-02

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

  4. The growing world LP-gas supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, M.C.

    1988-11-01

    The possible range of future (LPG) export availabilities is huge, but actual production levels depend on factors, many of which are beyond our direct control - world demand for crude oil and gas, developments in technology, and the price of both energy in general and LPG specifically. Although these factors limit some of the potential developments, a substantial increase in LPG supply is certain, and this is likely to depress its price relative to other products. Over the last few years, a dramatic expansion has taken place in the industry. From 1980 to 1987, non-Communist world production of LPG increased by close to 35%, to a total of 115 million tonnes. If this is set against the general energy scene, LPG represented 3.7% of crude oil production by weight in 1980, rising to 5.4% in 1987. This growth reflects rise in consciousness around the world of the value of the product. LPG is no longer regarded as a byproduct, which is flared or disposed of at low value, but increasingly as a co-product, and much of the growth in production has been due to the installation of tailored recovery systems. LPG markets historically developed around sources of supply, constrained by the costs of transportation. The major exceptions, of course, were the Middle East, the large exporter, and Japan, the large importer.

  5. Drug supply strategies, constraints and prospects in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuff, K B; Tayo, F

    2004-12-01

    The study set out to identify the strategies for public drug supply in Nigeria, assess its functionality, and recommend appropriate means to ensure regular availability of safe, efficacious, good quality and affordable essential drugs at public health facilities. The investigation was carried out at the Directorate of Pharmaceutical services, Federal Ministry of Health (F.M.O.H) Abuja and Federal Medical Stores, Oshodi, Lagos. Semi-structured interview was conducted with key informants at the Department of Food & Drugs, Drug procurement unit and Central Medical store using structured questionnaires and direct informants answers. Our study shows that public drug supply in Nigeria is governed by a National Drug Policy (NDP) which was introduced in 1990 and it is yet to be reviewed after ten years. We also identified the Central Medical Store (CMS) system as the current public drug supply strategy in Nigeria. Public drug supply is mainly financed by governments and this is inadequate to ensure sustained availability of essential drugs. The major procurement methods in use are open tender and direct procurement. These methods as presently operated suffer from late order placement, delay in payment and poor supplier lead-time mainly attributable to lateness in payment for previous drug supplies. These have contributed to stock out of essential drugs at public health facilities. Major losses due to expiration and spoilage are recorded at both central and peripheral storage points despite adequacy of storage facilities and personnel. Road transportation was the major mode of drug distribution from central to peripheral storage points and shortage of vehicle was a key factor affecting drug distribution. There was an apparent lack of a functioning drug management information system to effectively coordinate public drug supply and there are no definite systems that monitor and evaluate staff performance. The CMS strategy currently used for public drug supply in Nigeria has not ensured regular availability of essential drugs at public health facilities. Our study suggests that this is more of an administrative failure. Public drug supply in Nigeria is therefore in need of urgent reforms and this could be achieved through the use of an autonomous drug supply agency to assure efficiency and sustainability. PMID:15977451

  6. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    SciTech Connect

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-06-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure.

  7. Healthfulness of the U.S. Food Supply

    PubMed Central

    Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Reedy, Jill; Bosire, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Background Every 5 years for the past several decades, the USDHHS and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have issued and updated the Dietary Guidelines for Americans which form the basis of Federal nutrition policy and have shown remarkable consistency across various editions among the major themes. Purpose This paper examines whether the U.S. food supply is sufficiently balanced to provide the recommended proportions of various foods and nutrients per the amount of energy, whether this balance has shifted over time, and which areas of the food supply may have changed more than others. Methods The Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) was used to measure the dietary quality of the U.S. food supply, from 1970 to 2007. Sources of data were the USDA's Food Availability Data, Loss-Adjusted Food Availability Data, and Nutrient Availability Data, and the U.S. Salt Institute's data on salt sold for human consumption. Results Total HEI-2005 scores improved by about 10 points between 1970 and 2007, but they never achieved even 60 points on a scale from 0 to 100. Although meats and total grains were supplied generally in recommended proportions, total vegetables, total fruit, whole fruit, and milk were supplied in sub-optimal proportions that changed very little over time. Saturated fat, sodium, and calories from solid fat, alcoholic beverages and added sugars were supplied in varying degrees of unhealthy abundance over the years. Supplies of dark-green/orange vegetables and legumes and whole grains were entirely insufficient relative to recommendations, with virtually no change over time. Conclusions Deliberate efforts on the part of policymakers, agriculture and the food industry are necessary to provide a supply of foods consistent with nutrition recommendations and make healthy choices available to all. PMID:20153133

  8. Quality indicators for discarding blood in the National Blood Center, Kuala Lumpur

    PubMed Central

    Morish, Mohammed; Ayob, Yasmin; Naim, Noris; Salman, Huda; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: The implementation of quality system and continuous evaluation of all activities of the Blood Transfusion Services (BTS) can help to achieve the maximum quantity and quality of safe blood. Optimizing blood collection and processing would reduce the rate of discard and improve the efficiency of the BTS. The objective of this study is to determine the rate of discard of blood and blood component and identify its reasons at the National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur, during the year of 2007 in order to introduce appropriate intervention. Study Designs and Methods: Data on the number of discarded whole blood units and its components, reasons for discard, and the number of blood components processed as well as the number of collected blood units were obtained from the Blood Bank Information System - NBC database. These were analyzed. Results: The total number of blood units collected in 2007 was 171169 from which 390636 units of components were prepared. The total number of discarded whole blood units and its components was 8968 (2.3%). Platelet concentrate recorded the highest of discard at 6% (3909) followed by whole blood at 3.7% (647), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) at 2.5% (2839), and cryoprecipitate at 2% (620). The rate of discarded packed red blood cells RBCs, plasma aphaeresis, and PLT aphaeresis was less than 1% at 0.6% (902), 0.6% (37), and 0.29% (14), respectively. RBC contamination of PLT and plasma were the major cause of discard at 40% (3558). Other causes include leakage (26% - 2306), lipemia (25% - 2208), and underweight (4% - 353). Conclusion: Good donor selection, training and evaluation of the staff, as well as implementation of automation will help to improve processes and output of BTS. This would reduce discard of blood components and wastage caused by non conformance. PMID:22623837

  9. Blood loss, predictors of bleeding, transfusion practice and strategies of blood cell salvaging during liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Feltracco, Paolo; Brezzi, Maria Luisa; Barbieri, Stefania; Galligioni, Helmut; Milevoj, Moira; Carollo, Cristiana; Ori, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Blood loss during liver transplantation (OLTx) is a common consequence of pre-existing abnormalities of the hemostatic system, portal hypertension with multiple collateral vessels, portal vein thrombosis, previous abdominal surgery, splenomegaly, and poor functional recovery of the new liver. The intrinsic coagulopathic features of end stage cirrhosis along with surgical technical difficulties make transfusion-free liver transplantation a major challenge, and, despite the improvements in understanding of intraoperative coagulation profiles and strategies to control blood loss, the requirements for blood or blood products remains high. The impact of blood transfusion has been shown to be significant and independent of other well-known predictors of posttransplant-outcome. Negative effects on immunomodulation and an increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality have been repeatedly demonstrated. Isovolemic hemodilution, the extensive utilization of thromboelastogram and the use of autotransfusion devices are among the commonly adopted procedures to limit the amount of blood transfusion. The use of intraoperative blood salvage and autologous blood transfusion should still be considered an important method to reduce the need for allogenic blood and the associated complications. In this article we report on the common preoperative and intraoperative factors contributing to blood loss, intraoperative transfusion practices, anesthesiologic and surgical strategies to prevent blood loss, and on intraoperative blood salvaging techniques and autologous blood transfusion. Even though the advances in surgical technique and anesthetic management, as well as a better understanding of the risk factors, have resulted in a steady decrease in intraoperative bleeding, most patients still bleed extensively. Blood transfusion therapy is still a critical feature during OLTx and various studies have shown a large variability in the use of blood products among different centers and even among individual anesthesiologists within the same center. Unfortunately, despite the large number of OLTx performed each year, there is still paucity of large randomized, multicentre, and controlled studies which indicate how to prevent bleeding, the transfusion needs and thresholds, and the evidence based perioperative strategies to reduce the amount of transfusion. PMID:23383361

  10. [The blood flow and oxygen tension in the brain of Horsfield's terrapin (Agrionemys horsfieldi) in hyper- and hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Isabekova, S B; Kariagina, N M

    1990-06-01

    The dynamics of cerebral blood flow and oxygen available were studied in alert Middle Asia tortoises at high and low body temperatures. Local and total cerebral blood flow and oxygen available were found to depend on heating or cooling of the tortoise. Alterations in the values of cerebral blood and oxygen supply, pH value of the arterial blood sand packed cell volume suggest that metabolic factors participate in the regulation of cerebral blood flow in reptiles. PMID:2172037

  11. Water--the major nutrient.

    PubMed

    Friis-Hansen, B

    1982-01-01

    Water metabolism is a major problem in infants of very low birth weight. Their surface is proportionally larger, they have a relatively low intracellular water volume and a high extracellular and total body volume. Kidney function is immature compared to bigger infants, and the neuroendocrine function is also immature. Finally the large surface and the high skin permeability causes a very high insensible water loss in the early neonatal period. Water imbalance presents itself as either dehydration or overhydration. Dehydration gives poor peripheral--and renal circulation and thereby decreased renal function with acidosis. Furthermore hyperosmolar dehydration will give increased hematocrit and blood viscosity and hyperbilirubinaemia. Excessive administration of water will give oedema and congestive heart failure and possibly an increased risk for patent ductus arteriosus, bronchopulmonal dysplasia and necrotising enterocolitis. The evaporative water losses varies according to the thermal environment and air humidity and it is therefore impossible to give narrow limits for the daily water intake. Clinical examination, frequent controls of body weight (twice daily) and measurements of urine volume and osmolarity serve as guide lines. Yet inappropriate secretion of ADH may confuse the value of measuring urine osmolarity. Finally a neonatal weight loss of 5-10% may be beneficial as a decrease in extracellular water may lessen the working load of the heart and therefore possibly lessen the risk for a patent ductus. Renal immaturity in handling sodium reabsorption on the other hand, will often give an excessive dehydration. For this reason about 2 mmol Na/kg body weight should be given daily to very low birth weight infants from the fourth day of life to the 3rd-4th week if the baby is on human milk or a low salt formula. PMID:6963537

  12. [Assessment of malaria screening management in blood donation control in the French Military Blood Institute].

    PubMed

    Pouget, T; Garcia-Hejl, C; Bouzard, S; Roche, C; Sailliol, A; Martinaud, C

    2014-06-01

    The French Military Blood Institute is responsible for the entire blood supply chain in the French Armed Forces. Considering, the high exposition rate of military to malaria risk, blood donation screening of plasmodium infection must be as efficient as possible. The main aim of our study was to assess our malaria testing strategy based on a single Elisa test compared with a two-step strategy implying immunofluorescence testing as confirmation test. The second goal was to describe characteristic of malaria Elisa positive donors. We conducted a prospective study: every malaria Elisa positive test was implemented by immunofluorescence testing and demographical data were recorded as usual by our medical software. We showed a significant risk of malaria ELISA positive tests among donor born in endemic area and we estimate the number of abusively 3-year rejected donors. However, based on our estimations, the two-step strategy is not relevant since the number of additionally collected blood products will be low. PMID:24948206

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    MedlinePLUS

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    MedlinePLUS

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