Note: This page contains sample records for the topic major carp catla from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.

Ingestion of bacteria in suspension Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita) and Chinese carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Aristichthys nobilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-species groups of fry of the planktivorous, filter-feeding carps (silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis, rohu Labeo rohita and catla Catla catla) were exposed to the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum to assess if they could detect or ingest unattached bacteria. The results indicate that planktivorous carp fry are able to ingest unattached bacteria and that the numbers ingested increase

S. M. Rahmatullah; M. C. M. Beveridge



Haematological changes in the three Indian major carps, Catla catla (Hamilton), Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) exposed to acidic and alkaline water pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water pH on certain haematological parameters was studied in the three species of Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) for 21 days by subjecting fingerlings of these fishes to acidic (pH 5.5, 6.5) and alkaline (pH 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0) water, control groups were maintained at neutral pH. A change

P. C. Das; S. Ayyappan; J. K. Jena



Glycosylated molecular variants of C-reactive proteins from the major carp Catla catla in fresh and polluted aquatic environments.  


Elevated level of pollutant specific glycosylated molecular variants of C-reactive protein have been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the sera of major carp, Catla catla confined in freshwater (CRP(N)) and water polluted with nonlethal doses of cadmium (CRP(Cd)), mercury (CRP(Hg)), phenol (CRP(Ph)) and hexachlorocyclohexane (CRP(Hex)). These CRPs differ amongst themselves in electrophoretic mobility, and in their carbohydrate content ranging from 20-50%. CRPs interact with pneumococcal C-polysaccharide (CPS) showing different binding constants. Both phosphorylcholine (PC) and calcium are indispensable for binding. Studies on amino acid compositions, electrophoretic analysis, isoelectric focusing, binding to PC & CPS and secondary structures of the purified CRPs indicate, that, they differ from each other. However, they share the common properties of a CRP, including pentraxin structure revealed by electron microscopy. Taken together, our results provide a new structural insight regarding the connection between the presence of unique molecular variants and probably the toxicity therein combated. PMID:12151716

Paul, I; Mandal, C; Allen, A K; Mandal, C



3D modeling and molecular dynamics simulation of an immune-regulatory cytokine, interleukin-10, from the Indian major carp, Catla catla.  


Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immune-regulatory cytokine that is expressed in various species of fish and higher vertebrates, and is activated during infection. In spite of its important role, IL-10 has not been well characterized either functionally or structurally in fish. To analyze its properties and function, we constructed a 3D model of IL-10 in the Indian major carp, the catla (Catla catla), which is a highly preferred fish species and the most commercially important one in the Indian subcontinent. The catla IL-10 model was constructed by comparative modeling using human IL-10 (2ILK) as the template, and a 5 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out to characterize its structural and dynamical features, which was validated by the SAVES, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers. Analysis using the VAST server revealed a comparatively low level of homology between catla and human IL-10 amino acids at the N-terminal (22.7%) compared to the C-terminal (38.29%). Six conserved domains (A-F) were predicted in catla that threaded well with human IL-10, but their putative interaction sites varied significantly. The amino acid residues in helices A and F differed in length between catla and human IL-10, which may lead to the differences in the IL-10/IL-10R complexes of these two species. The existence of two highly conserved amino acid residues (Cys5 and Cys10) in fish IL-10 but not in higher vertebrate (including human) IL-10 was analyzed in this 3D model. CastP, cons-PPISP and InterProSurf server identified several binding pockets with various probe radii, but Cys5 and Cys10 did not form any significant bonds relating to structural stabilization or protein-protein interactions. PMID:21830101

Sahoo, Bikash R; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Maiti, Nikhil K; Samanta, Mrinal



Halquinol modulated growth, physiology, and protein profile and halquinol residue withdrawal study in the Indian major carp Catla catla (Hamilton).  


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of halquinol, an antimicrobial used as a growth promotor in poultry, on the fresh water fish Catla catla in terms of growth promotion, protein profile, and physiology as the rate of oxygen consumption. A synergic increment in the free amino acid level and total protein concentration suggested enhanced anabolic metabolism resulting in weight gain. When compared with an untreated control group, fishes treated with 0.1% halquinol (T1) showed a higher weight gain than those treated with 0.2% halquinol (T2). Variations in the rate of oxygen consumption among the three groups (control, T1, T2) expressed the physiological response of the animals toward the chemical along the time factor. After 7 days of treatment, the absence of halquinol revealed by post-withdrawal residual HPLC studies suggests its biosafety. PMID:19024792

Mushigeri, S B; Saha, S; Somashekar, B N; Nischal, K; Radhakrishna, P M



Spawning of major carps in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning biology and spawn fishery of three valuable species of Indian major carps,Catla catla, Labeo rohita andCirrhinus mrigala, in the lower Halda River, Bangladesh, were studied in 1978. The major carps spawned only in the Sonairchar oxbow-bend from\\u000a April to June on or near the dates of the full moon and the new moon. The tide was then at its

Chu-fa Tsai; M. Nazrul Islam; Rezaul Karim; K. U. M. Shahidur Rahman



Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of visceral waste proteins of Catla ( Catla catla) for preparing protein hydrolysate using a commercial protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla), an Indian freshwater major carp. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a factorial design. Model equation was proposed with regard to the effect of time,

N. Bhaskar; T. Benila; C. Radha; R. G. Lalitha



Neural regulation of dark-induced abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and melatonin in the carp (Catla catla) pineal: an in vitro study.  


In all the vertebrates, synthesis of melatonin and its rhythm-generating enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) reaches its peak in the pineal during the night in a daily light-dark cycle, but the role of different neuronal signals in their regulation were unknown for any fish. Hence, the authors used specific agonist and antagonists of receptors for different neuronal signals and regulators of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in vitro to study their effects on the abundance of AANAT and titer of melatonin in the carp (Catla catla) pineal. Western blot analysis followed by quantitative analysis of respective immunoblot data for AANAT protein, radioimmunoassay of melatonin, and spectrophotometric analysis of Ca(2+) in the pineal revealed stimulatory effects of both adrenergic (?(1) and ?(1)) and dopaminergic (D(1)) agonists and cholinergic (both nicotinic and muscarinic) antagonists, inhibition by both adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists and cholinergic agonists, but independent of the influence of any agonists or antagonists of ?(2)-adrenergic receptors. Band intensity of AANAT and concentration of melatonin in the pineal were also enhanced by the intracellular calcium-releasing agent, activators of both calcium channel and adenylate cyclase, and phophodiesterase inhibitor, but suppressed by inhibitor of calcium channel and adenylate cyclase as well as activator of phophodiesterase. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of light on the pineal AANAT and melatonin was blocked by both cAMP and proteasomal proteolysis inhibitor MG132. Collectively, these data suggest that dark-induced abundance of AANAT and melatonin synthesis in the carp pineal are a multineuronal function, in which both adrenergic (?(1) and ?(1), but not ?(2)) and dopaminergic signals are stimulatory, whereas cholinergic signals are inhibitory. This study also provides indications, though arguably not conclusive evidence, that in either case the neuronal mechanisms follow a signal-transduction pathway in which Ca(2+) and cAMP may act as the intracellular messengers. It also appears that proteasomal proteolysis is a conserved event in the regulation of AANAT activity in vertebrates. PMID:21777116

Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar



A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9–9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3–5.7(5 ± 0.98) ?m in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar

Harpreet Kaur; Ranjeet Singh



Characterization and physical mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes in Indian major carps (Pisces, Cyprinidae).  


Characterization of the major (18S) and minor (5S) ribosomal RNA genes were carried out in three commercially important Indian major carp (IMC) species, viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. The diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. The 18S rDNA signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in C. catla and L. rohita, and two pairs in C. mrigala. The 5S rDNA signal was found on single pair of chromosome in all the species with variation in their position on chromosomes. The sequencing of 18S rDNA generated 1804, 1805 and 1805 bp long fragments, respectively, in C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala with more than 98% sequence identity among them. Similarly, sequencing of 5S rDNA generated 191 bp long fragments in the three species with 100% identity in coding region and 23.2% overall variability in non-transcribed spacer region. Thus, these molecular markers could be used as species-specific markers for taxonomic identification and might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and karyotype evolution of these species. PMID:23587674

Ravindra Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Nagpure, Naresh S



Development and characterization of cell line from the gill tissue of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) for toxicological studies.  


Catla gill cell line (ICG) was established from gill tissue of Indian major carp (Catla catla), a freshwater fish cultivated in India. The cell line was maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. These cells have been sub-cultured more than 55 passages over a period of 2 years. The ICG cell line consists predominantly of epithelial-like cells. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 24°C to 32°C with an optimum temperature of 28°C. The growth rate of gill cells increased as the fetal bovine serum (FBS) proportion increased from 2% to 20% at 28°C with optimum growth at the concentrations of 10% or 15% FBS. Amplification of mitochondrial gene 12s rRNA using primers specific to C. catla confirmed the origin of this cell line from C. catla. The cells were successfully cryopreserved and revived at passage numbers 25, 35, 45 and 55. The cytotoxicity of three metal salts (ZnCl(2), CuSO(4) and CdCl(2)) was assessed in ICG cell line using multiple endpoints such as MTT, Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay. Acute toxicity assay on fish were conducted by exposing C. catla for 96 h to three metal salts under static conditions. Statistical analysis revealed good correlation with r(2)=0.908-0.985 for all combinations between endpoints employed. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC(50) and the in vivo LC(50) data were highly significant. PMID:23237299

Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S



Utilization of fermented silkworm pupae silage in feed for carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented silkworm pupae (SWP) silage or untreated fresh SWP pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. The feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2–30.9% protein) and isocaloric (ME=2905–2935 kcal\\/kg). Feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeo rohita) with 10% silver carps (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds

P. V Rangacharyulu; S. S Giri; B. N Paul; K. P Yashoda; R. Jagannatha Rao; N. S Mahendrakar; S. N Mohanty; P. K Mukhopadhyay



Structural conservation and food habit-related liver expression of uncoupling protein 2 gene in five major Chinese carps.  


The full-length cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was obtained from liver. The grass carp UCP2 cDNA was determined to be 1152 bp in length with an open reading frame that encodes 310 amino acids. Five introns (Intron 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) in the translated region, and partial sequence of Intron 2 in the untranslated region of grass carp UCP2 gene were also obtained. Gene structure comparison between grass carp and mammalian (human and mouse) UCP2 gene shows that, the UCP2 gene structure of grass carp is much similar to that of human and mouse. Partial UCP2 cDNA sequences of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), were further determined. Together with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) UCP2 sequence from GenBank (AJ243486), multiple alignment result shows that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the UCP2 gene, were highly conserved among the five major Chinese carps that belong to four subfamilies. Using beta-actin as control, the ratio UCP2/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined to be 149.4 +/- 15.6 (common carp), 127.4 +/- 22.1(mud carp), 96.7 +/- 12.7 (silver carp), 94.1 +/- 26.8 (bighead carp) and 63.7 +/- 16.2 (grass carp). The relative liver UCP2 expression of the five major Chinese carps, shows a close relationship with their food habit: benthos and detritus-eating fish (common carp and mud carp) > planktivorious fish (silver carp and bighead carp) > herbivorous fish (grass carp). We suggest that liver UCP2 might be important for Chinese carps to detoxify cyanotoxins and bacteria in debris and plankton food. PMID:16889676

Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Fang, Ling; Lin, Xiaotao; Bai, Junjie; Jian, Qing



Identification of immune genes in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in response to infection of the parasitic copepod Sinergasilus major  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasitic copepod Sinergasilus major is an important pathogen of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. To understand the immune response of grass carp to the copepod infection, suppression subtractive hybridization method was employed to characterize genes up-regulation during the copepod infection in liver and gills of the fish. One hundred and twenty-two dot blot positive clones from infected subtracted library were

M. X. Chang; P. Nie; G. Y. Liu; Y. Song; Q. Gao



Isolation and identification of yolk proteins in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two yolk proteins (YP1 and YP2) from the ovaries of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita were isolated by gel filtration and partially\\u000a characterized by the use of hydroxyapatite ultrogel column in conjunction with native PAGE. On native PAGE YP1 gave a single\\u000a protein band, whereas YP2 of gel filtration revealed the contamination of YP1, which was removed by adsorption chromatography

M. Bhakta; P. Nath



Immunosuppressive effects of aflatoxin B 1 in Indian major carp ( Labeo rohita)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent immunomodulator in endotherms. The experiment was carried out to study the immunosuppressive nature of AFB1 in one ectothermic species of Indian major carp. Graded levels (0, 1.25, 5.00mg\\/kg of body weight) of purified AFB1 were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected into rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings weighing 30–50g, and the fish were observed for a period of

P. K. Sahoo; S. C. Mukherjee



Dietary lysine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 8-week growth study was conducted to quantify the dietary lysine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (4.30±0.25 cm; 0.63±0.02 g) using diets containing casein and gelatin as sources of intact protein, supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Amino acid test diets (40% CP and 4.28 kcal g?1 GE) with graded levels of lysine (1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25, 2.50

Imtiaz Ahmed; Mukhtar A Khan



Development and characterization of cell lines derived from rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), and catla, Catla catla (Hamilton).  


Two new cell lines, designated RE and CB, were derived from the eye of rohu, Labeo rohita, and the brain of catla, Catla catla, respectively. The cell lines were maintained in Leibovitz's L-15 supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. The RE cell line was sub-cultured for more than 70 passages and the CB cell line for more than 35 passages. The RE cells are rounded and consist predominantly of epithelial cells. The CB cell line consists of predominantly fibroblastic-like cells. Both cell lines are able to grow at temperatures between 25 and 32 degrees C with an optimum of 28 degrees C. The growth rate of the cells increased as the foetal bovine serum concentration increased from 2% to 20% at 28 degrees C, with optimum growth at concentrations of 15% or 20% foetal bovine serum. The cells were successfully cryopreserved and revived at different passage levels. The cell lines were not susceptible to four marine fish viruses. Extracellular products from Aeromonas sp. were toxic to the cell lines. When the cells were transfected with plasmid eukaryotic green fluorescent protein (pEGFP [Clontech, Carlsbad, CA, USA]) vector DNA, a significant fluorescent signal was observed suggesting that these cell lines could be a useful tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial 12S rRNA from rohu and catla confirmed that the cell lines originated from these fish species. The cell lines were further characterized by immunocytochemistry using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:19236559

Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Chandra, V; Sudhakaran, R; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Babu, V Sarath; Ramesh, B; Hameed, A S Sahul



Major histocompatibility (MH) class II B gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes, Cyca-DAB1-like and Cyca-DAB3-like genes. The Cyca-DAB1-like genes especially, could be linked to high polymorphism and

Krzysztof ?. Rakus; Geert F. Wiegertjes; Patrycja Jurecka; Peter D. Walker; Andrzej Pilarczyk; Ilgiz Irnazarow



Application of PCR-RF-SSCP to study major histocompatibility class II B polymorphism in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of methods have been applied for the characterization of major histocompatibility (MH) polymorphism in fish. We optimized a technique designated polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-RF-SSCP) for screening a large number of individuals for the Cyca-DAB1 and Cyca-DAB2 genes polymorphism in common carp. The advantages of this technique are simplicity, high sensitivity and low costs. PCR-RF-SSCP

Krzysztof ?. Rakus; Geert F. Wiegertjes; Miko?aj Adamek; Vitaliy Bekh; René J. M. Stet; Ilgiz Irnazarow



Molecular cloning and characterization of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp, and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.  


Two full-length cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST) were cloned and sequenced from the hepatopancreas of planktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). The silver carp and bighead carp GST cDNA were 920 and 978 bp in length, respectively, and both contained an open reading frame that encoding 223 amino acids. Partial GST cDNA sequences were also obtained from the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius auratu), mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), and tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica). All these GSTs could be classified as alpha-class GSTs on the basis of their amino acid sequence identity with other species. The three-dimensional structure of the silver carp GST was predicted using a computer program, and was found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Using the genome walker method, a 875-bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GST gene was obtained, and several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response elements were identified in the promoter region of the phytoplanktivorous fish GST gene, indicating that the GST gene expression of this fish might be regulated by LPS, released from the toxic blue-green algae producing microcystins. To compare the constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene among the six freshwater fishes with completely different tolerance to microcystins, beta-actin was used as control and the ratio GST/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined as 130.7 +/- 6.6 (grass carp), 103.1 +/- 8.9 (bighead carp), 92.6 +/- 15.0 (crucian carp), 72.3 +/- 7.8 (mud carp), 58.8 +/- 11.5 (silver carp), and 33.6 +/- 13.7 (tilapia). The constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene clearly shows that all the six freshwater fishes had a negative relationship with their tolerance to microcystins: high-resistant fishes (phytoplanktivorous silver carp and tilapia) had the lowest tolerance to microcystins and the high-sensitive fish (herbivorous grass carp) had the highest tolerance to microcystins. Taken together with the reciprocal relationship of constitutive and inducible liver GST expression level in some of the tested fish species to microcystin exposure, a molecular mechanism for different microcystin detoxification abilities of the warm freshwater fishes was discussed. PMID:16788955

Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Lei, La-Mei; Han, Bo-Ping



Some quality aspects of fish patties prepared from an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).  


Six different types of fish patties were prepared from de-boned meat of three weight groups (250 500 g, 501-750 g, and 751-1,000 g) of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita, using two extenders (boiled potato and corn flour). The weight of the fish and the type of the extender affected the nutritional quality of the patties. Cooking lowered the crude protein but increased the total lipid, total soluble sugars, and contents of the patties. Cooking yield increased with an increase in the weight of the fish. Similarly, the use of corn flour as the extender resulted in a higher cooking yield and higher fat retention capacity than boiled potato. The type of extender had no effect on the water-holding capacity of the patties. The weight of the fish and the extender had no significant effect on appearance, colour, flavour, taste, and the overall acceptability of the product. However, the patties prepared from 250-500 g and 501-750 g weight groups with corn flour as the extender had a significantly higher score for their texture. The total plate count suggested that the patties were safe (from microbiological point of view) up to a storage period of 80 days. PMID:17852491

Sehgal, H S; Shahi, Meenakshi; Sehgal, G K; Thind, S S



Establishment and characterization of an epithelial cell line from thymus of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822).  


A cell line, CTE, derived from catla (Catla catla) thymus has been established by explant method and subcultured for more than 70 passages over a period of 400 days. The cell line has been maintained in L-15 (Leibovitz) medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. CTE cell line consists of homogeneous population of epithelial-like cells and grows optimally at 28°C. Karyotype analysis revealed that the modal chromosome number of CTE cells was 50. Partial amplification, sequencing and alignment of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that CTE cell line originated from catla. Significant green fluorescent signals were observed when the cell line was transfected with phrGFP II-N mammalian expression vector, indicating its potential utility for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. The CTE cells showed strong positivity for cytokeratin, indicating that cell line was epithelial in nature. The flow cytometric analysis of cell line revealed a higher number of cells in S-phase at 48 h, suggesting a high growth rate. The extracellular products of Vibrio cholerae MTCC 3904 were toxic to the CTE cells. This cell line was not susceptible to fish betanodavirus, the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in a large variety of marine fish. PMID:23026220

Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Sood, Neeraj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, P K; Agarwal, N K; Jena, J K



Histopathological effects and bioaccumulation of mercury in the kidney of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  


The effect of mercuric chloride on the histo-morphology and bioaccumulation in the kidney of an Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) were examined after exposing the fish (15-20 cm) to three sublethal concentrations (0.033, 0.066 and 0.132 mg/L) of HgCl(2) for 30 days. Mercury deposition in kidney tissues had increased significantly with dose and exposure duration dependant manner. Several histological changes were noted in the kidney of all treated groups in compare to control group. PMID:22810019

Ghosh, Debasree; Mandal, Dipak Kumar



Direct electrospray-ionization mass spectrometric analysis of the major ganglioside from crucian carp liver after thin layer chromatography.  


Ganglioside patterns from crucian carp brain, muscle, and liver as well as liver gangliosides of roach, carp, the cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus, pigeon, dwarf hamster, and calf were comparatively analyzed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). To achieve a rapid estimation on potentially interesting ganglioside compounds, electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (MS) was directly applied to a chloroform/methanol extract of the major TLC band of crucian carp liver. The spectrum, obtained from a few micrograms of this crude biological sample, revealed a series of peaks corresponding to GM4-like monosialoganglioside species. GC-MS analysis revealed hydroxylated fatty acids ranging from 2 h 20 min:0 to 2 h 26 min:0 for the [M'H]- ions of m/z 1061-1145. Collision induced dissociation tandem MS/MS of the major peak with a [M'H]- ion of m/z 1117 demonstrated the presence of N-acetylneuraminic acid as sialic acid compound. The sugar composition was confirmed by GLC as galactose and sialic acid in a 1:1 molar ratio. Thus, the structure of the ion at m/z 1117 is N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylceramide (NeuAc-Gal-Cer) with the long chain base d18:1 and the hydroxylated fatty acid 2 h 24 min:0. The results demonstrate for the first time unambiguously that NeuAc-Gal-Cer is the main ganglioside fraction in fish liver and that electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) can be used to elucidate the chemical composition of a ganglioside fraction obtained by convenient extraction of a HPTLC band. PMID:10327597

Hildebrandt, H; Jonas, U; Ohashi, M; Klaiber, I; Rahmann, H



Effects of environmental factors on natural reproduction of the four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River, China.  


The four major Chinese carps are commercially important fish species with high production in China. However, their recruitment decreased sharply in the Yangtze River since the late 20(th) century. In the present study, to reveal the relationships between spawning activities of the four species and environmental factors, drifting eggs were collected at Yidu City, in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, from May to July each year between 2005 and 2010. Classification and regression trees (CART) analysis was applied to identify the key factors associated with spawning activities of the four carp species. Twelve predictor variables (hydrological and meteorological variables) and one response variable (egg presence or number of egg) were included in the CART. Our CART analysis showed that water temperature and the diurnal increase of water level were the two most significant factors for the spawning activities. When water temperature was between 18°C and 24°C, especially in association with the diurnal increase of water level greater than 0.55 m·d(-1), spawning activities was always favored. Unlike the hydrological factors, meteorological factors seemed to have no influence on initiating the spawning activities. The density of drifting eggs of the four species was mainly influenced by the diurnal variation of water level, the diurnal variation of water discharge, water temperature, humidity, and air pressure. We then related our results to the ecological regulation of the Three Gorge Reservoir in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. We suggested that, when water temperature was between 18-24°C from May to July, to ensure the successful spawning of the four carp species, the ecological regulation should be managed to create flood peaks and make the diurnal increase of water level greater than 0.55 m·d(-1). PMID:23537240

Li, Mingzheng; Gao, Xin; Yang, Shaorong; Duan, Zhonghua; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhuang



Major distinctions in the antioxidant responses in liver and kidney of Cd(2+)-treated common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


This study is related to the accumulation of Cd(2+), its effects on oxidative stress biomarkers and its role in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp. We present evidence of an increased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in both organs after 10mg/L Cd(2+) exposure, with different underlying biological mechanisms and consequences. In the liver, the expressions and/or activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase increased to cope with the Cd(2+)-generated toxic effects during the first 48h of treatment. In contrast, none of these selected antioxidant markers was significantly altered in the kidney, whereas the expression of glutathione synthetase was upregulated. These results suggest that the major defense mechanism provoked by Cd(2+) exposure involves the regeneration of GSH in the liver, while its de novo synthesis predominates in the kidney. High levels of accumulation of Cd(2+) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) were detected in the kidney; the major consequences of ONOO(-) toxicity were enhanced lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. The accumulation of ONOO(-) in the kidney suggests intensive production of NO and the development of nitrosative stress. In the liver the level of hydrogen peroxide was elevated. PMID:23919949

Dugmonits, Krisztina; Ferencz, Agnes; Jancsó, Zsanett; Juhász, Renáta; Hermesz, Edit



Effects of Ibuprofen on hematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of blood in an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.  


In the present investigation, the most commonly used pharmaceutical drug Ibuprofen (IB) was exposed to an Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala under static bioassay method to estimate its toxicological effects for a period of 35 days. The median lethal concentration (LC 50) of IB to the fish C. mrigala for 24h was found to be 142 ppm. In sublethal treatment (1/10th of LC 50 24h value, 14.2 ppm), a significant decrease in erythrocyte (RBC), mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and plasma protein levels were observed throughout the study period when compare to that of their respective controls. In contrast, haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), leucocyte (WBC), plasma glucose and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were increased in this study period. On the other hand, a mixed trend was noticed in aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) enzyme activity. Alterations of these parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of IB toxicity in the aquatic organisms. However, more detailed studies on these specific biomarkers are needed to assess the impacts of human pharmaceutical drugs in the field of pharmacotoxicology and aquatic toxicology. PMID:22418069

Saravanan, M; Devi, K Usha; Malarvizhi, A; Ramesh, M



Effects of potential probiotic Bacillus amyloliquifaciens FPTB16 on systemic and cutaneous mucosal immune responses and disease resistance of catla (Catla catla).  


Effects of dietary administration of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FPTB16 on systemic and mucosal immunity and disease resistance of catla (Catla catla) against Edwardsiella tarda infection were evaluated in the present study. The laboratory maintained B. amyloliquefaciens was used to study antagonistic activity against fish pathogenic bacteria by agar well diffusion assay. Healthy catla were challenged by this bacterium for determination of its safety. For preparation of probiotic supplemented diet, the bacteria were added to the basal diet (control) at three different inclusion levels i.e., 1 × 10(9), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(7) CFU/g diet. Fish (weight 25-30 g) were fed with these diets and various immune parameters and disease resistance study were conducted at 4 weeks and 8 weeks post-feeding. The bacterial antagonism study showed inhibition zone against E. tarda, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi. B. amyloliquefaciens was harmless to catla as neither mortalities nor morbidities were observed after the challenge. Study of different systemic and mucosal immunological parameters viz. superoxide anion production and nitric oxide production, myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity and total protein content showed significant enhancement (p < 0.05) in fish fed with 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/g B. amyloliquefaciens at both time points with the highest values observed in case of 10(9) CFU/g. For fish fed with 10(7) CFU/g B. amyloliquefaciens, all the parameters showed significant enhancement (p < 0.05) at both time points except the lysozyme activity of serum at 8 weeks. Diet containing 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/g B. amyloliquefaciens significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) the resistance of catla against bacterial challenge at both time points. These results collectively suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens is a potential probiotic species and can be used in aquaculture to improve health status and disease resistance with an optimal dietary supplementation of 10(9) CFU/g. PMID:24012512

Das, Anushree; Nakhro, Khriezhato; Chowdhury, Supratim; Kamilya, Dibyendu



Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...



Efficacy of two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin against Argulus siamensis infestation in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.  


The efficacy of two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin via oral and parenteral routes and their prophylactic effects against Argulus siamensis infestation in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita was studied. Doramectin and ivermectin were fed once to L. rohita sub-adults naturally infested with A. siamensis parasites at graded levels of 1000, 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight and 500, 300 and 200 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The mean time of clearance of parasites was 24 ± 0.149 h for 1000 and 24 ± 0.210 h for 750 ?g of doramectin/kg body weight fish, however, the dose of 1,000 ?g resulted in adverse reactions and mortality in fish. A single dose of 500?g/kg body weight of ivermectin also cleared the infestation in 24 ± 0.258 h. In second experiment, L. rohita naturally infested with A. siamensis were administered with doramectin and ivermectin intramuscularly as single dose of 200, 150 and 100 ?g/kg body weight. Both doramectin and ivermectin at 200 ?g/kg body weight cleared the infestation in 4 ± 0.149 and 4 ± 0.258 h respectively, however, those resulted in adverse reactions viz., black pigmentation, lethargy and poor appetite in fish. The mean time of clearance of parasites from fish was 6 ± 0.210 and 12 ± 0.314 h for doramectin and ivermectin, respectively, when given at a lower dose of 150 ?g/kg body weight. The prophylactic effects of both drugs were also evaluated by challenging naïve rohu with metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis after feeding the fish single dose of the doramectin and ivermectin at 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of both the drugs were found to last for 17-18 days. The effects of bath treatment with doramectin and ivermectin at different concentrations on adult A. siamensis and metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis were also evaluated. The results suggested that ivermectin could act more rapidly compared to doramectin. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin and ivermectin upon their administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impacts of their usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of these drugs for control of parasitic infections. PMID:22673107

Hemaprasanth, K P; Kar, Banya; Garnayak, S K; Mohanty, J; Jena, J K; Sahoo, P K



Genetic Divergence Between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as Assessed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis, with Emphasis on Origin of European Domestic Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination

Jian Feng Zhou; Qing Jiang Wu; Yu Zhen Ye; Jin Gou Tong



Effect of Mozart's music (Romanze-Andante of “Eine Kleine Nacht Musik”, sol major, K525) stimulus on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) physiology under different light conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that music could have relaxing and antidepressant effects on humans, other mammals and birds. The present study aimed to evaluate music effects on common carp Cyprinus carpio growth and physiology, under different light conditions. Therefore, common carp (130.9±0.67g) was reared, in recirculating water system, under constant darkness (D) or normally illuminated conditions (L) for 12 weeks.

S. E. Papoutsoglou; N. Karakatsouli; E. Louizos; S. Chadio; D. Kalogiannis; C. Dalla; A. Polissidis; Z. Papadopoulou-Daifoti



Food Habits of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L., in Five Oklahoma Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alimentary tracts were examined of 1010 carp collected by commercial fishermen from four riverine reservoirs, and of 211 adult and 45 young carp from Lake Carl Blackwell, a headwaters reservoir. The major food items were algae, plant fragments, seeds, ent...

R. C. Summerfelt P. E. Mauck G. Mensinger



Occurrence of higher chlorinated benzenes in livers of grass carp and common carp collected from markets of xinxiang, china.  


Five higher chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and three isomers of tetrachlorobenzens) were measured in the livers of grass carp and common carp collected from five markets in Xinxiang city, China. HCB and PeCB were detected in all samples. The major component of the higher CBs residue was HCB and significant correlations existed between HCB and PeCB in both grass carp and common carp livers. The ratio range of HCB/PeCB in grass carp and common carp were 3.4-6.2 and 4.9-7.7, respectively, which implied the sources of higher CBs originate mainly from the revolatilization of industrial HCB with a minor impact from PeCB. PMID:24042841

Li, Yong-Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Yong



Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: different immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAlmost 4% of the population suffer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underlying immunological mechanism.AIMSTo characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin.METHODSTissue and subcellular distribution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was purified to homogeneity, analysed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism

A Bugajska-Schretter; M Grote; L Vangelista; P Valent; W R Sperr; H Rumpold; A Pastore; R Reichelt; R Valenta; S Spitzauer



Development of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) genetic maps using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a pseudo-testcross strategy.  


Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are two of the four most important pond-cultured fish species inhabiting the major river basins of China. In the present study, genetic maps of silver carp and bighead carp were constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. To create the maps, 60 individuals were obtained from a cross of a single bighead carp (female) and a single silver carp (male). The silver carp map consisted of 271 markers (48 microsatellites and 223 AFLPs) that were assembled into 27 linkage groups, of which 22 contained at least four markers. The total length of the silver carp map was 952.2 cM, covering 82.8% of the estimated genome size. The bighead carp map consisted of 153 markers (27 microsatellites and 126 AFLPs) which were organized into 30 linkage groups, of which 19 contained at least four markers. The total length of the bighead carp map was 852.0 cM, covering 70.5% of the estimated genome size. Eighteen microsatellite markers were common to both maps. These maps will contribute to discovery of genes and genetic regions controlling traits in the two species of carp. PMID:17614988

Liao, M; Zhang, L; Yang, G; Zhu, M; Wang, D; Wei, Q; Zou, G; Chen, D



Efficacy of doramectin against natural and experimental infections of Lernaea cyprinacea in carps.  


Efficacy of doramectin administered via oral and parenteral routes against experimentally induced and natural infections of the copepod parasite Lernaea cyprinacea in carps was studied. Administration of doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kg b.wt. of fish for 10 days effectively controlled experimentally induced Lernaea infection in Labeo fimbriatus fingerlings within an average of 19 days of post-treatment as compared to the normal course of 41 days. Similarly, doramectin given through feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish for 10 days was equally effective in controlling natural infection of this parasite in the underyearlings of Catla catla and L. fimbriatus. Intramuscular administration of doramectin at 200microg/kgb.wt. of fish effectively removed adult Lernaea infection in L. fimbriatus as early as 18 days of treatment as compared to the time period of 43 days taken by the untreated fish to get rid of the infection. Single intramuscular administration of the drug was more effective against the parasite than its administration in multiple divided doses. In all cases, doramectin did not cause any noticeable adverse reactions or toxicity to the fish host. In view of the handling associated stress and other operational difficulties involved, a single intramuscular administration of the drug at 200microg/kgb.wt. is suggested for treatment of heavily infected adults and brood stock of carps. Doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish is best suited for treatment of Lernaea infection in young fish including fingerlings. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin upon its administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impact of its usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of this drug for control of parasitic infections of aquatic organisms. PMID:18650018

Hemaprasanth, K P; Raghavendra, A; Singh, Ravinder; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R



Record of the species of Tripartiella (Lom, 1959) from fishes of Manipur.  


Survey on Trichodinid ciliophorans from the fresh water fishes of Manipur revealed three known species of the genus Tripartiella from the gills of major carps Labeo rohita (Hamilton); Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton); Catla catla and Ciprinus carpio. These are redescribed in this communication. PMID:23542123

Mohilal, Naorem; Hemananda, Thounaojam



Impact of anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical parameters of water and mineral uptake in Catla catla from river Ravi, Pakistan.  


The river Ravi, while passing through Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, gets highly polluted owning heavy loads of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents of diverse kinds. The fish, Catla catla sampled in two different seasons from three downstream polluted sites were compared with the samples of the same fish from an upstream, a less polluted site, for their physico-chemical parameters. The data were statistically analysed to study the effect of sites, seasons and their interaction on the physico-chemical parameters of waters and mineral uptake in fish muscles. Significant differences (P?

Shakir, Abdullah; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Qazi, Javed Iqbal



Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.  


Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J. PMID:23174162

Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling



Use of Eyeballs for Establishing Ploidy of Asian Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi

Jill A. Jenkins; R. Glenn Thomas




Microsoft Academic Search

Recent hatchery advances producing sterile triploid grass carp and the relaxing of state and federal restrictions on their distribution are expected to result in widespread use of these fish for aquatic plant management in North America. This large Asian cyprinid is a voracious herbivore and must be used properly to avoid major reductions in desirable aquatic vegetation. Grass carp exhibit

Andrew J. Leslie Jr; Jess M. Van Dyke; Rue S. Hestand III; Boyd Z. Thompson



Absorption of ascorbic acid and ascorbic sulfate and ascorbate metabolism in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbate metabolism was analyzed in fasted common carp and carp offered diets lacking ascorbic acid or supplemented with ascorbic acid (AA) or ascorbic sulfate (AS). Ascorbic acid and ascorbic sulfate were analyzed in the contents collected from various parts of the digestive tract. The major site of the dietary ascorbate absorption was located in the first 20% of the anterior

K. Dabrowski



Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with their implications for genome duplication and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1,

Lei Zhong; Xiaomu Yu; Jingou Tong



Properties of Carp Photoreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro- retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast com- ponent was investigated further. In complete



High-jumping Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...



Molecular characterization of glutathione peroxidase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp.  


The cDNAs encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were cloned and sequenced from the liver of three Chinese carps with different tolerance to hepatotoxic microcystins, phytoplanktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Using genome walker method, a 750 bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GPx gene was obtained, and several potential regulatory elements were identified in the promoter region of the GPx gene. The silver carp GPx gene was widely expressed in all tissues examined. Despite phylogenetic analysis, assigning this newly described carp GPx to the group of mammalian GPx2, the carp GPx seems more similar to GPx1 from a physiological point of view. The constitutive expression pattern of the three carp liver GPx gene, shows a positive relationship with their tolerance to microcystins. PMID:18377723

Li, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yao, Wei; Liao, Wan-Qin; Zhu, Wei-Feng



[Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].  


The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides. PMID:23937045

Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V


CARP: fishing for novel mechanisms of neovascularization.  


Gene expression profiling of mouse skin wounds has led to the discovery of numerous target genes that may have therapeutic or diagnostic value. Among these, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ankrd1) expression was markedly and persistently elevated in several cutaneous compartments. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of CARP and its regulation in biological systems. In addition to its role as a nuclear transcription cofactor in many cell types including vascular endothelium, CARP is also a structural component of the sarcomere. CARP transcripts are prominent in cardiogenesis and muscle injury, and they are under complex regulation by cytokines, hypoxia, doxorubicin, and other forms of stress. CARP overexpression in wounds by adenoviral gene transfer leads to a high vascular density, and CARP exerts effects on endothelial behavior. The unusual cellular distribution and actions of CARP make it a novel candidate gene in tissue repair. PMID:17069020

Samaras, Susan E; Shi, Yubin; Davidson, Jeffrey M



Allelic discrimination, three-dimensional analysis and gene expression of multiple transferrin alleles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


We cloned and sequenced four different transferrin (Tf) alleles (C, D, F and G) of European common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.) and studied allelic diversity with respect to differences in sequence, constitutive transcription and three-dimensional structure. Most of the disulfide bonds were conserved between human and carp Tf, and modeling confirmed the overall conservation of the three-dimensional structure of carp Tf. While the iron-binding sites in the C-lobe of carp Tf were completely conserved, in the N-lobe the majority of iron-coordinating residues were not conserved. This may have a serious impact on the ability of carp Tf to bind iron with both the C- and N-lobe. In contrast to human Tf, we could not detect potential N-glycosylation sites in carp Tf, which does not seem to be a glycoprotein. Comparison of the cDNA of the four Tf alleles of carp indicated 21 polymorphic sites of which 13 resulted in non-synonymous changes. Allelic diversity did not seem to influence the overall conservation of carp Tf. Neither the iron binding sites nor the receptor binding of carp Tf seemed influenced by allelic diversity. Possibly, interaction with pathogen-associated receptors for Tf could be influenced by allelic diversity. Basal gene expression of Tf alleles D and G was especially high in carp liver. Although we could detect a higher transcription level of allele D than of Tf allele G in head kidney, thymus and spleen, the differences seem minor with respect to the very high transcription level in liver. Preliminary results with Tf-typed serum suggest a difference in the ability of Tf alleles D and G to modulate LPS-induced NO production in carp macrophages. PMID:18824109

Jurecka, Patrycja; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Westphal, Adrie H; Forlenza, Maria; Arts, Joop A J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F



Comparison of Hybrid Carp and Grass Carp with Respect to Food Preference, Food Consumption and Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the grass carp and the hybrid carp in their relative effectiveness in controlling vegetation, it is ideal to raise these fishes under controlled laboratory conditions at similar stocking densities. The objective of this investigation is to comp...

R. V. Kilambi A. Zdinak



Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these\\u000a Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning\\u000a period

D. M. Papoulias; D. Chapman; D. E Tillitt



Speciation of polyploid Cyprinidae fish of common carp, crucian carp, and silver crucian carp derived from duplicated Hox genes.  


Recent studies on comparative genomics have suggested that a round of fish-specific whole genome duplication (3R) in ray-finned fishes might have occurred around 226-316 Mya. Additional genome duplication, specifically in cyprinids, may have occurred more recently after the divergence of the teleosts. The timing of this event, however, is unknown. To address this question, we sequenced four Hox genes from taxa representing the polyploid Cyprinidae fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 2n=100), crucian carp (Carassius auratus auratus, 2n=100), and silver crucian carp (C. auratus gibelio, 2n=156), and then compared them with known sequences from the diploid Cyprinidae fish, blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala, 2n=48). Our results showed the presence of two distinct Hox duplicates in the genomes of common and crucian carp. Three distinct Hox sequences, one of them orthologous to a Hox gene in common carp and the other two orthologous to a Hox gene in crucian carp, were isolated in silver crucian carp, indicating a possible hybrid origin of silver crucian carp from crucian and common carp. The gene duplication resulting in the origin of the common ancestor of common and crucian carp likely occurred around 10.9-13.2 Mya. The speciations of common vs. crucian carp and silver crucian vs. crucian carp likely occurred around 8.1-11.4 and 2.3-3.0 Mya, respectively. Finally, nonfunctionalization resulting from point mutations in the coding region is a probable fate for some Hox duplicates. Taken together, these results suggested an evolutionary model for polyploidization in speciation and diversification of polyploid fish. PMID:20700889

Yuan, Jian; He, Zhuzi; Yuan, Xiangnan; Jiang, Xiayun; Sun, Xiaowen; Zou, Shuming



Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio



Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J. J.; Luoma, J. A.; Marking, L. L.



Cyclooxygenase-derived products, rather than nitric oxide, are endothelium-derived relaxing factor(s) in the ventral aorta of carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


In some fish blood vessels, the existence of a NO (nitric oxide) system has been reported. We examined the possibility that this NO system acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in carp aorta using the carp aorta alone and in a combined carp-rat aorta donor-detector system. Use of the typical NO stimulating agent in mammal acetylcholine (ACh) only induced constriction of the carp aorta. This response was not modified by denudation or by NO synthesis inhibition with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Neither the indirect NO stimulating agents bradykinin and histamine nor the direct NO releasers sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and SIN-1 induced vasorelaxation. Both SNP and ACh elevated the cGMP concentration in rat aorta, but not in carp aorta. In the aorta combination set-up, where carp served as a NO donor and rat aorta served as a NO detector, no relaxation of the rat aorta was observed. The calcium ionophore A23187, a known EDRF producer in mammals, induced relaxation of carp aorta through an endothelium- and cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that carp aorta does not produce NO as an EDRF nor does it respond to exogenously supplied NO. The major EDRF in carp is apparently a product(s) of cyclooxygenase metabolism. PMID:10996821

Park, K H; Kim, K H; Choi, M S; Choi, S H; Yoon, J M; Kim, Y G



Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae): A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Genus and Species Description and Distinguishing Characteristics (Genus: Hypophthalmichthys, Species: Bighead Carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Species: Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Species: Large scale Silver Carp, Hy...

C. M. Housel C. S. Kolar D. C. Chapman D. P. Jennings W. R. Courtenay



Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...


History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...


Molecular characterization of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in the Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita).  


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. Among various TLR types, TLR2 is involved in recognizing specific microbial structures such as peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), zymosan etc., and after binding them it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce various cytokines. In this report, TLR2 gene was cloned and characterized in rohu (Labeo rohita), which is highly commercially important fish species in the farming-industry of Indian subcontinent. Full-length rohu TLR2 (rTLR2) cDNA comprised of 2691 bp with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2379 bp encoding a polypeptide of 792 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 90.74 kDa. Structurally, it comprised of one leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) each at N-terminal (LRR-NT; 44-55 aa) and C-terminal (LRR-CT; 574-590 aa), 21 LRRs in between C and N-terminal, one trans-membrane (TM) domain (595-612 aa), and one TIR domain (645-790 aa). Phylogenetically, rohu TLR2 was closely related to common carp and exhibited significant similarity (93.1%) and identity (88.1%) in their amino acids. During embryogenesis, rTLR2 expression was detected as early as ?7 h post fertilization indicating its importance in embryonic innate immune defense system in fish. Basal expression analysis of rTLR2 showed its constitutive expression in all the tissues examined, highest was in the spleen and the lowest was in the eye. Inductive expression of TLR2 was observed following zymosan, PGN and LTA exposure and Streptococcus uberis and Edwardsiella tarda infections. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, in various organs was significantly enhanced by ligands exposure and bacterial infections, and was correlated with inductive expression of TLR2. In vitro studies showed that PGN treatment induced TLR2, MyD88 and TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) expression, NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa B) activation and IL-8 expression. Blocking NF-?B resulted in down-regulation of PGN mediated IL-8 expression indicating the involvement of NF-?B in IL-8 induction. Together, these findings highlighted the important role of TLR2 in immune surveillance of various organs, and in augmenting innate immunity in fish in response to pathogenic invasion. This study will be helpful in developing preventive measures against infectious diseases in fish. PMID:22173272

Samanta, Mrinal; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Mohapatra, Girish B; Sahoo, Bikash R; Maiti, Nikhil K



Black carp growth hormone gene transgenic allotetraploid hybrids of Carassius auratus red var. (?)×Cyprinus carpio (?).  


Ecological safety is a major consideration in the commercialization of transgenic fish. Development of sterile transgenic triploid fish through hybridization of transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is a feasible way to solve this problem. The "all-fish" transgene, pbcAbcGHc, containing the black carp ?-actin gene promoter and the open reading frame (ORF) of the black carp growth hormone (GH) gene was constructed and introduced into fertilized eggs of allotetraploid fish through microinjection. Contrast cultivation results showed that the growth rate of 150 day-old P(0) black carp GH gene transgenic allotetraploid fish was much higher than that of controls. Sixty 150 day-old transgenic allotetraploid fish were assayed by PCR for transgene integration and 90% of fish were positive for the transgene. The transgene was detected in 13 of 20 sperm samples from male transgenic allotetraploid fish. RT-PCR detected transcription of the exogenous black carp GH gene in the muscle, liver, kidney and ovaries of the largest transgenic allotetraploid fish. This study has developed P(0) black carp GH gene transgenic allotetraploid fish with a highly increased growth rate, which provides a solid foundation for the establishment of a pure line of transgenic allotetraploid fish and for the large scale production of sterile transgenic triploid fish. PMID:21809038

Feng, Hao; Fu, Yongming; Luo, Jian; Wu, Hui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun



The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Ontogenetic changes in meristic measurements of silver carp and bighead carp.  


The study analyzed 30 exterior meristic characters for 255 silver and bighead carp samples of 1- to 5-year-old collected from the National Primary Breeding Farm at Laojianghe Lake at the Middle Reach of the Yangtze River. Multivariate analysis was performed. In silver carp, the Euclidean distance was the greatest between the 1-year-old group and other age groups. Silver carp individuals were correctly classified at 98.0% accuracy with a discriminant function established by discriminant analysis based on meristic measurements. Similarly, bighead carp had the greatest distance between 1- to 2-year-old group and other age groups. Individuals of bighead carp were correctly classified at 90.7% accuracy by the discrimination function. The data showed that morphological transformation occurred during the life history of silver and bighead carp development. Eighteen meristic measurements showed highly significant differences, while four showed a significant difference between the two silver carp groups. Ten parameters decreased, while twelve measurements increased during development. In bighead carp, fourteen parameters were significantly different, while three parameters were significantly different between the two groups. Twelve parameters were significantly decreased and another five were increased during development. The results suggest allometric growth should be taken into account when identifying species, analyzing population differences and establishing germplasm standards based on morphology. PMID:20545007

Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa



Comparative distribution and invasion risk of snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

As nonindigenous species are a major threat to global biodiversity, cost-effective management requires iden- tification of areas at high risk of establishment. Here we predict suitable environments of 14 high-profile species of nonindigenous snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America based upon ecological niche modelling and compare the driving environmental variables for the two fish groups. Snakeheads

Leif-Matthias Herborg; Nicholas E. Mandrak; Becky C. Cudmore; Hugh J. MacIsaac



Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging

Namsoo Kim; Dong-Kyung Kim; Yong-Jin Cho; Dae-Kyung Moon; Woo-Yeon Kim



Evidence for Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA in Triploid Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp and compare the complete mtDNA sequences between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp and between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid. Our results indicate that the complete mtDNA nucleotide identity (98%) between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid was higher than that (93%) between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp. Moreover, the presence of a pattern of identity and difference at synonymous sites of mitochondrial genomes between the triploid crucian carp and its parents provides direct evidence that triploid crucian carp possessed the recombination mtDNA fragment (12,759 bp) derived from the paternal fish. These results suggest that mtDNA recombination was derived from the fusion of the maternal and paternal mtDNAs. Compared with the haploid egg with one set of genome from the Japanese crucian carp, the diploid sperm with two sets of genomes from the allotetraploid could more easily make its mtDNA fuse with the mtDNA of the haploid egg. In addition, the triple hybrid nature of the triploid crucian carp probably allowed its better mtDNA recombination. In summary, our results provide the first evidence of mtDNA combination in polyploid fish.

Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yun



Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.



[Polymorphism of the cytochrome oxidase b gene (cyt b) in Russian populations of common carp and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  


Polymorphism of the mitochondrial cyt b gene was examined in 35 individuals of common carp and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish examined represented two natural populations from Khabarovsk krai (Ac and Am), Volga wild common carp, Don wild common carp, and two common carp breeds, Ropsha (strains BB and MM) common carp and Hungarian common carp. The highest level of nucleotide (pi) and haplotype (h) diversity was detected in two strains of Ropsha common carp (MM, pi = 0.67%, h = 0.7; and BB, pi = 0.21%, h = 0.9) and in one population (Am) of Amur wild common carp (pi = 0.26%; h = 0.6). The second population of Amur wild common carp (Ac) and Hungarian common carp were characterized by lower variation estimates (pi = 0.035%, h = 0.4; and pi = 0.09%, h = 0.7, respectively). Genetic homogeneity was demonstrated for the populations of Volga and Don wild common carp (pi = 0, h = 0). In the sample of the cyt b sequences examined, three lineages were identified. Lineages I and II united all haplotypes of the Am Amur wild common carp along with two haplotypes of Ropsha common carp, strain MM. The third lineage (III) was formed by the haplotypes of three individuals of Ropsha common carp strain MM, all representatives of Ropsha common carp strain BB, Hungarian common carp, Ac Amur wild common carp, and Don and Volga wild common carps. Statistically significant amino acid differences were observed only for the sequences, corresponding to haplotypes of lineage III, and the sum of sequences of lineages I and II. Effectiveness of different types of markers to differentiate the two subspecies of European and Amur wild common carp (C. c. carpio and C. c. haematopterus) is discussed, as well as the issues of the origin and dispersal of Russian common carp and wild common carp breeds. PMID:22567860

Torgunakova, O A; Khrisanfov, V E; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K



A new haplotype variability in complement C6 is marginally associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.  


Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortality and tremendous economic loss in cultured grass carp in the mainland China. The complement component C6 is a constituent of a biochemical cascade that serves as a major effector of the human innate and adaptor immunity, and eliminates infected cells. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C6 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. The gcC6 genomic sequence is composed of 9292 bp, containing 18 exons and 17 introns. The promoter sequence of gcC6 gene contained several consensus sequences for hepatic-specific transcription factors. We sequenced a total of 9744 bp of the C6 gene from a diverse population of grass carp and identified 8 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of association between any individual SNPs and resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. The SNPs 1214G>A, 1380G>C, 2095A>C and 2167T>C were linked together (r(2) > 0.8). The haplotype GCCC generated with these four SNPs was associated marginally with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest a lack of strong association of the C6 polymorphisms with the A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. PMID:23422818

Shen, Yubang; Zhang, Junbin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Jiale



Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping



Characterization and Comparative Profiling of MiRNA Transcriptomes in Bighead Carp and Silver Carp  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large ‘hairpin’ precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes.

Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping



Effects of Temperature on Food Consumption, Food Conversion, and Growth of Grass Carp 'Ctenopharyngodon idella'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to determine the food consumption and growth of Grass Carp under different temperatures, effects of temperature on food conversion and growth of grass carp, and relationship between grass carp production and increase in nutrient le...

R. V. Kilambi W. R. Robison



Analysis of gangliosides from carp intestinal mucosa.  


The gangliosides of carp intestinal mucosa were isolated and analysed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), TLC immunostaining test, and TLC/secondary ion mass spectrometry (TLC/SIMS). Four species of gangliosides, designated as G-1, G-2, G-3 and G-4, were separated on TLC. The TLC/SIMS analysis of the G-1 ganglioside of carp intestinal mucosa revealed a series of [M-H](-)ions from m/z 1061 to m/z 1131 representing the molecular mass range of GM4-like ganglioside with NeuAc. G-2, G-3 and G-4 gangliosides were analysed by the TLC immunostaining test. G-2 ganglioside was recognised by the monoclonal antibody specific for ganglioside GM1 (AGM-1 monoclonal antibody). However, G-3 ganglioside migrating on TLC between GM3 and GM1 ganglioside was not recognised by anti-GM3 monoclonal antibody and by AGM-1 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, G-4 ganglioside with a similar TLC mobility as GD1a ganglioside did not show the reactivity to the anti-GD1a monoclonal antibody. In addition using the AGM-1 monoclonal antibody, the expression of GM1 ganglioside in the carp intestinal tissue was studied. GM1 ganglioside was detected on the epithelial cell surface of carp intestinal mucosa. PMID:15123316

Irie, Takuya; Watarai, Shinobu; Kushi, Yasunori; Kasama, Takeshi; Kodama, Hiroshi



Why and how CARPE should be personal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance of modeling human personalities is analyzed for improving the value proposition of solutions for Capturing, Archiving and Retrieval of Personal Experiences (CARPE). Differences in human personalities have a significant and often an overriding impact on how raw events are linked and organized into threads of experiences. Recommendations and predictions are presented on how existing technologies

Leslie G. Seymour



Asian Carp Control, FY 2012: Strategy Framework.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Great Lakes food web has been significantly degraded in recent decades by aquatic invasive species (AIS). The most acute AIS threat facing the Great Lakes today is movement of carp not native to the United Sates (bighead and silver)collectively known ...



Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.



Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

Li, S. -F.; Xu, J. -W.; Yang, Q. -L.; Wang, C. -H.; Chapman, D. C.; Lu, G.



Intestinal barrier of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during a cyprinid herpesvirus 3-infection: molecular identification and regulation of the mRNA expression of claudin encoding genes.  


As a major part of tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium of vertebrates, claudin proteins are crucial to develop a selective permeable function and to maintain integrity of the barrier. The intestine has been reported as one of the targeted tissue of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) which causes major disease problems in carp production worldwide. To analyse the impact of the disease on the epithelial barrier of the intestine, carp claudin encoding genes were cloned, their tissue expression was described, and the abundance of gene transcripts in the intestine of carp under CyHV-3 infection was determined. Some of the carp claudin genes such as claudin-7 and -11 were expressed in various tissues, whilst others, like claudin-2 and -23, showed more tissue-specific expression profiles, which may reflect specific functions of these particular claudins. Along the gut axis, a spatial distribution of claudin gene expressions was found, with a lower abundance of gene transcripts in anterior regions of the intestine and increased expression in the distal section of the intestine, which might indicate specific functions of different regions in the intestinal tract of carp. In carp under CyHV-3 infection, an up-regulation in the expression of IFN-a2, IL-1beta and iNOS was observed, together with an elevation of transcriptional levels of claudin-2, -3c, -11, and -23. The data suggest that expression of claudins is involved in the reorganisation of the intestinal epithelium in CyHV-3-infected carp, which may be responsible for changes in the paracellular permeability. An increased expression of the claudins might be a response to the disturbance of the hydromineral balance in carp under CyHV-3 infection. PMID:23194746

Syakuri, Hamdan; Adamek, Miko?aj; Brogden, Graham; Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Matras, Marek; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter



Induction of Gynogenesis in Japanese Crucian Carp ( Carassius cuvieri)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid gynogenesis was induced in Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri) eggs using UV-irradiated genetically inactive spermatozoa from mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) or blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), with or without cold shock. The optimal radiation dosage was 4200 mJ\\/cm2 and 3600 mJ\\/cm2 for mirror carp and blunt snout bream sperm, respectively. At this dosage and without cold shock, the

Yuan-Dong SUN; Chun ZHANG; Shao-Jun LIU; Min TAO; Chen ZENG; Yun LIU



Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.; Fairchild, J. F.



Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor.  


A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging from the sensor responses according to stepwise antibody immobilization. This was also supported by a negligible sensor response found at bovine serum albumin immobilization. When plotted in double-logarithmic scale for carp vitellogenin concentrations of 0.00675-67.5 nM, a linear relationship was found between analyte concentration and sensor response, together with the limit of detection of 0.00675 nM. The reusability of the immunosensor after the regeneration with 10mM HCl was reasonably good, as presumed from the coefficient of variability of 6.02% for nine repetitive measurements. The model sample prepared by spiking a purified carp vitellogenin into a 10-fold diluted vitellogenin-free carp serum in 9.45 nM showed the response ratio of 96.70% against 9.45 nM of the purified carp vitellogenin. When a female and male carp sera induced with 17beta-estradiol injection were analyzed, biomarker induction was even identifiable at 2000-fold serum dilution. PMID:18534837

Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Dong-Kyung; Cho, Yong-Jin; Moon, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Woo-Yeon



Stimulus pattern related plasticity of synapses between cones and horizontal cells in carp retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulus pattern related synaptic plasticity in the luminosity-type horizontal cell (LHC) of isolated carp retina was investigated. The major findings were: (1) repetitive red flashes progressively strengthened the synaptic connection between red-cone and LHC, whereas weakened that between green-cone and LHC; (2) repetitive green flashes remarkably depressed the LHC's red response, but caused little changes in the cell's green response.

Jian-Feng Hu; Yu Liu; Pei-Ji Liang



Sixteen polymorphic microsatellites in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and cross-amplification in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


A (GT)(n) enriched partial genomic library of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was constructed by employing the (fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats) FIASCO protocol. Sixteen loci exhibited polymorphism with two to seven alleles/locus (mean 3.263) in a test population and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.100 to 0.690 (mean 0.392). Eleven of the 16 bighead carp microsatellites were found to be also polymorphic in silver carp. These polymorphic loci should provide sufficient level of genetic diversity to evaluate population structure of bighead carp. PMID:21585862

Cheng, L; Liu, L; Yu, X; Tong, J



Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.



Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J. A.; Thomas, R. G.



Energy metabolism of carp swimming muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromyography has been used to study the recruitment of red, pink and white muscle fibres of the Mirror carp at different swimming speeds. Locomotion below 0.3–0.5 L\\/S (lengths per second) is achieved primarily by fin movements after which the red myotomal muscle becomes active. Pink muscle fibres are the next type to be recruited at speeds around 1.1–1.5 L\\/S. White

I. A. Johnston; W. Davison; G. Goldspink



Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie



DNA adducts in carp exposed to artificial diesel-2 oil slicks.  


In attempts to mimic field exposure, oil slicks prepared from diesel-2 oil/water emulsions were poured onto the surface of water in tanks prepared fresh every day and liver DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling in carp free-swimming in these tanks. 'Clusters' of lipophilic DNA adducts were detected, with five major and numerous minor adducts. Essentially a similar adduct pattern was found in the liver DNA of carp exposed to crude oil-polluted water. Diesel-2 adduct induction was observed slowly with a steady increase to greater than 3000 amol/microgram DNA at day 12. After this time fish were transferred to clean water. Adduct levels continued to increase through day 17 (approximately 10,000 amol/microgram DNA) despite the cessation of exposure, but a 30% and 80% decline was evident at day 22 and day 27, respectively. All major adducts were distinct from the known benzo[a]pyrene diolepoxide-dG. These results indicate that diesel-2 oil can cause extensive DNA damage in carp in vivo and the damage accumulates proportionately with time of exposure. PMID:1397068

Kurelec, B; Garg, A; Krca, S; Britvi?, S; Luci?, D; Gupta, R C



Effects of Sodium Fluoride on Carp and Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of acute fluoride intoxication in carp and rainbow trout include lethargy, violent and erratic movement, and death where there is partial or complete muscle contraction. Excessive mucus production associated with an increase in mucous cells in the epithelium of the head region and the gills also occurs. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of the serum proteins in carp

John M. Neuhold; William F. Sigler



Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne



Router and Firewall Redundancy with OpenBSD and CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

As more reliance is placed on computing and networking systems, the need for redundancy increases. The Common Address Redundancy Protocol (CARP) protocol and OpenBSD's pfsync utility provide a means by which to implement redundant routers and firewalls. This paper details how CARP and pfsync work together to provide this redundancy and explores the performance one can expect from the open

Garhan Attebury; Byrav Ramamurthy



Grass Carp as a Potential Control Agent for Cattails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in t...

C. E. Carney F. DeNoyelles




EPA Science Inventory

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...


Grass carp status in the United States: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.

Pierce, Barry A.



Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  


The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A



Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.  


Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone. PMID:22447502

Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P



[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  


Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K



PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.



Reproduction mode of an artificial allotetraploid carp (Pisces; Cyprinidae).  


Mature eggs of allotetraploid carp were activated by inactive sperm or crossed with normal sperms of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Chinese blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), Hemiculter leucisculus and Pseudorasbora parva. Chromosome counts showed that all offspring of these crosses presented a mode number of 200 chromosomes (4n = 200), and their morphological traits are much like maternal. Microsatelite marker and RAPD patterns between allotetraploid maternal and its offspring, reproduced from different paternal species, were identical. Cytological, morphological and molecular evidences suggested that allotetraploid carp female nucleus would not fuse with any male nucleus and its reproduction mode might be gynogenesis and therefore their offspring are retaining their tetraploidy and give origin to clonal individuals. PMID:12627840

Ye, Yuzhen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaohu; Wu, Qingjiang



Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation.



Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.



Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova



Functional N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors Are Expressed in Cone-Driven Horizontal Cells in Carp Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate works as a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate retina. Whole-cell recordings made from isolated carp cone horizontal cells (H1 cells) showed that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), co-applied with glycine, induced inward currents that were blocked by the NMDA receptor competitive antagonist D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (D-AP5) and 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (DCKA), a selective NMDA receptor antagonist acting at the glycine site on the NMDA

Yin Shen; Min Zhang; Ying Jin; Xiong-Li Yang



Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscle by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatography-VIS\\/FLD method for the analysis of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG) in carp muscle has been described. The method consists in an extraction with acetonitrile-buffer mixture followed by partioning with dichloromethane. Clean up and isolation were performed on SCX solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using phenyl-hexyl column with

Kamila Mitrowska; Andrzej Posyniak; Jan Zmudzki



Substrate concentration affects the in vitro metabolism of 17-hydroxyprogesterone by ovaries of the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp ovarian tissue was incubated with 3H-17-hydroxyprogesterone in the presence of 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ?g ml?1 unlabeled 17-hydroxyprogesterone. The pattern of metabolites formed showed a marked variation with substrate concentration.\\u000a Formation of glucuronide and sulphate conjugates was important only at low substrate concentration. At high substrate concentration\\u000a (10 and 100 ?g ml?1) 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one was the major metabolite,

David E. Kime; Mohammad A. S. Abdullah; Miroslawa Sokolowska-Mikolajczyk; Piotr Epler




Microsoft Academic Search

The WorldFish Center and its research partners have recently made efforts to develop genetically improved carp strains. This paper analyses the comparative performance of the genetically improved carp strains on both average and efficient farms in four carp-dominating Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Vietnam). The results show superior performance of improved strains in terms of body weight and survival

Madan Mohan Dey; Praduman Kumar; Ferdinand J. Paraguas; Chen Oai Li; Nartaya Srichantuk



Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu




Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp have effectively controlled submergent aquatic macrophytes in large reservoirs when stocked at densities up to 75 fish per vegetated hectare. Large systems pose special concerns relative to decisions on whether to stock grass carp. Multiple use, multiple agency involvement, and interstate jurisdictions complicate decisionmaking. Complex vegetation communities of large systems make results less predictable. Grass carp movements not

Richard L. Noble; Phillip W. Bettoli; Robert K. Betsill



Cloning, expression, and bioinformatics analysis of the sheep CARP gene.  


The cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) is a multifunctional protein that is expressed specifically in mammalian cardiac muscle and plays important roles in stress responses, transcriptional regulation, myofibrillar assembly, and the development of cardiac and skeletal muscle. In this study, the sheep homolog of the CARP gene was cloned and characterized. The coding region of the gene consists of 960 bp and encodes 319 amino acids with molecular weight 36.2 KD. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the gene contains many AU-rich elements that are associated with mRNA stability and a potential regulatory site for miRNA binding. The protein was predicted to contain 14 potential phosphorylation sites and an O-GlcNAc glycosylation site and to be expressed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The evolutionary analysis revealed that the sheep CARP exhibited a high level of homology with the mammalian counterparts; however, the protein exhibited an increased evolutionary distance from the chicken, frog, and fish homologs. RT-PCR revealed that in addition to its high mRNA expression level in cardiac muscle, trace amounts of the sheep CARP mRNA were expressed in the skeletal muscle, stomach, and small intestine. However, western blot analysis demonstrated that the CARP protein was expressed only in cardiac muscle. The coding sequence was cloned into the pET30a-TEV-LIC vector, and the soluble CARP-MBP (maltose-binding protein) fusion protein was expressed in a prokaryotic host and purified by affinity chromatography. Our data provide the basis for future studies of the structure and function of sheep CARP. PMID:23475534

Ma, Guoda; Wang, Haiyang; Li, You; Cui, Lili; Cui, Yudong; Li, Qingzhang; Li, Keshen; Zhao, Bin



The immune system of cyprinid fish. Kinetics and temperature dependence of antibody-producing cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed Central

After immunization of carp with sheep red blood cells, the spleen accounts for only 5% of the total number of plaque-forming cells (PFC). In addition, thymus, peripheral blood and heart contained low numbers of PFC (< 0.5, 1 and 0.5%, respectively). Pronephros and mesonephros were the major antibody-forming organs (53 and 40% of total PFC, respectively). The temperature dependence of the antibody-forming cell response in spleen, pronephros and mesonephros as studied in animals kept at 12-24 degrees. Lowering temperatures induced a delay in the peak of the primary response but had no effect on the magnitude of the response. The temperature-peak day relationship indicated that there are steps in the primary immune response of carp differing in temperature sensitivity. The anamnestic character of the secondary response was clearly demonstrated at 24 and 20 degrees but lost at 18 degrees.

Rijkers, G T; Frederix-Wolters, E M; van Muiswinkel, W B



The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.  


Abstract Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581?bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun



Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.  


Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans. PMID:23087022

Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo



Detection of hybridization between Chinese carp species ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis) in hatchery broodstock in Bangladesh, using DNA microsatellite loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization between silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) has been reported to occur fairly frequently in commercial aquaculture hatcheries in Bangladesh. The consequences of hybridization for broodstock purity had not previously been investigated. Allelic variation at three microsatellite DNA loci isolated from silver carp routinely distinguished between silver carp and bighead carp. These markers were used in

M. Younus Mia; John B. Taggart; Ann E. Gilmour; Almas A. Gheyas; Topan K. Das; A. H. M. Kohinoor; M. Aminur Rahman; M. Abdus Sattar; M. Gulam Hussain; M. Abdul Mazid; David J. Penman; Brendan J. McAndrew



Socioeconomic characterisation of specialised common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) anglers in Germany, and implications for inland fisheries management and eutrophication control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many freshwater ecosystems suffer from dense common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) stocks. From the ecological point of view, high carp densities are not desirable because of several negative impacts (e.g. bioturbation, competition with other benthivores). A mail and internet survey among specialised carp anglers (SCAs) (n=710) suggests that, in Germany, carp anglers’ catch exceeds commercial carp harvest by up to

Robert Arlinghaus; Thomas Mehner



Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.



Protective Roles of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx Isoforms against Grass Carp Reovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3) were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%), and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively) from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C) treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN-I gene.

Peng, Limin; Yang, Chunrong; Su, Jianguo



[Genetic variation analysis of wild populations of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) using microsatellite markers].  


Twelve microsatellites were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of eight wild populations of grass carp, among which six populations from Yangtze River (Hanjiang, Wujian, Jiujiang, Shishou, Mudong, and Wanzhou), one population from Pearl River and Heilongjiang River for each, Zhaoqing, and Nenjiang, respectively. Twelve markers showed highly polymorphic and all the eight populations contained high genetic variations. The variations of six populations of Yangtze River and Zhaoqing population of Pearl River were higher than Nenjiang population of Heilongjiang River. Bottleneck analysis revealed that four populations (Zhaoqing, Nenjiang, Mudong, and Wangzhou) had experienced a recent genetic bottleneck, and the effective population size was reduced. Pairwise FST and AMOVA analysis detected significant genetic difference among populations. The pairwise population genetic distances and the UPGMA tree demonstrated that the genetic distances between six populations of Yangtze River and Zhaoqing population were closer and clustered together earlier, as compared to those populations with Nenjiang population. The genetic structure simulation analysis suggested that there were five logic populations of all individuals. The genetic structures of Zhaoqing and Nenjiang populations were shown with independent separation, but the genetic structures of populations from Yangtze River were shown with fuzzy distribution. The high diversity was found in the wild grass carp from three major watersheds in China, which would supply a basis for future genetic improvement. However, the bottleneck effect of some populations should be taken into account in the practical breeding programs. PMID:23448932

Fu, Jian-Jun; Li, Jia-Le; Shen, Yu-Bang; Wang, Rong-Quan; Xuan, Yun-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Yong




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On November 16, 1963, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) at Stuttgart, Arkansas, became the first institution to import grass carp into the United States. This introduction was the result of at least seven years of effort to find an effective biological control for problematic aquatic weed...


Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.



The Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) in the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report collections of the bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) in the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois between 1991 and 1994. In all, we collected 48 specimens ranging from 18 to 790 mm total length. Young-of-the-year fish were caught in 1992 and 1994, which suggests that the species is able to reproduce in the Mississippi River and may

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Robert A. Hrabik; Michael D. Petersen; David P. Herzog



Fasting and Renourishment of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.), 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of artificial complete fasting of carp on variations of their content of polysomal and ribosomal RNA, as well as of soluble RNA, was investigated. This effect was ascertained by separately weighing the specimens and their livers, as well as by ...

G. Bouche J. F. Narbonne A. Serfaty



A molecular approach to detect hybridisation between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Releases of non-native fish into the wild is an increasing problem posing considerable ecological and genetic threats through direct competition and hybridisation. 2. We employed six microsatellite markers to identify first generation hybrids and backcrosses between native crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and introduced goldfish (C. auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the U.K. We also investigated the



Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological

Tong Qiu; Ping Xie; Longgen Guo; Dawen Zhang



Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies.

Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.  


This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs. PMID:22012303

Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M



Seasonal Variation in Condition Factor, Gonadosomatic Index and Processing Yield of Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Length-weight relationship parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio) males, females, and combined sexes were calculated. Seasonal variations in condition factor (K), gonadosomatic index (GSI), and processing yield of wild carp are presented. A resting period (October-March) and another one of rapid growth (April-September) were observed in gonads of female carp. Spawning took place in August-September. During the gonadal resting period, high

Aurora Zugarramurdi; María Amelia Parin; Liliana Gadaleta; Guillermo A. Carrizo; Claudia Montecchia; Ricardo L. Boeri; Daniel H. Giannini



Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6\\/ MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6\\/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels

B. T. Thai; C. P. Burridge; T. A. Pham; C. M. Austin



Effect of mixed starter cultures fermentation on the characteristics of silver carp sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality and functionality and increase the utilization of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle, three groups of silver carp sausages inoculated with the combinations of Staphylococcus xylosus-12 with Lactobacillus plantarum-15, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC33316, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, and a batch without any starter (control) were prepared. During the 48 h fermentation at 30°C, silver carp sausages\\u000a inoculated with mixed

Yongjin Hu; Wenshui Xia; Changrong Ge



Characterisation of acid-soluble collagen from skin of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from the skin of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was isolated and some properties of ASC were investigated. SDS–PAGE patterns showed ASC from silver carp skin was type ? collagen. Sulfopropyl-Toyopearl 650(M) column chromatography indicated that ASC from silver carp skin was composed of three kinds of ? chains, ?1, ?2 and ?3. Hydroxyproline and proline content of

Junjie Zhang; Rui Duan; Yuanyong Tian; Kunihiko Konno



Growth Response of Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val., to Feed Supplementation in Earthen Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp is one of the most important fish used in polyculturing the earthen fish ponds in semi-intensive fish farms. Silver carp depends mainly on natural foods, and there is no available data focusing the ability of silver carp to consume the artificial diet. Therefore, a 15-week feeding trial was conducted in eight earthen ponds (0.1 ha each) to investigate

Mohammad H. Ahmad; Mohsen Abdel-Tawwab; Yassir A. E. Khattab



Soluble expression, purification, and stabilization of a pro-apoptotic human protein, CARP.  


CARP is a novel pro-apoptotic protein that has been cloned and characterized in our previous report. Previous studies showed that suppression of CARP expression results in cell proliferation in several mammalian cell lines and over-expression of CARP leads to apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in seven tumor cell lines [Liu et al., CARP is a novel caspase recruitment domain containing pro-apoptotic protein, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 293 (2002) 1396]. To obtain soluble and active form of CARP protein for further functional and structural studies, we have expressed CARP in Escherichia coli by using Gateway cloning system. Optimal induction and expression conditions were also studied. Recombinant histidine-tagged CARP was expressed in E. coli when the carp gene was subcloned into a Gateway expression vector pET21-DEST. The partially soluble recombinant CARP protein was purified to near homogeneity by a two-step FPLC procedure, first by Ni2+ affinity chromatography followed by a gel-filtration chromatography, which yielded about 10 mg protein/L culture with at least 95% purity. Two peaks were detected in the analytical gel-filtration chromatograph while only one peak corresponding to monomer of the CARP protein was left after adding 2 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). The polymers observed are likely due to the formation of intermolecular disulfide bridges. These results suggest that adding DTT is a good solution to prevent the formation of disulfide bonds and to stabilize the protein. Successfully growing crystals of the purified CARP protein also proved that we can produce well folded CARP protein in E. coli. PMID:16139514

Chen, Qiang; Hui, Rutai; Sun, Changhong; Gu, Xiaocheng; Luo, Ming; Zheng, Xiaofeng



Induced Gynogenesis in Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) Using Irradiated Sperm of Allotetraploid Hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) eggs were activated by UV-irradiated diploid sperm of allotetraploid hybrids derived from red crucian carp (?)?×?common\\u000a carp (?) and then duplicated by cold shock in 4–6°C water for 10–12 min. Different cold shock initiation times resulted in\\u000a two types of diploid gynogenetic grass carp: meiotic gynogenetic (meiG) and mitotic gynogenetic (mitG). Over a 5-year period,\\u000a a total

Hong Zhang; ShaoJun Liu; Chun Zhang; Min Tao; LiangYue Peng; CuiPing You; Jun Xiao; Yi Zhou; GongJian Zhou; KaiKun Luo; Yun Liu


Environmental Assessment for Listing Largescale Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this environmental assessment, we consider two alternatives for the proposed action to add silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) to the list of injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live silver carp, gametes, viable eg...



Environmental Assessment for Listing Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We considered two alternatives for the proposed action to list largescale silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys harmandi) as an injurious species under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live largescale silver carp, gametes, viable eggs and hybrids. Two...



Carp expresses fast skeletal myosin isoforms with altered motor functions and structural stabilities to compensate for changes in environmental temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Myosin and its subfragment-1 (Sl) from carp acclimated to 10°C showed higher actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity and lower thermostability than their counterparts from carp acclimated to 30°C. Accordingly, filament velocity for the 10°C-acclimated carp myosin was higher at any measuring temperatures from 3 to 23°C than that for the 30°C-acclimated carp myosin.2.2. Three types of cDNA clones encoding myosin heavy

Shugo Watabe; Yasushi Hirayama; Misako Nakaya; Makoto Kakinuma; Kiyoshi Kikuchi; Xiao-Feng Guo; Satoshi Kanoh; Shigeru Chaen; Tatsuo Ooi



Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar

Z. Franic; G. Marovic



Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters.  


The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological status of fish exposed to toxicants. To evaluate the impact of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on the planktivorous fish, 12 serum chemistry variables were investigated in silver carp and bighead carp for 9 months, in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. The results confirmed adverse effects of cyanobacterial blooms on two phytoplanktivorous fish, which mainly characterized with potential toxicogenomic effects and metabolism disorders in liver, and kidney dysfunction. In addition, cholestasis was intensively implied by distinct elevation of all four related biomarkers (ALP, GGT, DBIL, TBIL) in bighead carp. The combination of LDH, AST activities and DBIL, URIC contents for silver carp, and the combination of ALT, ALP activities and TBIL, DBIL, URIC concentrations for bighead carps were found to most strongly indicate toxic effects from cyanobacterial blooms in such fishes by a multivariate discriminant analysis. PMID:21783964

Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen; Zhang, Dawen



Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.



Immunomodulatory effect of cimetidine in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The main indication of cimetidine is being H2-receptor antagonist, but studies suggest that cimetidine may also act as a non-specific stimulant of cell-mediated immunity and immunomodulator. In order to determine the immunomodulatory effect of dietary intake of cimetidine in the common carp (100 ± 10 g), subjects were fed diets containing 0 (control), 50, 100 and 200 mg cimetidine kg(-1) of dry diet for a period of 6 weeks. TLC and NBT assays were significantly (P < 0.05) stimulated in cimetidine-supplemented groups displaying the highest value in 200 mg kg(-1) group. A decrease (P < 0.05) in cortisol and ACH50 value was recorded in fish treated with cimetidine. Serum protein, albumin and serum globulin levels were not significantly changed. The findings of the present investigation suggest that the incorporation of cimetidine in the diet of common carp enhances the non-specific immunity. PMID:23703690

Hosseinifard, Seyyed Mehdi; Ahmadpour, Asieh; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Razeghi Mansour, Majid; Ebrahimpour, Arezo



Red cell function of carp (Cyprinus carpio) in acute hypoxia.  


The red cell function of carp, subjected to acute hypoxia, was studied. During hypoxic exposure red cell water content, sodium and chloride concentration and pH increased, whereas plasma sodium and chloride concentrations decreased. Treatment of the animals with a beta-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, before the onset of hypoxia, largely inhibited the increase in red cell water content, diminished the changes in red cell pH and prevented the changes in red cell and plasma sodium concentration. The red cell chloride concentration increased also in propranolol-treated animals thus illustrating the effect of the deoxygenation of haemoglobin on the ion concentrations of red cells. These data indicate that adrenergic activation of sodium/proton exchange across red cell membrane plays a role in the acute responses of carp to hypoxia. PMID:2822469

Nikinmaa, M; Cech, J J; Ryhänen, E L; Salama, A



Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  


Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim



Feeding behaviour of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. and its impact on the food web in Lake Kinneret, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val. have been stocked in Lake Kinneret, Israel, since 1969. From 1972 to 1981, 11 × 106 fingerlings were introduced into the lake. Total silver carp catch however was only 642 during this period, resulting in a progressive increase in the silver carp population.

P. Spataru; M. Gophen



Common Carp Distribution, Movements, and Habitat Use in a River Impounded by Multiple Low-Head Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is an introduced species that is abundant in many impounded rivers. We assessed habitat conditions and common carp abundance in three flowing sites and three impounded sites of the Fox River, Illinois, to examine factors that influence the success of common carp in these systems. Radiotelemetry was used to determine long-term movement and habitat use

Steven E. Butler; David H. Wahl



CpG oligodeoxynucleotides activate grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice and humans, B cells, antigen-presenting cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells and natural killer cells can be stimulated directly or indirectly by the bacterial DNA and oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing the CpG motifs (CpG DNA). Using head kidney macrophages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as an in vitro model, we investigated the effects of several CpG-ODNs on fish

Zhen Meng; Jianzhong Shao; Lixin Xiang



The Political and Economic Implications of the Asian Carp Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Asian carp will kill jobs and ruin our way of life.”1 Such is the sentiment expressed by Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox and many other politicians and interest groups in the Great Lakes Region. The invasion of non-native species into the Great Lakes is a public policy problem that has the ability to severely damage the region’s environment and economy.

Thomas Just



Adaptation of intestinal morphology in the temperature-acclimated carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of temperature and photoperiod acclimation upon the morphology of carp intestinal mucosa have been studied using morphometric techniques. Carp intestine showed an absence of anatomical regionalisation. There was a gradual reduction in the dimensions of villi along the tract. The decrease in the dimensions of the villi was greatest in the anterior half. Temperature acclimation had no effect

Jonathan A. C. Lee; Andrew R. Cossins



Demonstration of hematopoietic stem cells in ginbuna carp ( Carassius auratus langsdorfii) kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model system of ginbuna carp (clonal triploid fish, Carassius auratus langsdorfii) and ginbuna-goldfish hybrids (tetraploid fish, having three sets of chromosomes from a triploid clone and a haploid set of chromosomes from goldfish) was employed to demonstrate the presence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in kidney hematopoietic tissues. Kidney hematopoietic cells were obtained from ginbuna carp (S3n, donor) and

Isao Kobayashi; Mayuko Sekiya; Tadaaki Moritomo; Mituru Ototake; Teruyuki Nakanishi



Tales of two fish: the dichotomous biology of crucian carp (Carassius carassius (L.)) in northern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crucian carp, a common Eurasian cyprinid fish, shows striking dichotomies in several aspects of its physiology and ecology, at both the individual and population levels. These dichotomies consistently reflect the communities and ecosystems in which they occur, contrasting crucian carp that occur in \\

Ismo J. Holopainen; William M. Tonn; Cynthia A. Paszkowski



Life History and Ecology of Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of life history and ecology of carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were conducted from June 1964 through August 1969, in Elephant Butte Lake, New Mexico. Carp are the least abundant and constitute the smallest management problem of three rough-fish sp...

C. Sanchez



Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson



Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCommon carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient

Peifeng Ji; Guiming Liu; Jian Xu; Xumin Wang; Jiongtang Li; Zixia Zhao; Xiaofeng Zhang; Yan Zhang; Peng Xu; Xiaowen Sun



The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood


Identification of grass carp haemorrhage virus as a new genogroup of aquareovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three aquareovirus strains isolated from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), geoduck clams (Pan- ope abrupta) and herring (Clupea harengus )i n North America and Asia were examined by RNA-RNA blot hybridization to determine their genogroup. The isolates from clams and herring were identified as members of genogroup A, but the isolate from grass carp did not hybridize to any of the

Aymara A. C. Rangel; Daniel D. Rockemann; Frank M. Hetrick; Siba K. Samal



Efficiency of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) in controlling Submerged Water Weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Asiatic grass carp is a herbivorous fish which is being bred and extensively cultured for food in Russia and eastern Europe. In Britain where freshwater fish are seldom eaten, apart from eels and salmonids, grass carp are arousing interest because of the possibility of using them as a supplement, or in some situations as an alternative, to present methods

B. Stott; T. O. ROBSON



Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon



Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cvprinus carpio and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of' 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

Donovan D. Verrill; Charles R. Berry JR



Functional properties of proteins recovered from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by isoelectric solubilization\\/precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoelectric solubilization\\/precipitation at acidic and basic pH ranges was applied to whole gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) in order to recover muscle proteins. Thermal denaturation (Tonset, Tmax, and ?H), viscoelasticity (G?), and texture properties (shear stress) of proteins recovered from carp as affected by functional additives (beef plasma protein, potato starch, exogenous transglutaminase, polyphosphate, and titanium dioxide) were determined and

Latif Taskaya; Yi-Chen Chen; Jacek Jaczynski



The contribution of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) to the biological control of Netofa reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

When silver carp were introduced into the Netofa reservoirs at an initial density of 300–4500 fish per hectare in order to control phytoplankton and zooplankton, there was a significant reduction of algae, zooplankton, and suspended organic matter; the silver carp prevents the growth of blue-green algae.

H. Leventer; B. Teltsch



High fry production rates using post-thaw silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) spermatozoa under farming conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is not endemic to Cuba, and egg fertilization is totally artificial; males produce spermatozoa only between March and October. Cryopreservation of silver carp spermatozoa would reduce the number of males needed, minimize handling stress through less frequent stripping, and facilitate artificial propagation when eggs are available. The effects on motility and fry production from eggs fertilized

Bárbaro Alvarez; Roberto Fuentes; Rafael Pimentel; Zoila Abad; Edenaida Cabrera; Eulogio Pimentel; Amilcar Arenal



Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics



First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from hatch through the next spring in two South Dakota, USA lakes to identify factors affecting year-class strength. Hatching occurred over 37- and 47-day periods in the two lakes. Common carp that hatched earlier achieved greater total lengths at the end of the first growing season (Brant Lake: r = )0.84,




Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) were excluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with the construction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampled intensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997, 1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts in community structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton.

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser



Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) wereexcluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with theconstruction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampledintensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997,1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts incommunity structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Samples werecollected from May to

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser



Seasonal Distribution, Aggregation, and Habitat Selection of Common Carp in Clear Lake, Iowa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and

Christopher R. Penne; Clay L. Pierce



QSAR study of the toxicity of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp were measured. The results showed that the toxicity to V. fischeri and Daphnia decreased in the order of bromo>chloro>fluoro?aminobenzoic acids. The toxicity of substituted benzoic acids to carp and Daphnia was much lower than that to V. fischeri. The results also showed that the toxicity of benzoic acids

Y. H. Zhao; G. D. Ji; M. T. D. Cronin; J. C. Dearden



Oral vaccination of BacFish-vp6 against grass carp reovirus evoking antibody response in grass carp.  


To obtain a vaccine and evaluate its immune efficacy as an oral vaccine against Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a donor vector pFastBac-FA-VP6-ph-VP6 containing two GCRV vp6 genes, one driven by the Megalobrama amblycephala ?-actin promoter and another one controlled by baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed to generate the recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6. From the hemolymph of 5th instar silkworm inoculated with BacFish-vp6, a 53 kDa recombinant VP6 protein could be detected. And the infected pupae collected at 120 h post-inoculation with BacFish-vp6 were used to make freeze-dried powder as an oral vaccine. When the grass carps were orally administrated with feed containing 1%, 5% and 10% of the freeze-dried powder, their specific antibody against VP6 could be detected. Further studies showed that vp6 has been transcripted in the grass carp kidney (CIK) cells infected with BacFish-vp6 and the different tissues of orally vaccinated fish. All the results suggested the powder of the silkworm pupae infected with BacFish-vp6 could possibly be used as an orally administered vaccine. PMID:23202374

Xue, Renyu; Liu, Lin; Cao, Guangli; Xu, Shiying; Li, Jinghui; Zou, Yong; Chen, Hui; Gong, Chengliang



Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p < 0.05). In fin and skin, size dependence was evident in winter, but not in summer, while in other tissues (ventricle, atrium, intestine, liver, muscle, and spleen), no size dependence was found. The liver was much bigger in small than large fish ( p < 0.001), and there was a prominent enlargement of the liver in winter irrespective of fish size. As a consequence, the whole body glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko



Morphological changes of silver and bighead carp in the Yangtze River over the past 50 years.  


Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in twelve of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics, while bighead carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in eight of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics. Six head morphology variables of the current silver and bighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value. PMID:21174356

Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa



Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp ( Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ? ×  Cyprinus carpio ?) fed different carbohydrate diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6 ± 0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ? × Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7 ± 0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each.\\u000a The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g?1 (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content

Chun Fang Cai; Yuan Tu Ye; Li Qiao Chen; Jian Guang Qin; Yong Ling Wang



Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  


Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp. PMID:23108805

Wang, Lu; Shang, Na; Feng, Hong; Guo, Qionglin; Dai, Heping



Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.



Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

Bonar, S. A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.



Microcystin kinetics (bioaccumulation and elimination) and biochemical responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to toxic cyanobacterial blooms.  


Two species of common edible fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), were exposed to a Microcystis spp.-dominated natural cyanobacterial water bloom for two months (concentrations of cyanobacterial toxin microcystin, 182-539 microg/g biomass dry wt). Toxins accumulated up to 1.4 to 29 ng/g fresh weight and 3.3 to 19 ng/g in the muscle of silver carp and common carp, respectively, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay. Concentrations an order of magnitude higher were detected in hepatopancreas (up to 226 ng/g in silver carp), with a peak after the initial four weeks. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 for muscle and from 7.3 to 13.3 for hepatopancreas. Microcystins were completely eliminated within one to two weeks from both muscle and hepatopancreas after the transfer of fish with accumulated toxins to clean water. Mean estimated elimination half-lives ranged from 0.7 d in silver carp muscle to 8.4 d in common carp liver. The present study also showed significant modulations of several biochemical markers in hepatopancreas of fish exposed to cyanobacteria. Levels of glutathione and catalytic activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were induced in both species, indicating oxidative stress and enhanced detoxification processes. Calculation of hazard indexes using conservative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology indicated rather low risks of microcystins accumulated in edible fish, but several uncertainties should be explored. PMID:18020691

Adamovský, Ondrej; Kopp, Radovan; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Palíková, Miroslava; Pasková, Veronika; Navrátil, Stanislav; Marsálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Ludek



Structure of a calcium-binding carp myogen.  


The amino-acid sequence and three-dimensional structure of a calcium-binding protein prepared from carp muscle has been determined. This protein, designated carp-muscle calcium-binding protein B, is one of three closely related parvalbumins found in this tissue. The electron density map, calculated by heavyatom substitution crystallographic methods to 2.0-A resolution, reveals the orientation of most of the amino-acid side chains. The calcium coordination site consists of one glutamic- and three aspartic-acid carboxyl groups in a tetrahedral arrangement. The core of this spherical molecule is remarkably hydrophobic, with 8 of its 10 phenylalanine side chains packed in an approximate herringbone pattern. 52 of the 108 residues are in six alpha-helixes; there is no beta-pleated sheet. The acetylated amino-terminal alanine appears not to be accessible to solvent. All of the heavy-atom derivatives are bound at the sole cysteine. The properties of this protein suggest a relationship to troponin A of mammalian tissue. PMID:4501574

Nockolds, C E; Kretsinger, R H; Coffee, C J; Bradshaw, R A



Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of the zebrafish genome. BES of common carp are tremendous tools for comparative mapping between the two closely related species, zebrafish and common carp, which should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in common carp.



Purification and characterization of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase from common carp liver.  


1. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) was purified and characterized. 2. Its molecular weight, isoelectric point, electrophoretic mobility, amino acid pattern and some other characteristics were determined. PMID:2591201

Víg, E; Gabrielak, T; Leyko, W; Nemcsók, J; Matkovics, B



Evidence of Grass Carp ('Ctenopharyngodon idella') Reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an exotic species which was imported into the United States in 1963 to control aquatic vegetation. Individuals escaped from ponds and subsequently spread into streams in the Mississippi river basin. We have been col...

P. T. Raibley D. Blodgett R. E. Sparks



Production of Reproductively Limited Grass Carp for Biological Control of Aquatic Weeds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for a biological aquatic weed control is increasingly evident as the cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns make chemical treatment less desirable. The grass carp, a native fish of Southeast Asia is an effective consumer of aquatic macroph...

W. L. Shelton G. L. Jensen



Life History, Ecology, and Management of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' Linnaeus, in Elephant Butte Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of eight years of investigations of carp in Elephant Butte Lake are combined into this monographic report which includes ecological life history, population ecology, and management methods and techniques. Classification, taxonomy, and range of the...

D. B. Jester



[Effectiveness and characteristics of treating algae-laden raw water by stocking silver carp].  


To reduce the negative effect of algae on conventional water treatment, a full-scale research of removing algae from algae-laden raw water by stocking filter-feeding silver carp was processed. After the pretreatment in a presedimentation tank with silver carp, the concentration of phytoplankton, the biomass of cyanobacteria and Microsystis flos-aquae in algae-laden raw water with Microsystis flos-aquae its dominant species decreased 61.8%, 76.1% and 78.2% respectively. This effective decrease of algae load on conventional process created favorable conditions for water treatment. Analysis indicates that food habit of silver carp and algae size are two causes of different removal efficiency between cyanobacteria and green algae. The results show that biomanipulation of silver carp is applicable for treating algae-laden raw water in which colonial cyanobacteria is dominant. PMID:18649519

Fan, Zhen-Qiang; Cui, Fu-Yi; Ma, Hua; He, Wen-Jie; Yin, Pei-Jun



Effects of Salinity on Food Consumption and Growth of Grass Carp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The herbivorous food habits combined with high rates of food consumption, fast growth and high palatability, and adaptability to environmental fluctuations make the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) an ideal fish for aquatic weed control and commercial...

R. V. Kilambi



Sequence of the growth hormone (GH) gene from the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and evolution of GH genes in vertebrates.  


The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) growth hormone (GH) gene was isolated and sequenced following amplification from genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. The gene spans a region of approx. 2.5 kb nucleotides (nt) and consists of five exons. The sequence predicts a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (aa) including a putative signal peptide of 22 hydrophobic aa residues. The arrangement of exons and introns is identical to the GH genes of common carp, grass carp, and very similar to mammals and birds, but quite different from that for the GH genes of tilapia and salmonids. The silver carp GH gene shares a high homology at the nt and aa levels with those of grass carp (95.3% nt, 99.5% aa) and of common carp (81% nt, 95.7% aa). PMID:8373806

Hong, Y; Schartl, M



Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and regulated by PTH.  


Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30min to 5h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S



Concentration Effects of Selected Insecticides on Brain Acetylcholinesterase in the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) is followed by the distinct duration of exposure effect on common carp AChE. Hence, in the present study in vivo exposure period effect and in vitro concentration–response of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos diazinon, and carbofuran were investigated on Cyprinus carpio L. AChE. Individuals of 1-year-old carp were exposed for 96

Korami Dembélé; Eric Haubruge; Charles Gaspar



Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas



Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits.



A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.



Ca2+ signals during early lymphocyte activation in carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure cellular responses and the involvement of increased cytosolic Ca2 levels ([Ca2 ]i), peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of carp were loaded with the fluorescent intracellular Ca2 indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-2. Responses of lymphocytes to T-cell mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA), to B-cell mitogen (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and to immunoglobulin (Ig) cross-linking with a monoclonal antibody to carp Ig were measured using flow

B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; J. P. J. Saeij; G. Flik; P. H. G. M. Willems



Distribution of macrophages during fish development: an immunohistochemical study in carp ( Cyprinus carpio , L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody against carp macrophages (WCL15) has been utilised in flow cytometry, immuno-histochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy to assess the distribution of monocytes\\/macrophages in developing carp lymphoid tissues. In suspensions of living cells WCL15 reacted strongly with cytoplasm and plasmic membrane of macrophages. It also cross-reacted with a subpopulation of thrombocytes, but this reaction could be neglected by double immunostaining

N. Romano; S. Picchietti; J. J. Taverne-Thiele; N. Taverne; L. Abelli; L. Mastrolia; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade; J. H. W. M. Rombout



Feeding at different plankton densities alters invasive bighead carp ( Hypophthalmichthys nobilis ) growth and zooplankton species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive Asian carps Hypophthalmichthys spp. are an ecological threat to non-native aquatic ecosystems throughout the world, and are poised to enter the Laurentian\\u000a Great Lakes. Little is known about how these filter-feeding planktivores grow and impact zooplankton communities in mesotrophic\\u000a to oligotrophic systems like the Great Lakes. Our purpose was to determine how different plankton densities affect bighead\\u000a carp H.

Sandra L. Cooke; Walter R. Hill; Kevin P. Meyer



Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development.

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo



Construction and Characterization of Two Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Libraries of Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library is an important tool in genomic research. We constructed two libraries from\\u000a the genomic DNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) as a crucial part of the grass carp genome project. The libraries were constructed in the EcoRI and HindIII sites of the vector CopyControl pCC1BAC. The EcoRI library comprised 53,000 positive clones, and approximately 99.94%

Songhun Jang; Hang Liu; Jianguo Su; Feng Dong; Feng Xiong; Lanjie Liao; Yaping Wang; Zuoyan Zhu



Genotoxicity of crude extracts of cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake on carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity of crude cyanobacteria extracts (CBE) from blooms in Taihu Lake, China toward common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was measured. The primary extracellular product was determined by HPLC to be Microcystin-LR (MC-LR, L for leucine and R\\u000a for arginine) with an average concentration of 2.4 × 102 ?g MC g?1 dry weight of cyanobacteria. Acute toxicity to carp, expressed as the 72-h LC50, was 53 mg, dw

Qin WuMei; Mei Li; Xiangyu Gao; John P. Giesy; Yibin Cui; Liuyan Yang; Zhiming Kong



[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  


For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K



Effectiveness of a Plastic Mesh Substrate Cover for Reducing the Effects of Common Carp on Aquatic Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of effort has been directed at eliminating or controlling common carp Cyprinus carpio populations, but these efforts have had limited success. We assessed the effectiveness of an alternative approach, using plastic-mesh substrate covers, to reduce environmental effects of common carp, Multiple trophic levels were monitored in 0.06-ha enclosures in experimental ponds that contained either common carp with

Joseph J. Parkos III; Victor J. Santucci Jr; David H. Wahl



Differences in some properties of lactate dehydrogenase from muscles of the carp Cyprinus carpio and trout Salmo gairdneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some catalytic and kinetic properties of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isolated from trout and carp skeletal muscles were compared.\\u000a The specific activity of LDH in the carp muscle was lower by about one third than the activity in the trout muscle. Temperature\\u000a and pH optima for LDH isolated from the carp muscle were higher than those for the trout muscle LDH.

A. Tylicki; D. Masztaleruk; S. Strumilo



Effects of flow regulation on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) recruitment in the Murray–Darling Basin, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp biomass density and the numbers of 'sub-adult' (juvenile, plus young-of-the-year) carp were used to indicate net recruit- ment (hereafter 'recruitment') to carp populations in 'regulated' and 'unregulated' lowland rivers (<300 m altitude) and 'slope' rivers (300-700 m) of the Murray-Darling Basin, southeastern Australia. Most recruitment occurred at lower-altitude reaches, during October-March (water temperature 95% confidence limits ¼ 16-32? C).

P. D. Driver; J. H. Harris; G. P. Closs; T. B. Koen



Complete genome sequence of a reovirus isolated from grass carp, indicating different genotypes of GCRV in China.  


A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China. PMID:23087123

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin; Wu, Shuqin



Introduction of the human lactoferrin gene into grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) to increase resistance against GCH virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemorrhage can be an epidemic and fatal condition in grass carp. It is known now that the Grass Carp Haemorrhage Virus (GCHV) triggers haemorrhage. Human lactoferrin (hLF) plays an important role in the non-specific immune system, making some organisms more resistant to some viruses. Sperm of grass carp was mixed with linearized pCAhLFc, which is a DNA construct containing an

Jiayu Zhong; Yaping Wang; Zuoyan Zhu



Complete Genome Sequence of a Reovirus Isolated from Grass Carp, Indicating Different Genotypes of GCRV in China  

PubMed Central

A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China.

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin



Diet overlap among two Asian carp and three native fishes in backwater lakes on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighead and silver carp are well established in the Mississippi River basin following their accidental introduction in the\\u000a 1980s. Referred to collectively as Asian carp, these species are filter feeders consuming phytoplankton and zooplankton. We\\u000a examined diet overlap and electivity of Asian carp and three native filter feeding fishes, bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad,\\u000a and paddlefish, in backwater lakes of the

Schuyler J. Sampson; John H. Chick; Mark A. Pegg



Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future.



Establishment of kinetic models based on electrical conductivity and freshness indictors for the forecasting of crucian carp ( Carassius carassius) freshness  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study quality changes in cold chain circulation, kinetic models were developed to predict the freshness of crucian carp at different temperatures during storage. Electrical conductivity (EC) and freshness indictors (Total volatile basic nitrogen, Total aerobic count and K-value) at 270, 273, 277, 282 and 288K were accessed to investigate the relation between the crucian carp’s freshness and storage condition

Lei Yao; Yongkang Luo; Yunyun Sun; Huixing Shen



Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987–2002 and 5 years during 1993–2005.The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other

Zdenko Frani?; Gordana Marovi?



Grass carp transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and immunobiological activity in teleost peripheral blood lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is a potent regulatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. To examine the role of TGF-?1 in fish immunity, the full-length cDNA of grass carp TGF-?1 was isolated from grass carp spleen. The open reading frame of grass carp TGF-?1, 1134bp in length, encodes a 377 amino acid protein. Tissue distribution study by RT-PCR

Mu Yang; Hong Zhou



Comparison of the exomes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).  


Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4-1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which--due to a higher degree of compactness--did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; Jansen, Hans J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Spaink, Herman P



Phenotypic plasticity in gut length in the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October), silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p < 0.01, 9.23 +/- 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 +/- 2.05 in 2005, respectively). There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112). It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish. PMID:18301818

Ke, Zhixin; Ping, Xie; Guo, Longgen



Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish.

Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.



PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie.  


Male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie, which is greatly effected by urbanization, agriculture, and industry, were analyzed for PCB and PBDE concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver to evaluate exposure to these chemicals through habitat interactions. Additional male carp from two nearby relatively clean lakes (Bear Lake and Hemlock Lake, NY) were also sampled as controls. While PCBs were detected in muscle, liver, and plasma of Lake Erie carp, the largest concentrations were found in muscle, which also had the most number of congeners. The dominant congeners were PCB 138 and PCB 153. Concentrations of PCB 153 in the muscle were correlated with fish length, total weight, and age. Therefore, larger (and generally older) carp had the highest concentrations of PCB 153. In contrast, PBDEs were found only in muscle with the predominant congener being PBDE 47. The total PCB concentrations in muscle of male carp from eastern Lake Erie (ranging from nd to 15,000 ng g(-1) lipid) were 100-fold higher than the total PBDE observed (1.5-100 ng g(-1) lipid), indicating a higher level of contamination of PCBs in Lake Erie. The high PCB levels in carp points to PCB resistance to metabolic degradation. PMID:20609460

Pérez-Fuentetaja, Alicia; Lupton, Sara; Clapsadl, Mark; Samara, Fatin; Gatto, Louis; Biniakewitz, Robert; Aga, Diana S



CARP, a Cardiac Ankyrin Repeat Protein, Is Up-Regulated during Wound Healing and Induces Angiogenesis in Experimental Granulation Tissue  

PubMed Central

Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was identified by subtractive hybridization as one of a group of genes that are rapidly modulated by acute wounding of mouse skin. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CARP was strongly induced during the first day after wounding (157.1-fold), and the high level persisted for up to 14 days. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that CARP was expressed in skeletal muscle, vessel wall, hair follicle, inflammatory cells, and epidermis in the wound area. To examine the effects of CARP on wound healing, we developed an adenoviral CARP vector to treat subcutaneously implanted sponges in either rats or Flk-1LacZ knock-in mice. Four days after infection, CARP-infected sponges in rats showed a remarkable increase in the vascular component in granulation tissue as compared to Ad-LacZ controls. This result was confirmed by CD34 immunostaining. By 7 days post-infection of sponge implants in Flk-1LacZ knock-in mice, granulation tissue showed many more LacZ-positive cells in Ad-CARP-infected sponges than in virus controls. Ad-CARP treatment also induced neovascularization and increased blood perfusion in rabbit excisional wounds in and ischemic rat wounds. These findings indicate that CARP could play a unique role in therapeutic angiogenesis during wound healing.

Shi, Yubin; Reitmaier, Birgit; Regenbogen, Johannes; Slowey, R. Michael; Opalenik, Susan R.; Wolf, Eckhard; Goppelt, Andreas; Davidson, Jeffrey M.



Toxicological effects of the antibiotic oxytetracycline to an Indian major carp Labeo rohita.  


Oxytetracycline (OTC), an antibacterial agent, is extensively used in aquaculture practices all over the world. Despite its use, the toxicity of OTC to freshwater fish has been scarcely investigated. In this study, Labeo rohita were exposed to different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mg L(-1)) of OTC. Based on the survival-to-mortality ratio, an 80 mg L(-1) concentration was selected for sublethal toxicity analysis. Fish were exposed to the above-mentioned concentration for a period of 25 days, during which fish were killed at the end of every 5 days to analyse certain hematological and enzymological parameters. During the exposure period, a mixed trend was observed in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cellular Hb, and mean cellular Hb concentration, whereas decreased red blood cell count and increased white blood cell was noted. A biphasic trend was observed in the enzymatic levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the vital organs (gill, liver and muscle) of fish. The alterations of these parameters lead to the conclusion that these parameters may be used as biomarkers in monitoring OTC toxicity in aquaculture and fisheries farms. PMID:23192588

Ambili, T R; Saravanan, M; Ramesh, M; Abhijith, D B; Poopal, R K



Identification of amacrine and ganglion cells in the carp retina.  

PubMed Central

1. Amacrine and ganglion cells in the carp retina were identified from such criteria as photoresponses, intracellular dye staining, responses to optic nerve stimulation and behaviour to a synapse blocking agent. 2. Responses of ganglion cells were accompanied by spike discharges., either facilitated or suppressed by photic stimulation. The cells were also invaded by antidromic impulses, which survived after chemical synapses had been blocked by application of atomized CoCl2 solution. In subsequent histology of the Procion-stained neurones, the cell bodies were found in the ganglion cell layer and the axons were often traced. 3. Amacrine cells were subdivided into two types. The first type gave rise to transient depolarizations at both on- and offsets of spot and annulus illuminations, usually being associated with spike discharges of which the amplitudes varied in different cells. In histology, the cell bodies of this type were situated in the inner nuclear layer and dendrites ramified in two or more discrete sublayers of the inner plexiform layer (the stratified amacrine cell of Cajal). 4. The second type of amacrine cells produced sustained responses during illumination, being associated with no spike but with small oscillatory wavelets. The cell bodies were situated in the inner nuclear layer and the dendrites ramified in a single sublayer of the inner plexiform layer (the monolayered amacrine cell). 5. An attempt was made to see the effect of activation of centrifugal fibres on amacrine cells, but almost all of about 200 cells examined did not respond to optic nerve stimulation. Only two cells produced, with long latency, a small post-synaptic depolarization which disappeared after chemical synapses in the retina had been blocked. It is considered that the physiological role of the centrifugal system is insignificant in the carp retina. Images Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 1

Murakami, M; Shimoda, Y



Structure, organization and expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) SLP-76 gene.  


SLP-76 is an important member of the SLP-76 family of adapters, and it plays a key role in TCR signaling and T cell function. Partial cDNA sequence of SLP-76 of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was isolated from thymus cDNA library by the method of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Subsequently, the full length cDNA of carp SLP-76 was obtained by means of 3' RACE and 5' RACE, respectively. The full length cDNA of carp SLP-76 was 2007 bp, consisting of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 285 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 240 bp, and an open reading frame of 1482 bp. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of carp SLP-76 had an overall similarity of 34-73% to that of other species homologues, and it was composed of an NH2-terminal domain, a central proline-rich domain, and a C-terminal SH2 domain. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated the existence of a Gads binding site R-X-X-K, a 10-aa-long sequence which binds to the SH3 domain of LCK in vitro, and three conserved tyrosine-containing sequence in the NH2-terminal domain. Then we used PCR to obtain a genomic DNA which covers the entire coding region of carp SLP-76. In the 9.2k-long genomic sequence, twenty one exons and twenty introns were identified. RT-PCR results showed that carp SLP-76 was expressed predominantly in hematopoietic tissues, and was upregulated in thymus tissue of four-month carp compared to one-year old carp. RT-PCR and virtual northern hybridization results showed that carp SLP-76 was also upregulated in thymus tissue of GH transgenic carp at the age of four-months. These results suggest that the expression level of SLP-76 gene may be related to thymocyte development in teleosts. PMID:18353678

Huang, Rong; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Ping; Guo, Qiong-Lin



Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864

Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A



Effects of the “all-fish” GH (growth hormone) transgene expression on resistance to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken on the susceptibility of the F4 generation of “all-fish” growth hormone transgenic carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections. When 1-year old, transgenic carp, with non-transgenic carp and non-manipulated carp (controls) were split into three batches, and experimental infections were performed throughout the 3-month period. All 72 fish were successfully infected. It was shown that

Fei Ling; Qing Luo; Jian-Guo Wang; Ya-Ping Wang; Wen-Bo Wang; Xiao-Ning Gong



[Comparative studies on gene expression of isozymes in 4 types of various ploidy crucian carp during embryogenesis].  


Isozyme zymograms of esterase (EST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were analysed by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis at different developmental stages of embryogenesis in 4 types of various ploidy crucian carp embryos, including haploids, diploids, natural triploids, and multiple tetraploids, and 2 types of haploid and diploid common carp embryos. Haploid embryos of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were produced by treating eggs with UV-irradiated milt from blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Natural triploid embryos were obtained from the eggs of gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) inseminated with milt from red common carp. Multiple tetraploid embryos were also produced by gynogenesis from eggs of the newly discovered multiple tetraploid females inseminated with milt from red common carp. Gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that the band types and staining intensity of 4 isozymes expressed in haploid embryos of crucian carp and red common carp were similar to that in the correlative diploid embryos. In natural triploid silver crucian carp embryos, the zymograms of MDH and SOD isozymes were identical with that of diploid crucian carp embryos, but the EST and LDH isozymes manifested more new enzyme bands in comparison with diploid embryos. The corresponding expressed products of some bands in the triploid embryos, such as EST5 and EST6, could be observed also in red common carp embryos, which provided evidence for hybrid origin about the gynogenetic fish. The multiple tetraploids incorporated one foreign genome of red common carp, therefore, the effects of genes from the foreign genome could be observed in the multiple tetraploid embryos. Gene expression of the isozymes in the tetraploid embryos was somewhat similar to that in hybrids. Owing to interaction of triploid silver crucian carp genomes and common carp haploid genome, some isozyme bands, such as EST5 and EST6, changed in quantity, and some bands increased, such as s-SOD1, s-SOD2, s-SOD3 and s-SOD4 in the tetraploid embryos. Moreover, the heterogeneity was revealed among embryos developed from gynogenetic eggs of 3 different multiple tetraploid individuals. PMID:12016959

Zhu, L F; Gui, J F



A Tale of Four "Carp": Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation.

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.



Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.  


Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H



Selective Breeding of Carp and Intensification of Fish Breeding in Ponds (Selektsiya Karpa I Voprosy Intensifikatsii Prudovogo Rybovodstva).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains articles on various problems of pond pisciculture. The first section is devoted to the genetics and selection of carp. The primary aim of this collection is to state the theoretic principles of carp selection. Several articles deal wi...

V. S. Kirpichnikov



Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g? 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g? 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g? 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?13C, ?15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.



Response of zooplankton to the reduction and elimination of submerged vegetation by grass carp and herbicide in four Florida lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton populations were monitored monthly for a three year period in four Florida lakes. Each lake received an aquatic vegetation control program using grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) and herbicide, either alone or in combination. All aquatic vegetation was eliminated in the three lakes with grass carp; it was severely reduced and exhibited qualitative shifts in the lake treated with

David I. Richard; James W. Small; John A. Osborne



Anaesthetic properties of Propiscin (Etomidaat) and 2-phenoxyethanol in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), neural and behavioural measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the anaesthetic effects of Propiscin (2% etomidate) and 2-phenoxyethanol on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by observing neural and behavioural measures. When exposed to the anaesthetic agent, the carp lost equilibrium after approximately 90 s of exposure. They did not breathe and the controls did not respond to tail pinch or prick

Bert Lambooij; Maciek Pilarczyk; Henrik Bialowas; Henny Reimert; G. Andre; Vis van de J. W



Gel properties of surimi from silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as affected by heat treatment and soy protein isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of setting conditions and soy protein isolate (SPI) on textural properties of surimi produced from silver carp were investigated. Effects of setting temperature, setting time and protein concentration on the gel strength were evaluated and compared utilizing response surface methodology. Models for breaking force and breaking distance of silver carp surimi were established. The total protein content was

Yongkang Luo; Huixing Shen; Daodong Pan; Guanhao Bu



Oxidative Stress Biomarkers are Modulated in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterial Water Bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bláha L., R. Kopp, K. ·imková, J. Mare‰: Oxidative Stress Biomarkers are Modulated in Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterial Water Bloom. Acta Vet Brno 2004, 73: 477-482. In the present paper we evaluated the effects of natural toxic cyanobacterial water bloom on oxidative stress biomarkers in silver carp. Modulations of reduced gluthatione (GSH), an important cellular



Effects of Primary Exposure to Environmental and Natural Estrogens on Vitellogenin Production in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitellogenin (vtg) is a precursor of the yolk proteins lipovitelline and phosvitin and is synthesized as a consequence of estrogen-depen- dent gene expression in female and male hepatocytes of egg-laying vertebrates. Freshly isolated carp hepatocytes of a genetically uni- form strain of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used to inves- tigate the effects of primary exposure to estrogenic compounds

T. Rouhani Rankouhi; I. van Holsteijn; R. Letcher; J. P. Giesy; M. van den Berg



Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  


In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G



Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo



Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

Thomas, R. M.; Miranda, L. E.; Kirk, J. P.



[An investigation of metazoan parasites of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Lake Eber, Afyon, Turkey.].  


In this study, metazoan parasites of the following fish species were investigated in Lake Eber (Afyon) from July 2002-2003. At the end of this research, 2 species of Monogenea (Gyrodactylus elegans, Dactylogyrus extensus) were found on the gills and fins of the fishes; 1 species of Digenea (Posthodiplostomum cuticola), on skin and fins; 1 species of Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the intestines; and 1 species of Arthropoda (Argulus foliaceus), the skin, gills and fins of fish. The distribution of these parasites in various fish species are given below: The distribution of these parasites are as follows: 3456 Gyrodactylus elegans in 51 specimens of common carp (67.1% prevalence, 67.75+/-162.52 parasite/fish); 2980 Dactylogyrus extensus (73.6%, 53.21+/-52.95) in 56 specimens of common carp; 55 Posthodiplostomum cuticola (18.4%, 3.93+/-5.42) in 14 specimens of common carp; 1240 Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (43.4%, 37.55+/-53.98) in 33 specimens of common carp and 6 Argulus foliaceus (6.5%, 1.20+/-0.44); in 5 specimens of common carp. PMID:17160824

Oztürk, M O?uz



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin;Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian ;Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. PMID:23727283

Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei



Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.  


Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing



Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.



Mortalities induced by the copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus in farmed silver and bighead carp in a reservoir.  


The frequency distributions of the parasitic copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus were examined in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis during a disease outbreak of the 2 species of fish in a reservoir in China. The mean abundance of the copepod was positively related with host length and age, and the overdispersion of the copepod in both silver and bighead carp was fitted well with negative binomial distribution. Although parasite-induced host mortality was observed, a peaked age-parasite abundance curve was not detected in the present parasite-host system. It is also proposed that this peaked age-abundance curve is unlikely to be observed in its natural host populations. PMID:12033711

Wang, Gui T; Li, Wen X; Yao, Wei J; Nie, P



Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N. E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Kolar, C. S.



Gene structure, recombinant expression and functional characterization of grass carp leptin.  


Leptin is an important hormone for the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts remains scant. In the present study, the gene structures of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) leptins were characterized. Recombinant grass carp leptin (rgc-LEP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and identified by mass spectrometric analysis. A strong anorexic effect on food intake was observed in grass carp on the first day after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of rgc-LEP, but not during the following days. Body weight of the leptin group (LEP group) and the pair-fed group (PF group) showed no difference throughout the experimental period. The acute and chronic effects on the expression of key genes correlating to food intake, energy expenditure, lipid metabolism and digestion were further characterized by real-time PCR. Accordingly, the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were significantly reduced whereas the mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), bile salt-activated lipase (BSAL) and fatty acid elongase (ELO) were significantly elevated on the first day after injection. No effect on the expression of these genes (except LPL) was observed on day 13. In contrast to the down-regulation by exogenous leptin in mammals, the mRNA level of grass carp leptin was elevated 5.76-fold on the first day after rgc-LEP treatment. Our results suggest that leptin has an acute effect on the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in grass carp, but the effect can be rapidly counteracted through mechanisms that are currently unknown. PMID:19857495

Li, Guan-Gui; Liang, Xu-Fang; Xie, Qiuling; Li, Guangzhao; Yu, Ying; Lai, Kaaseng



Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate acute toxicity of clove oil for common carp and, using values of haematological and biochemical profiles of blood and histological tissue examinations, to assess the effects of the fish exposure to that anaesthetic. Acute toxicity values of clove oil for carp were found 10 minLC50 74.3 mg\\/l; 10minLC0.1 51.6 mg\\/l; 10minLC99.9 110.1



Variability of the magnetic moment of carbon monoxide hemoglobin from carp.  

PubMed Central

Deionized carp carbon monoxide hemoglobin in distilled water or in bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane or Tris buffer exhibits a slight but significant paramagnetism. This is most clearly demonstrated by the decrease in this paramagnetism that is caused by the addition of inositol hexaphosphate to this protein in the former buffer at pH 6.3-6.4. No such effect is seen when inositol hexaphosphate is added to carp cyanomethemoglobin, demonstrating that the change observed with carbon monoxide derivative is not due to a modification in the diamagnetic properties of the protein.

Cerdonio, M; Morante, S; Vitale, S; De Young, A; Noble, R W



Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids.

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



Myosin heavy chain genes expressed in juvenile and adult silver carp Hypopthalmichthys molitrix: novel fast-type myosin heavy chain genes of silver carp.  


Silver carp Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is eurythermal temperate fish, whose muscle is considered to express several types of myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes at different stages of its growth and to adjust to the environmental temperature. In this study, MYH genes expressed in the muscles of juvenile and adult silver carp were investigated. Five types of MYH cDNA clone were isolated from silver carp (H. molitrix) by RACE strategy using a set of fast-type MYH specific primers, and termed scMYH(F1), scMYH(F2), scMYH(F3), scMYH(F4) and scMYH(F5) in the order of their abundance in cDNA libraries constructed from fast skeletal muscles of adult silver carp. scMYH(F1), scMYH(F3) and scMYH(F5) showed high nucleotide sequence identities of 96, 98 and 96% to gcMYH(F30), gcMYH(F10) and gcMYH(FI), respectively, that encode MYHs predominantly expressed in fast skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) acclimated to 30, 10 and 20 degrees C, respectively. scMYH(F2) and scMYH(F4) showed a high identity to A4-type MYH from rock cod (Notothenia coriiceps) slow skeletal muscle. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that scMYH(F1) and scMYH(F5) were monophyletic with fish adult fast-type MYHs, whereas scMYH(F2) and scMYH(F4) formed a cluster with fish slow-like fast-type MYH, and scMYH(F3) did with fish embryonic fast-type MYHs. Interestingly, juvenile silver carp predominantly expressed scMYH(F3) irrespective of acclimation temperatures at 10, 18 or 26 degrees C. The comparison among scMYH(F1), scMYH(F2) and scMYH(F3) in the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that the putative binding sites for ATP, actin, and essential and regulatory light chains in myosin subfragment-1 (S1) have high identities with each other (81-100%). However, their loop-1 and loop-2 regions in S1 were highly variable, suggesting their different functions. The deduced amino acid sequences of myosin subfragment-2 and L-meromyosin showed high identities of 90-91% and 86-90%, respectively, among the above three scMYHs. PMID:19100315

Fukushima, Hideto; Ikeda, Daisuke; Tao, Yan; Watabe, Shugo



Antigenic analysis of grass carp reovirus using single-chain variable fragment antibody against IgM from Ctenopharyngodon idella.  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important species of freshwater aquaculture fish in China. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in yearling populations. Until now, a strategy to define the antigenic capacity of the virus's structural proteins for preparing an effective vaccine has not been available. In this study, some single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv), which could specifically recognize grass carp IgM, were selected from a constructed mouse naïve antibody phage display cDNA library. The identified scFv C1B3 clone was shown to possess relatively higher specific binding activity to grass carp IgM. Furthermore, ELISA analysis indicated that the IgM level in serum from virus-infected grass carp was more than two times higher than that of the control group at 5-7 days post infection. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the outer capsid protein VP7 has a specific immuno-binding-reaction with the serum IgM from virus-infected grass carp. Our results suggest that VP7 can induce a stronger immune response in grass carp than the other GCRV structural proteins, which implies that VP7 protein could be used as a preferred immunogen for vaccine design. PMID:23314868

Chen, CongLin; Sun, XiaoYun; Liao, LanJie; Luo, ShaoXiang; Li, ZhouQuan; Zhang, XiaoHua; Wang, YaPing; Guo, QionLin; Fang, Qin; Dai, HePing



Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in North Croatia after the Chernobyl accident.  


Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carp decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of (137)Cs was estimated to be about 1 year during 1987-2002 and 5 years during 1993-2005. The observed (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio in carp was found to be similar to the ratio observed in other environmental samples. The concentration factor for carp (wet weight) was estimated to be 128+/-74 Lkg(-1), which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K(+) concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective dose received by adult members of the Croatian population due to consumption of carp contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs are small: per capita dose from this source during 1987-2005 was estimated to be 0.5+/-0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carp, it can be concluded that carp consumption was not a critical pathway for the transfer of radiocaesium from fallout to humans after the Chernobyl accident. PMID:17343962

Frani?, Zdenko; Marovi?, Gordana



A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification.

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



Major depression  


Depression - major; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... The exact cause of depression is not known. Many researchers believe it is caused by chemical changes in the brain. This may be due to ...


Isolation and analysis of a novel grass carp toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) gene cluster involved in the response to grass carp reovirus.  


The mammalian response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is mainly mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4). Fish and mammalian TLR4 vary; fish TLR4 ligands are unknown. Isolation of fish tlr4 genes is difficult due to their complex genomic structure. Three bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones containing grass carp tlr4 were obtained. Four tlr4 genes, with a varied genomic structure and different protein domains were subsequently isolated by constructing a subcloned library and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The four tlr4 genes were expressed during development from 12h post-fertilization, in all healthy adult fish tissues tested, and significantly increased in grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected liver and muscle, suggesting the tlr4 genes play a role in GCRV infection. This study effectively separated each gene in the tlr4 gene cluster, implies that grass carp TLR4 proteins have different ligand recognition specificities to mammalian TLRs, and provides information on the functional evolution of TLRs. PMID:22721904

Huang, Rong; Dong, Feng; Jang, Songhun; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), sport fishes, and water quality: Ecological thresholds in agriculturally eutrophic lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined fish populations, limnological conditions, lake basin morphology and watershed characteristics to evaluate patterns in population characteristics of ecologically important fish species in relation to environmental conditions in agriculturally eutrophic lake systems. Fish populations and environmental characteristics were sampled from 129 Iowa lakes using standard techniques from 2001–2006. Lakes with high catch rates of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) had

Zachary J. Jackson; Michael C. Quist; John A. Downing; Joseph G. Larscheid



Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond,

B. G. B. Solheim; M. Pettersson



Selective breeding of quantitative traits in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio): a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp is one of the main aquaculture species in the world. Despite this, most of the production is carried out using unselected strains. Selective breeding for fast growth has not proven to be effective in this species, but other traits (disease resistance, shape) could be successfully selected for. Most heritability estimates in the literature are unreliable due to

Marc Vandeputte



Effectiveness of Praziquantel Bath Treatments against Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many states ban the importation of fish infected with the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Treatment with an effective tapeworm parasiticide prior to shipment would allow fish to be imported that might otherwise be rejected. In this study, extended praziquantel bath treatments of infected grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were tested to determine their efficacy against Asian tapeworms. Preliminary praziquantel treatments of

Andrew J. Mitchell



Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller



Invasive potential of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) in American freshwater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonnative fish introductions disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South America, these introductions stem from aquaculture facilities, as well as historical introductions for recreational angling. An emergent field of

Luis Zambrano; Enrique Martínez-Meyer; Naercio Menezes; A. Townsend Peterson



Isolation and characterization of beta-actin gene of carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


A beta-actin gene of carp (Cyprinus carpio) was isolated from a genomic EMBL3 library. The nucleotide sequence of the gene indicates six exons spanning 3.6 kb. Southern blot hybridization of restriction endonuclease digests of carp genomic DNA indicate that there are two copies of the beta-actin isotype and several other species of actin genes. The transcriptional start site is 85 bp and 24 bp downstream respectively from consensus CCAAT and TATA promoter elements. The organization of the carp beta-actin gene is identical to that of chicken, human, and rat genes in terms of size, exon/intron locations and junctions and in having a translationally silent first exon. The fish gene is 90% and 99% conserved at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, with land vertebrate beta-actin genes. Northern blot analysis of beta-actin gene expression indicated that the gene is highly expressed in brain, less so in muscle, and much less so in liver cells. The putative beta-actin proximal promoter of carp, identified by the conservation of known actin regulatory sequences, is transcriptionally active in both mammalian and piscine cells. PMID:2134183

Liu, Z J; Zhu, Z Y; Roberg, K; Faras, A; Guise, K; Kapuscinski, A R; Hackett, P B




EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...


Hypoxia and recovery perturb free radical processes and antioxidant potential in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of hypoxia exposure and subsequent normoxic recovery on the levels of lipid peroxides (LOOH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), carbonylproteins, total glutathione levels, and the activities of six antioxidant enzymes were measured in brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Hypoxia exposure (25% of normal oxygen level) for 5h generally decreased the levels

Volodymyr I. Lushchak; Tetyana V. Bagnyukova; Oleh V. Lushchak; Janet M. Storey; Kenneth B. Storey



Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*  

PubMed Central

Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%.

Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran



Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium Held at Gainesville, Florida on March 7-9,1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A symposium was held in Gainesville on March 7-9, 1994, to discuss the effects of stocking grass carp for aquatic plant control. The purpose of the workshop was to provide information related to the concern for habitat protection and the suitability of us...




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...


Control of water weeds by grass carp in two small lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.), 4–6 years old and weighing more than 2 kg, were incrementally stocked over a 3 year period at rates between 14 and 218 kg. ha in two small lakes. Preferential consumption of plants was recorded at low stocking densities; the aquatic species Potamogeton ochreatus and the emergent species Eleocharis sphacelata were the most palatable

C. P. Mitchell



Expression of grass carp growth hormone by baculovirus in silkworm larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of five recombinant Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (BMNPV) carrying the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) cDNA were constructed in this study. Two of them were able to express the hormone up to a level of 12 ?g\\/ml medium when cultured B. mori cells were infected for 4 days. Inoculation of the viruses into silkworm (B.

W. K. K. Ho; Z. Q. Meng; H. R. Lin; C. T. Poon; Y. K. Leung; K. T. Yan; N. Dias; A. P. K. Che; J. Liu; W. M. Zheng; Y. Sun; A. O. L. Wong



Reproduction of Carp, Smallmouth Buffalo, and River Carpsucker in Elephant Butte Lake.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to control smallmouth buffalo, river carpsucker, and carp by commercial harvest, the three species must be managed as a group. A decline in one population allows an increase in another, because the habitat becomes more suitable as interspecific c...

R. Padilla



The Diel Activity of Crucian Carp, Carassius Carassius, in Relation to Chemical Cues from Predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical cues from piscivorous fish and prey alarm substances often cause rapid fright responses in prey. However little is known of how piscivore-related chemical cues affect prey behaviour over periods longer than a few hours. Here we have investigated how chemical cues from piscivorous northern pike, Esox lucius, affect habitat choice and diel activity of crucian carp, Carassius carassius, over

Lars B. Pettersson; Kent Andersson; Kristian Nilsson



Nutritional Composition and Use of Common Carp Muscle in Yellow Perch Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

High market demand for marine fish meals coupled with increasing costs and questionable sustainability of wild stocks have led researchers to investigate a variety of alternative plant and animal protein sources for aquaculture feeds. Our objective was to evaluate the use of common carp Cyprinus carpio, a locally abundant, nonnative fish species, to offset the cost of marine fish meal

Travis W. Schaeffer; Matthew J. Hennen; Michael L. Brown; Kurt A. Rosentrater



Artificial Neural Network for Production of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Bighead Carp Muscles with Alcalase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Controlled enzymatic modification proteins are currently being used as good sources of bioactive protein ingredients, and hydrolysates derived from bighead carp muscles may serve as antioxidants through the control of the processing-related parameters. The antiox- idant ability was evaluated with regard to the scavenging effect on free radical DPPH·, OH· and O2 ·- . Due to the robustness, fault

Lin Li; Jinshui Wang; Mouming Zhao; Chun Cui; Yueming Jiang


Effect of Different Feed Ingredients on the Growth of Caged Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know the effect of four different fish feed, nine months old common carp about 47 g size were stocked at the stocking density of 12 fish m -3 in the cages and cultured in Lake Phewa for 175 days. Four different feed ingredients used were fish meal + soybean + oil cake + rice bran + wheat flour, fish

Ash K Rai; Jaya D Bista



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accumulation of a pollutant by fish depends on a number of factors. The exposure pathways are critical as are the properties of the chemical and the life habits of the fish. All of these factors appeared to affect how carp accumulate APEs in this study. Alkylphenols are ranked as moderately bioa...


Characterization of a pattern recognition molecule vitellogenin from carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pattern recognition proteins function in innate immune responses by binding to molecules on the surface of invading pathogens and initiating host defense reactions. To explore the role of vitellogenin (Vg) in fish innate immunity, we purified Vg from Carp by gel filtration combined with diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) chromatography. The purified Vg was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antibacterial activity analysis showed

Qing-Hui Liu; Shi-Cui Zhang; Zhao-Jie Li; Chun-Ren Gao



The ramification pattern of amacrine cells within the inner plexiform layer of the carp retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology of amacrine cells in the retina of the carp is described using the Golgi technique. The ramification pattern of these cells was analyzed in flat-mounts of retinas. Based on these observations classification into five groups was made. Cells possessing one principal process leaving the soma were subdivided into starburst A-neurons and radiate neurons. Cells having two or more

Josef Ammermiiller; Reto Weiler



Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QOâ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

M. S. Prasad



Ultrastructural features of the egg envelope of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis We investigated the ultrastructure of the egg membrane surface (unfertilized egg) of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix using scanning electron microscopy. The eggs of silver carp like most other teleosts are surrounded by a relatively thick egg membrane, and have a type III micropyle at the animal pole. The micropyle is almost circular in shape and the micropyle canal is located in

Hamid Reza Esmaeili; Mohinder Singh Johal



Heritability estimation of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) harvest traits using microsatellite based parentage assignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp accounts for the largest biomass production of any finfish aquaculture species in the world. In spite of its great importance as an aquacultural species, very little is known about the genetic parameters of its commercially important traits. As an initial step towards developing a selective breeding programme, heritability of harvest weight and length was estimated for a silver

Almas A. Gheyas; John A. Woolliams; John B. Taggart; Mohammed A. Sattar; Topan K. Das; Brendan J. McAndrew; David J. Penman



Phytoplankton Preferences of Young Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, in Hypereutrophic Mesocosms during a Warm Season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of age-1 silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.), on phytoplankton species in a shallow hypereutrophic lake was studied in enclosures from 22 May to 18 September, 1997. Over the experimental period, the filter-pore sizes of the fish and the total biomass of the phytoplankton in each enclosure changed little with time. The fish biomass in each enclosure increased

Baik-Ho Kim; Min-Ku Choi; Noriko Takamura



Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes.

Fu, Beide; He, Shunping



Predation on Zebra Mussels ('Dreissena polymorpha') by Common Carp ('Cyprinus carpio'). Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). They found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin D. W. Soergel C. H. Theiling



Reactive oxygen species uncouple external horizontal cells in the carp retina and glutathione couples them again  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of free radicals on the electrical gap junctions between horizontal cells in the carp retina. In our previous study, l-buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, caused uncoupling of horizontal cells four days after injection. In the present study, we have used paraquat, a generator of exogenous reactive oxygen species, to investigate whether it was

Z. Y Zhou; K Sugawara; R Hashi; K Muramoto; K Mawatari; T Matsukawa; Z. W Liu; M Devadas; S Kato




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Federal, state, and university personnel played key roles in the establishment of the grass carp (GC) in the United States. Researchers at the USFWS laboratory, Stuttgart, Arkansas and Auburn University (AU), Alabama imported GC from Asia in 1963 and spawned them in 1966. Biologists with the Arkan...


Effectiveness of Three Barrier Types for Confining Grass Carp in Embayments of Lake Seminole, Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of barriers were evaluated in Lake Seminole (13,158 ha) to determine the success of confining triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in two embayments (250 and 350 ha) that were almost entirely covered with submersed macrophytes. In 1995, two different physical barriers that permitted boat passage were constructed. One had tandem V-shaped weirs placed at the entrance of a

Michael J. Maceina; Jeffery W. Slipke; John M. Grizzle



First feeding of common carp larvae on diets with high levels of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21 day feeding trial was carried out at 24 °C aiming to evaluate the effect of diets containing high levels of protein hydrolysates on growth, survival and body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., larvae since first feeding. Eight semipurified diets based on a fish protein hydrolysate (CPSP) with or without additional nitrogen sources, such as casein, casein

A. P. Carvalho; A.-M. Escaffre; A. Oliva Teles; P. Bergot



Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore  

SciTech Connect

The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

Prasad, M.S.



SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...


Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian



Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of cathepsin D from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase which participates in various degradation functions within the cell. In this current study, we cloned and characterized the complete cDNA of grass carp cathepsin D through 5'- and 3'-RACE. The cathepsin D contained a 56 bp 5' terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), a 1197 bp open reading frame encoding 398 amino acids, and a 394 bp 3'-UTR. Grass carp cathepsin D shared high similarity with those from other species, and showed the highest amino acid identity of 91% to Danio rerio. Unlike many other organisms, the grass carp cathepsin D contains only one N-glycosylation site closest to the N-terminal. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Cathepsin D expressed in all twelve tissues (bladder, brain, liver, heart, gill, muscle, fin, eye, intestines, spleen, gonad and head kidney). The relative expression levels of Cathepsin D in gonad and liver were 26.58 and 24.95 times as much as those in fin, respectively. The expression level of Cathepsin D in muscle approximately 16-fold higher, in intestines and spleen were 12-fold higher. The cathepsin D expression showed an upward trend during embryonic development. After challenged with Aeromonas hydrophil, the expression of grass carp cathepsin D gene showed significant changes in the four test tissues (liver, head kidney, spleen and intestines). The fact that the bacterial infection can obviously improve the cathepsin D expression in immune-related organs, may suggest that cathepsin D plays an important role in the innate immune response of grass carp. PMID:23009921

Dong, Zhong-dian; Zhang, Jiao; Ji, Xiang-shan; Zhou, Fen-na; Fu, Yong; Chen, Weiyun; Zeng, Yong-qing; Li, Tong-ming; Wang, Hui



Identification of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) microRNAs and microRNA-related SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exist pervasively across viruses, plants and animals and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. In the common carp, miRNA targets have not been investigated. In model species, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to impair or enhance miRNA regulation as well as to alter miRNA biogenesis. SNPs are often associated with diseases or traits. To date, no studies into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and regulation in the common carp have been reported. Results Using homology-based prediction combined with small RNA sequencing, we have identified 113 common carp mature miRNAs, including 92 conserved miRNAs and 21 common carp specific miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs had significantly higher expression levels than the specific miRNAs. The miRNAs were clustered into three phylogenetic groups. Totally 394 potential miRNA binding sites in 206 target mRNAs were predicted for 83 miRNAs. We identified 13 SNPs in the miRNA precursors. Among them, nine SNPs had the potential to either increase or decrease the energy of the predicted secondary structures of the precursors. Further, two SNPs in the 3’ untranslated regions of target genes were predicted to either disturb or create miRNA-target interactions. Conclusions The common carp miRNAs and their target genes reported here will help further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in gene regulation. The analysis of the miRNA-related SNPs and their effects provided insights into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and function. The resource data generated in this study will help advance the study of miRNA function and phenotype-associated miRNA identification.



The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.  


The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming



Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range managemen...



Floodplain Wetlands as Nurseries for Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix: A Conceptual Model for Use in Managing Local Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study summarizes recent observations of silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix, in small wetlands of the Lower Mississippi River and suggests management actions for their control based on wetland hydrology and pattern of fish movements.

C. E. Murphy J. J. Hoover K. A. Varble K. J. Killgore S. G. George



Population genetic structure of three major river Populations of rohu, Labeo rohita (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) using microsatellite DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the genetic structure is essential for developing conservation and stock improvement plans. Four dinucleotide\\u000a microsatellite loci were analysed to reveal population genetic structure of the Indian major carp,Labeo rohita collected from three major rivers namely the Halda, the Jamuna, and the Padma in Bangladesh. The four loci were polymorphic\\u000a (P\\u000a 95) in all the populations. The populations varied in

Marya Jahan



Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate for the Control of Experimentally Induced Infestations of Argulus sp. in Goldfish and Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet\\/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24–25°C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number

Shari K. Hanson; Jeffrey E. Hill; Craig A. Watson; Roy P. E. Yanong; Richard Endris



Hexavalent chromium: Toxicity and impact on carbohydrate metabolism and haematological parameters of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) from Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hexavalent chromium on the carp,Cyprinus carpio was assessed using static bioassay. The 96h LC50 was found to be 93.6mg · l-1. In carp exposed to sublethal concentrations of chromium (15 and 25 mg · l-1), significant depletion of liver and muscle glycogen and decreasing leucocyte counts were recorded during prolonged exposure and with increasing concentration of chromium.

A. S. Al-Akel; M. J. K. Shamsi



Isolation and partial characterization of pepsin-soluble collagen from the skin of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pepsin-soluble collagen was extracted from the skin of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with a yield of 46.6%, on a dry weight basis. Electrophoretic patterns showed that the collagen contained ?1 and ?2 chains, similar to those of calf skin collagen. The imino acid content of the collagen from grass carp skin was much lower than those of mammalian’s collagens, as

Yan Zhang; Wentao Liu; Guoying Li; Bi Shi; Yuqing Miao; Xiaohua Wu



Differential expression of two Carassius auratus Mx genes in cultured CAB cells induced by grass carp hemorrhage virus and interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

UV-inactivated GCHV (grass carp hemorrhage virus) is able to induce an antiviral state in cultured CAB cells (crucian carp Carassius auratus blastulae embryonic cells) via the production of interferon (IFN). In the current work, the full-length cDNAs of two Mx genes, termed CaMx1 and CaMx2, have been cloned and sequenced from UV-inactivated GCHV-infected and still IFN-producing CAB cells by suppression

Yi-Bing Zhang; Qiong Li; Jian-Fang Gui



Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velí‰ek J., Z. Svobodová: Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 247-252. The aim of the present study was to assess acute toxicity of the 2-phenoxyethanol anaesthetic in carp, and assess changes in their tissues using the biochemical blood profiles. Acute toxicity values of 2-phenoxyethanol




Effects of 2Phenoxyethanol Anaesthesia on Haematological Profi le on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velíšek J., Z. Svobodová, V. Pia?ková: Effects of 2-Phenoxyethanol Anaesthesia on Haematological Profi le on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: 487-492. The aim of this study was to assess changes in haematological profi le of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after the exposure to anaesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol. The




First Karyological Analysis of an Endemic Fish, Isfahan Tooth-carp, Aphanius isfahanensis (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontidae) from Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Esmaeili, H.R., Ebrahimi, M., Teimory, A. and Ansary, T.H. 2008. First karyological analysis of an endemic fish, Isfahan tooth-carp, Aphanius isfahanensis (actinopterygii: cyprinodontidae) from Iran. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 73–76.The karyotype of Isfahan tooth-carp, Aphanius isfahanensis has been investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes spreads obtained from gill epithelial and kidney cells. The diploid chromosome number of this species was 2n=48.

H. R. Esmaeili; M. Ebrahimi; A. Teimory; T. H. Ansary



Changes in lipids, proteins and kamaboko forming ability of silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) mince during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frozen storage of mechanically deboned silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) mince for 180 days resulted in a significant (P?0.05) decrease in myofibrillar proteins. In contrast, peroxide value (PV), free fatty acids (FFA) and total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN) contents increased significantly (P? 0.05) throughout the storage period. The kamaboko forming ability and the sensory scores of the silver carp mince decreased

D Siddaiah; G. Vidya Sagar Reddy; C. V Raju; T. C Chandrasekhar



The Relationship between Electric Impedance and Quality Parameters of Ungutted and Gutted Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Stored at 4°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the relationship between electric conductivity and quality parameters of common carp during storage, the electric impedances in the frequencies ranging from 1 to 20 kHz, total viable count (TVC), total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and K values of gutted and ungutted common carp were determined during 4°C storage. The result showed that the change ratio of

Wei Lu; Sumei Hu; Yongkang Luo; Hang Wang; Huixing Shen



Survival of F2 Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Containing pRSVrtGH1 Complementary DNA When Subjected to Low Dissolved Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract The survival and tolerance of F2 transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) containing pRSVrtGH1 complementary DNA\\u000a were compared with nontransgenic (control) common carp when subjected to low dissolved oxygen. The tolerance of low oxygen\\u000a was evaluated in 8 families of common carp in rectangular tanks (3 ? 1 ? 1 m). The absolute mean percentage of survival of\\u000a transgenic common

Rex A. Dunham; Nagaraj Chatakondi; Amy Nichols; Thomas T. Chen; D. A. Powers; Huseyin Kucuktas



Antagonists of Anaphase-promoting Complex (APC)-2-Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 Interaction Are Novel Regulators of Cell Growth and Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

CARP-1/CCAR1, a perinuclear phosphoprotein, is a regulator of cell growth and apoptosis signaling. Although CARP-1 is a regulator of chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis, it is also a part of the NF-?B proteome and a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors as well as ?-catenin signaling. Our yeast two-hybrid screen revealed CARP-1 binding with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome E3 ubiquitin ligase component APC-2 protein. CARP-1 also binds with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1. Following mapping of the minimal epitopes involved in CARP-1 binding with APC-2, a fluorescence polarization assay was established that indicated a dissociation constant (Kd) of 480 nm for CARP-1/APC-2 binding. Fluorescence polarization assay-based high throughput screening of a chemical library yielded several small molecule antagonists of CARP-1/APC-2 binding, termed CARP-1 functional mimetics. CFM-4 (1(2-chlorobenzyl)-5?-phenyl-3?H-spiro[indoline-3,2?-[1,3,4]thiadiazol]-2-one), a lead compound, binds with and stimulates CARP-1 expression. CFM-4 prevents CARP-1 binding with APC-2, causes G2M cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis with an IC50 range of 10–15 ?m. Apoptosis signaling by CFM-4 involves activation of caspase-8 and -9 and caspase-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-independent loss of cyclin B1 and Cdc20 proteins. Depletion of CARP-1, however, interferes with CFM-4-dependent cell growth inhibition, activation of caspases, and apoptosis. Because CFM-4 also suppresses growth of drug-resistant human breast cancer cells without affecting the growth of human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells, elevating CARP-1 by CFM-4 and consequent apoptosis could in principle be exploited to further elucidate, and perhaps effectively target, often deregulated cell cycle pathways in pathological conditions, including cancer.

Puliyappadamba, Vineshkumar Thidil; Wu, Wenjuan; Bevis, Debra; Zhang, Liyue; Polin, Lisa; Kilkuskie, Robert; Finley, Russell L.; Larsen, Scott D.; Levi, Edi; Miller, Fred R.; Wali, Anil; Rishi, Arun K.



Major Programs

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.


Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.  


In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu



Surface ultrastructure of the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae of the catfish, Rita rita, and the carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.  


Surface ultrastructures of gill filaments and secondary lamellae of Rita rita and Cirrhinus mrigala, inhabiting different ecological habitat, were investigated to unravel adaptive modifications. R. rita is a sluggish, bottom dwelling carnivorous catfish, which inhabits regions of river with accumulations of dirty water. It retains its viability for long time if taken out of water. C. mrigala is an active bottom dwelling Indian major carp, which lives in relatively clean water and dies shortly after taken out of water. In R. rita, gill septa between gill filaments are reduced. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are often continuous and arranged concentrically. Secondary lamellae are extensive. The epithelium appears corrugated, show irregular elevations and shallow depressions, and microridges on epithelial cells appear fragmented. In C. mrigala, in contrast, the gill septa are extensive. Microridges on epithelial cells covering gill filaments are fragmented. Secondary lamellae are less extensive. The epithelium appears smooth and microridges on epithelial cells are relatively inconspicuous. These differences have been considered adaptive modification in relation to habit and ecological niches inhabited by two fish species. Presence of mucous goblet cells on gill filaments is discussed in relation to their functions including precipitation of the sediments and preventing clogging of gill filaments. Infrequent mucous goblet cells in the epithelium of secondary lamellae in two fish species are considered an adaptation, minimizing thickness of the epithelium to reduce barrier between blood and water for favoring gasses exchange with increased efficiency. PMID:21956840

Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar



Population genetics and management units of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia.  


Common carp Cyprinus carpio were introduced into Australia on several occasions and are now the dominant fish in the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), the continent's largest river system. In this study, variability at 14 microsatellite loci was examined in C. carpio (n = 1037) from 34 sites throughout the major rivers in the MDB, from 3 cultured populations, from Prospect Reservoir in the Sydney Basin and from Lake Sorrell in Tasmania. Consistent with previous studies, assignment testing indicated that the Boolara, Yanco and koi strains of C. carpio are present in the MDB. Unique to this study, however, the Prospect strain was widely distributed throughout the MDB. Significant genetic structuring of populations (Fisher's exact test, AMOVA and distribution of the different strains) amongst the MDB sub-drainages was detected, and was strongly associated with contemporary barriers to dispersal and population history. The distributions of the strains were used to infer the history of introduction and spread of C. carpio in the MDB. Fifteen management units are proposed for control programmes that have high levels of genetic diversity, contain multiple interbreeding strains and show no evidence of founder effects or recent population bottlenecks. PMID:20738540

Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Nicholas, F W



Detrimental Effects of Metronidazole on the Liver of Freshwater Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The widely used antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) was investigated for its toxic effects on the liver of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg/L MTZ in water for 30 days, and parameters that are indicative of liver damage and oxidative stress were measured. MTZ increased liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels, and elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. These parameters usually showed significant differences in the 0.5 and 2.5 mg/L MTZ groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). These findings indicated that MTZ induced oxidative stress and caused liver damage in common carp, suggesting that measures should be taken to avoid contamination of surface waters with MTZ. PMID:23884169

Han, Junyan; Cai, Huixin; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guangchun



Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market  

PubMed Central

While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

Hart, Vlastimil; Kusta, Tomas; Nemec, Pavel; Blahova, Veronika; Jezek, Milos; Novakova, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimir; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stipek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek



Screening and characterization of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from cultured common carp intestine.  


Screening of potential probiotic LAB for aquaculture from adult common carp intestine was performed seasonally. Lactococcus lactis h2 and Lactococcus raffinolactis h47, which show cholic acid resistance and strong antibacterial activity against fish pathogens, were selected from predominant LAB in summer and winter respectively. Enterococcus pseudoavium h50, with the strongest antimicrobial activity among the strains isolated through 1 year, was also selected. Streptococcus iniae I1, with strong antimicrobial activity, was selected from predominant LAB in young common carp intestine. Direct screening of LAB with cholic acid resistance was also carried out seasonally. The antibacterial activity of the isolates was tested, and Lactobacillus fuchuensis K11 was selected from the summer isolates. In addition, five candidate strains were selected from the winter samples. The candidates' levels of cholic acid resistance and antibacterial activity were better than or at the least matched those of their corresponding type strains. All the candidates grew over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:19584561

Hagi, Tatsuro; Hoshino, Takayuki



Endocrine effects of sublethal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) samples were collected from five selected sites that represent diverse levels of downgraded persistent organic pollutants (POPs) contamination in Ya-Er Lake in October 1999. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activities, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic retinoids, serum thyroid hormones were measured. It was found that hepatic retinol and serum free 3,5,3'- tetraiodothyronine (FT3) significantly increased (P < 0.01) when both hepatic EROD and UDPGT activities significantly declined (P < 0.01) from pond 1 to 5 with decrease in the degree of pollution. This significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) suggests that the persistent organochlorinated contaminants could induce hepatic EROD and UDPGT activities, alter retinoid and thyroid hormone homeostasis, and finally lead to the reduction of retinol and FT3, the two biologically active forms of retinoids and thyroid hormone in silver carp of Ya-Er Lake. PMID:12442791

Xu, Y; Zhang, J; Li, W; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A



Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng



Experiments on the Effects of the Herbivorous Fish, Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) on Aquatic Vascular Plants, Algae, Zooplankton and Phytoplankton and the Importance of Water Temperature on the Success of Weed Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Cladophora sp. as a food for grass carp; The effects on Elodea sp. of cutting it in early spring and then stocking with grass carp; The effect of different spring temperatures on grass carp feeding on Elodea sp.; Zooplankton and phytoplankton po...

M. C. Fowler



Influence of recooking on volatile and non-volatile compounds found in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile and non-volatile compounds, which contribute to flavor in raw fish, were compared in raw, cooked and recooked silver\\u000a carp. In total, 20, 34 and 34 volatile compounds, including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds,\\u000a were identified in raw, cooked and recooked samples, respectively. Cooking the samples resulted in a significant increase\\u000a in volatile compounds and the formation of

Jing-Ke Liu; Si-Ming Zhao; Shan-Bai Xiong; Sheng-Hua Zhang



Qualitative and quantitative strategies of thermal adaptation of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malate dehydrogenase isozymes of grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella, were identified by mitochondrial preparation and thermal denaturation. The structural and kinetic characteristics of chromatographically separated thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs were different in (1) half-life at 42°C, 10 min and 24 h, respectively, (2) optimal substrate, oxaloacetate and malate, concentrations, and (3) the apparent Michaelis-Menten constants of NADH and oxaloacetate.

Jen-jen Lin; Shirley MacLeod; Ching-ming Kuo



The Acute Toxicity of Praziquantel to Grass Carp and Golden Shiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and highest nonlethal concentration of praziquantel (LC0) were determined in the laboratory for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, two cyprinids known to harbor the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with tapeworms. The 24-h and 96-h LC50 values were 55.1 and 49.7 mg\\/L for golden shiners (1.3

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs



Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki



Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding\\u000a of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements\\u000a in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes\\u000a (?\\u000a 15N, ?\\u000a 13C).

D. L. Rogowski; D. J. Soucek; J. M. Levengood; S. R. Johnson; J. H. Chick; J. M. Dettmers; M. A. Pegg; J. M. Epifanio



Survival and Growth of Bighead Carp Fry Exposed to Low Salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis Oshima) fry of various ages (11, 18, and 35 days post-hatch) were exposed to the low salinities encountered during the annual intrusion of seawater in Laguna Lake, Philippines. Practical indices of salinity tolerance assessed the effect of a 96 h direct exposure to low salinities (0–16‰). Mean (MST) and median survival times (MST50) of fry decreased

L. M. B. Garcia; C. M. H. Garcia; A. F. S. Pineda; E. A. Gammad; J. Canta; S. P. D. Simon; G. V. Hilomen-Garcia; A. C. Gonzal; C. B. Santiago



Evaluation of sugarcane by-product pressmud as a manure in carp culture.  


The effectiveness of pressmud, a sugarcane by-product, was tested as a manure in the production of natural food and carp, by conducting two experiments. The first experiment, of 5 weeks duration, examined the effect of pressmud addition on water quality and natural food production. This study was carried out in fibreglass tubs (1.54 m3) with a 5 cm mud layer, employing pressmud at dosages of 5000, 10,000 and 15,000 kg ha(-1) for treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Unfertilized tubs served as control (T0). The second experiment of 120-day duration to study the effect on growth, survival and quality of common carp was conducted in 25 m2 cement tanks with 15 cm-mud bottom, using the same dosages of pressmud. The control tanks in this experiment were manured with cattle dung at 10,000 kg ha(-1) (T0). Application of pressmud enhanced (P < 0.05) natural food production, with the greatest effect noted in treatment T3. Fish growth was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in treatments T2 and T3, there being no difference in growth between the control (T0) and 5000 kg pressmud treatment (T1). The greatest survival and production were obtained under treatment T2, which indicates that the dosage of 10,000 kg ha(-1) pressmud is optimal for carp culture. A significant effect (P < 0.05) of pressmud on carcass protein was observed. Organoleptic quality of both raw flesh and cooked meat of carp was not affected (P > 0.05) by pressmud treatment. PMID:16459356

Keshavanath, P; Shivanna; Gangadhara, B



Evaluation of sugarcane by-product pressmud as a manure in carp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of pressmud, a sugarcane by-product, was tested as a manure in the production of natural food and carp, by conducting two experiments. The first experiment, of 5 weeks duration, examined the effect of pressmud addition on water quality and natural food production. This study was carried out in fibreglass tubs (1.54m3) with a 5cm mud layer, employing pressmud

P. Keshavanath; Shivanna; B. Gangadhara



Characterization of oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


The oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) is located on the brush-border membrane of the intestinal epithelium, and plays an important role in dipeptide and tripeptide absorptions from protein digestion. In this study, we cloned the PepT1 cDNA from grass carp and characterized its expression profile in response to dietary protein and feed additives (sodium butyrate) treatments. The PepT1 gene encodes a protein of 714 amino acids with high sequence similarity with other vertebrate homologues. Expression analysis revealed highest levels of PepT1 mRNA expression in the foregut of grass carp. In addition, PepT1 mRNA expression exhibited diurnal variation in all three bowel segments of intestine with lower levels of expression in daytime than nighttime. During embryonic development, PepT1 showed a dynamic pattern of expression reaching maximal levels of expression in the gastrula stage and minimal levels in the organ stage. The PepT1 expression showed constant levels from 14 to 34 day post-hatch. To determine whether fish diet of different protein contents may have any effect on PepT1 expression, we extended our research to dietary regulation of PepT1 expression. We found that dietary protein levels had a significant effect on PepT1 gene expression. In addition, PepT1 mRNA levels were higher after feeding with fish meal than with soybean meal. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo sodium butyrate treatments increased PepT1 expression in the intestine of grass carp. The results demonstrate for the first time that PepT1 mRNA expression is regulated in a temporal and spatial pattern during development, and dietary protein and feed additives had a significant effects on PepT1 gene expression in grass carp. PMID:23219926

Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Junchang; Lu, Shuangqing; Zhao, Qiong; Zhang, Jianshe



Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin



Coexistence of diploid, triploid and tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus) in natural waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Crucian carp (abbreviated CC) belongs to the genus of Carassius within the family of Cyprinidae. It has been one of the most important freshwater species for Chinese aquaculture and is especially abundant in the Dongting water system of Hunan province. CC used to be considered as all diploid forms. However, coexistence of diploid (abbreviated 2nCC), triploid (abbreviated 3nCC) and

Jun Xiao; Tuomi Zou; Yubao Chen; Lin Chen; Shaojun Liu; Min Tao; Chun Zhang; Rurong Zhao; Yi Zhou; Yu Long; Cuiping You; Jinpeng Yan; Yun Liu



Effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of silver carp during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of silver carp during frozen storage were investigated. Fish samples were treated with aqueous solution of 2% chitosan, and then stored at ?3°C for 30 days. The control and the treated fish samples were analyzed periodically for microbiological (total viable count), chemical (pH, TBA, TVB-N, K-value), and sensory characteristics. The

Wenjiao Fan; Junxiu Sun; Yunchuan Chen; Jian Qiu; Yan Zhang; Yuanlong Chi



Optimization of gelatine extraction from grass carp ( Catenopharyngodon idella) fish skin by response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish the optimum gelatine extraction conditions from grass carp fish skin, response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted in this study. The effects of concentration of HCl (%, A), pre-treatment time (h, B), extraction temperature (°C, C) and extraction time (h, D) were studied. The responses were yield (%) and gel strength (g). A=1.19%, B=24h, C=52.61°C and D=5.12h were determined

Ladislaus M. Kasankala; Yan Xue; Yao Weilong; Sun D. Hong; Qian He



Toxic effects of grass carp, snake and chicken bile juices in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the toxic effects of different animal bile juices, male Long-Evans rats were used and treated orally with different doses (0.03–0.6 ml) of grass carp, snake and chicken bile juices. After treating with one high dose (0.6 ml) for 6 and 24 h, the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea

Deng-Fwu Hwang; Yi-Show Lai; Meng-Tsan Chiang



Fish cell lines: Establishment and characterization of three new cell lines from grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Three new cell lines were established from tissues of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. Derived from the fin, snout, and swim bladder of two apparently healthy diploid fry, these cell lines have been designated\\u000a GCF, GCS-2, and GCSB, respectively. The cells grew at temperatures between 24° and 36° C with optimal growth at 32° C and\\u000a have been subcultured more than

Yuanan Lu; C. N. Lannan; J. S. Rohovec; J. L. Fryer



3D reconstruction and capsid protein characterization of grass carp reovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a relatively new virus first isolated in China and is a member of the Aquareovirus genus of the Reoviridae family. Recent report of genomic sequencing showed that GCRV shared high degree of homology with mammalian reovirus (MRV).\\u000a As a step of our effort to understand the structural basis of GCRV pathogenesis, we determined the three-dimensional

Qin Fang; Sanket Shah; Yuyao Liang; H. Z. Zhou



Grass Carp: Effects of Salinity on Survival, Weight Loss, and Muscle Tissue Water Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerling grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 100-120 mm total length, were exposed to various hypotonic and hypertonic waters to determine tolerance, body weight loss, and muscle tissue water content. After acclimation at 8.0‰, LD50's for 24, 48, and 96 h were of 15.7, 15.1, and 15.1‰ salinity, respectively. No mortalities occurred in fish exposed at 14.0‰ for 96 h; at 12.0

Michael J. Maceina; Jerome V. Shireman



Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions\\u000a are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies\\u000a of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management

Mark B. Bain



Effect of Triploid Grass Carp on the Aquatic Macrophyte Community of Devils Lake, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years after slocking 274-hectare Devils Lake, Oregon, with 27,090 triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (180 fish\\/vegetated hectare, 6.1 fish\\/tonne wet vegetation), the total volume of vegetation declined by 30%, whereas the total vegetation biomass increased, primarily from the expansion of short, compact communities of Brazilian waterweed Egeria densa. Com- parison of the open lake with areas protected by net




Placing the North American invasion of Asian carp in a spatially explicit context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead (Hypothalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) have invaded much of the Mississippi River. It is unclear how reproduction in northern impounded pools of the Upper Mississippi\\u000a River System (UMRS) compares to unimpounded (open) southern reaches. During spring through summer 2005 and 2006 and once in\\u000a spring 2007, we quantified larval and juvenile production in the pooled and

Adam M. Lohmeyer; James E. Garvey



Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Concentrates of Carp Oil: Chemical Hydrolysis and Urea Complexation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to compare three treatments in the chemical hydrolysis reaction of bleached oil from carp (Cyprinus carpio) heads and to obtain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates by urea complexation. The three treatments were carried out\\u000a with different oil:ethanol molar ratios. In the treatment with a 1:39 molar ratio, a higher yield of free fatty acids was

Valéria T. Crexi; Micheli L. Monte; Maurício L. Monte; Luiz A. A. Pinto


Challenging fear: chemical alarm signals are not causing morphology changes in crucian carp ( Carassius carassius )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crucian carp develops a deep body in the presence of chemical cues from predators, which makes the fish less vulnerable to\\u000a gape-limited predators. The active components originate in conspecifics eaten by predators, and are found in the filtrate\\u000a of homogenised conspecific skin. Chemical alarm signals, causing fright reactions, have been the suspected inducers of such\\u000a morphological changes. We improved the

Ole B. Stabell; Anna C. Faeravaag; Arvo Tuvikene



Hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, following herbal treatment for Aeromonas hydrophila infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp, Cyprinus carpio was injected 108 cfu\\/ml with a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila. After inoculation, the disease signs began on the 7th day as a haemorrhagic spot at the site of injection and the lesion subsequently progressed in size. After this period, the mortality of infected group was 10±5% daily; hence, they were dip treated

R Harikrishnan; M Nisha Rani; C Balasundaram



Endocrine effects of sublethal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) samples were collected from five selected sites that represent diverse levels of downgraded persistent organic pollutants (POPs) contamination in Ya-Er Lake in October 1999. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activities, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic retinoids, serum thyroid hormones were measured. It was found that hepatic retinol and serum free 3,5,3?- tetraiodothyronine (FT3) significantly increased

Y. Xu; J. Zhang; W. Li; K.-W. Schramm; A. Kettrup



Long-term potentiation and olfactory memory formation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) olfactory bulb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission is considered to be an elementary process underlying the cellular mechanism of memory formation. In the present study we aimed to examine whether or not the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses in the carp olfactory bulb show plastic changes after their repeated activation. It was found that: (1) the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses showed three types

M. Satou; S. Anzai; M. Huruno



Convective Drying Kinetics and Physical Properties of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate drying kinetics of silver carp fillets at the temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70°C for two air velocities (0.5 and 1.5 m\\/s) and to evaluate the effect of drying temperature on the physical properties of the products. From regression analysis of the experimental data, a Two-term model was found to adequately

Yingqiang Wang; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar



Absence of tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity in carp tissues.  


We have previously reported that carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue mitochondria contain a novel form of monoamine oxidase (MAO), which belongs neither to MAO-A nor to MAO-B of the mammalian enzyme. This conclusion results from the findings that the carp MAO was equally sensitive to a selective MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline and to the MAO-B selective inhibitor l-deprenyl, when tyramine, a substrate for both forms, serotonin or beta-phenylethylamine, a substrate for either A or B-form of mammalian MAO, was used. In the present study, we tried to detect another amine oxidase, termed tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), activity in carp tissues. As definition of SSAO was used, such as insensitivity to inhibition of the kynuramine oxidizing activity by an MAO inhibitor pargyline and high sensitivity to the SSAO inhibitor semicarbazide. The results indicated that the oxidizing activity was selectively and almost completely inhibited by 0.1 mM pargyline alone or a combination of 0.1 mM pargyline plus 0.1 mM semicarbazide, but not by 0.1 mM semicarbazide alone. We also tried to detect any SSAO activity by changing experimental conditions, such as lower incubation temperature, higher enzyme protein concentration, a lower substrate concentration and different pH's in the reaction, as the enzyme source. However, still no SSAO activity could be detected in the tissues. These results conclusively indicate that carp tissues so far examined do not contain SSAO activity. PMID:17215008

Takahashi, Kazuya; Kakuta, Izuru; Sugimoto, Haruyo; Obata, Toshio; Oreland, Lars; Kinemuchi, Hiroyasu



Utilization of grass carp faeces by the Isopod Asellus aquaticus (L.) in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val) faecal pellets derived fromElodea nutallii consumption were efficiently utilized by the detritivoreAsellus. Immature and adult individuals of 2.1–3.2 mm and 4.9–6.0 mm respectively, exhibited a high mean specific growth (9.03%\\/day and 3.33%\\/day) when offered faecal pellets as food during two weeks experimental trials. Individuals of the same groups, when fed onElodea which had been mechanically

D. Petridis



The feedforward component in depolarizing red responses of R\\/G horizontal cells in carp retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light responses of R0G chromaticity-type horizontal cells (R0G HCs) and luminosity-type horizontal cells (LHCs) were intracellularly recorded in isolated superfused carp retina, and the response dynamics analyzed. The results revealed that (1) No significant difference in delay was detected between R0G HC red and green responses; (2) The rising speed was quicker for R0G HC depolarizing red responses compared to




Cloning and expression of carp acetylcholinesterase gene in Pichia pastoris and characterization of the recombinant enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was cloned from common carp muscle tissue. The full-length cDNA was 2368bp that contains a coding region of 1902bp, corresponding to a protein of 634 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a significant homology with those of ichthyic AChEs and several common features among them, including T peptide encoded by exon T in

Ryohei Sato; Toru Matsumoto; Norio Hidaka; Yasuko Imai; Katsumasa Abe; Shouji Takahashi; Ryo-hei Yamada; Yoshio Kera



Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio (L.))  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological response of common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) to increased stocking density and an additional acute net confinement stressor was investigated. Stocking densities were increased from 28.4 to 56.8 or 113.6 kg m¿3 by the use of crowding screens and fish were sampled from the crowded groups after 15, 39 and 87 hours of crowding (hc). A transient elevation

N. M. Ruane; E. C. Carballo; J. Komen



Recovery from nitrite-induced methaemoglobinaemia and potassium balance disturbances in carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

s  The ability of carp to recover from nitrite-induced methaemoglobinaemia and disturbances in potassium balance and cell volume\\u000a was studiedin vivo andin vitro. Nitrite accumulated to a plasma concentration of 3 mM during 2 days of nitrite exposure was eliminated from the plasma within\\u000a 2–3 days in clean water. The nitrite-induced methaemoglobinaemia disappeared after 3 days of recovery. During nitrite exposure,

P. K. Knudsen; F. B. Jensen



Isolation and sequence analysis of Sox genes in the red crucian carp ( Carassius carassius , red variety)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sox genes encode a family of transcription factors, which are characterized by the conserved HMG domain and are involved in a\\u000a diverse range of developmental processes. Using degenerate primer PCR, seven different sequences encoding the HMG domains\\u000a of Sox1, Sox9 and Sox11b were cloned and sequenced from genomic DNA in the red crucian carp (Carassius carassius, red variety). In the

J. Zheng; L. Long; J. Hu; J. Zhou; D. Wu



Functional Enzymes Activity and Gill Histology of Carp after Copper Sulfate Exposure and Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper sulfate is one of the most widely used algicides for the control of phytoplankton in lakes, reservoirs, and ponds. It is also used for aquatic weed control. To study the toxic effects of copper on carp (Cyprinus carpioL.), toxicity tests were carried out. Fish recovery in copper-free water was followed. After a 14-day period of exposure to five concentrations

V. Karan; S. Vitorovi?; V. Tutundži?; V. Poleksi?



Catecholamine and volume-dependent ion fluxes in carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) red blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In carp erythrocytes, noradrenaline (10-6 mol·l-1) induces a 30- to 40-fold activation of Na+\\/H+ exchange (the ethylisopropylamiloride-inhibited component of the 22Na influx) and a fourfold stimulation of the Na+, K+ pump (ouabain-inhibited component of 86Rb influx). In both cases the effect of noradrenaline is blocked by propranolol but not phentolamine and is imitated by forskolin. An activator of protein kinase

S. N. Orlov; G. A. Skryabin



Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 years, this would last some 15-30 years. Nowadays experimental fishes are usually obtained from

J. Komen



Antioxidant and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant and biochemical properties of enzymatically hydrolyzed silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) protein were studied. The molecular weight of the main peaks of the hydrolysates by both Alcalase and Flavourzyme was lower than 5000Da. The hydrolysates treated by Alcalase for ?1.5h (hydrolysis time) showed that the relative proportion of <1000Da fraction was more than 60%. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis

Shiyuan Dong; Mingyong Zeng; Dongfeng Wang; Zunying Liu; Yuanhui Zhao; Huicheng Yang



Physical and chemical changes of silver carp sausages during fermentation with Pediococcus pentosaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in protein composition and physicochemical properties of silver carp sausages during fermentation were investigated. As fermentation progressed, the amount of salt-soluble and water-soluble proteins decreased gradually with a concomitant increase in insoluble proteins and non-protein constituents. The rapid reduction in pH to 4.5 within 48h of fermentation coincided with a progressive increase in titratable acidity. The increasing content of

Yanshun Xu; Wenshui Xia; Fang Yang; Xiaohua Nie



Signal transduction mechanisms for autocrine/paracrine regulation of somatolactin-? secretion and synthesis in carp pituitary cells by somatolactin-? and -?.  


Pituitary hormones can act locally via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms to modulate pituitary functions, which represents an interesting aspect of pituitary regulation other than the traditional hypothalamic input and feedback signals from the periphery. Somatolactin, a member of the growth hormone (GH)/prolactin (PL) family, is a pleiotropic hormone with diverse functions, but its pituitary actions are still unknown. Recently, two SL isoforms, SL? and SL?, have been cloned in grass carp. Based on the sequences obtained, recombinant proteins of carp SL? and SL? with similar bioactivity in inducing pigment aggregation in carp melanophores were produced. In carp pituitary cells, SL? secretion and cell content were elevated by static incubation with recombinant carp SL? and SL?, respectively. These stimulatory actions occurred with a parallel rise in SL? mRNA level with no changes in SL? secretion, cell content, and gene expression. In contrast, SL? mRNA expression could be reduced by removing endogenous SL? and SL? with immunoneutralization. At the pituitary cell level, SL? release, cell content, and mRNA expression induced by carp SL? and SL? could be blocked by inhibiting JAK2/STAT5, PI3K/Akt, MEK1/2, and p38 MAPK, respectively. Furthermore, SL? and SL? induction also triggered rapid phosphorylation of STAT5, Akt, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, MKK3/6, and p38 MAPK. These results suggest that 1) SL? and SL? produced locally in the carp pituitary can serve as novel autocrine/paracrine stimulators for SL? secretion and synthesis and 2) SL? production induced by local release of SL? and SL? probably are mediated by the JAK2/STAT5, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:23193053

Jiang, Quan; Wong, Anderson O L



Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.



Koi herpesvirus epizootic in cultured carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L., in Taiwan.  


Koi herpesvirus (KHV) poses a significant threat to cultured koi and common carp, both Cyprinus carpio L. Since the first reported case in Israel in 1998, KHV has rapidly spread worldwide. This study investigates the spread of KHV to Taiwan by collecting 49 cases of suspected common carp and koi infections from 2003 to 2005 for analysis. Clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, increased respiratory movements and uncoordinated swimming. Hyperaemia, haemorrhage on body surface and necrotic gill filaments were recorded. Gill epithelial hyperplasia, necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed by histological examination, while virions were detected using transmission electron microscopy. By detecting the presence of the KHV thymidine kinase (TK) gene and the KHV 9/5 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 37 cases were identified as KHV-positive, and the cumulative mortality of infected fish was 70-100%. Positive cases showed identical sequences for the genes analysed, implying that they were of the same origin. For the KHV 9/5 gene sequence, these cases exhibited 100% identity with the Japanese strain (TUMST1, accession number AP008984) and 99% identity with the Israeli (KHV-I, DQ177346) and US (KHV-U, DQ657948) strains. Additionally, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was performed and found to be more sensitive than PCR tests, suggesting its potential use as a rapid diagnostic method for KHV. This is the first epidemiological study of KHV infection in cultured common carp and koi in Taiwan. PMID:21675996

Cheng, L; Chen, C-Y; Tsai, M-A; Wang, P-C; Hsu, J-P; Chern, R-S; Chen, S-C



CXC chemokines and leukocyte chemotaxis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


CXC chemokines, structurally recognizable by the position of four conserved cysteine residues, are prominent mediators of chemotaxis. Here we report a novel carp CXC chemokine obtained through homology cloning and compare it with fish orthologues genes and with a second, recently elucidated, carp CXC chemokine. Phylogenetic analyses clearly show that neither CXC chemokine resembles any of the mammalian CXC chemokines in particular. However, basal expression is most prominent in immune organs like anterior kidney and spleen, suggesting involvement in the immune response. Furthermore we show that anterior kidney phagocyte-enriched leukocyte suspensions express both chemokines and that this expression is upregulated by brief (4 h) stimulation with PMA, but not lipopolysaccharide. Neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched leukocytes display chemotaxis to human recombinant CXCL8 (hrCXCL8; interleukin-8), confirming CXC chemokine mediated chemotaxis of neutrophilic granulocytes in teleost fish. Factors secreted from carp phagocytes are also capable of inducing chemotaxis and secretion of these factors into culture supernatants is upregulated by PMA. Finally we demonstrate involvement of both CXC chemokines as well as CXCR1 and CXCR2 in acute Argulus japonicus infection. Collectively the data presented implicate the involvement of CXC chemokines in chemotaxis of fish neutrophils in a fashion that shares characteristics with the mammalian situation. However, the CXC chemokines involved differ enough from those involved in neutrophil chemotaxis in mammals to warrant their own nomenclature. PMID:12880637

Huising, Mark O; Stolte, Ellen; Flik, Gert; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy



The toxicokinetics of cadmium in carp under normoxic and hypoxic conditions.  


Temporal depletion of oxygen, i.e. hypoxic events, frequently occurs in natural waters. It has been suggested that accumulation of micro-pollutants increases in aquatic animals as a result of an increased ventilation rate during such occasions. The observed increased toxicity under hypoxia of micro-pollutants may support this hypothesis, but for heavy metals the available uptake studies are contradictory. The present study tests whether accumulation of cadmium in common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) is increased under hypoxia and if the toxicokinetics are altered. A cadmium toxicity study was performed in which the cadmium uptake rates were determined using the radiotracer 109Cd under hypoxia and normoxia. The cadmium toxicokinetics were studied with radiotracer experiments at 100% air saturation, 50%, and 25% saturation from 6.5 nmol/L Cd at 25 degrees C. We could confirm the higher sensitivity of carp to cadmium under hypoxia. Hypoxic conditions did not influence the uptake rates or the accumulation dynamics. Therefore, the increased sensitivity of carp for Cd under hypoxia cannot be explained by a higher Cd body burden, initiated by a higher uptake rate or lower elimination rate under hypoxia. Additional, possible indirect effects, such as internal anoxia due to gill damage, could play a role in Cd toxicity under hypoxia. PMID:16046241

Hattink, Jasper; De Boeck, Gudrun; Blust, Ronny



Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota.

Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong



Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei



Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Chapala, Mexico: A lakewide survey.  


Previous studies, based on limited data, found elevated levels of mercury in carp in Lake Chapala, Mexico. The extent of mercury contamination in carp throughout the Lake has not been determined. In order to obtain reliable information about total mercury concentration in carp (Cyprinus carpio), 262 fish from 27 sites (approximately 10 fish per site) throughout the lake were analyzed. Results were expressed as the mean and median of the results at each site. Only one of the samples exceeded Mexican National Standard (1.0 ppm) for mercury in fish flesh. We discuss these results in comparison to World Health Organization (WHO), US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) criteria; many of our samples exceed these criteria based on Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) or Reference Dose (RfD). ANOVA of four groups of mercury results clustered by distance from the Lerma showed statistically significant differences (P = 0.0071) between the group closest to, versus farthest from, the Lerma River. PMID:24007438

Stong, Todd; Osuna, Claudia Alvarado; Shear, Harvey; de Anda Sanchez, José; Ramírez, Gerardo; de Jesús Díaz Torres, José



Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of adenylosuccinate lyase gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) is a bifunctional enzyme acting in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. In the present study, we have constructed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) intestinal cDNA library that has over 2.3 × 10(5) primary clones. An expressed sequence tag (EST) of grass carp adenylosuccinate lyase (gcADSL) gene was screened from this library. Both 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out in order to obtain the complete cDNA sequence, which contains a 1,446 bp open reading frame encoding 482 amino acids about 54.552 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology with its vertebrate counterparts, which shares 94% similarity with zebrafish, 81% with African clawed frog as well as chicken, 77% with human and 76% with mouse. This gcADSL genomic sequence, consisted of 13 exons and 12 introns, is 8,557 bp in size. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the highest expression level of gcADSL was detected in muscle and the lowest in gill. In western blotting analysis, His(6)-tagged gcADSL protein expressed in Escherichia coli could be recognized not only by an anti-His(6)-tag monoclonal antibody but also by an anti-human ADSL polyclonal antibody, indicating immunological crossreactivity occurs between grass carp and human ADSL protein. 1,082 bp 5'-flanking region sequence was cloned and analyzed. PMID:20857210

Yuan, Tian; Gu, Ji-Rui; Gu, Wen-Bo; Wu, Jiang; Ge, Shao-Rong; Xu, Heng



Participation of cathepsin L in modori phenomenon in carp (Cyprinus carpio) surimi gel.  


Cathepsin L (Cat L) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) dorsal muscles was purified and its molecular weight determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was 36 kDa. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and 5.5, respectively. The results of the effects of specific substrates, activators and inhibitors on the enzymatic activity showed that Cat L belongs to the family of cysteine proteinases containing thiol. Compared to the control, the gel strength of surimi with the addition of purified Cat L decreased significantly by 24.33% while that of surimi with both purified Cat L and inhibitors increased by 13.7% and 21.6%, respectively, suggesting the participation of Cat L in the modori phenomenon occurring in carp surimi. Both the SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern and microstructure figure revealed that Cat L could hydrolyse the main protein in carp surimi and was one of the enzymes involved in the modori phenomenon. PMID:23442651

Hu, Yaqin; Ji, Rong; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Jinjie; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian



Characterization of MMP-9 gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): an Aeromonas hydrophila-inducible factor in grass carp immune system.  


Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) belongs to a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases and is associated with vital inflammatory processes. Here, we isolated and characterized MMP-9 cDNA from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (designated as CiMMP-9). The cDNA was 2880 bp long and encoded a putative protein of 675 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 75.816 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.25. CiMMP-9 contained all three classical MMP-9 family signatures. The mRNA of CiMMP-9 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues of untreated grass carp, with the highest expression levels in the blood, trunk kidney, head kidney and spleen. CiMMP9 transcript was present in unfertilized eggs, which suggests that CiMMP9 transcription is maternally inherited. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of the CiMMP-9 gene in C. idella after being challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. A clear time-dependent expression pattern of CiMMP-9 was found after the bacterial challenge, and mRNA expression reached a maximum level at 7 days post challenge. This indicates that MMP-9 is inducible and is involved in immune responses, thus suggesting that CiMMP-9 plays an important role in A. hydrophila-related diseases and in early embryonic development stages in C. idella. PMID:23791859

Xu, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Yu-Bang; Fu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Feng; Guo, Shi-Zhao; Li, Jia-Le



Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R. B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J. F.



A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis: implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny.  


Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98.8%), lowest in the control region (89.4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94.2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. PMID:20735671

Li, S F; Xu, J W; Yang, Q L; Wang, C H; Chen, Q; Chapman, D C; Lu, G



Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi



In situ studies on the bioaccumulation of microcystins in the phytoplanktivorous silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) stocked in Lake Taihu with dense toxic Microcystis blooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoplanktivorous silver carp is an important biomanipulation fish to control cyanobacterial blooms and is also a food fish with the greatest production in China. The accumulation of the hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) determined by LC-MS in various organs of silver carp was studied monthly in Lake Taihu dominated by toxic Microcystis aeruginosa. Average recoveries of spiked fish samples were 78%

Jun Chen; Ping Xie; Dawen Zhang; Zhixin Ke; Hua Yang



Distribution of catch-relaxing peptide (CARP)-like immunoreactive neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system of Helix pomatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocytochemistry was performed on the nervous system of Helix by the use of an antibody raised against a myotropic neuropeptide, the catch-relaxing peptide (CARP), isolated from Mytilus edulis. In each ganglion of the central nervous system of Helix pomatia, numerous CARP-immunoreactive cell bodies and a dense immunoreactive fiber system could be observed with a dominancy in the cerebral and pedal

L. Hernádi; Y. Terano; Y. Muneoka; T. Kiss




Microsoft Academic Search

During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio )t o fluctuating thermal conditions was studied in the Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station discharge canal on Lake Erie. Locomotory activity of fish in the canal was monitored using electromyogram telemetry of the axial musculature. Carp activity was variable but, in general, they were more active during




Environmental Monitoring Using Physiological Telemetry – A Case Study Examining Common Carp Responses to Thermal Pollution in a Coal-Fired Generating Station Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal conditions was studied in the Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station discharge canal on Lake Erie. Locomotory activity of fish in the canal was monitored using electromyogram telemetry of the axial musculature. Carp activity was variable but, in general, they were more active during times

Steven J. Cooke; Jason F. Schreer



IFN-?-activated lymphocytes boost nitric oxide production in grass carp monocytes/macrophages.  


It is well known that IFN-? is a prime activator of nitric oxide (NO) production by monocytes/macrophages in mammals and fish. In parallel, whether IFN-?-activated lymphocytes are associated with NO production remains unclear. In this study, grass carp monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes from head kidney were isolated and effects of recombinant grass carp IFN-? (rgcIFN-?) on NO releases by these two cell populations were determined. Results showed that rgcIFN-? time- and dose-dependently increased NO production by monocytes/macrophages but not lymphocytes, which are consistent with the findings in mammals. Interestingly, rgcIFN-? displayed a greater stimulation on NO production in the co-cultures of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes when compared with that in the culture of monocytes/macrophages alone. Furthermore, the media harvested from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes were effective in boosting NO release in monocytes/macrophages. These data suggest that secretions from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes may be involved in the NO release by monocytes/macrophages. To address this hypothesis, effect of rgcIFN-? on the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in grass carp lymphocytes was examined, showing that it consistently stimulated the mRNA expression of grass carp TNF-? and IL-1? but not IFN-?. Furthermore, treatment of rgcIFN-? combined with recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced a NO production by monocytes/macrophages, which was significantly higher than those induced by either cytokine alone. It provides the evidence that the cytokines secreted by the activated lymphocytes may facilitate the NO production by monocytes/macrophages. Taken together, our findings point out a new mechanism for the involvement of IFN-?-activated lymphocytes in the NO production by monocytes/macrophages in fish. This knowledge not only strengthens the role of IFN-? in immune system but also provides the evidence for the existence of a close relationship between lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in fish. PMID:24056277

Yang, Kun; Zhang, Shengnan; Chen, Danyan; Zhang, Anying; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong



Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): evidence for its involvement in antiviral innate immunity.  


Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF), which participates in innate immune response and regulates TNF-? transcription, has been identified and characterized in various organisms. In a study to screen interacting cellular proteins with grass carp reovirus using yeast two-hybrid system, a grass carp homologue of LITAF was identified to bind the NS26 protein encoded by the S11 genomic fragment of Grass carp reovirus (GCRV). In this study, grass carp LPS-induced TNF-? factor gene (designated as CiLITAF) was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. The CiLITAF cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 483 bp encoding a polypeptide of 161 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.0 kDa. In CIK cells infected with GCRV or treated with poly (I:C), transiently stimulated transcription of CiLITAF mRNA was noticed at 8 h post infection or poly (I:C) treatment. Grass carp TNF-? (CiTNF?) transcriptional level was also transiently induced to a high level following the stimulation of CiLITAF in these in vitro tests. In vivo analysis further showed that, significantly up-regulated transcriptional expression of both CiLITAF and CiTNF? were detected in the spleen tissue as early as 48 h post challenge with GCRV. This study thus characterized CiLITAF as an inducible gene responding to viral infection. PMID:23253491

Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiaobao; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun



Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S. J.; Munn, M. D.



Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Not Available



Physiological responses to mercury in feral carp populations inhabiting the low Ebro River (NE Spain), a historically contaminated site.  


The low Ebro River course (Northeast Spain) is historically affected by mercury pollution due to a chlor-alkali plant operating at the town of Flix for more than a century. River sediments analysed during the last 10 years showed high mercury levels in the river section starting just downstream the factory and spanning some 90km, down to the river delta. The possible environmental impact was studied by a combination of field and laboratory studies. Mercury concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle of feral carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled downstream Flix were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from carps sampled upstream Flix. Elevated levels of mercury in these samples associated with significant increases on the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and on mRNA expression of two metallothionein genes, MT1 and MT2, in kidney and, partially, in scales, but not in liver. Conversely, no biochemical evidence for oxidative stress or DNA damage was found in these tissues. Non-contaminated carps subjected to intraperitoneal mercury injection resulted in a 20-fold increase of MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels in carp kidney, with minimal changes in liver levels. Our data suggests the coordinate increase of metallothionein mRNA in kidney and of GSH in liver constitutes an excellent marker of exposure to sub-toxic mercury levels in carps. This study also demonstrates that apparently healthy fish populations may exceed the mercury contamination acceptable for human consumption. PMID:19482362

Navarro, Anna; Quirós, Laia; Casado, Marta; Faria, Melissa; Carrasco, Luís; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Díez, Sergi; Raldúa, Demetrio; Barata, Carlos; Bayona, Josep M; Piña, Benjamin



Compositional characteristics of materials recovered from whole gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.  


Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) at acidic and basic pH was applied to whole carp, yielding proteins, lipids, and insolubles. The objective was to characterize composition of recovered materials. Crude protein was concentrated to 89-90% in proteins recovered at acidic pH and to 94-95% at basic pH. Basic pH yielded proteins with more (P < 0.05) essential amino acids (EAAs). EAA content in recovered proteins met FAO/WHO/UNO requirements. ISP did not affect fatty acid (FA) composition. Lipids recovered at acidic pH contained 88-89% of total fat and at basic pH, 94-97%. Total fat in recovered proteins was low, with EPA and DHA at the highest (P < 0.05) percentage for pH 11.5. ISP, particularly basic pH, effectively removed impurities such as bones and scales from whole carp. This is indicated by 3.8-5.8% of ash in recovered proteins compared to 11.2% for whole carp and 5.4% for boneless/skinless carp fillets. Basic pH yielded less (P < 0.05) Ca, P, and Mg in recovered proteins. These minerals were more (P < 0.05) concentrated in insolubles recovered with basic pH. This study indicates that materials recovered from whole carp using ISP have high nutritional value and may be useful in the development of human food and animal feeds. PMID:19368395

Taskaya, Latif; Chen, Yi-Chen; Beamer, Sarah; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek



Antibodies against outer-capsid proteins of grass carp reovirus expressed in E. coli are capable of neutralizing viral infectivity  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), which causes severe infectious outbreaks of hemorrhagic disease in aquatic animals, is a highly pathogenic agent in the Aquareovirus genus of family Reoviridae. The outer capsid shell of GCRV, composed of the VP5-VP7 protein complex, is believed to be involved in cell entry. The objective of this study was to produce a major neutralization antibody for mitigating GCRV infection. Results Recombinant plasmids of GCRV outer capsid proteins VP5 and VP7 were constructed and expressed in prokaryotic cells in our previous work. In this study, we prepared GCRV Antibody (Ab), VP5Ab and VP7Ab generated from purified native GCRV, recombinant VP5 and VP7 respectively. Immunoblotting analysis showed that the prepared antibodies were specific to its antigens. In addition, combined plaque and cytopathic effect (CPE)-based TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose) assays showed that both VP5Ab and VP7Ab were capable of neutralizing viral infectivity. Particularly, the neutralizing activity of VP7Ab was 3 times higher than that of VP5Ab, suggesting that VP7 might be a dominating epitope. Moreover, the combination of VP5Ab and VP7Ab appeared to enhance GCRV neutralizing capacity. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicated that VP7 protein was the major epitope of GCRV. Furthermore, VP5Ab and VP7Ab in combination presented an enhanced capacity to neutralize the GCRV particle, suggesting that the VP5 and VP7 proteins may cooperate with each other during virus cell entry. The data can be used not only to further define the surface epitope domain of GCRV but may also be applicable in the designing of vaccines.



Tissue-specific Cu bioaccumulation patterns and differences in sensitivity to waterborne Cu in three freshwater fish: rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp ( Cyprinus carpio), and gibel carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) were exposed to copper (1–20?M) in softened Antwerp City tap water at pH 7.3 ± 0.1 and with a water hardness of 292.4 ± 8.1mg\\/L CaCO3 (Ca 100.8 ± 3.0mg\\/L; Mg 11.0 ± 0.2mg\\/L). LC50s (96h) were determined and copper accumulation in gills, liver, and kidney

Gudrun De Boeck; Wouter Meeus; Wim De Coen; Ronny Blust



Identification of a second follistatin gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and its regulatory function in myogenesis during embryogenesis.  


Follistatin can antagonize the function of myostatin as a competitive binding protein and promote muscle growth in vivo. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a second follistatin gene fst2 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The grass carp fst2 cDNA was 1,376 bp in length, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 350 amino acid residues. A relatively low sequence identity of 78% was found between grass carp Fst2 and its paralog Fst1. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the grass carp fst2 originated from fish-specific gene duplication. In adult fish, fst2 mRNA expression was observed in most tissues but was strongly expressed in the eyes, muscles, skin and ovary. Grass carp fst2 mRNA could be detected as early as 16 h post-fertilization (hpf), while fst1 mRNA was detected throughout embryogenesis. Using in situ hybridization, fst2 transcripts were detected in the anterior somites at 24 hpf and in the brain and posterior somites at 36 hpf. Meanwhile, fst1 mRNA was transcribed mainly in the optic vesicle and at the cephalic mesoderm at 12 hpf, in the eyes, cephalic mesoderm and at the lateral edge of most somites at 24 hpf, and mainly in the brain at 36 hpf. Furthermore, overexpression of fst2 mRNA markedly affected the formation of the embryonic midline and somite structures. Based on comparisons with fst1, our findings suggest that fst2 retained the ancestral functions of regulating muscle development and growth during embryogenesis in grass carp. PMID:23396016

Zhong, Sha-Sha; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Sun, Cheng-Fei; Zou, Shu-Ming



Quantitative in vivo and in vitro characterization of co-infection by two genetically distant grass carp reoviruses.  


Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious pathogens threatening grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) production in China. Through sequence analysis, the co-existence of two genetically distant grass carp reoviruses, named GCRV-JX01 and GCRV-JX02, was revealed in the same diseased grass carp sample collected in 2011. GCRV-JX01 and GCRV-JX02 shared high levels of homology with GCRV-873 and GCRV-GD108, respectively. In contrast to GCRV-JX01, GCRV-JX02 induced no cytopathic effect in infected cells. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was employed to monitor the replication efficiency of both virus strains in either Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells or infected cell supernatant. The results demonstrated that, although GCRV-JX02 did reduce the cellular replication level of GCRV-JX01 up to 10-fold during co-infection, there was no significant impact on the productive virus progeny level in supernatant compared to that of cells infected by GCRV-JX01 alone. To validate the hypothesis that both viruses might co-infect grass carp without significant interference in the field, we collected clinical samples from two different fish farms in 2012 and monitored virus loads for each fish. The data showed that 55% of the collected fish samples were co-infected by GCRV-JX01 and GCRV-JX02, and the single virus infection rate was 10% for GCRV-JX01 and 20% for GCRV-JX02. For both viruses, the in vivo viral loads under co-infection and single viral infection were similar. No serological cross-reaction or cross-protection occurred between GCRV-JX01 and JX02 in our immunization and challenge tests. This new information on co-infection by two genetically distant virus strains should be helpful for designing vaccines targeting the causative agents of grass carp haemorrhagic disease. PMID:23426359

Wang, Tu; Li, Jiale; Lu, Liqun



Characterisation of the genomes of four putative vesiculoviruses: tench rhabdovirus, grass carp rhabdovirus, perch rhabdovirus and eel rhabdovirus European X.  


The complete coding sequences were determined for four putative vesiculoviruses isolated from fish. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the five main proteins assigned tench rhabdovirus and grass carp rhabdovirus together with spring viraemia of carp and pike fry rhabdovirus to a lineage that was distinct from the mammalian vesiculoviruses. Perch rhabdovirus, eel virus European X, lake trout rhabdovirus 903/87 and sea trout virus were placed in a second lineage that was also distinct from the recognised genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Establishment of two new rhabdovirus genera, "Perhabdovirus" and "Sprivivirus", is discussed. PMID:23719670

Stone, David M; Kerr, Rose C; Hughes, Margaret; Radford, Alan D; Darby, Alistair C



Nanobeads-based rapid magnetic solid phase extraction of trace amounts of leuco-malachite green in Chinese major carps.  


A proof-of-concept for the use of oleic acid coated magnetic nanobeads (OA-MNBs) for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace amounts of leuco-malachite green (LMG) from fish samples was developed. The OA-MNBs were prepared by covalently conjugating oleic acid on amino-modified magnetic polystyrene beads. The OA-MNBs were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta-potential analyzer. The optimized parameters for MSPE with OA-MNBs of LMG from fish muscle involved a combination of pH 10.0 in 10% acetonitrile, 1.5 M sodium chloride as an adsorption solution, and an extraction procedure involving 6 mg OA-MNBs in 18 mL LMG adsorption solution. This was optimized for 0.5 g fish muscles with an incubation period of 10 min using 200 ?L acetonitrile for elution. Using the optimized parameters, the performance of MSPE with OA-MNBs was evaluated by analyzing LMG-spiked fish extracts with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The results indicated that recoveries of LMG (from 0.1 to 2 ng/g) ranged from 71.2%-112.6% with relative standard deviations as low as 0.6%. Out of 57 field fish samples, eight LMG positive samples were confirmed using MSPE with OA-MNBs. Compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction methods, the results showed that MSPE with OA-MNBs had a higher sensitivity for samples with low LMG concentration. Furthermore, the MSPE with OA-MNB took only 40 min to perform without the need for time consuming sample-pretreatment process. Therefore, MSPE with OA-MNBs holds promise for rapid, sensitive, and cost effective screening for LMG in fish samples. PMID:22841089

Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jianwen; Wei, Hua; Lai, Weihua; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Xu, Hengyi; Xiong, Yonghua



Computational analysis of transcriptome of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) for functional annotation  

PubMed Central

A total of 1671 ESTs of Labeo rohita were retrieved from dbEST database and analysed for functional annotation using various computational approaches. The result indicated 1387 non-redundant (184 contigs and 1203 singletons) putative transcripts with an average length of 542 bp. These 1387 transcript sequences were matched with Refseq_RNA, UniGene and Swiss-Prot on high threshold cut-off for functional annotation along with help of gene ontology and SSRs markers. We developed extensive Perl programming based modules for processing all alignment files, comparing and extracting common hits from all files on a threshold, evaluating statistics for alignment results and assigning gene ontology terms. In this study, 92 putative transcripts predicted as orthologous genes and among those, 44 putative transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms. The annotated orthologous gene of our result associated with some very important proteins of L. rohita involved in biotic and abiotic stresses and glucose metabolism of spermatogenic cells etc. The unidentified transcripts, if found important in expression profiling can be vital resource after re-sequencing. The predicted genes can further be used for enhancing productivity and controlling disease of L. rohita.

Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Rashid, Iliyas; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Singh, Shri Prakash; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar



Direct detection of unamplified spring viraemia of carp virus RNA using unmodified gold nanoparticles.  


Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a viral disease that mainly affects carp Cyprinus carpio and other cyprinid fish, causing severe economic losses. Rapid detection and identification of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is crucial for effective disease management. Recent advances in nanoscience are having a significant impact on many scientific fields, especially biodiagnostics, where a number of nanoparticle-based assays have been introduced for biomolecular detection. Single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides can be adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in colloidal solution under certain conditions. We exploited this phenomenon to develop a specific hybridization assay for direct detection of SVCV-RNA without prior amplification. The result of the hybridization process could be detected visually within 1 min when the colour of the reaction mixture changed from red to blue (positive reaction) or remains red (negative). The lower detection limit of the assay was estimated to be 10-3 TCID50 ml-1 SVCV-RNA, and it has the feasibility to detect the target virus-RNA in clinical specimens without previous amplification. In order to obtain an indication of the assay's performance on clinical samples we compared the optimized assay with nested RT-PCR in detection of SVCV-RNA in infected fish samples. The concordance of the 2 methods was defined as 100% when compared to nested RT-PCR positive and negative samples. The SVC-AuNPs assay requires only 15 min, eliminates the need for thermal cycling or detection instruments and is a specific and rapid tool for detection of SVCV-RNA directly from clinical samples. PMID:22885508

Saleh, Mona; Soliman, Hatem; Schachner, Oskar; El-Matbouli, Mansour



Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio TLR5M.  


TLR5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the TLR5M gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The TLR5M cDNA was 3182?bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). The entire coding region of the TLR5M gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA and contained a single exon. The aa sequence of carp TLR5M showed the highest similarity (84.46%) to Cirrhinus mrigala. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the TLR5M gene by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed its broad distribution in various organs and tissues; however, the highest level of TLR5M expression was noted in the liver. TLR5M gene expression was examined after flagellin stimulation and showed highly significant (p<0.01) induction in the spleen, heart, liver and kidney. The induction of TLR5M was analyzed in various organs infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. TLR5M gene expression in the kidney and spleen was significantly (p<0.01) increased. Concurrently, modulation of TLR5M gene expression and the induction of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-?4 were analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes after lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, and flagellin stimulation. In the treated group, significant induction of these genes was noted, although the intensity varied between the tissues. These findings may indicate a crucial role for TLR5M in the innate immunity of common carp in response to pathogenic invasion. PMID:23930591

Duan, Duo; Sun, Zhen; Jia, Shengmei; Chen, Yilong; Feng, Xiangru; Lu, Qiang



Molecular characterization, expression analysis, and biological effects of interleukin-8 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  


Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a CXC chemokine that plays key regulatory roles in the immune and inflammatory responses implicated in many human diseases. In this study, we identified and characterized an IL-8 homologue from the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. A sequence alignment of the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA showed that the exon/intron organization of grass carp IL-8 (gcIL-8) is identical to those of other known CXC chemokine genes. A multiple alignment analysis showed that gcIL-8 is an ELR(-)CXC chemokine, and its deduced amino acid sequence shares 81% and 36% identity with common carp IL-8s L1 (GenBank ID: ABE47600) and L2 (GenBank ID: AB470924), respectively, suggesting that it belongs to the lineage 1 group of fish IL-8 proteins. On a phylogenetic tree, gcIL-8 clustered with other teleost IL-8 proteins to form a fish-specific clade, clearly distinct from those of bird, mammal, and amphibian proteins. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that gcIL-8 is differentially expressed in various tissues under normal conditions and that the expression of gcIL-8 mRNA in immune-related tissues is clearly upregulated by Aeromonas hydrophila infection. To explore the biological effects of gcIL-8, we produced a recombinant protein, rgcIL-8, in a prokaryotic expression system. Purified rgcIL-8 was confirmed to be chemoattractive for head kidney neutrophils and mononuclear leukocytes in vitro. Our histopathological study also revealed that rgcIL-8 exerts proinflammatory effects by inducing neutrophil infiltration and erythrocyte extravasation. Overall, these results suggest that IL-8 is crucially involved in the inflammatory responses of fish. PMID:23994423

Wang, Ting-Ting; Song, Xue-Hong; Bao, Guang-Ming; Zhao, Li-Xiang; Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Jie



Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane  

SciTech Connect

Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

Devirgiliis, Chiara [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Gaetani, Sancia [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Apreda, Marianna [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Bellovino, Diana [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail:



Gene expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in carp somatotrophs differentially regulated by local action of gonadotropin and dopamine D1 receptor activation.  


In grass carp, luteinizing hormone (LH) can act locally within the pituitary to regulate growth hormone expression. To test if LH receptor (LHR) expression in the carp pituitary can also serve as a target of modulation for LH actions, grass carp LHR was cloned and characterized by functional expression. In carp pituitary cells, LHR mRNA (lhr) level could be reduced by LH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but up-regulated by dopamine treatment. Dopamine-induced lhr expression occurred mainly in carp somatotrophs via the cAMP/PKA pathway coupled to pituitary D1 receptors. This stimulatory effect could be blocked by LHR activation by hCG, presumably through phosphodiesterase III activation. These findings provide evidence that lhr expression in the carp pituitary is under the differential control of LH and dopamine via modification of cAMP-dependent signaling mechanisms, which may play a role in regulating somatotroph responsiveness to the paracrine action of LH in carp species. PMID:23603402

Sun, Caiyun; He, Mulan; Ko, Wendy K W; Wong, Anderson O L



Rod-cone interaction in carp retina: an analysis of electroretinographic B-waves.  


Changes in electroretinographic b-wave in the presence of background lights of increasing intensity were examined in isolated, superfused carp retinas. Within a certain range of ambient illumination b-waves elicited by red (695 nm) test flashes against dimmer background lights were smaller in size than against brighter ones. Accordingly, incremental thresholds for red flashes decreased as the intensity of background lights increased within this intensity range. The results suggest that cone pathways may be suppressed by rods in darkness and dim illumination. The phenomenon was absent for photoreceptor potentials (PIII components), indicating that the rod-cone interaction occurs in second-order retinal neurons. PMID:1476617

Yang, X L; Xu, L W



The evaluation of secondary stress response of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella , Val. 1844) after exposing to the saline water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress response of grass carp to salinity was evaluated assessing the levels of hematocrit, leucocrit, plasma glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium. Mean hematocrit values increased following exposure to salinity. Mean leucocrit values elevated after exposure to salinity for 24 h, then decreased. Mean plasma glucose increased during saline exposure for 48 h and then decreased to normal values. Plasma sodium

H. Yavuzcan-Y?ld?z; M. K?rkavgaç-Uzbilek



Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  


The influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation from Astragalus Root (Radix astragalin seu Hedysari) and Chinese Angelica Root (R. Angelicae Sinensis) at a ratio of 5:1 (w/w) on non-specific immunity of Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian was investigated. The number of NBT-positive cells in the blood and lysozyme and complement activities in the serum of Carp fed with commercial feed supplemented with 1.0% (diet 1) and 1.5% (diet 2) TCM at 10 day of post-feeding were not different from those of the control group fed with feed unsupplemented TCM 10 days post-feeding (P>0.05), but at 20 and 30 days they increased significantly (P<0.05). The values of diet 1 group and diet 2 group at 20 day and at 30 day were not significantly different (P>0.05) from each other. In addition, the TCM formula increased body weight of experimental fish by about 16.84% (diet 1) and 19% (diet 2) above that of the control group. Therefore, these data suggest that the TCM formula could elevate the function of non-specific immunity of Jian carp. The optimal dosage added to commercial carp feed was 1.0% (w/w) and the oral administration time as a course of treatment was 20 days. PMID:15123322

Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe



Transcriptional analysis of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNF?,

Maria Forlenza; Peter D. Walker; Beitske J. de Vries; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga; Geert F. Wiegertjes



Identification and expression profiles of IL-8 in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) in response to microcystin-LR.  


Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is a widespread cyanotoxin and has immunotoxicity to animals, including fish. Chemokines are considered to play important roles in inflammatory response induced by MCLR. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of interleukin-8 (IL-8) from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) for the first time. The full-length IL-8 cDNA was 552 bp and contained a 297-bp open-reading frame that encoded for a 98-amino acid protein. The deduced IL-8 protein had a typical aspartic acid (D)-leucine (L)-arginine (R) and a CXC motif at the N-terminal, which were conserved in most fish species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that bighead carp IL-8 protein was grouped in the teleost IL-8 lineage 2. Under normal conditions, the expression of IL-8 is constitutive and weak in all tested tissues. However, MCLR treatment could significantly increase the transcription of IL-8 in bighead carp in a temporal- and dose-dependent pattern. The present study will help us to understand more about the evolution of IL-8 and its function in the MCLR induced proinflammatory response in bighead carp. PMID:23797979

Li, Huiying; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Li, Guangyu; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Isometrically mounted and electrically paced myocardial ventricular strips of carp have a much higher capacity to develop force during severe hypoxia and to redevelop force after it than those of rainbow trout. When the concentrations of COS and HCO3~ in the solutions surrounding the strips were increased together, such that pH remained constant, the force developed during hypoxia increased.



Molecular evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of a highly pathogenic fish rhabdovirus, the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), which causes an acute hemorrhagic and highly contagious disease in cyprinids, was first described in Europe and subsequently reported in parts of Asia and North America. SVCV can be classified into four genogroups: Ia, Ib, Ic, and Id. While Ia and Id have wide circulation and are reported to cause outbreaks in North America

Abinash Padhi; Bindhu Verghese


Formation of biogenic amines in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during storage in ice and at 4°C.  


The formation of eight biogenic amines (BAs), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), aerobic plate counts (APC), and sensory evaluation in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during storage in ice and at 4°C were investigated. The sum of contents of all eight biogenic amines (SBA) in crucian carp increased from 49.82 to 197.09 mg/kg on day 36 when stored in ice and from 49.82 to 219.35 mg/kg on day 24 when stored at 4°C. TVB-N content increased with storage time; good relationships between TVB-N content and SBA were observed during storage in ice and at 4°C (R(2) = 0.95 and 0.93, respectively). APC of all samples significantly (P < 0.05) increased with storage time in the first 12 days and toward the end of the storage period, there were only minor changes; good relationships between APC and SBA were observed during storage in ice and at 4°C (R(2) = 0.96 and 0.58, respectively). According to sensory evaluation results, the crucian carp became unacceptable on days 24 and 16 during storage in ice and at 4°C, respectively. Putrescine and tyramine contents could be good quality evaluation indices for crucian carp during storage. PMID:23212022

Li, Kaifeng; Bao, Yulong; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing; Shi, Ce




Microsoft Academic Search

Tuna liver meal (TLM) was tested to replace fish meal (FM) in diets for carp fry, Cyprinus carpio Linneus, 1758. Triplicate groups of fish with average weight of 0.32 ± 0.65g were fed each of six isonitogenous (42%), isolipidic (16%) and isoenergetic (18 KJ DE g -1 ) diets prepared to include 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (diets



Sequence of Genome Segments 1, 2, and 3 of the Grass Carp Reovirus (Genus Aquareovirus, Family Reoviridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome segments 1, 2, and 3 of the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a tentative species assigned to genus Aquareovirus, family Reoviridae, were sequenced. The respective segments 1, 2, and 3 were 3949, 3877, and 3702 nucleotides long. Conserved motifs 5? (GUUAUUU) and 3? (UUCAUC) were found at the ends of each segment. Each segment contains a single ORF and

Qin Fang; Houssam Attoui; Jean François Philippe Biagini; Zuoyan Zhu; Philippe de Micco; Xavier de Lamballerie



The innate immune response to grass carp hemorrhagic virus (GCHV) in cultured Carassius auratus blastulae (CAB) cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virus infection of mammalian cells activates an innate antiviral immune response characterized by production of interferon (IFN) and the subsequent transcriptional upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) by the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Here, we report that a fish cell line, crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) blastulae embryonic (CAB) cells, can produce IFN activity and then form an antiviral state after infection

Yi-Bing Zhang; Jun Jiang; Yu-Dong Chen; Rong Zhu; Yan Shi; Qi-Ya Zhang; Jian-Fang Gui




EPA Science Inventory

The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...


Apparent digestibility of tuna oil for common carp, Cyprinus carpio — effect of inclusion level and adaptation time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of inclusion level and adaptation time on the apparent digestibility of tuna oil for common carp were determined by incorporation into a casein-based reference diet at 10% and 15% inclusion. Chromium oxide (1%) was used as an external indicator and faeces were collected via siphon. Analyses were performed on faeces pooled over 10 consecutive days (Days 8 to

Peter Appleford; Trevor A. Anderson



Size-selective filtration and taxon-specific digestion of plankton algae by silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the composition of natural phytoplanktoncommunities with the gut content of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) showed that this fish speciescan nottake up algae smaller than 10 µm. The species compositionofalgal assemblages in the gut content of the silver carpusuallydiffers significantly from the composition of the >10 µmsizefraction of the natural phytoplankton assemblages. Thisdifferenceis mainly a result of the

Lajos Vörös; Imre Oldal; Mátyás Présing; Katalin V.-Balogh



Isolation and characterization of a thermally stable collagen preparation from the outer skin of the silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the main sources of collagen are still the skins of cows and pigs. However, the recent outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have sparked the development of new, alternative sources of safe collagen for industrial uses. In this work we studied the possibilities of using silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix skin waste as a potential rich source of collagen. The

S. Rodziewicz-Motowid?o; A. ?ladewska; E. Mulkiewicz; A. Ko?odziejczyk; A. Aleksandrowicz; J. Miszkiewicz; P. Stepnowski



Effect of different cyanobacterial biomasses and their fractions with variable microcystin content on embryonal development of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While numerous studies focused on the effects of microcystins, the role of other components of complex cyanobacterial water blooms in toxicity is poorly understood. In this study we have evaluated effects of various fractions of cyanobacterial biomass with different composition and microcystin content on embryolarval development of carp (Cyprinus carpio). The following samples (fractions) of four natural water blooms were

Miroslava Palíková; Roman Krej?í; Klára Hilscherová; Pavel Babica; Stanislav Navrátil; Radovan Kopp; Lud?k Bláha



Effects of Exhausting Exercise and Catecholamines on K + Balance, Acidbase Status and Blood Respiratory Properties in Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential role of adrenergic mechanisms in the recovery of potassium balance and acid-base status following 5 min of exhausting exercise was studied in carp. The extracellular metabolic H+ load after exercise matched the lactate load, suggesting similar release rates of H+ and lactate from white muscle. Blockage of ?-adrenoceptors by phentolamine or ?-adrenoceptors by propranolol neither influenced absolute magnitudes

Pia Koldkjær Knudsen; Frank B Jensen



Molecular cloning and growth hormone-regulated gene expression of carp insulin-like growth factor-I.  


Two distinct insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) cDNAs were isolated from a juvenile carp liver cDNA library. Both of the cDNAs encoded a full length prepro IGF-I with 161 amino acids: a mature peptide (70 residues), its signal peptide (44 residues), and a carboxy-terminal E domain (47 residues). The similarity of the two cDNA in the open reading frame was 95.1%. The amino acid sequences of E domain predicted by the two cDNAs were different while those of the signal peptide and the mature peptide were the same. By Northern blot analysis, four different sizes (1, 1.5, 2, and 4.5 kb) of IGF-I mRNA were recognized in the liver of juvenile carp. The two smaller species (1 kb and 1.5 kb) were not detected in adult carp. The expression of these two species was preferably induced by exogenous growth hormone administration in the liver of juvenile carp. PMID:9137817

Hashimoto, H; Mikawa, S; Takayama, E; Yokoyama, Y; Toyohara, H; Sakaguchi, M




EPA Science Inventory

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...


Identification of a vasa homologue gene in grass carp and its expression pattern in tissues and during embryogenesis.  


The RNA helicase Vasa is a member of the DEAD box protein family that plays an indispensable role in germ cell determination in eukaryotes such as in Drosophila and Xenopus species. In this study, the grass carp homologue of the Drosophila vasa gene, Civasa (Ctenopharyngodon idella vasa) was obtained using degenerate primers in RT-PCR and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA end polymerase chain reaction from the grass carp ovary SMART cDNA. This cDNA sequence encodes a 670 amino acid residue protein that contains eight consensus regions for the DEAD box protein family, 9 arginine-glycine repeats and 9 arginine-glycine-glycine repeats, a common character of known Vasa homologues. CiVasa shows high identity to that of zebrafish and other animals, suggesting Vasa is highly conserved through evolution. RT-PCR analysis reveals that in grass carp tissues, both ovaries and testes contain large amounts of vasa gene transcripts whereas no Civasa transcript is detected in somatic tissues examined. The Civasa transcripts are present at a high level from the 2 cell stage to gastrula stages which indicated that Cicasa transcripts are maternally inherited. The predicted protein sequence, localization and conserved pattern of gene expression suggest that Civasa plays an important role in the germ cell determinant and development in grass carp as proposed for other teleost species. PMID:20471489

Li, Chuang-ju; Liu, Ling; Chen, Xi-hua; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Fang; Cheng, Bao-ling



Seasonal variation of plasmatic and hepatic vitellogenin and EROD activity in carp, Cyprinus carpio, in relation to sewage treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about the health of aquatic fauna living in waters containing biologically active levels of estrogenic compounds is particularly focused on the effects on their reproductive success. To that end, carp, Cyprinus carpio, a feral fish living in warm waters of Southern Europe (NE Spain), were selected for signs of estrogenicity. The study area covered two tributaries (the Anoia and

Montserrat Solé; Damià Barceló; Cinta Porte



Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements. PMID:19520514

Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás



Carp neutrophilic granulocytes form extracellular traps via ROS-dependent and independent pathways.  


Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been described as an important innate defense mechanism that leads to immobilization and killing of invading pathogens. NETs have been identified in several species, but the mechanisms involved in NET formation and their role in infection have not been well determined yet. Here we show that upon in vitro stimulation with different immunostimulants of bacterial, fungal or viral origin, carp neutrophilic granulocytes rapidly release NET structures. We analyzed the composition of these structures and the kinetics of their formation by confocal microscopy, by quantifying the levels of extracellular DNA and the release of enzymes originating from neutrophilic granules: myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Profiles of NET release by carp neutrophils as well as their enzyme composition are stimulus- and time-dependent. This study moreover provides evidence for a stimulus-dependent selective requirement of reactive oxygen species in the process of NET formation. Collectively the results support an evolutionary conserved and strictly regulated mechanism of NET formation in teleost fish. PMID:23422817

Pijanowski, L; Golbach, L; Kolaczkowska, E; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Chadzinska, M



Transgenic Common Carp Do Not Have the Ability to Expand Populations  

PubMed Central

The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of “all-fish” growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Bacillus subtilis SC02 supplementation causes alterations of the microbial diversity in grass carp water.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Bacillus subtilis SC02 supplement on water quality, microbial community diversity and structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. Our selected strain, B. subtilis SC02, significantly reduced ammonia, nitrite and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended period compared with the control group. Pyrosequencing showed that the Shannon diversity index (Shannon) and species richness estimators (Chao) of the treatment group were higher, indicating that bacterial richness was significantly increased in the treatment group. The phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were dominant in the treatment groups, accounting for 45, 21.9 and 21.9 % of the sequence reads, respectively. However, in sharp contrast, the control fishes were predominantly occupied by Proteobacteria (82.1 %) and Firmicutes (8.4 %). At the genus level, the microbial communities were different between the control and treatment groups, although the two groups shared similar genera. Additionally, some genera (such as Tepidimonas, Variovorax, Roseomonas, Rubritepida, Nitrobacter, etc.) only appeared in the treatment group, and many other genera only existed in the control group. Therefore, we conclude that the addition of the SC02 strain in water improves water quality, which may ultimately be a result of changes in microbial community diversity in grass carp cultures. PMID:23539150

Zhang, Xiaoping; Fu, Luoqin; Deng, Bin; Liang, Quan; Zheng, Jiajia; Sun, Jiandong; Zhu, Haiyan; Peng, Lisha; Wang, Yibing; Wenying, Shen; Li, Weifen



Hypotonic treatment prior to freezing improves cryoresistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa.  


Post-thaw motility rate, curvilinear velocity (VCL), and fertilizing ability of carp spermatozoa can be improved by short-term treatment with moderately hypotonic media prior to freezing. Before cryopreservation, carp sperm samples were treated with NaCl solutions of differing osmolalities, ranging from 100 to 300mOsmkg(-1) for 10s, after which final osmolality was adjusted to 300mOsmkg(-1). The resulting sperm suspension was diluted 1:1 with cryoprotective medium and frozen using conventional techniques. Control samples were treated in the same way, without the pre-dilution step. Post-thaw motility rate in samples pretreated with 200mOsmkg(1) NaCl was significantly higher (44±10%) than in controls (21±15%) and samples pretreated with 100mOsmkg(-1) (25±15%) and 300mOsmkg(-1) (25±12%) NaCl. Significantly higher mean VCL were observed in samples pretreated with 100, 150, and 200mOsmkg(-1) (119±24, 118±22, and 115±32?ms(-1), respectively) compared to controls (92±27?ms(-1)). Fertilization rate of frozen-thawed sperm treated with 200mOsmkg(-1) solution of 2M NaCl was significantly higher (25±18%) than that of sperm treated with 300mOsmkg(-1) NaCl solutions (12±7%) and the control (9±6%). PMID:23270681

Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Yamaner, Gunes; Bondarenko, Olga; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Bondarenko, Volodymir; Shaliutina, Anna; Linhart, Otomar



Assessment of global proteome dynamics in carp: a model for investigating environmental stress.  


Fish have to respond to a range of natural and man-made environmental stressors, which can lead to molecular changes within their tissues. Many studies focused on environmental stress in fish have examined the change in protein abundance or mRNA level. However, it is well-known that there is a disconnect between mRNA and protein expression. In order to bridge this gap, protein turnover must also be considered. We have developed an experimental strategy to determine the synthesis rates of individual proteins in the tissues of fish on a proteome-wide scale. This approach has been applied to the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ), a key model species for investigating environmentally induced physiological plasticity. We have calculated the rates of protein synthesis for over a thousand individual proteins from the skeletal muscle and liver of carp. The median synthesis rate of proteins from liver was higher than that of skeletal muscle. The analysis further revealed that the same protein can have a different rate of synthesis depending on the tissue type. Our strategy permits a full investigation of proteome dynamics in fish and will have relevance to the fields of integrative biology and ecotoxicology. PMID:24047415

Doherty, Mary K; Owen, Matthew A G; Davies, Simon J; Young, Iain S; Whitfield, Phillip D



Polymorphisms in Myostatin Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-? superfamily that negatively regulates skeletal muscle development and growth. In the present study, partial genomic fragments of MSTN were screened for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selected common carp individuals from wild populations, and two SNPs in intron 2 (c.371 + 749A > G, c.371 + 781T > C) and two synonymous SNPs in exon 3 (c.42A > G, c.72C > T) were identified. Genotyping by direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for these four SNPs were performed in 162 individuals from a commercial hatchery population. Association analysis showed that two SNPs in exon 3 were significantly associated with body weight (BW) and condition factor (K), and haplotype analyses revealed that haplotype H7H8 showed better growth performance. Our results demonstrated that some of the SNPs in MSTN may have positive effects on growth traits and suggested that MSTN could be a candidate gene for growth and marker-assisted selection in common carp.

Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou



Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3?mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n?=?45, 20.3?±?0.13?g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. PMID:21895778

Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K



Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.  


The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

Lian, Hao; Hu, Wei; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Toxic effects of malathion in carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio: Protective role of lycopene.  


The present study was carried out in order to investigate the potential protective effects of lycopene against malathion-induced toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1mgL(-1)) for 14 days, and lycopene (10mgkg(-1) of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidneys, and gills) were collected at the end of the experimental period and their haematological profiles [red blood cell (RBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, haematocrit (Ht) levels, and erythrocyte indices, including the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)], immune responses [white blood cell (WBC) counts, oxidative radical production (nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity), total plasma protein (TP) and total immunoglobulin (TI) levels and phagocytic activities (PA)] and oxidant/antioxidant statuses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations] were analysed. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the exposure of carp to malathion resulted in alterations in the haematological profiles and immune responses, and lead to increased reactive oxygen species formation, resulting in oxidative damage and inhibition of the antioxidant capacities. However, the administration of lycopene prevented malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:23932509

Yonar, Serpil Mi?e



Construction of a genetic linkage map for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


For silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), a combined microsatellite (or simple sequence repeat) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) sex average linkage map was constructed. A total of 483 markers (245 microsatellites and 238 AFLPs) were assigned to 33 linkage groups. The map spanned 1352.2 cM, covering 86.4% of the estimated genome size of silver carp. The maximum and average spaces between 420 loci were 21.5 cM and 3.2 cM, respectively. The length of linkage groups ranged from 3.6 cM to 98.5 cM with an average of 41.0 cM. The number of markers per group varied from 2 to 44 with an average of 14.6. The AFLP markers significantly improved the integrity of microsatellite-based linkage groups and increased the genome coverage and marker evenness. A genome-wide recombination suppression was observed in male. In an extreme case, six microsatellites co-segregated in male, but spanned a 45.1 cM region in female. PMID:20331598

Zhang, L; Yang, G; Guo, S; Wei, Q; Zou, G



Isolation and properties of the pituitary gonadotropin from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


The gonadotropin of silver carp (scGTH) was purified from the pituitary glands in a yield of 8.4 mg/g through extraction with 6% ammonium acetate (pH 5.1)-40% ethanol followed by 80% ethanol precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of scGTH is about 32,000 as estimated by gel filtration. Leucine and serine were the two N-termini of scGTH. The amino acid composition of scGTH is rich in aspartic acid/asparagine, glutamic acid/glutamine, valine, proline and half cystine. Its carbohydrate content is 22.2%. Biologically, scGTH significantly stimulated the steroidogenesis in carp testis and ovary in vitro and induced the ovulation in loaches. It also stimulated the 32P-phosphate uptake into 1-day-old chicken testis. Immunologically, scGTH could cross-react with the antiserum against cGTH and vice versa. In both cases parallel displacement curves were displayed. PMID:3366548

Chang, Y S; Huang, F L; Chen, C T; Lo, T B



Purification and characterization of cathepsin L from the muscle of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).  


Cathepsin L in silver carp musle was purified to 48.4-fold by acid-heat treatment and ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by a series of chromatographic separations. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 30 kDa determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme was activated by dithiothreitol and cysteine while it was substantially inhibited by E-64 and insensitive to PMSF and pepstatin A, suggesting that the purified enzyme belongs to a family of cysteine proteinase. Consistent with this conclusion, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Fe2+ could strongly inhibit the activity of this enzyme. The optimal pH and temperature were 5.0 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of Z-Phe-Arg-MCA with a parameter of K(m) (8.27 microM) and K(cat) (28.7 s(-1)) but hardly hydrolyzed Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, Arg-MCA, and Boc-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA. The microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed that this proteinase is capable of destroying the network structure of silver carp surimi gels. The enzyme exhibited a higher hydrolytic activity on surimi protein at 65 degrees C than at 40 degrees C. PMID:17147449

Liu, Huan; Yin, Lijun; Zhang, Nan; Li, Shuhong; Ma, Changwei



Experimental xylazine-ketamine anesthesia in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


The potential anesthetic effect of ketamine in combination with xylazine was examined in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Anesthesia (indicated by cessation of voluntary swimming and loss of responses to pinching the skin with forceps and pricking the tail with a needle) was induced by mixing 14.4 ml of ketamine (5% solution), or 11.4 ml of xylazine (2% solution), or both, in 10 l of water containing 10 fish/group. Xylazine alone induced sedation and anesthesia in 5-12.3 min with a mean duration of 7.3 min. Ketamine alone induced similar effects in 7.2-9.7 min for an average of 24.2 min. Combined xylazine and ketamine took longer (14-22.8 min) to induce sedation and anesthesia, but the duration was longer (42.7 min). The respiratory rates of anesthetized fish significantly decreased in all treatments when compared to controls. In conclusion, the combination of xylazine-ketamine was found to induce smooth anesthesia in the common carp for a time sufficient for common clinical and surgical interventions. PMID:20688657

Al-Hamdani, A H; Ebrahim, S K; Mohammad, F K



Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver.

Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei



Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) developed a shallow body shape when feeding on zooplankton prey and a deep body shape when feeding on benthic chironomids. In addition, the presence of chemical cues from a pike predator affected body shape, where a shallow body shape was developed in the absence of pike and a deep body shape was developed in the presence of pike. Foraging activity was low in the presence of pike cues and when chironomids were given as prey. Our results thereby suggest that the change in body shape could be indirectly mediated through differences in foraging activity. Finally, the induced body shape changes affected the foraging efficiency, where crucians raised on a zooplankton diet or in the absence of pike cues had a higher foraging success on zooplankton compared to crucian raised on a chironomid diet or in the presence of pike. These results suggest that body changes in response to predators can be associated with a cost, in terms of competition for resources.

Andersson, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Soderlund, Tony



3-methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L).  


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 microM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome p450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, alpha-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca(2+)](i) and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca(2+)](i) induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes. PMID:12711420

Reynaud, S; Duchiron, C; Deschaux, P



High Throughput Mining and Characterization of Microsatellites from Common Carp Genome  

PubMed Central

In order to supply sufficient microsatellite loci for high-density linkage mapping, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assembled and surveyed for microsatellite identification. A total of 79,014 microsatellites were collected which were harbored in 68,827 distinct contig sequences. These microsatellites were characterized in the common carp genome. Information of all microsatellites, including previously published BAC-based microsatellites, was then stored in a MySQL database, and a web-based database interface ( was built for public access and download. A total of 3,110 microsatellites, including 1,845 from WGS and 1,265 from BAC end sequences (BES), were tested and genotyped on a mapping family with 192 individuals. A total of 963 microsatellites markers were validated with polymorphism in the mapping family. They will soon be used for high-density linkage mapping with a vast number of polymorphic SNP markers.

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chao; Zhao, Zixia; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen



Unique biochemical nature of carp retinol-binding protein. N-linked glycosylation and uncleavable NH2-terminal signal peptide.  


Retinol transport and metabolism have been well characterized in mammals; however, very little is known in fish. To study the mechanism by which fish retinol-binding protein (RBP) is able to remain in plasma besides its small molecular size, we isolated RBP cDNA from a carp liver cDNA library. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of known vertebrate RBPs showed that carp RBP has high homology to the other cloned vertebrate RBPs, but it lacks the COOH-terminal tetrapeptide, RNL(S)L, which is most likely involved in the interaction with transthyretin in mammalian RBPs. In addition, the primary structure of carp RBP contains two consensus N-linked glycosylation sites that represent a unique feature. We have obtained experimental evidence, by in vitro and in vivo expression experiments, that both sites are indeed glycosylated. We have also characterized the protein as a complex type N-linked glycoprotein by lectin binding assay, neuraminidase and endoglycosidase H and F digestion. Inhibition of glycosylation by tunicamycin treatment of transfected cells caused a great reduction of RBP secretion. Since kidney filtration of anionic proteins is less than half that of neutral protein of the same size, this finding strongly suggests that the amount of carp RBP filtration through kidney glomeruli may be reduced by a glycosylation-dependent increase in the molecular size and negative charge of the protein. A second unique feature of carp RBP as secretory protein is the presence of a nonconserved NH(2)-terminal hydrophobic domain, which functions as an insertion signal but is not cleaved cotranslationally and remains in the secreted RBP. PMID:11278316

Bellovino, D; Morimoto, T; Mengheri, E; Perozzi, G; Garaguso, I; Nobili, F; Gaetani, S



Studies of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Crucian Carp--An Oxygen Dependent Enzyme in an Anoxia Tolerant Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O2) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp.

Sandvik, Guro K.; Tomter, Ane B.; Bergan, Jonas; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Barra, Anne-Laure; R?hr, Asmund K.; Kolberg, Matthias; Ellefsen, Stian



Effect of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exposure on cytochrome P450 contents and enzyme activities in common carp gills.  


Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and atrazine (ATR) are the most widely used organophosphate insecticides and triazine herbicides, respectively, worldwide. This study aimed at investigating the effects of ATR, CPF and mixture on common carp gills following 40-d exposure and 40-d recovery experiments. Cytochrome P450 content, activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and the mRNA levels of the CYP1 family (CYP1A, CYP1B, and CYP1C) were determined. In total, 220 common carps were divided into eleven groups, and each group was treated with a specific concentration of ATR (4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g/L) or ATR-CPF mixture (1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g/L). The results showed that P450 content and activities of APND and ERND in fish exposed to ATR and mixture were significantly higher than those in the control group. After the 40-d recovery treatment (i.e., depuration), the P450 content and the activities of APND and ERND in fish decreased to the background levels. A similar tendency was also found in the mRNA levels of the CYP1 family (CYP1A, CYP1B, and CYP1C) in common carp gills. The CPF-treated fish showed no significant difference from the control groups, except for a significant CYP1C induction. These results indicated that CYP enzyme levels are induced by ATR but were only slightly affected by CPF in common carp gills. In addition, the ATR and CPF exposure showed an antagonistic effect on P450 enzymes in common carp gills. PMID:23702303

Fu, Yao; Li, Ming; Liu, Ci; Qu, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Xing, Hou-Juan; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu



Studies of ribonucleotide reductase in crucian carp-an oxygen dependent enzyme in an anoxia tolerant vertebrate.  


The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O(2)) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp. PMID:22916159

Sandvik, Guro K; Tomter, Ane B; Bergan, Jonas; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Barra, Anne-Laure; Røhr, Asmund K; Kolberg, Matthias; Ellefsen, Stian; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Nilsson, Göran E



Habitat Preference, Dispersal, and Population Trends of Three Species of Invasive Asian Carps in Tributaries of the La Grange Reach of the Illinois River.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Asian carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and H. nobilis), first introduced into the United States in the 1960s and 1970s, escaped and established reproducing populations in the Mississippi and Illinois River systems by the year 2...

M. R. Wilson



Evidence that a substance P-like peptide mediates the non-cholinergic excitatory response of the carp intestinal bulb (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The participation of substance P in the noncholinergic contraction induced by transmural stimulation (TMS) of the carp intestinal bulb was examined. In the presence of atropine, substance P caused the contraction of carp intestinal bulb smooth muscle in a concentration dependent manner (1 nmol\\/1 - 1 µmol\\/l). The EC50 value was 28 ± 7 nmol\\/l (n = 6). Substance P-induced

Takio Kitazawa; Katsunori Kudo; Mitsue Ishigami; Hidenari Furuhashi; Kyosuke Temma; Hiroshi Kondo



Lack of growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 action on in vivo and in vitro growth hormone secretion in sexually immature grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in mammals have shown that synthetic Met-enkephalin derivatives, called growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs),\\u000a stimulate growth hormone (GH) release. In the present study, GHRP-6 action on GH secretion was examined in vivo and in vitro in sexually immature grass carp. GHRP-6 injected intraperitoneally had no influences on serum GH levels in juvenile grass\\u000a carp. Following intraperitonal injection of GHRP-6 and dopamine

Dong Xiao; Anderson O. L. Wong; Hao-Ran Lin



Effect of treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and essential oil compounds on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of carp fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and 1% essential oil (0.5% carvacrol+0.5% thymol) on the proximate composition and nutritional components (amino acids and fatty acids) of carp fillets at room temperature (25°C). Carp fillet samples were treated with anodic electrolyzed NaCl solution [EW (+)], cathodic electrolyzed NaCl solution [EW (?)] followed by

Barakat S. M. Mahmoud; Y. Kawai; K. Yamazaki; K. Miyashita; T. Suzuki



Preservative effect of combined treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and essential oil compounds on carp fillets during convectional air-drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects on carp fillet samples of treatments with alkaline electrolyzed NaCl solution EW (?) prior to treatment with acidic electrolyzed NaCl solution EW (+) and 1% solutions of the essential oils consisting of 0.5% carvacrol and 0.5% thymol (1% Cv+Ty) were tested. First carp fillet samples were treated with EW (?), then EW (+), followed by

Barakat S. M. Mahmoud; Koji Yamazaki; Kazuo Miyashita; Yuji Kawai; Il-Shik Shin; Tetsuya Suzuki



Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g\\/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after\\u000a (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl4. CCl4

Guojun YinLiping; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao; Chengping Lu



Evolution and Regulation of the Downstream Gene of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1? in Naked Carp ( Gymnocypris przewalskii ) from Lake Qinghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) is a native teleost of Lake Qinghai (altitude, 3.2 km) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?\\u000a of Gymnocypris przewalskii was cloned and a phylogenetic tree for vertebrate HIF-1? was constructed. By analysis of maximum likelihood models of codon\\u000a substitutions for HIF-1?, three positive sites in the branch lineages of crucian carp, eelpout, and

Yi-Bin Cao; Xue-Qun Chen; Shen Wang; Yu-Xiang Wang; Ji-Zeng Du



Differential effects of age-structured common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) stocks on pond invertebrate communities: implications for recreational and wildlife use of farm ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development of common carp Cyprinus carpio pond fisheries in Europe postulates their multifunctional use, integrating exploitation of aquaculture resources with recreational\\u000a services and maintenance of high levels of local biodiversity. Age classes of farmed carp are grown separately and pond ecosystems\\u000a may be differently affected by different ontogenetic stages of fish. To examine these relationships, a study was conducted

Janusz Kloskowski


DNA Methylation Analysis of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids.

Liu, Shaojun; Tao, Min; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Yun



[Comparative study of biological effect of purified gonadotropins of sturgeon (Acepenser stellatus) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)].  


A comparison was made of the biological effect of purified gonadotropins of the sevryuga and the carp on the activation of adenyl cyclase in the homogenate of the goldfish ovary, the reaction of spermiation in two species of frogs, and the in vitro maturation of oocytes of two amphibian species and sevryuga. The ratio of specific activities of the preparations under study was shown to vary markedly with respect to test-subject and test-reaction. The data obtained suggest, thus, qualitative differences in the effect of the gonadotropins under study and the response of organs-targets. It is proposed to use the system of in vitro maturation of amphibian oocytes for studying the phenomenon of species specificity of gonadotropins of lower vertebrates. PMID:934594

Goncharov, B F; Burzava-Zherar, E; Fonten, N A



Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.  


The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in ?-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in ?-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity. PMID:24128554

Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin



Biochemical and physical changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets stored at -3 and 0 °C.  


The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of superchilling at -3 °C compared with ice storage at 0 °C on the biochemical and physical properties of grass carp fillets. Fillets stored at -3 °C showed significant changes in whiteness, drip loss and textural hardness, while changes in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen and TCA-soluble peptides were slowed down. Partial denaturation of myosin as demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry differed between fillets stored at -3 and 0 °C in that the transition peak showed a left shoulder at -3 °C and sharpened at 0 °C. Detachments between muscle cells and formation of cracks within cells were accelerated during storage at -3 °C, and from 10 days on, clear spaces between and within cells were observed with the concurrent appearance of white spots on the surface of fillets, suggesting the formation of both extra- and intracellular large ice crystals. PMID:23578621

Liu, Dasong; Liang, Li; Xia, Wenshui; Regenstein, Joe M; Zhou, Peng



Effects of Bacillus preparations on immunity and antioxidant activities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  


This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Bacillus preparations on immunity and antioxidant activities in grass carp. A total of 315 grass carp, with similar initial weight (average weight of fish 45 g), were randomly divided into three groups with three replicates. The control group was fed the basal diet without Bacillus; treatment group 1 was added Bacillus preparation no. 1 with 1 × 10(8) cfu/m(3) per 7 days in culture water and also fed the basal diet; treatment group 2 was fed the basal diet mixed with 0.5 % Bacillus preparation no. 2, and the culture water was added 1 × 10(8) cfu/m(3) Bacillus preparation no. 1 per 7 days. After 4 weeks of culture, 12 grass carp from each replicate were taken randomly for the determination of immune response and oxidization resistance indices. The results showed that compared with control, the level of globulin and IgM of treatment group 2 was significantly increased (P < 0.05), which was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of group 1. For the non-specific immunity index, compared with control, the lysozyme activity and complement (C3) content of treatment group 1 significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the level of myeloperoxidase and C3 of treatment group 2 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of control, which was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of group 1. In the serum, compared with the control, the level of total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), antisuperoxide anion free radical (ASAFR) and glutathione (GSH) of two treatment groups was significantly increased (P < 0.05); GSH content of treatment group 2 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of treatment group 1 and control. There was no significant difference between T-AOC and ASAFR among the two treatment groups; no significant effect was found on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) among the three groups. In the liver, T-AOC, SOD, ASAFR, GSH-Px and GSH from two treatment groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of control; T-AOC, SOD and catalase from treatment group 2 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of treatment group 1; and MDA of two treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as compared with the control. The results indicate that Bacillus preparations added into water can increase serum immunoglobulin levels and most of non-specific immune parameters content and enhance the antioxidant ability of grass carp, while adding Bacillus preparation into the water and feed is much better. PMID:22585415

Weifen, Li; Xiaoping, Zhang; Wenhui, Song; Bin, Deng; Quan, Liang; Luoqin, Fu; Jiajia, Zheng; yue, Wang; Dongyou, Yu



Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.  


In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin



Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.; Greenland, D. C.



Tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin are utilized more efficiently than tricaprylin by carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae.  


We investigated the effect of chain length of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on growth performance and fatty acid composition of first-feeding carp larvae. In a first trial, five semi-purified isolipidic (23-24 g/100 g of dry matter) diets were formulated to contain either 10 g/100 g triolein (control diet) or 5 g/100 g triolein and 5 g/100 g medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) supplied as tricaproin, tricaprylin, tricaprin or trilaurin. After 21 d, survival and growth rates were significantly greater in larvae fed diets containing triolein, tricaproin, tricaprin and trilaurin (final survival: 92 +/- 7% and mean larval weight: 42 +/- 15 mg) than in larvae fed tricaprylin (final survival: 56 +/- 12% and mean larval weight: 15 +/- 1 mg). The recovered levels of the fed MCFA in larval total lipids were respectively 0, 1.3, 7.3 and 8.1 g/100 g of total fatty acids. In a second trial, two isolipidic (18 g/100 g) diets containing 10 g/100 g triolein or tricaprylin were tested. High amounts of capric acid (up to 25 g/100 g of total fatty acids) were found in neutral lipids of carp larvae fed tricaprylin for 11 d, suggesting an unusual elongation of caprylic acid. This study underlines the peculiarity of tricaprylin among other MCT which seem well utilized up to 20-30 g/100 g of total dietary fatty acids. The exception of tricaprylin raises the question of the metabolic pathways followed by this MCT, especially for the suggested direct elongation of caprylic acid into capric acid. PMID:10917917

Fontagné, S; Corraze, G; Bergot, P



Melanocortin receptor 1 and black pigmentation in the Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi).  


Colors and their patterns are fascinating phenotypes with great importance for fitness under natural conditions. For this reason and because pigmentation is associated with diseases, much research was devoted to study the genetics of pigmentation in animals. Considerable contribution to our understanding of color phenotypes was made by studies in domesticated animals that exhibit dazzling variation in color traits. Koi strains, the ornamental variants of the common carp, are a striking example for color variability that was selected by man during a very short period on an evolutionary timescale. Among several pigmentation genes, genetic variation in Melanocrtin receptor 1 was repeatedly associated with dark pigmentation phenotypes in numerous animals. In this study, we cloned Melanocrtin receptor 1 from the common carp. We found that alleles of the gene were not associated with the development of black color in Koi. However, the mRNA expression levels of the gene were higher during dark pigmentation development in larvae and in dark pigmented tissues of adult fish, suggesting that variation in the regulation of the gene is associated with black color in Koi. These regulatory differences are reflected in both the timing of the dark-pigmentation development and