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1

3D modeling and molecular dynamics simulation of an immune-regulatory cytokine, interleukin-10, from the Indian major carp, Catla catla.  

PubMed

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immune-regulatory cytokine that is expressed in various species of fish and higher vertebrates, and is activated during infection. In spite of its important role, IL-10 has not been well characterized either functionally or structurally in fish. To analyze its properties and function, we constructed a 3D model of IL-10 in the Indian major carp, the catla (Catla catla), which is a highly preferred fish species and the most commercially important one in the Indian subcontinent. The catla IL-10 model was constructed by comparative modeling using human IL-10 (2ILK) as the template, and a 5 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out to characterize its structural and dynamical features, which was validated by the SAVES, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers. Analysis using the VAST server revealed a comparatively low level of homology between catla and human IL-10 amino acids at the N-terminal (22.7%) compared to the C-terminal (38.29%). Six conserved domains (A-F) were predicted in catla that threaded well with human IL-10, but their putative interaction sites varied significantly. The amino acid residues in helices A and F differed in length between catla and human IL-10, which may lead to the differences in the IL-10/IL-10R complexes of these two species. The existence of two highly conserved amino acid residues (Cys5 and Cys10) in fish IL-10 but not in higher vertebrate (including human) IL-10 was analyzed in this 3D model. CastP, cons-PPISP and InterProSurf server identified several binding pockets with various probe radii, but Cys5 and Cys10 did not form any significant bonds relating to structural stabilization or protein-protein interactions. PMID:21830101

Sahoo, Bikash R; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Maiti, Nikhil K; Samanta, Mrinal

2012-05-01

2

Characterization of IgM of Indian major carps and their cross-reactivity with anti-fish IgM antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian major carps (IMC), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) were immunized with bovine serum albumin and the serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) was purified by affinity chromatography. The heavy and light chain of IgM of all the three species of IMC were about 88 and 26kDa, respectively. Anti-fish IgM antibody against all the three species were

Manas Ranjan Bag; M. Makesh; K. V. Rajendran; S. C. Mukherjee

2009-01-01

3

Effect of seeds of Achyranthes aspera on the immune responses and expression of some immune-related genes in carp Catla catla.  

PubMed

Evaluation of functional mechanism of immunostimulant in fish is essential for realizing their therapeutic potential. The impact of dietary supplementation of seeds of Achyranthes aspera on the immune system of Catla catla was studied. Catla (37.73 ± 6.7 g) were fed with test diets containing 0.5 (D1) and 1.0% (D2) seeds of A. aspera and control diet (D3) for 50 days. Then fish were immunized with heat-killed Aeromonas hydrophila. Blood and tissue samples were collected after 7 days of immunization. Three fish were sacrificed for each parameter. Respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and antibody response were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in test diets fed catla compared to the control one. Nitric oxide synthase and serum lysozyme were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in fish fed with diet D2 compared to the other treatments. There were up-regulations of TNF?, lysozyme c and g gene expressions in kidney and IL-10, lysozyme c and g expressions in hepatopancreas of test diets fed fish compared to the control one. The expression of IL-10 was down-regulated in the kidney of D2 diet fed fish compared to others. In the gill, significantly (P < 0.05) higher expressions of TNF? was found in D1 diet feed fish and lysozyme c and in D2 diet fed fish compared to the other groups. This study showed tissue-specific gene expression pattern in catla. An inverse relationship was found between the expression of TNF? and IL-10 in kidney of catla. PMID:24657259

Chakrabarti, Rina; Srivastava, Praveen Kumar; Verma, Nandini; Sharma, JaiGopal

2014-11-01

4

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla) for preparing protein hydrolysate using a commercial protease.  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla), an Indian freshwater major carp. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a factorial design. Model equation was proposed with regard to the effect of time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level. An enzyme to substrate level of 1.5% (v/w), pH 8.5, temperature of 50 degrees C and a hydrolysis time of 135 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain a higher degree of hydrolysis close to 50% using alcalase. The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate prepared using the optimized conditions revealed that the protein hydrolysate was similar to FAO/WHO reference protein. The chemical scores computed indicated methionine to be the most limiting amino acid. The protein hydrolysate can well be used to meet the amino acid requirements of juvenile common carp and hence has the potential for application as an ingredient in balanced fish diets. PMID:17303414

Bhaskar, N; Benila, T; Radha, C; Lalitha, R G

2008-01-01

5

Characterization of IgM of Indian major carps and their cross-reactivity with anti-fish IgM antibodies.  

PubMed

Indian major carps (IMC), rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) were immunized with bovine serum albumin and the serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) was purified by affinity chromatography. The heavy and light chain of IgM of all the three species of IMC were about 88 and 26kDa, respectively. Anti-fish IgM antibody against all the three species were raised in mice and the reaction of anti-fish IgM antibodies with IgM of all the three species of IMC were studied by Western blot. The anti-fish IgM antibodies reacted strongly with the heavy chain of the same species against which it was raised while the reactions with the heavy chain of other species were milder indicating some degree of epitope sharing among the heavy chains of IgM of IMCs. However, there was no cross-reaction with the light chain of any of the IgM. PMID:19063976

Bag, Manas Ranjan; Makesh, M; Rajendran, K V; Mukherjee, S C

2009-02-01

6

Protein hydrolysate from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla): optimization of hydrolysis conditions for a commercial neutral protease.  

PubMed

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of an Indian freshwater major carp, Catla catla. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins using in situ pH of the visceral mass were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) by employing a factorial design. The regression coefficient close to 1.0, observed during both experimental and validation runs, indicated the validity of prediction model. An enzyme to substrate level of 1.25 % (v/w), temperature of 55 degrees C and a hydrolysis time of 165 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain a higher degree of hydrolysis of >48% using multifect-neutral. The amino acid composition of the protein hydrolysate prepared using the optimized conditions revealed that the protein hydrolysate was similar to FAO/WHO reference protein. The chemical scores computed indicated methionine to be the most limiting amino acid. The protein hydrolysate has the potential for application as an ingredient in balanced fish diets. PMID:17933524

Bhaskar, N; Mahendrakar, N S

2008-07-01

7

Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.  

PubMed

In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

2014-04-01

8

Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

2012-01-01

9

Bighead Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

10

The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.  

PubMed

The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. PMID:22887814

Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati

2014-05-01

11

Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

12

75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS as required by 33 U.S.C...material to the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program Manager...the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS. Full compliance with 72...

2010-04-07

13

Recombinant Carp Parvalbumin, the Major Cross-Reactive Fish Allergen: A Tool for Diagnosis and Therapy of Fish Allergy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgE-mediated reactions to fish allergens represent one of the most frequent causes of food allergy. We have constructed an expression cDNA library from carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle in phage gt11 and used serum IgE from a fish allergic patient to isolate 33 cDNA clones that coded for two parvalbumin isoforms (Cyp c 1.01 and Cyp c 1.02) with comparable IgE

Ines Swoboda; Agnes Bugajska-Schretter; Petra Verdino; Walter Keller; Wolfgang R. Sperr; Peter Valent; Rudolf Valenta; Susanne Spitzauer

14

Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370??g?g?1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148

Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

2014-01-01

15

GnIH and GnRH expressions in the central nervous system and pituitary of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita during ontogeny: An immunocytochemical study.  

PubMed

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the major hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin secretion in vertebrates. In 2000, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brain of other vertebrates. We show for the first time GnIH immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and pituitary during development of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita and compare it with the localization of GnRH. GnIH and GnRH immunoreactivities were observed from the olfactory system to spinal cord throughout development. In the brain, both neuropeptides were localized in the telencephalon, diencephalon including the preoptic area and rhombencephalon. The localization of GnIH and GnRH in the pituitary suggests that these neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of pituitary hormones by an autocrine manner during development. In addition, the presence of GnIH and GnRH in several other brain regions including the olfactory system suggests their involvement in the regulation of other physiological functions. PMID:24955881

Biswas, Saikat; Jadhao, Arun G; Pinelli, Claudia; Palande, Nikhil V; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

2014-06-20

16

Gamma radiation induced cell cycle perturbations and DNA damage in Catla Catla as measured by flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Gamma radiation induced cell cycle perturbations and DNA damage in Catla catla were analyzed in erythrocytes at different time points using flow cytometry (FCM). Protracted exposure to radiation induced damage between days 12 and 45. Disturbances in cell cycle machinery, i.e., proportional increase and decrease in Gap0 or quiescent/Gap1 (G0/G1), Synthesis (S) and Gap2/Mitotic (G2/M) phases were observed at both acute and protracted treatments. Both acute and protracted exposures induced apoptosis with a notable significance between days 3 and 6 at protracted and on day 45 at acute doses. Fish exposed protractedly avail some DNA repair mechanisms than acutely exposed. This is the first study to analyze radiation induced DNA damage under laboratory conditions and suggests that flow cytometry can also be an alternate tool to screen genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in fish. PMID:25483367

Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N

2015-03-01

17

Short and long-term effects of clofibric acid and diclofenac on certain biochemical and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.  

PubMed

Extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine and aquaculture practices pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. In the present investigation, Cirrhinus mrigala an Indian major carp was exposed to different concentrations of clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) and certain biochemical and ionoregulatory responses were assessed under short and long term exposures. During short-term (96h) exposure period, plasma glucose and sodium (Na(+)) levels were increased at all concentrations (1, 10 and 100?gL(-1)) of CA and DCF treated fish. Plasma protein and chloride (Cl(-)) levels were found to be decreased at all concentrations of CA and DCF exposed fish comparatively to control groups. Meanwhile an increase in plasma potassium (K(+)) level was noted in fish exposed to CA treatments alone and in DCF treatments it was decreased. In long-term exposure (35d), plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels were found to be significantly increased at all concentration of CA and DCF. However, a biphasic trend was observed in plasma glucose, protein and K(+) levels. In both the treatments, a significant (P<0.01 and P<0.05) changes were observed in all parameters measured in fish exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. The results of the present investigation indicate that both the drugs caused significant changes in biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of fish at all concentrations. The alterations of these parameters can be useful in monitoring of pharmaceutical residues present in aquatic environment. PMID:23777676

Saravanan, M; Ramesh, M

2013-09-01

18

Alteration in certain enzymological parameters of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to short- and long-term exposure of clofibric acid and diclofenac.  

PubMed

The extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine may enter the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to non-target aquatic organisms like fish. In this study, Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala was exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ?g L?¹) of most commonly used pharmaceutical drugs clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) to evaluate its impacts on certain enzymological parameters during short- and long-term exposures. During short-term (96 h) exposure period, plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and gill Na?/K?-ATPase activity were significantly altered at all concentrations of both the CA- and DCF-treated fish. In long-term exposure (35 days), gill Na?/K?-ATPase activity was found to be significantly increased at all concentration of CA and DCF exposures throughout the study period (except at the end of 7th day in 10 and 100 µg L?¹) . However, a biphasic trend was observed in plasma GOT and GPT activity when compared to the control groups. In both short- and long-term exposure, a significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) changes were observed in all enzymological parameters of fish C. mrigala exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. The alterations of these enzymological parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical toxicity in aquatic environment and organisms. PMID:23579460

Saravanan, Manoharan; Ramesh, Mathan; Petkam, Rakpong

2013-12-01

19

Silver Carp Larva  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

20

Silver Carp Larvae  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

21

Toxicological effects of clofibric acid and diclofenac on plasma thyroid hormones of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala during short and long-term exposures.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, the toxicity of most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment namely clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) was investigated in an Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala. Fingerlings of C. mrigala were exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100?gL(-1)) of CA and DCF for a period of 96h (short term) and 35 days (long term). The toxic effects of CA and DCF on thyroid hormones (THs) such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were evaluated. During the short and long-term exposure period TSH level was found to be decreased at all concentrations of CA (except at the end of 14(th) day in 1 and 10?gL(-l) and 21(st) day in 1?gL(-l)) whereas in DCF exposed fish TSH level was found to be increased when compared to control groups. T4 level was found to be decreased at 1 and 100?gL(-l) of CA exposure at the end of 96h. However, T4 level was decreased at all concentrations of CA and DCF during long-term (35 days) exposure period. Fish exposed to all concentrations of CA and DCF had lower level of T3 in both the treatments. These results suggest that both CA and DCF drugs induced significant changes (P<0.01 and P<0.05) on thyroid hormonal levels of C. mrigala. The alterations of these hormonal levels can be used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic organisms. PMID:25461555

Saravanan, Manoharan; Hur, Jang-Hyun; Arul, Narayanasamy; Ramesh, Mathan

2014-11-01

22

Juvenile Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

23

Juvenile Bighead Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

24

Silver and Bighead Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

25

Silver Carp Egg  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

26

In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868

Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

2014-04-01

27

FOURIER TRANSFORM RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF LEAD-EXPOSED MUSCLE TISSUES OF CATLA CATLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is considered to be one of the most common toxic metals present in the environment, exposure to it being a major concern to public health. Fourier Transform (FT) Raman Spectroscopy can provide information on the molecular composition of a substance by detecting and analyzing light that is inelastically scattered from the substance following its excitation by monochromatic laser light.

M. VADIVELU; V. VIJAYASUNDARAM; Annamalai Nagar

2009-01-01

28

Analysis of koi herpesvirus latency in wild common carp and ornamental koi in Oregon, USA.  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) infection is associated with high mortalities in both common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi) worldwide. Although acute infection has been reported in both domestic and wild common carp, the status of KHV latent infection is largely unknown in wild common carp. To investigate whether KHV latency is present in wild common carp, the distribution of KHV latent infection was investigated in two geographically distinct populations of wild common carp in Oregon, as well as in koi from an Oregon-based commercial supplier. Latent KHV infection was demonstrated in white blood cells from each of these populations. Although KHV isolated from acute infections has two distinct genetic groups, Asian and European, KHV detected in wild carp has not been genetically characterized. DNA sequences from ORF 25 to 26 that are unique between Asian and European were investigated in this study. KHV from captive koi and some wild common carp were found to have ORF-25-26 sequences similar to KHV-J (Asian), while the majority of KHV DNA detected in wild common carp has similarity to KHV-U/-I (European). In addition, DNA sequences from IL-10, and TNFR were sequenced and compared with no differences found, which suggests immune suppressor genes of KHV are conserved between KHV in wild common carp and koi, and is consistent with KHV-U, -I, -J. PMID:23174162

Xu, Jia-Rong; Bently, Jennifer; Beck, Linda; Reed, Aimee; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R; Kent, Michael L; Rockey, Daniel D; Jin, Ling

2013-02-01

29

Health risks associated with pesticide residues in water, sediments and the muscle tissues of Catla catla at Head Balloki on the River Ravi.  

PubMed

A study of the levels of six pesticide residues (endosulfan, carbofuran, cypermethrin, profenofos, triazophos, and deltamethrin) was conducted to determine possible environmental and health risks in surface waters, sediment, and fish Catla catla. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The total concentration of pesticides in water, sediment, and fish ranged from 0.005 to 3.17 ?g/l, 0.61 to 23.06 ng/g dry weight, and 0.35 to 19.15 ?g/g lipid-normalized units, respectively. According to the concentrations and detection frequencies, endosulfan and profenofos were the most dominant pesticides recorded in fish tissue and sediment samples. Profenofos and cypermethrin, meanwhile, were the most abundant pesticides recorded in water samples at these sites. Cypermethrin and triazophos were not detected in the sediment samples. The concentration of endosulfan, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were higher than the permissible limits for fish set by international agencies and pose a potential ecological risk to the aquatic ecosystem and a consequent hazard to human health. PMID:25655128

Mahboob, Shahid; Niazi, Fakhra; AlGhanim, K; Sultana, Salma; Al-Misned, F; Ahmed, Z

2015-03-01

30

Triploid Grass Carp The grass carp, or white amur (Ctenopharyngodon  

E-print Network

that perform like teeth and let them tear free and grind aquatic plants. Triploid developed a method to cre- ate sterile, non-reproducing grass carp by exposing the fertilized eggs to heat into states like Pennsylvania that prohibit the introduction of diploid grass carp. Diploid and triploid grass

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

31

High-jumping Silver Carp  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

32

Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1?g\\/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500pg\\/ml), and

Asamanja Chattoraj; Sharmistha Bhattacharyya; Dipanjan Basu; Shelley Bhattacharya; Samir Bhattacharya; Saumen Kumar Maitra

2005-01-01

33

Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio

2010-01-01

34

Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

1994-01-01

35

Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

36

Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

37

Carpe Diem! Prof. Dr. Stefan Krauter  

E-print Network

»Carpe Diem!« Prof. Dr. Stefan Krauter Photovoltaik-Institut Berlin AG 33 »Damals wurden wir noch-Nachhaltigkeit eher Foto:TUPressestelle/Dahl #12;34 35 zur person Prof. Dr. Stefan Krauter motto »Carpe Diem!« mein

Wichmann, Felix

38

85Wells et al.--Control of macrophytes by grass carp Control of macrophytes by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)  

E-print Network

85Wells et al.--Control of macrophytes by grass carp Control of macrophytes by grass carp for the high plant biomass that accumulates at the end of summer, the effect of stocking diploid grass carp (including the emergents), seven were exotic. Two months after grass carp were released to Churchill East

Waikato, University of

39

Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

40

History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

41

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

42

The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems  

E-print Network

THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1994 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE BIOLOGY OF FREE-RANGING GRASS CARP IN EAST TEXAS RIVER AND BAY SYSTEMS A Thesis by HOWARD STANTON ELDER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Elder, Howard Stanton

2012-06-07

43

Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Dietary and Aqueous Cadmium by Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated water for 4 weeks in laboratory experiments. When exposed to

M. H. Kraal; M. H. S. Kraak; C. J. Degroot; C. Davids

1995-01-01

44

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg\\/kg Cd (as CdClâ), intraperitoneally for 6

H. Kito; Y. Ose; T. Sato

1986-01-01

45

Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?  

EPA Science Inventory

There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

46

Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics  

E-print Network

). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread

47

571Tempero et al.--Age, growth and reproduction of koi carp Age composition, growth, and reproduction of koi carp  

E-print Network

, and reproduction of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the lower Waikato region, New Zealand GrAnT W. Tempero nichol, new Zealand email: nling@waikato.ac.nz Abstract A total of 566 koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) from; age; growth; invasive species; maturity; fecundity INTRODUCTION common carp (Cyprinus carpio l

Waikato, University of

48

Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

1983-04-01

49

A new haplotype variability in complement C6 is marginally associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.  

PubMed

Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortality and tremendous economic loss in cultured grass carp in the mainland China. The complement component C6 is a constituent of a biochemical cascade that serves as a major effector of the human innate and adaptor immunity, and eliminates infected cells. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C6 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. The gcC6 genomic sequence is composed of 9292 bp, containing 18 exons and 17 introns. The promoter sequence of gcC6 gene contained several consensus sequences for hepatic-specific transcription factors. We sequenced a total of 9744 bp of the C6 gene from a diverse population of grass carp and identified 8 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of association between any individual SNPs and resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. The SNPs 1214G>A, 1380G>C, 2095A>C and 2167T>C were linked together (r(2) > 0.8). The haplotype GCCC generated with these four SNPs was associated marginally with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest a lack of strong association of the C6 polymorphisms with the A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. PMID:23422818

Shen, Yubang; Zhang, Junbin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Jiale

2013-05-01

50

Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

2011-01-01

51

Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

52

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

1986-03-01

53

Toxicity of Trihalomethanes to Common Carp Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

54

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal

J. S. Mattice; S. C. Tsai; M. B. Burch; J. J. Beauchamp

1981-01-01

55

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.  

PubMed

Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ), elimination half-life (t1/2? ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 ?g/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·?g/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 ?g/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·?g/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. PMID:25427758

Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

2014-11-27

56

Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

2007-01-01

57

Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

2014-01-01

58

Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

59

Protective immunity of grass carp immunized with DNA vaccine encoding the vp7 gene of grass carp reovirus using carbon nanotubes as a carrier molecule.  

PubMed

The uses of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carriers for DNA delivery have received considerable attention in cell studies. DNA vaccination of fish has been shown to elicit durable transgene expression, but no reports exist on intramuscular administration of SWCNTs-DNA vaccine electrostatic complexes which prepared through non-covalent conjugation. In this study, we injected grass carp intramuscularly with a plasmid vector containing a major capsid protein gene (vp7) of grass carp reovirus as a) naked pcDNA-vp7, b) SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7, c) empty plasmid vector, or phosphate buffered saline. After intramuscular administration, the ability of the different immune treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed. The results indicated that higher levels of transcription and expression of the vp7 gene could be detected in muscle tissues of grass carp 28 days intramuscular injection in SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups compare with naked pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups. Moreover, the serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, immune-related genes, antibody levels and relative percentage survival were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 vaccine. The data in this study suggested that SWCNTs were promising carriers for plasmid DNA vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by intramuscular approach. PMID:25463298

Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

2015-02-01

60

Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

2007-01-01

61

Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

2011-12-01

62

The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

2014-02-25

63

Cortisol inhibits apoptosis in carp neutrophilic granulocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct effect of cortisol treatment on carp neutrophil viability was examined in vitro. Cortisol treatment caused an inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. The effect was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor blocker RU486, showing that rescue from apoptosis was receptor mediated. Using binding studies with radioactive cortisol, a single class of glucocorticoid receptors was detected with high affinity (Kd=2.6 nM) and low

F. A. A. Weyts; G. Flik; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

1998-01-01

64

Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

2015-01-01

65

The role of HIRA and maternal histones in sperm nucleus decondensation in the gibel carp and color crucian carp.  

PubMed

The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly during male pronucleus formation in Drosophila. However, the role of HIRA during fertilization in vertebrates remains unclear. The gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique gynogenetic crucian carp (gyno-carp). Heterologous sperm nuclei cannot decondense when incorporated in the egg, thus the eggs produce a clonal lineage of all females by typical gynogenesis. In contrast, after entering the egg, homologous sperm can undergo decondensation and sexual reproduction is activated, which may produce both female and male offspring. Therefore, this fish is a useful model for studying the mechanisms of fertilization. Herein, we first compared HIRA expression during embryogenesis between gyno-carp and the gonochoristic color crucian carp (Carassius auratus; gono-carp). In gono-carp, a dramatic reduction of HIRA protein occurs shortly after fertilization, whereas HIRA protein is consistently expressed during embryogenesis of gyno-carp. Next, we used immunodepletion and an in vitro sperm decondensation system, and found that complete removal of HIRA inhibited sperm decondensation in both of the fish. Immunofluorescence localization showed that in the condensed sperm nuclei of gono-carp incubated in gyno-carp egg extracts, HIRA was detected, but neither the histone H2A variant H2af1o nor acetylated histone H4 was observed. These results suggest that HIRA may be a critical factor required for sperm nucleus decondensation, while the defect in deposition of some maternal histones in the sperm nucleus could be one reason why heterologous sperm cannot decondense in the gibel carp egg. PMID:21337451

Zhao, Zhan-Ke; Li, Wei; Wang, Meng-Yu; Zhou, Li; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng

2011-02-01

66

Effects of Sodium Fluoride on Carp and Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptoms of acute fluoride intoxication in carp and rainbow trout include lethargy, violent and erratic movement, and death where there is partial or complete muscle contraction. Excessive mucus production associated with an increase in mucous cells in the epithelium of the head region and the gills also occurs. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of the serum proteins in carp

John M. Neuhold; William F. Sigler

1960-01-01

67

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

E-print Network

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). S. J. KAUSHIK K of the model were affected by body weight. Introduction. Attempts to feed carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and methods. Eggs of Cyprinus carpio obtained by artificial spawning were hatched in the laboratory (20 °C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Validating Otolith Annuli for Annual Age Determination of Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp Cyprinus carpio are an important pest species in Australia, yet little is known regarding their age and growth there. We examined otolith sections of common carp to validate their utility for age determination. For the 1999 year-class in Hut Lake near Barmah, we confirmed the absolute age at first annulus formation as age 1 by repeated sampling of

Paul Brown; Corey Green; K. P. Sivakumaran; Daniel Stoessel; A. Giles

2004-01-01

69

Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

2013-01-01

70

Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.  

PubMed

Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases. PMID:9270124

Szakolczai, J

1997-01-01

71

Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.  

PubMed

Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone. PMID:22447502

Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

2012-10-01

72

[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  

PubMed

Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K

2010-05-01

73

Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation. PMID:22093413

2011-01-01

74

Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova

2009-01-01

75

Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.

1976-01-01

76

Genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environments using caged carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with genotoxicity assessment of freshwaters using caged carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were transplanted from a fish-farm to three differently polluted sites in eastern Croatia. Two polluted sites were\\u000a situated in the river Drava, downstream from the cities of Beliš?e and Osijek, while the reference site was in the Nature\\u000a Park Kopa?ki rit, a preserved wetland area

Göran I. V. Klobu?ar; Anamaria Štambuk; Mirjana Pavlica; Mirela Serti? Peri?; Branimir Kutuzovi? Hackenberger; Ketil Hylland

2010-01-01

77

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

2014-01-01

78

An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments  

E-print Network

Low-density stockings of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were evaluated to determine their ability to control nuisance submersed vegetation in small sportfishing impoundments. Triploid grass carp were stocked into four small...

Blackwell, Brian Gene

1993-01-01

79

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TELEMETRY A CASE STUDY EXAMINING COMMON CARP  

E-print Network

. During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Studies of thermal discharges employing continuously monitored

Cooke, Steven J.

80

Using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences to investigate diversity and genealogical relationships within common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop (745 bp) and MTATPase6/MTATPase8 (857 bp) regions was used to investigate genetic variation within common carp and develop a global genealogy of common carp strains. The D-loop region was more variable than the MTATPase6/MTATPase8 region, but given the wide distribution of carp the overall levels of sequence divergence were low. Levels of haplotype diversity varied widely among countries with Chinese, Indonesian and Vietnamese carp showing the greatest diversity whereas Japanese Koi and European carp had undetectable nucleotide variation. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship between Vietnamese, Koi and Chinese Color carp strains and to a lesser extent, European carp. Chinese and Indonesian carp strains were the most divergent, and their relationships do not support the evolution of independent Asian and European lineages and current taxonomic treatments. PMID:15670127

Thai, B T; Burridge, C P; Pham, T A; Austin, C M

2005-02-01

81

Identical sequences but different expression patterns of Hira gene in gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hir\\/Hira (histone regulation) genes were first identified in yeast as negative regulators of histone gene expression. It has been\\u000a confirmed that HIRA is a conserved family of proteins present in various animals and plants. In this paper, the cDNAs of the\\u000a Hira homolog named CagHira and CaHira were isolated from gynogenetic gibel carp (gyno-carp) and gonochoristic color crucian carp (gono-carp)

X. Z. Du; L. Zhou; H. B. Zhao; Y. F. Wang; J. F. Gui

2008-01-01

82

J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 2733 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a  

E-print Network

J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 27­33 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenci- ennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass

Kwak, Thomas J.

83

Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1  

E-print Network

BUL867 Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1 aquatic weed problems. This bulletin provides information on a biological method, the grass carp plants. Since the grass carp is a living organism, in contrast to ei- ther herbicides or mechanical

Watson, Craig A.

84

Population Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes Quinton E. Phelps  

E-print Network

precision among four alternative structures compared to otoliths for 139 common carp collected from fivePopulation Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern South Dakota Glacial Lakes By Quinton E. Phelps and Fisheries Sciences South Dakota State University 2006 #12;11 Population Dynamics of Common Carp in Eastern

85

First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

E-print Network

University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native

86

Spatial variability of common carp populations in relation to lake morphology and physicochemical  

E-print Network

, often by mediating nutrient flow and species interactions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is listed 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread invasive species, SD, USA Key words: common carp; Cyprinus carpio; autecology; spatial distribution; abiotic factors

87

Population genetics of invasive common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in coastal drainages in eastern Australia.  

PubMed

The common carp Cyprinus carpio introduced in two drainages in eastern Australia are largely descended from European common carp, and in a third drainage they descend largely from East Asian common carp. The partial genetic differentiation among the species in those drainages is consistent with their origins. PMID:21039496

Haynes, G D; Gilligan, D M; Grewe, P; Moran, C; Nicholas, F W

2010-10-01

88

Size and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyoles (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant species offshore and used more the littoral in spring and deep bottoms in winter. The diet of carp was based on detritus, amphipods (Echinogammarus sp.), phantom midge larvae (Chaoborus flavicans), diatom mucilages, and plant debris. Amphipods

Emili García-Berthou

2001-01-01

89

CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

2014-01-01

90

Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short settling zone upstream of the Grafton Dam, whereas the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers both had extensive settling zones (>5 km) behind major dams. These longer settling zones are likely to capture more eggs than shorter settling reaches. All four rivers exhibited settling zones at their river mouths, with the Lake Erie tributaries having much larger settling zones extending more than 10 km up the tributaries. While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

2013-01-01

91

Mitochondrial DNA diversity, population structure, and conservation genetics of four native carps within the Yangtze River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon piceus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) rank first, second, fourth, and seventh in world fish production. In China, the Yangtze River harbours the most important natural populations of these species. We performed a polymerase chain reaction ñ restriction fragment length poymorphism analysis on 365 juvenile fish representing three nursery

Guoqing Lu; Sifa Li; Louis Bernatchez

1997-01-01

92

Spring Viremia of Carp1 Barbara D. Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, and Roy P.E. Yanong2  

E-print Network

significant mortality in several carp species including the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These species infections with the virus have been reported in common carp (or koi), (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius? Spring viremia of carp is an infection caused by Rhabdo- virus carpio, a bullet-shaped RNA virus. Natural

Watson, Craig A.

93

Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

2014-01-01

94

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

95

Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

1997-01-01

96

Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such

F. A. Sibbing

1984-01-01

97

The Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) in the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report collections of the bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) in the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois between 1991 and 1994. In all, we collected 48 specimens ranging from 18 to 790 mm total length. Young-of-the-year fish were caught in 1992 and 1994, which suggests that the species is able to reproduce in the Mississippi River and may

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Robert A. Hrabik; Michael D. Petersen; David P. Herzog

1996-01-01

98

Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

1987-04-01

99

Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies. PMID:23110192

Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

100

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA\\u000a clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues.\\u000a The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69%

Wuying Chu; Guihong Fu; Shiyu Bing; Tao Meng; Ruixue Zhou; Jia Cheng; Falan Zhao; Hongfang Zhang; Jianshe Zhang

2010-01-01

101

Single-walled carbon nanotubes as candidate recombinant subunit vaccine carrier for immunization of grass carp against grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the most pathogenic aquareovirus, can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in fingerling and yearling grass carp. Vaccination by injection is by far the most effective method of combating disease. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible to vaccinate large numbers of the fish. Thus, an efficient and economic strategy for the prevention of GCRV infection becomes urgent. Here, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carrier were used to manufacture SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine with chemical modification. Different developmental stages of grass carps were immunized by VP7/SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine against GCRV by intramuscular injection and bath immunization. The results indicate that better immune responses of grass carp immunized with the SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine were induced in comparison with VP7 subunit vaccine alone. Immunization doses/concentrations are significantly reduced (about 5-8 times) to prevent GCRV infection in different developmental stages of grass carp with injection or bath treatment when SWCNTs carrier was used. A good immune protective effect (relative percentage survival greater than 95%) is observed in smaller size fish (0.2 g) with SWCNTs-VP7 bath immunization. In addition, serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, immune-related genes and antibody levels were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with vaccine. This study suggested that functionalized SWCNTs was the promising carrier for recombinant subunit vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by bath approach. PMID:25240976

Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Song, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

2014-12-01

102

Tolrance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) un choc acide appliqu au cours  

E-print Network

Tolérance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) à un choc acide appliqué au Corzent 74203 Thonon-les-Bains, France. Summary. Physiological tolerance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggs

Boyer, Edmond

103

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise un jene total et prolong  

E-print Network

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise à un jeûne in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after prolonged total starvation. 1. Turnover rate and half-life of hepatic

Boyer, Edmond

104

Editor's Choice Series on Sharing Data and Materials Carpe Diem. Retooling the "Publish or Perish" Model into  

E-print Network

Editor's Choice Series on Sharing Data and Materials Carpe Diem. Retooling the "Publish or Perish understanding of plant biology. So, how can the plant research community carpe diem? To transform the vast

105

Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

106

Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

E-print Network

after the start of the particular feeding regime. b) Trials with carp. - Three carp (Cyprinus carpio LInfluence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) S. J. KAUSHIK Denise BLANC Laboratoire de Nutrition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata

1995-01-01

108

CarpeDiem: an Algorithm for the Fast Evaluation of SSL Classifiers Roberto Esposito esposito@di.unito.it  

E-print Network

CarpeDiem: an Algorithm for the Fast Evaluation of SSL Classifiers Roberto Esposito esposito.so Svizzera 185 ­ 10149 Torino, Italy Abstract In this paper we present a novel algorithm, CarpeDiem, to the HMPerceptron algorithm. We illustrate CarpeDiem in full details, and provide experi- mental results

Radicioni, Daniele

109

Purification and characterization of pyrophosphatase from bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrophosphatase (PPase, EC 3.6.1.1) responsible to the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate (PPi) in muscle was purified from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and characterized in detail herein for the first time. PPase was extracted with 20mmol\\/L Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.05mol\\/L KCl, followed by heat treatment and ammonium sulfate precipitation. Then it was purified by deithylaminoethyl-cellulose (DE52) and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography,

Rui-chang Gao; Chang-hu Xue; Li Yuan; Jin Zhang; Zhao-jie Li; Yong Xue; Hui Feng

2008-01-01

110

The development of a radioimmunoassay for carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an easily — performed and robust radioimmunoassay (RIA) to carp, Cyprinus carpio, vitellogenin (c-VTG) is described. Purified c-VTG was iodinated using Iodogen. The resulting c-VTG label was useful for\\u000a up to 60 days. High titre antibodies were raised in rabbits to the purified c-VTG. The practical operating range of the c-VTG\\u000a RIA was between 2 and 200

Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

1990-01-01

111

The purification and partial characterization of carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for the isolation of intact vitellogenin (c-VTG) from the carp, Cyprinus carpio. VTG was induced in juvenile females using oestradiol-17? and purified from the plasma using a combination of gel-filtration\\u000a chromatography on Sepharose 6B and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Purification procedures were conducted at\\u000a low temperatures (below 9°C) in the presence of the proteolytic enzyme

Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

1990-01-01

112

Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

1995-01-01

113

HIRA is essential for the development of gibel carp.  

PubMed

HIRA is one of the chaperones of histone H3.3. Mutation of Hira results in embryonic lethality in mice, suggesting a critical role in embryogenesis. However, Hira-mutated Drosophila may survive to adults, indicating that it is dispensable in Drosophila development. The role of Hira in fish development is unknown. In this study we first investigated the expression of Hira during embryogenesis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) by whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found that Hira signal appeared ubiquitously in the early embryos. After gastrulation, it appeared mainly along the anterior-posterior axis, including the tail bud. In hatching period, the signal was detected in head, heart, and the endoderm region on the back of yolk. Then by microinjection with morpholino-HIRA at the beginning of development, we observed delayed gastrulation and abnormal somitogenesis in gibel carp embryos. The HIRA morphants exhibited short trunk, limited yolk extension, and twisted tail. Most of the mutants died during embryogenesis or shortly after hatching. The rest of the HIRA morphants could survive to larvae but with severe defects in organogenesis. These data suggest that HIRA may be essential for the development of gibel carp, and this function is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:23912483

Wang, Meng-Yu; Guo, Qiu-Hong; Du, Xin-Zheng; Zhou, Li; Luo, Qian; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zhao, Hao-Bin; Wang, Yu-Feng

2014-02-01

114

The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood

115

Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cvprinus carpio and bigmouth buffalo Ictiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of' 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

Donovan D. Verrill; Charles R. Berry JR

1995-01-01

116

Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.),  

E-print Network

Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio amino acids and the apparent absorption of amino acids (AAaa) were evaluated in different segments of carp intestine. The AAaa analysed using Crz03 as a marker indicated that 73.2 % of the amino acids were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Distribution and Population Dynamics of Asian Carp in Iowa Rivers Principal Investigator: Michael J. Weber  

E-print Network

rivers, including the Mississippi, Des Moines, Skunk, Iowa, and Cedar rivers o Evaluate Asian carp the Mississippi, Des Moines, Skunk, Iowa, and Cedar rivers Introduction: Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis southeastern Iowa. Asian carp are known to inhabit lower portions of the Des Moines, Iowa, Cedar, Skunk

Koford, Rolf R.

118

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Biomass-dependent effects of age-0 common carp on aquatic  

E-print Network

in structuring aquatic ecosystems through top-down and bottom-up processes. Adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, although effects may be accrued through different pathways. Keywords Early life history Á Cyprinus carpio Á common carp (Cypri- nus carpio) populations are often associated with the degradation of shallow aquatic

119

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and  

E-print Network

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 NOTE Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). In order for fish to transfer the #12;Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 113 virus Cook University, Queensland, Australia Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus

Gray, Matthew

120

Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon

1995-01-01

121

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

122

Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics

1997-01-01

123

Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates  

E-print Network

vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), were Acta 1413 (1999) 50^54 www.elsevier.com/locate/bba #12;ESTs from the carp Cyprinus carpio (accession. carpio `peritoneal exudate cell' cDNA library and from a D. rerio `day 0 fin regeneration' cDNA library

Stuart, Jeffrey A.

124

Influence of the Moran Effect on Spatiotemporal Synchrony in Common Carp Recruitment  

E-print Network

on a regionwide scale may further our understanding of fish population dynamics. Common carp Cyprinus carpio geographical scale (i.e., the Moran effect) would induce synchrony in recruitment for common carp Cyprinus carpio among 18 glacial lakes across a 175-km2 area in eastern South Dakota. Cross-correlation analysis

125

Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

1999-01-01

126

Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

2000-01-01

127

Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio  

E-print Network

Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae). PLoS ONE 9(9): e

Ladich, Friedrich

128

Effects of Static versus Flowing Water on Aquatic Plant Preferences of Triploid Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were presented with three aquatic plant species (sago pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus, Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum, and American pondweed P. nodosus) in outdoor canals with static and flowing water in winter, spring, and summer. Plant consumption by triploid grass carp in winter was low but increased dramatically in spring and summer. Based on plant shoot lengths,

Robert T. Pine; Lars W. J. Anderson; Silas S. O. Hung

1989-01-01

129

History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

130

Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

1990-01-01

131

Movement and Habitat Selection by Invasive Asian Carps in a Large River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the habitat use and movements of 50 adult bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and 50 silver carp H. molitrix by means of ultrasonic telemetry during spring-summer 2004 and 2005 to gain insight into the conditions that facilitate their establishment, persistence, and dispersal in the lower Illinois River (river kilometer 0-130). Movement and habitat use were monitored with stationary receivers

Kelly L. DeGrandchamp; James E. Garvey; Robert E. Colombo

2008-01-01

132

Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

2013-01-01

133

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp  

E-print Network

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments greater in the subgroups incubated with T3 + steroid hormone, or with T3 + gonadotropic hormone, than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p < 0.05). In fin and skin, size dependence was evident in winter, but not in summer, while in other tissues (ventricle, atrium, intestine, liver, muscle, and spleen), no size dependence was found. The liver was much bigger in small than large fish ( p < 0.001), and there was a prominent enlargement of the liver in winter irrespective of fish size. As a consequence, the whole body glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

2011-03-01

135

Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.  

PubMed

The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding. PMID:18488175

Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

2008-06-01

136

Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

2002-01-01

137

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

2010-03-01

138

First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

2011-06-16

139

2,4-dichlorophenol induces apoptosis in primary hepatocytes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through mitochondrial pathway.  

PubMed

2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a major type of chlorophenols, has been widely used to produce some herbicides and pharmaceuticals, yet due to its incomplete degradation and bioaccumulation characteristics, it is toxic to aquatic organisms. Apoptosis is one of the most severe outcomes of cell poisoning and injury. So far, the potential molecular mechanism of 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis has not been reported. This study showed that 2,4-DCP significantly induced apoptosis in primary hepatocytes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). 2,4-DCP exposure upregulated mRNA of caspase-3, reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, while protection of mitochondria with acetyl-l-carnitine hydrochloride (ALC) rescued 2,4-DCP-induced apoptosis, restored the ??m and reduced the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Taken together, this is the first study that has identified that 2,4-DCP exposure induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-dependent pathway in primary hepatocytes of grass carp. PMID:23774520

Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoning; Qiu, Qian; An, Zhen; Qi, Yongmei; Huang, Dejun; Zhang, Yingmei

2013-09-15

140

Differential gene expression in fully-grown oocytes between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps.  

PubMed

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique triploid bisexual species that can reproduce by gynogenesis. As all other gynogenetic animals, it keeps its chromosome integrity by inhibiting the first meiosis division (no extrusion of the first pole body). To understand the molecular events governing this reproduction mode, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify the genes differentially expressed in fully-grown oocytes of the gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp (gyno-carp and gono-carp). From two specific subtractive cDNA libraries, the clones screened out by dot blots and virtual Northern blots were chosen to clone full-length cDNA by RACE. Four differentially expressed genes were obtained. Two are novel genes and are expressed specifically in the oocytes. The gyno-carp stores much more mRNA of cyclin A2, a new member of the fish A-type cyclin gene, in its fully-grown oocyte than in the gono-carp. The last gene is histone H2A. The histone H2As of these two closely related crucian carps are quite different in the C-terminus. Preliminary characterization of the four genes has been analyzed by nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence and Northern analysis. PMID:11410372

Xie, J; Wen, J J; Chen, B; Gui, J F

2001-06-13

141

Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lh? was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lh? expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

2014-01-01

142

Selection pressures have driven population differentiation of domesticated and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Selection pressures are the principle evolutionary forces for the genetic differentiation of populations. Recent changes in selection pressures on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite have been described in a wide variety of organisms. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has experienced strong selection pressure, in particular artificial selection, during its domestication. However, the contribution and extent of artificial selection in driving genome-wide population differentiation remain unclear. We investigated the genetic differentiation of 4 domesticated strains (Xingguo red common carp, Glass red common carp, Purse red common carp, and Jian common carp, which have been generated by artificial selection since 1970s) and 2 wild populations (Shishou section in Hubei and Yangzhou section in Jiangsu of the Yangtze River) of common carp in China by sequencing the mitochondrial DNA D-loop and by genotyping 10 microsatellite loci. It was found that the domesticated strains exhibited linkage disequilibrium within the population and less genetic variability, higher inbreeding coefficients (F(IS) = 0.101 vs 0.038), and higher genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.087 vs 0.001) than the wild populations, which indicates strong selection pressures in the process of domestication. Of the 10 loci, 5 appeared to be under positive directional selection in the domesticated strains, and all 10 loci in wild populations were potentially under balancing selection. We conclude that strong selection pressures, artificial selection in particular, have caused genetic differentiation between populations of domesticated and wild common carp. PMID:23079816

Xu, L H; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Dong, Z J; Ma, Y Q; Yang, X X

2012-01-01

143

Carp liver DNase--isolation, further characterization and interaction with endogenous actin.  

PubMed

Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I)-like enzyme from the liver of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was purified to homogeneity and further characterized. Ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, molecular filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and Con A-Sepharose affinity chromatography were applied for enzyme isolation. Carp liver DNase, similarly to DNase I from bovine pancreas, was found to be an endonuclease that hydrolyses linear DNA from salmon sperm as well as circular DNA forms--plasmid and cosmid. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein and shows microheterogeneity, as observed in DNase zymograms prepared after native and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The composition of sugar component of the enzyme was characterized. Special attention was focused on the ability of carp liver DNase to interact with carp liver actin. The carp liver enzyme was inhibited by endogenous actin. The estimated binding constant of carp liver DNase to carp liver actin was calculated to be 1.1 x 10(6) M(-1). PMID:15621519

Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Ciszak, Lidia; Malicka-Blaszkiewicz, Maria

2005-01-01

144

Identical sequences but different expression patterns of Hira gene in gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps.  

PubMed

Hir/Hira (histone regulation) genes were first identified in yeast as negative regulators of histone gene expression. It has been confirmed that HIRA is a conserved family of proteins present in various animals and plants. In this paper, the cDNAs of the Hira homolog named CagHira and CaHira were isolated from gynogenetic gibel carp (gyno-carp) and gonochoristic color crucian carp (gono-carp) respectively. The full-length CagHira is 3,860 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 3,033 bp that encodes 1,011 amino acids, while the full-length CaHira is 3,748 bp in length and also has an ORF of 3,033 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences of both Hira homologs contain seven WD domains and show high identity with other HIRA family members. RT-PCR analyses revealed strong expression of Hira in the ovaries, whereas no expression was detected in the testes of either of the fishes. Hira transcription was not detected in the liver of gyno-carp, but a high level of Hira mRNA was observed in gono-carp. The temporal expression pattern showed that the Hira mRNA is consistently expressed during all embryonic development stages in gyno-carp. However, the abundance of CaHira mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05) shortly after fertilization and then increased again and remained stable from gastrula till hatching. The varying spatiotemporal expression patterns of Hira genes in gyno-carp and gono-carp may be associated with the differing reproductive modes used by these two closely related fishes. Our results suggest that Hira may play a role not only in the decondensation of sperm nucleus and the formation of pronucleus during fertilization, but also in gastrulation and the subsequent development of embryos. PMID:18649035

Du, X Z; Zhou, L; Zhao, H B; Wang, Y F; Gui, J F

2008-06-01

145

Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.  

PubMed

Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

2014-06-01

146

Comparative analysis of the intestinal bacterial communities in different species of carp by pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Gut microbiota is increasingly regarded as an integral component of the host, due to important roles in the modulation of the immune system, the proliferation of the intestinal epithelium and the regulation of the dietary energy intake. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of these microbial communities is essential to health management, and the application to aquatic animals still requires basic investigation. In this study, we compared the bacterial communities harboured in the intestines and in the rearing water of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri), and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), by using 454-pyrosequencing with barcoded primers targeting the V4 to V5 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The specimens of the three species were cohabiting in the same pond. Between 6,218 and 10,220 effective sequences were read from each sample, resulting in a total of 110,398 sequences for 13 samples from gut microbiota and pond water. In general, the microbial communities of the three carps were dominated by Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, but the abundance of each phylum was significantly different between species. At the genus level, the overwhelming group was Cetobacterium (97.29?±?0.46 %) in crucian carp, while its abundance averaged c. 40 and 60 % of the sequences read in the other two species. There was higher microbial diversity in the gut of filter-feeding bighead carp than the gut of the two other species, with grazing feeding habits. The composition of intestine microbiota of grass carp and crucian carp shared higher similarity when compared with bighead carp. The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with the weighted UniFrac distance and the heatmap analysis suggested that gut microbiota was not a simple reflection of the microbial community in the local habitat but resulted from species-specific selective pressures, possibly dependent on behavioural, immune and metabolic characteristics. PMID:25145494

Li, Tongtong; Long, Meng; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Aihua; Gong, Xiaoning

2015-01-01

147

Experimental Infection of Koi Carp with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVb.  

PubMed

Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb has a wide host range that includes at least three cyprinid species: Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, and Bluntnose Minnow P. notatus. To date, VHSV IVb has only been found in wild fish. However, the possibility of infection in culture facilities remains. Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio are a major ornamental aquaculture species in the United States; however, their potential to become infected with VHSV IVb has not yet been examined. In this study, we exposed Koi to 3 × 10(6) PFU VHSV Great Lakes isolate MI03 by intraperitoneal injection. While we observed low mortality (0-5%), VHSV was isolated in cell culture from the majority of fish up to 28 d postexposure (DPE) and was detected by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay up to 90 DPE, when the trial was terminated. The results of this study strongly suggest that Koi are at risk for VHSV infection, although their susceptibility by intraperitoneal injection appears to be low. This study also provides more evidence of the sensitivity of qRT-PCR for detection of VHSV IVb. PMID:23289973

Cornwell, Emily R; Labuda, Sandra L; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R

2013-03-01

148

QTL mapping for economically important traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed for three economically important traits, i.e., body weight (BW), body length (BL), and body thickness (BT), in an F1 family of common carp holding the 190 progeny. A genetic linkage map spanning 3,301 cM in 50 linkage groups with 627 markers and an average distance of 5.6 cM was utilized for QTL mapping. Sixteen QTLs associated with all three growth-related traits were scattered across ten linkage groups, LG6, LG10, LG17, LG19, LG25, LG27, LG28, LG29, LG30, and LG39. Six QTLs for BW and five each for BL and BT explained phenotypic variance in the range 17.0-32.1 %. All the nearest markers of QTLs were found to be significantly (p???0.05) related with the trait. Among these QTLs, a total of four, two (qBW30 and qBW39) related with BW, one (qBL39) associated with BL, and one (qBT29) related to BT, were found to be the major QTLs with a phenotypic variance of >20 %. qBW30 and qBW39 with the nearest markers HLJ1691 and HLJ1843, respectively, show significant values of 0.0038 and 0.0031, correspondingly. QTLs qBL39 and qBT29 were found to have significant values of 0.0047 and 0.0015, respectively. Three QTLs (qBW27, qBW30, qBW39) of BW, two for BL (qBL19, qBL39), and two for BT (qBT6, qBT25) found in this study were similar to populations with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genomic region controlling economically important traits were located. These genomic regions will be the major sources for the discovery of important genes and pathways associated with growth-related traits in common carp. PMID:25078056

Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiaowen

2015-02-01

149

Genomic insight into the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development, linkage map and physical map integration, and whole genome sequence assembling and scaffolding. Result To develop such valuable resources in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a total of 40,224 BAC clones were sequenced on both ends, generating 65,720 clean BES with an average read length of 647 bp after sequence processing, representing 42,522,168 bp or 2.5% of common carp genome. The first survey of common carp genome was conducted with various bioinformatics tools. The common carp genome contains over 17.3% of repetitive elements with GC content of 36.8% and 518 transposon ORFs. To identify and develop BAC-anchored microsatellite markers, a total of 13,581 microsatellites were detected from 10,355 BES. The coding region of 7,127 genes were recognized from 9,443 BES on 7,453 BACs, with 1,990 BACs have genes on both ends. To evaluate the similarity to the genome of closely related zebrafish, BES of common carp were aligned against zebrafish genome. A total of 39,335 BES of common carp have conserved homologs on zebrafish genome which demonstrated the high similarity between zebrafish and common carp genomes, indicating the feasibility of comparative mapping between zebrafish and common carp once we have physical map of common carp. Conclusion BAC end sequences are great resources for the first genome wide survey of common carp. The repetitive DNA was estimated to be approximate 28% of common carp genome, indicating the higher complexity of the genome. Comparative analysis had mapped around 40,000 BES to zebrafish genome and established over 3,100 microsyntenies, covering over 50% of the zebrafish genome. BES of common carp are tremendous tools for comparative mapping between the two closely related species, zebrafish and common carp, which should facilitate both structural and functional genome analysis in common carp. PMID:21492448

2011-01-01

150

Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended. PMID:24771133

Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

2014-06-01

151

Diets of Three Sunfishes in Lake Conroe, TX Before and After Grass Carp Introduction.  

E-print Network

Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) is an invasive aquatic plant that grows quickly across shallow freshwater habitats. It is a problem for recreational users of lakes and landowners. Grass carp (Ctenopharynogodon idella) is an effective biological...

Sifuentes, Matthew L.

2010-07-14

152

Cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 is expressed in osteoblasts and regulated by PTH.  

PubMed

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30min to 5h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S

2013-07-12

153

Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan: 2. Hematology and liver pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of consumption of environmental contaminants contained in carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Saginaw Bay, Michigan on various hematological parameters and liver integrity of adult female mink (Mustela vison) were determined. Mink were fed diets that contained 0 (control), 10, 20, or 40% carp prior to and throughout the reproductive period (182 days). The diets contained 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and

S. N. Heaton; S. J. Bursian; J. P. Giesy; D. E. Tillitt; J. A. Render; P. D. Jones; D. A. Verbrugge; T. J. Kubiak; R. J. Aulerich

1995-01-01

154

Gene structure of the carp fish ribosomal protein L41: seasonally regulated expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal acclimatization of the carp fish demands physiological compensatory responses. The process involves profound nucleolar adjustments and remarkable changes in rRNA synthesis, which affect ribosomal biogenesis. We have documented that protein kinase CK2, whose activity is related to ribosomal protein L41 and the regulation of rRNA synthesis, was expressed in notably higher amounts in summer-acclimatized carp compared to the

Alfredo Molina; Aintzane Corta; Rody San Martin; Marco Alvarez; Luis O Burzio; Manuel Krauskopf; Mar??a Inés Vera

2002-01-01

155

Feeding at different plankton densities alters invasive bighead carp ( Hypophthalmichthys nobilis ) growth and zooplankton species composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive Asian carps Hypophthalmichthys spp. are an ecological threat to non-native aquatic ecosystems throughout the world, and are poised to enter the Laurentian\\u000a Great Lakes. Little is known about how these filter-feeding planktivores grow and impact zooplankton communities in mesotrophic\\u000a to oligotrophic systems like the Great Lakes. Our purpose was to determine how different plankton densities affect bighead\\u000a carp H.

Sandra L. Cooke; Walter R. Hill; Kevin P. Meyer

2009-01-01

156

The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

1994-01-01

157

Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.  

PubMed

Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent. PMID:18850294

Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

2009-10-01

158

Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder poisoning-report of four cases in a single family.  

PubMed

The ingestion of Indian carp gallbladder may result in transient hepatitis with subsequent acute renal failure. This case series also illustrates the importance of understanding the use and potential serious complications of alternative medicines. So fish gallbladder poisoning should be considered in unexplained acute renal failure in Chinese and Asian patients. We report four family members who developed acute renal failure and toxic hepatitis at the same time following ingestion of raw Indian carp (Labeo rohita) gall bladder. PMID:21207198

Patnaik, Rashmi; Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Ray, Rajib; Mahapatro, Samarendra

2011-06-01

159

Difference in the gain in the phototransduction cascade between rods and cones in carp.  

PubMed

In the vertebrate retina, there are two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Rods are highly light-sensitive and cones are less light-sensitive. One of the possible mechanisms accounting for the lower light-sensitivity in cones would be lower signal amplification, i.e., lower gain in the phototransduction cascade in cones. In this study, we compared the difference in the gain between rods and cones electrophysiologically in carp. The initial rising phases of the light responses were analyzed to determine an index of the gain, G, a parameter that can be used to compare the gain among cells of varying outer segment volumes. G (in fL · sec(-2)) was 91.2 ± 14.8 (n = 5) in carp rods and 25.3 ± 3.2 (n = 4) in carp red cones, so that the gain in carp red cones is ?1/4 of that in carp rods. G was also determined in bullfrog rods and was 81.0 ± 17.2 (n = 3) which was very similar to that in carp rods. The difference in the gain between rods and cones in carp determined in this study (?1/4 in cones compared with rods) is consistent with that we recently determined biochemically (?1/5 in cones compared with rods). Together with the result obtained in bullfrog rods in this study and the results obtained by others, we concluded that the gain in the cascade is several-fold lower in cones than in rods in carp and probably in other animal species also. PMID:25355220

Kawakami, Naoto; Kawamura, Satoru

2014-10-29

160

Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

2009-01-01

161

Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/fpc/WebAGCoL/Carp/WebFPC/. Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits. PMID:22044723

2011-01-01

162

Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development. PMID:22303472

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

2012-01-01

163

The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle

2007-01-01

164

Diet overlap among two Asian carp and three native fishes in backwater lakes on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bighead and silver carp are well established in the Mississippi River basin following their accidental introduction in the\\u000a 1980s. Referred to collectively as Asian carp, these species are filter feeders consuming phytoplankton and zooplankton. We\\u000a examined diet overlap and electivity of Asian carp and three native filter feeding fishes, bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad,\\u000a and paddlefish, in backwater lakes of the

Schuyler J. Sampson; John H. Chick; Mark A. Pegg

2009-01-01

165

Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

1998-01-01

166

Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Prothymosin alpha (ProT?) and thymosin beta (T?) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProT? b and T? are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProT? b and T?-like (T?-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProT? b and T?-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProT? b and T?-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProT? b and T?-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-?, CD4 and CD8?). These results suggest that carp ProT? b and T? may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

2015-05-01

167

Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

1981-03-01

168

Carp liver actin: isolation, polymerization and interaction with deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to isolate and to characterize actin from the carp liver cytosol and to examine its ability to polymerize and interact with bovine pancreatic DNase I. Carp liver actin was isolated by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration and a polymerization/depolymerization cycle or by affinity chromatography using DNase I immobilized to agarose. The purified carp liver actin was a cytoplasmic beta-actin isoform as verified by immunoblotting using isotype specific antibodies. Its isoelectric point (pI) was slightly higher than the pI of rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin. Polymerization of purified carp liver actin by 2 mM MgCl(2) or CaCl(2) was only obtained after addition of phalloidin or in the presence of 1 M potassium phosphate. Carp liver actin interacted with DNase I leading to the formation of a stable complex with concomitant inhibition of the DNA degrading activity of DNase I and its ability to polymerize. The estimated binding constant (K(b)) of carp liver actin to DNase I was calculated to be 1.85x10(8) M(-1) which is about 5-fold lower than the affinity of rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin to DNase I. PMID:10446396

Ciszak, L; Krawczenko, A; Polzar, B; Mannherz, H G; Malicka-Blaszkiewicz, M

1999-08-12

169

Complete mitogenome sequence of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and its use for molecular phylogeny of leuciscine fishes.  

PubMed

The black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (Cyprinidae), native to eastern Asian, is a large, commercially important fish, and has been introduced to many other countries for variable reasons. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences from three specimens of black carp were first determined and were used to evaluate the sister relationship between black carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Two individuals had a mitogenome of 16,609 bp, while the other was 16,611 bp in length. Similar to most vertebrates, the black carp contains the same gene order and an identical number of genes or regions, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 putative control region. Phylogenetic analyses using three different computational algorithms (Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian analysis) revealed two distinct clades in subfamily Leuciscinae. However, the sister taxonomic relationship of black carp and grass carp was not observed using sequences of nearly complete mitochondrial genomes, which suggests more nuclear gene markers are needed to resolve the phylogenetic relationship between black carp and grass carp. PMID:22350152

Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Jun; Yang, Jinquan; Lu, Guoqing; Song, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Xu, Jiawei; Yang, Qinling; Li, Sifa

2012-05-01

170

Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants  

SciTech Connect

A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))

1990-04-01

171

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

2013-07-12

172

Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is an intriguing model system. In the present work, a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp. Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from

Lian Chun FAN; Shu Ting YANG; Jian Fang GUI; Jian Fang QUI

2001-01-01

173

Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

174

Using ecological niche-based modeling techniques to predict the establishment, abundance1 and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2  

E-print Network

and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2 3 Stefanie A as well as the32 abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the recipient systems.45 46 Keywords: Non-indigenous species, impact, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, ecological

Leung, Brian

175

Predictions on the effect of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes in a Great Lakes wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to examine the relationship between common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes. Twelve 50-m 2 in situ experimental enclosures were installed in degraded Cootes Paradise Marsh during the carp spawning period in 1995. Enclosures were stocked with two or three carp of similar size, ranging from 13 to 59 cm and

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Barb Crosbie; Patricia Chow-Fraser

1998-01-01

176

The Carpe Diem West Academy: a compendium of tools, training, and best practices for water resources planning in an era of climate uncertainty  

E-print Network

The Carpe Diem West Academy: a compendium of tools, training, and best practices for waterLaboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. kmorino@ltrr.arizona.edu; 3Carpe Diem engagement. We integrated several organizing frameworks into an interactive `toolbox', the Carpe Diem West

Miami, University of

177

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

178

Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1? receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1? receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1? activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1? receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-?B and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1? activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

2015-04-01

179

A Tale of Four “Carp”: Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation. PMID:19421314

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

2009-01-01

180

An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for crucian carp was established.

Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

2011-05-01

181

Microsatellite-centromere mapping in common carp through half-tetrad analysis in diploid meiogynogenetic families.  

PubMed

Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into the understanding of the composition, structure, and evolution of vertebrate genomes. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish and has been proposed to undertake tetraploidization. In this study, we selected 214 informative microsatellite markers across 50 linkage groups of a common carp genetic map to perform gene-centromere mapping using half-tetrad analysis. A total of 199 microsatellites were segregated under the Mendelian expectations in at least one of the three gynogenetic families and were used for G-C distance estimation. The G-C recombination frequency (y) ranged from 0 to 0.99 (0.43 on average), corresponding to a fixation index (F) of 0.57 after one generation of gynogenesis. Large y values for some loci together with significant correlation between G-C distances and genetic linkage map distances suggested the presence of high interference in common carp. Under the assumption of complete interference, 50 centromeres were localized onto corresponding linkage groups (LGs) of common carp, with G-C distances of centromere-linked markers per LG ranging from 0 to 10.3 cM (2.9 cM on average). Based on the information for centromere positions, we proposed a chromosome formula of 2n?=?100?=?58 m/sm?+?42 t/st with 158 chromosome arms for common carp, which was similar to a study observed by cytogenetic method. The examination of crossover distributions along 10 LGs revealed that the proportion of crossover chromatids was overall higher than that of non-crossover chromatids in gynogenetic progenies, indicating high recombination levels across most LGs. Comparative genomics analyses suggested that the chromosomes of common carp have undergone extensive rearrangement after genome duplication. This study would be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of genome evolution and integrate physical and genetic maps in common carp. PMID:25171918

Feng, Xiu; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Cuiyun; Sun, Xiaowen; Tong, Jingou

2014-08-30

182

Duplication and differentiation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) myoglobin genes revealed by BAC analysis.  

PubMed

Two distinct myoglobin (mb) transcripts have been reported in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, which is a hypoxia-tolerant fish living in habitats with greatly fluctuant dissolved oxygen levels. Recombinant protein analysis has shown functional specialization of the two mb transcripts. In this work, analysis for mb-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones indicated different genome loci for common carp myoglobin-1 (mb-1) and myoglobin-2 (mb-2) genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that mb-1 and mb-2 are located on separate chromosomes. In both of the mb-1 and mb-2 containing BAC clones, gene synteny was well conserved with the homologous region on zebrafish chromosome 1, supporting that the common carp specific mb-2 gene originated from the recent whole genome duplication event in cyprinid lineage. Transcription factor binding sites search indicated that both common carp mb genes lacked specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding sites, which mediated muscle-specific and calcium-dependent expression in the well-studied mb promoters. Potential hypoxia response elements (HREs) were predicted in the regulatory region of common carp mb genes. These characteristics of common carp mb gene regulatory region well interpreted the hypoxia-inducible, non-muscle expression pattern of mb-1. In the case of mb-2, a 10 bp insertion to the binding site of upstream stimulatory factor (USF), which was a co-factor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), might cause the non-response to hypoxia treatment of mb-2. The case of common carp mb gene duplication and subsequent differentiation in expression pattern and protein function provided an example for adaptive evolution toward aquatic hypoxia tolerance. PMID:25026501

Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Cao, Ding-Chen; Kuang, You-Yi; Deng, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Li-Ming; Li, Jiong-Tang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-09-15

183

Seasonal modulation of growth hormone mRNA and protein levels in carp pituitary: evidence for two expressed genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation of eurythermal fish to naturally varying environmental conditions involves modulation of expressions of various factors in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis. Here we used three complementary approaches to assess the seasonal variation of growth hormone (GH) protein and mRNA levels in pituitary glands of acclimatized carp fish. First, a polyclonal antibody raised against an oligopeptide derived from the carp GH sequence

J. Figueroa; R. San Martín; C. Flores; H. Grothusen; G. Kausel

2005-01-01

184

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

E-print Network

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z

2007-01-01

185

Synthetic releasing hormones LH/FSH-RH and LH-RH : effect of intracerebral and intramuscular injections on female carp  

E-print Network

of synthetic LH/FSH-RH at a dose of1[Jog/kg of body weight proved effective in accelerating oocyte maturity injections on female carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) maturation Miroslawa SOKOLOWSKA W. POPEK K. BIENIARZ Institute and intramuscular injections of synthetic LH/FSH-RH on the maturation of female carp was investigated. The results

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

186

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2013-01-01

187

Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments  

PubMed Central

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2013-01-01

188

Ectoparasitic protozoa fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) caught in the Sinop region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectoparasitic protozoan fauna resident on farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from two localities in the Sinop region of Turkey were investigated during the period June 1994–May 1995. Following the investigation of 125 common carp, Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961, Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960, Trichodinella subtilis Lom, 1959, Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard,

A. Özer; O. Erdem

1998-01-01

189

Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS  

E-print Network

been validated as an accurate structure for estimating age of common carp Cyprinus carpio. However be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987

190

A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild

M. G. M Alam; A Tanaka; G Allinson; L. J. B Laurenson; F Stagnitti; E. T Snow

2002-01-01

191

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  

PubMed

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

2013-01-01

192

EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS IN VITRO  

E-print Network

EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS Curie, BP 67, 94703 Maisons-Alfort Cedex, France accepted 04/12/87 Résumé EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS IN VITRO - L'atrazine et le lindane, les

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

193

Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on individual or populations of carp or other species. Future studies should shift to more intensive study of fewer sites, including reference and contaminated sites, in order to address these additional questions.

Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.

1997-01-01

194

Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) in the UK: the road to freedom.  

PubMed

Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a disease of international importance that predominantly affects cyprinid fish and can cause significant mortality. In the United Kingdom (UK), SVC was first detected in 1977 with further cases occurring in fisheries, farms, wholesale and retail establishments throughout England and Wales (but not Scotland, where few cyprinid populations exist, nor Northern Ireland where SVC has never been detected) over the subsequent 30 years. Following a control and eradication programme for the disease initiated in 2005, the UK was recognised free of the disease in 2010. This study compiles historic records of SVC cases in England and Wales with a view to understanding its routes of introduction and spread, and assessing the effectiveness of the control and eradication programme in order to improve contingency plans to prevent and control future disease incursions in the cyprinid fish sectors. Between 1977 and 2010 the presence of SVC was confirmed on 108 occasions, with 65 of the cases occurring in sport fisheries and the majority of the remainder occurring in the ornamental fish sector. The study found that throughout the history of SVC in the UK, though cases were widely distributed, their occurrence was sporadic and the virus did not become endemic. All evidence indicates that SVC was not able to persist under UK environmental conditions, suggesting that the majority of cases were a result of new introductions to the UK as opposed to within-country spread. The control and eradication programme adopted in 2005 was highly effective and two years after its implementation cases of SVC ceased. Given the non-persistent nature of the pathogen the most important aspect of the control programme focused on preventing re-introduction of the virus to the UK. Despite the effectiveness of these controls against SVC, this approach is likely to be less effective against more persistent pathogens such as koi herpesvirus, which are likely to require more stringent measures to prevent within-country spread. PMID:23597621

Taylor, N G H; Peeler, E J; Denham, K L; Crane, C N; Thrush, M A; Dixon, P F; Stone, D M; Way, K; Oidtmann, B C

2013-08-01

195

Ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue - ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the obtained hydrolysates.  

PubMed

In the digestive tract of humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study. PMID:25367247

Borawska, J; Darewicz, M; Vegarud, G E; Iwaniak, A; Minkiewicz, P

2015-01-24

196

Carp edema virus/koi sleepy disease: an emerging disease in central-East europe.  

PubMed

Koi sleepy disease (KSD), also known as carp edema virus (CEV), was first reported from juvenile colour carp in Japan in the 1970s. Recently, this pox virus was detected in several European countries, including Germany, France and the Netherlands. In England, in addition to colour carp, outbreaks in common carp are reported. KSD/CEV is an emerging infectious disease characterized by a typical sleepy behaviour, enophthalmia, generalized oedematous condition and gill necrosis, leading to hypoxia. High mortality, of up to 80-100%, is seen in juvenile koi collected from infected ponds. In Austria, this disease had not been detected until now. In spring 2014, diagnostic work revealed the disease in two unrelated cases. In one instance, a pond with adult koi was affected; in the other, the disease was diagnosed in adult common carp recently imported from the Czech Republic. A survey was carried out on recent cases (2013/2014), chosen from those with similar anamnestic and physical examination findings, revealing a total of 5/22 cases positive for KSD/CEV. In this study, two paradigmatic cases are presented in detail. Results together with molecular evidence shaped the pattern of the first diagnosis of KSD/CEV in fish from Austrian ponds. In the light of the positive cases detected from archived material, and the spread of the disease through live stock, imported from a neighbouring country, the need for epidemiological investigations in Austria and surrounding countries is emphasized. PMID:25382453

Lewisch, E; Gorgoglione, B; Way, K; El-Matbouli, M

2015-02-01

197

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

2014-01-01

198

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-01-01

199

Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.  

PubMed

Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing

2007-09-01

200

Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

1995-12-31

201

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

202

Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.  

PubMed

Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. El Uso de Juicio Experto Estructurado para Predecir Invasiones de Carpas Asiáticas en el Lago Erie. PMID:25132396

Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

2015-02-01

203

Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-06-01

204

Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids. PMID:22514716

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

205

Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

2014-01-01

206

Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.  

PubMed

Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

2014-03-01

207

Chicano Studies Major Major Advisor  

E-print Network

Chicano Studies Major Major Advisor Laura Jimenez-Olvera 532 Barrows Hall 510-642-0243 lauraj@berkeley.edu http://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Chicano studies major offers an interdisciplinary curriculum of academic study that critically examines the historical and contemporary experiences

Walker, Matthew P.

208

Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur. PMID:21118271

Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

2011-01-01

209

A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification. PMID:23704958

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-01-01

210

Identification of differentially expressed genes in carp rods and cones  

PubMed Central

Purpose Rods and cones differ in their photoresponse characteristics, morphology, and susceptibilities to certain diseases. To contribute to the studies at the molecular level of these differences, we tried to identify genes expressed preferentially in rods or cones. Methods From purified carp rods and cones, we extracted their RNA and obtained corresponding cDNA pools (rod cDNA and cone cDNA). We employed the suppression subtractive hybridization method to identify the genes expressed preferentially in rods or cones. Cone cDNA was subtracted from rod cDNA to obtain cDNA, which ideally contained cDNA expressed preferentially in rods (R/c cDNA). Similarly, rod cDNA was subtracted from cone cDNA to obtain C/r cDNA. With differential array screening, we screened candidate genes that were expressed mainly or exclusively in rods or cones. The nucleotide sequences of the positive genes were determined. In some of them, their mRNA localizations were confirmed by in situ hybridization. Results R/c cDNA contained genes already known to code rod specific proteins, such as cGMP gated channel, transducin ?1, and rhodopsin. In sharp contrast, C/r cDNA contained genes that code proteins of which functions are mostly unknown. Among them, N-myc downregulated gene 1-like (NDRG1L) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (AhR2) were most abundant, and by in situ hybridization, they were proven to be expressed specifically in cones. Conclusions Using purified rods and cones, we identified mRNAs expressed preferentially in rods or cones. Of particular interest is the specific expression of NDRG1L and AhR2 in cones. PMID:18334952

Shimauchi-Matsukawa, Yoshie; Aman, Yoshinobu; Tachibanaki, Shuji

2008-01-01

211

Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

212

Comparison of the polymerases (L genes) of spring viremia of carp virus  

E-print Network

Comparison of the polymerases (L genes) of spring viremia of carp virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus HV Björklund* EJ Emmenegger, G Kurath National Biological Service, Northwest virus (SVCV) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). At this point we have deduced the amino

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

Differential gene expression in fully-grown oocytes between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique triploid bisexual species that can reproduce by gynogenesis. As all other gynogenetic animals, it keeps its chromosome integrity by inhibiting the first meiosis division (no extrusion of the first pole body). To understand the molecular events governing this reproduction mode, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to identify the genes differentially expressed

Jing Xie; Jian-Jun Wen; Bo Chen; Jian-Fang Gui

2001-01-01

214

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to

Jun Hong Xia; Feng Liu; Ze Yuan Zhu; Jianjun Fu; Jianbin Feng; Jiale Li; Gen Hua Yue

2010-01-01

215

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

216

Atrazine and chlorpyrifos exposure induces liver autophagic response in common carp.  

PubMed

Under normal conditions, autophagy occurs at basal levels but can be induced rapidly in response to stress conditions and extracellular signals. Increasing experimental evidence indicates that the expression of autophagy-related genes play very important roles in toxicology. Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the liver of common carp. Carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to ATR and CPF, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA and protein levels of autophagy-related genes in the liver. In addition, we also investigated the change in ultrastructure in the liver. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B (LC3B) and dynein were significantly induced in the treated groups compared to the solvent control group. Transmission electron microscope assays indicated that autolysosomes were observed in the exposure and recovery groups. These results indicated that ATR and CPF could induce autophagy in carp liver. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to study the autophagy effects caused by sub-chronic exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in common carp. The information presented in the present study may provide new insights into the mechanisms used by fish to adapt to stressful environments. PMID:25483372

Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Zhilei; Gao, Xuejiao; Chen, Dechun; Wang, Liangliang; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

2014-12-01

217

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  

PubMed

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

2014-06-01

218

POTENTIAL OF CARP TO BIOACTIVATE BENZO[A]PYRENE TO METABOLITES THAT BIND TO DNA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in starved, fed, and 5,6-benzoflavone-pretreated carp following i.p. administration of benzo(a)pyrene. 32p-postlabeling analysis of the liver DNAs showed the presence of one predominant (>92%) adduct in all three groups. ochromato...

219

Mechanisms of resistance of freshwater macrophytes to herbivory by invasive juvenile common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. Herbivory on freshwater macrophytes has been assumed to be insignificant and rare. More recent evidence suggests herbivory is common and the impact of invasive invertebrate herbivores can be substantial. However, little is known about consumption of macrophytes by fish. 2. We performed a series of feeding assays, based on the consumption by common carp (Cyprinus carpio), to determine

STEPHANIE A. M ILLER; D. P ROVENZA

2007-01-01

220

THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

221

Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

1974-01-01

222

Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

2001-01-01

223

UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. STOUKINGI T H E STETTINER IiAlTF WIT11 CARP.`  

E-print Network

the Megdeburgische Zeitung, No.501, Magdoburg, Ootobur 27, 1881.1 A truly gigantic enterprise which will greatly of starting the enterprise would be too great, and the par- ties to profit by this arrangment would procure the required 22,000,000 of carp, not by buy- ing them, but in the simplest manner in the world

224

SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

225

COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

226

Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

2012-01-01

227

BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

228

Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

2013-01-01

229

Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.  

PubMed

Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance. PMID:17662386

Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

2008-01-01

230

Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

2001-01-01

231

Detection of spring viremia of carp virus by hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes  

E-print Network

. This enabled us to construct DNA probes to the genome RNA and to the mRNA of SVCV. The single- stranded DNADetection of spring viremia of carp virus by hybridization with biotinylated DNA probes SF hybridization test for SVCV we constructed DNA probes using the technique of reverse transcription

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the facial nerve in the carp tectum mesencephali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectal evoked potentials to stimulation of the facial nerve, containing afferent fibers of nonolfactory chemoreception, in the carp are positive evoked potentials with a latent period of 5 to 25 msec which show no phase shift as the microelectrode is advanced to a depth of 600 µ. Depending on the amplitude and latency of evoked potentials seven active zones differing

N. E. Vasilevskaya; L. N. Stankevich

1976-01-01

233

Some observations on the narcotizing ability of electric currents on the common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Some effects of alternating current electronarcosis and of rectified current electronarcosis on C. carpio were investigated. In all instances recovery from narcosis was accompanied by convulsive spasms. Haemorrhaging of the gills was also observed to occur. Carp do not appear to be suitable candidates for electronarcosis. PMID:2812707

Barham, W T; Schoonbee, H J; Visser, J G

1989-09-01

234

Sequence, genomic organization and expression of ghrelin receptor in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  

PubMed

The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) is an endogenous receptor for the gut hormone ghrelin. Here we report the identification and characterization of GHS-R1a in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length GHS-R1a cDNA contained a 1803-bp coding domain sequence which encoded a peptide of 360 amino acid residues. Comparison analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of GHS-R1a were highly conserved in vertebrates and shared 97% amino acid identity with zebrafish (Danio rerio), 96% with jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and 93% with goldfish (Carassius auratus). The GHS-R1a showed the highest level of mRNA expression in the pituitary, followed by the brain and liver, and the lowest expression was observed in the hindgut. Intraperitoneally injected with grass carp ghrelin (50, 100 and 150ng/g body weight (BW)), grass carp showed greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in the pituitary compared with saline injected at 0.5h postinjection. It was observed that food deprivation could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary, demonstrating that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary. After a 2- or 4-week fast, plasma growth hormone (GH) increased, was positively correlated with ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA expression levels in the pituitary. These results suggested that the involvement of ghrelin/GHS-R1a systems in mediating the effects of nutritional status and ghrelin on growth processes in grass carp. PMID:25242546

Cai, Wen-Jing; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Yuan, Yong-Chao; Xie, Shou-Qi; Gong, Yuan; Su, Hang; Qiao, Yang

2015-01-01

235

Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID:25551462

Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

2014-01-01

236

Centromere Localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through Half-Tetrad Analysis in Diploid Gynogenetic Families  

PubMed Central

Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N?=?48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

2013-01-01

237

Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging. PMID:25463866

Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; E?imovi?, Sandra

2015-02-01

238

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

239

Major Links.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

Henderson, Tona

1995-01-01

240

Majors Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

2012-01-05

241

Effects of nitrite exposure on blood respiratory properties, acid-base and electrolyte regulation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult carp were subjected to 1 mM environmental nitrite for 48 h and nitrite uptake and changes in blood respiratory properties, extracellular electrolyte composition and acid-base status were examined.

Frank B. Jensen; Niels A. Andersen; Norbert Heisler

1987-01-01

242

Physiological responses of over-wintering common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) to disturbance by Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tame animal, the impact of otter (Lutra lutra) disturbance on over-wintering carp (Cyprinus carpio) was monitored in two experiments, 133 and 140 days, respectively, over two consecutive winters (November–April). The level\\u000a of stress in over-wintering carp exposed to various intensities of disturbance by otters was quantified using biological indicators\\u000a of stress (cortisol, cortisone, indices of nitrogen, carbohydrate, lipid and

LukᚠPoledník; Ji?í ?ehulka; Andreas Kranz; Kate?ina Poledníková; Václav Hlavá?; Hana Kazihnitková

2008-01-01

243

Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian Carp ( Cyprinus carpio var . Jian)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation from Astragalus Root (Radix astragalin seu Hedysari) and Chinese Angelica Root (R. Angelicae Sinensis) at a ratio of 5:1 (w\\/w) on non-specific immunity of Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian was investigated. The number of NBT-positive cells in the blood and lysozyme and complement activities in the serum of Carp fed with

Jichang Jian; Zaohe Wu

2004-01-01

244

Antagonists of Anaphase-promoting Complex (APC)-2-Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 Interaction Are Novel Regulators of Cell Growth and Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

CARP-1/CCAR1, a perinuclear phosphoprotein, is a regulator of cell growth and apoptosis signaling. Although CARP-1 is a regulator of chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis, it is also a part of the NF-?B proteome and a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors as well as ?-catenin signaling. Our yeast two-hybrid screen revealed CARP-1 binding with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome E3 ubiquitin ligase component APC-2 protein. CARP-1 also binds with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1. Following mapping of the minimal epitopes involved in CARP-1 binding with APC-2, a fluorescence polarization assay was established that indicated a dissociation constant (Kd) of 480 nm for CARP-1/APC-2 binding. Fluorescence polarization assay-based high throughput screening of a chemical library yielded several small molecule antagonists of CARP-1/APC-2 binding, termed CARP-1 functional mimetics. CFM-4 (1(2-chlorobenzyl)-5?-phenyl-3?H-spiro[indoline-3,2?-[1,3,4]thiadiazol]-2-one), a lead compound, binds with and stimulates CARP-1 expression. CFM-4 prevents CARP-1 binding with APC-2, causes G2M cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis with an IC50 range of 10–15 ?m. Apoptosis signaling by CFM-4 involves activation of caspase-8 and -9 and caspase-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-independent loss of cyclin B1 and Cdc20 proteins. Depletion of CARP-1, however, interferes with CFM-4-dependent cell growth inhibition, activation of caspases, and apoptosis. Because CFM-4 also suppresses growth of drug-resistant human breast cancer cells without affecting the growth of human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells, elevating CARP-1 by CFM-4 and consequent apoptosis could in principle be exploited to further elucidate, and perhaps effectively target, often deregulated cell cycle pathways in pathological conditions, including cancer. PMID:21903591

Puliyappadamba, Vineshkumar Thidil; Wu, Wenjuan; Bevis, Debra; Zhang, Liyue; Polin, Lisa; Kilkuskie, Robert; Finley, Russell L.; Larsen, Scott D.; Levi, Edi; Miller, Fred R.; Wali, Anil; Rishi, Arun K.

2011-01-01

245

Carpe diem: Carpe ampulla  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how objects are manipulated and grasped is of interest to researchers and practitioners in many fields, from designers and ergonomists to occupational therapists, physiotherapists and many other professionals involved in the provision of health care. For designers there is a desire to understand the nature of strength and dexterity with regards to ageing, since by 2020 it is estimated

Alaster Yoxall

246

Major depression.  

PubMed

Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

2014-09-01

247

Analysis of Genome Survey Sequences and SSR Marker Development for Siamese Mud Carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Using 454 Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Siamese mud carp (Henichorynchus siamensis) is a freshwater teleost of high economic importance in the Mekong River Basin. However, genetic data relevant for delineating wild stocks for management purposes currently are limited for this species. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing to generate a partial genome survey sequence (GSS) dataset to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from H. siamensis genomic DNA. Data generated included a total of 65,954 sequence reads with average length of 264 nucleotides, of which 2.79% contain SSR motifs. Based on GSS-BLASTx results, 10.5% of contigs and 8.1% singletons possessed significant similarity (E value < 10?5) with the majority matching well to reported fish sequences. KEGG analysis identified several metabolic pathways that provide insights into specific potential roles and functions of sequences involved in molecular processes in H. siamensis. Top protein domains detected included reverse transcriptase and the top putative functional transcript identified was an ORF2-encoded protein. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven sequences containing SSR motifs were identified, of which 422 qualified for primer design and eight polymorphic loci have been tested with average observed and expected heterozygosity estimated at 0.75 and 0.83, respectively. Regardless of their relative levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, microsatellite loci developed here are suitable for further population genetic studies in H. siamensis and may also be applicable to other related taxa. PMID:23109823

Iranawati, Feni; Jung, Hyungtaek; Chand, Vincent; Hurwood, David A.; Mather, Peter B.

2012-01-01

248

Biological effects and bioaccumulation of pharmaceutically active compounds in crucian carp caged near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been universally detected in rivers, lakes and coastal waters that are affected by effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this study, the biological effects and bioaccumulation of PhACs were assessed in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) caged in an effluent-receiving river for 21 days. Compared with control fish in the laboratory and at a reference site, a significant reduction in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and increase in the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were observed in the fish that was caged downstream from the STP outfall. In general, the total concentrations of PhACs detected in fish tissues were in the order as follows: liver > brain > gill > muscle > bile. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for PhACs were between 195 and 2782 in the major storage tissue liver. The corresponding results for both risk quotient (RQ) and enhanced integrated biomarker response (EIBR) based on laboratory and field studies, respectively, indicated that environmental risk for adverse effects to aquatic organisms were clearly higher at the downstream of the STP outfall than at the upstream. PMID:25406643

Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Zhang, Zhenghua; Bao, Yijun; Liu, Fuli; Wu, Donghai; Wang, Yonghua

2015-01-23

249

Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

250

Screening and characterization of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria from cultured common carp intestine.  

PubMed

Screening of potential probiotic LAB for aquaculture from adult common carp intestine was performed seasonally. Lactococcus lactis h2 and Lactococcus raffinolactis h47, which show cholic acid resistance and strong antibacterial activity against fish pathogens, were selected from predominant LAB in summer and winter respectively. Enterococcus pseudoavium h50, with the strongest antimicrobial activity among the strains isolated through 1 year, was also selected. Streptococcus iniae I1, with strong antimicrobial activity, was selected from predominant LAB in young common carp intestine. Direct screening of LAB with cholic acid resistance was also carried out seasonally. The antibacterial activity of the isolates was tested, and Lactobacillus fuchuensis K11 was selected from the summer isolates. In addition, five candidate strains were selected from the winter samples. The candidates' levels of cholic acid resistance and antibacterial activity were better than or at the least matched those of their corresponding type strains. All the candidates grew over a wide range of temperatures. PMID:19584561

Hagi, Tatsuro; Hoshino, Takayuki

2009-07-01

251

Effects of chlorpyrifos on the metabolome of the freshwater carp, Cyprinus Carpio.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of waterborne chlorpyrifos with concentrations of 1 and 100 µg/L for L and H-groups, respectively, on metabolome profiles of carp plasma using (1) H-NMR. Principal component analysis suggests that chlorpyrifos exposure firstly affected in L and H-groups on day 2 or 4, and followed a second effect in both exposure groups on day 14. Levels of metabolites related to the energy production in the body, such as glucose, glycerol, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lactate, alanine, 3-D-hydroxybutyrates and acetoacetate, significantly changed by exposures of chlorpyrifos. Those results suggest that energy production was severely affected in carp. The exposure could also be highly elevated ammonia levels especially in H-group due to severe convulsion in muscle caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 253-260, 2015. PMID:23997021

Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Pal, Sandipan; Koyama, Jiro

2015-03-01

252

Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.  

PubMed

Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. PMID:25044130

Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

2014-10-01

253

Structure of a Sialo-Oligosaccharide from Glycophorin in Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes and prepared the oligosaccharide fraction from glycophorin by ?-elimination [1]. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. These O-linked oligosaccharides (P-1 and P-2) were composed of glucose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc). The P-1 and P-2 contained one and two NeuGc residues, respectively, and the P-1 exhibited bacteriostatic activity [1]. Using NMR and GC-MS, we determined that the structure of the bacteriostatic P-1 was NeuGc?2?6 (Fuc?1?4) (Glc?1?3) Gal?1?4GalNAc-ol. This O-linked oligosaccharide was unique for a vertebrate with respect to the hexosamine and hexose linkages and its non-chain structure. PMID:25402951

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Sugiura, Hikaru; Mizuno, Yasuko

2014-01-01

254

Food Provisioning in Red-Necked Grebes ( Podiceps Grisegena ) at Common Carp ( Cyprinus Carpio ) Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental feeding patterns were studied in red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena) broods throughout the entire period of parental care in a common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish-pond area in SE Poland in 1993–2002. Fish formed a substantial part of prey provided to the flightless young from their second week of life. Although the numbers of large invertebrates and tadpoles, the alternative prey

Janusz Kloskowski

2004-01-01

255

Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

2008-01-01

256

Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin

2003-01-01

257

Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR) to carbacholine (CCh) and isoprenaline (Iso) were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA) and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA) temperatures. RESULTS: Inhibitory

Matti Vornanen; Mervi Hälinen; Jaakko Haverinen

2010-01-01

258

Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Carp, Snail, Aphid, Comb Jelly, Chocolate Vine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the big head carp, the giant African snail, the balsam wooly aphid, the comb jelly and the chocolate vine. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

2013-06-17

259

Biosynthesis of fatty acids by the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in relation to environmental temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation in vivo of sodium 1-14C-acetate into different lipid classes and fatty acids of total lipids and phospholipids of warm adapted and cold adapted\\u000a carp livers was studied at 5 C and 22 C, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids was also\\u000a determined. The level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both total lipid and

Tibor Farkas; ISTVAN CSENGERI

1976-01-01

260

Purification and Characterization of Myofibril-bound Serine Proteinase from Carp Cyprinus carpio Ordinary Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A novel myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBP) has been purified from ordinary muscle of the carp Cyprinus carpio. 2. It was solubilized from the myofibril fraction with acid treatment (under the conditions of 0.6 M KCl, pH 4.0), then purified by column chromatographic steps on Ultrogel AcA 54, and Arginine-Sepharose 4B. 3. The purified enzyme revealed a single protein band

Kiyoshi Osatomi; Hiroshi Sasai; Minjie Cao; Kenji Hara; Tadashi Ishihara

1997-01-01

261

Analyses of impact of metal ion contamination on carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) gill cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in fish population because of water contamination is problem. As a result of direct exposure in water, it has\\u000a been readily accepted that the gills are the main site of water contamination and toxicity (e.g., metal ions). In the present\\u000a study, we investigated metal ion contamination on the functional capacity of carp gill cells with antioxidant interactions\\u000a in

M. Arabi

2004-01-01

262

Enhanced bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in carp in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

The impact of suspended particles on the bioavailability of pollutants has long been a controversial topic. In this study, adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) onto a natural suspended particulate matter (SPM) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied. Facilitated transports of PCP into carp by SPM and MWCNTs were evaluated by bioaccumulation tests exposing carp (Carassius auratus red var.) to PCP-contaminated water in the presence of SPM and MWCNTs, respectively. Desorption of PCP on SPM and MWCNTs in simulated digested fluids was also investigated. The results demonstrate that MWCNTs (K F?=?7.99?×?10(4)) had a significantly stronger adsorption capacity for PCP than the SPM (K F?=?19.0). The presence of SPM and MWCNTs both improved PCP accumulation in the carp during the 21 days of exposure, and the 21 days PCP concentration in the carp was enhanced by 25.9 and 12.8 % than that without particles, respectively. The enhancement in bioaccumulation by MWCNTs was less than that by the SPM. Considerably more PCP was accumulated in the viscera of the fish (BCF?=?519495 for SPM and 148955 for MWCNTs), and the difference in PCP concentrations between different tissues became greater with particles. PCP desorption in the simulated digestive fluids was faster than that in the background solution. Compared to MWCNTs-bound PCP, more SPM-bound PCP was desorbed, and K F of desorption for SPM was at least 4 orders of magnitude higher than that for MWCNTs, which can explain the greater enhancement in bioaccumulation in the presence of SPM. Particle-bound pollutants might pose more risk than pollutants alone. PMID:24151027

Sun, Hongwen; Ruan, Yuefei; Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yanwei; Yu, Li

2014-02-01

263

CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-?B signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs. PMID:23826121

Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.

2013-01-01

264

Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.  

PubMed

Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Miko?aj; Bili?ska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej

2014-12-01

265

Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

2013-01-01

266

Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

2012-01-01

267

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of adenylosuccinate lyase gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) is a bifunctional enzyme acting in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. In the present study, we have constructed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) intestinal cDNA library that has over 2.3 × 10(5) primary clones. An expressed sequence tag (EST) of grass carp adenylosuccinate lyase (gcADSL) gene was screened from this library. Both 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out in order to obtain the complete cDNA sequence, which contains a 1,446 bp open reading frame encoding 482 amino acids about 54.552 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology with its vertebrate counterparts, which shares 94% similarity with zebrafish, 81% with African clawed frog as well as chicken, 77% with human and 76% with mouse. This gcADSL genomic sequence, consisted of 13 exons and 12 introns, is 8,557 bp in size. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the highest expression level of gcADSL was detected in muscle and the lowest in gill. In western blotting analysis, His(6)-tagged gcADSL protein expressed in Escherichia coli could be recognized not only by an anti-His(6)-tag monoclonal antibody but also by an anti-human ADSL polyclonal antibody, indicating immunological crossreactivity occurs between grass carp and human ADSL protein. 1,082 bp 5'-flanking region sequence was cloned and analyzed. PMID:20857210

Yuan, Tian; Gu, Ji-Rui; Gu, Wen-Bo; Wu, Jiang; Ge, Shao-Rong; Xu, Heng

2011-03-01

268

Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

2014-09-01

269

Primary structures of multiple forms of urotensin II in the urophysis of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Multiple forms of urotensin II (UII), one of the hormonal peptides of the caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, were purified from the urophyses of the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Three distinct peaks with UII activity (classified as UII-alpha, -beta and -gamma) were separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Edman degradation as well as digestion with carboxypeptidase A revealed the primary structures of these peptides as UII-alpha: Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Asp-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Val UII-beta: Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Thr-Glu-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Val UII-gamma: Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Asp-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Ile The results of thin-layer chromatography, HPLC, amino acid analysis, and sequencing indicate that UII-alpha and -gamma are homogeneous. UII-beta appears, however, to be a mixture of two components, differing only at position 2. Thus, in the carp urophysis, four forms of UII appear to be present, although the separation of two components in UII-beta has not been obtained. Sequence of positions 6-11 is common to all forms of UII isolated from the carp, sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and goby (Gillichthys mirabilis). PMID:6745627

Ichikawa, T; Lederis, K; Kobayashi, H

1984-07-01

270

Characterization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) IL-17D: molecular cloning, functional implication and signal transduction.  

PubMed

Although the roles of IL-17 family members during inflammation have been extensively studied in mammals, their knowledge in lower vertebrates is limited. In particular, the biological activities of fish IL-17 and their functional roles are largely unknown. In this study, we cloned grass carp IL-17D (gcIL-17D) and found that its putative protein possessed the conserved features of IL-17 family members. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gcIL-17D was preferentially expressed in the mucosal tissues, including skin, gill and intestine. Subsequently, the involvement of gcIL-17D in inflammatory response was demonstrated by examining the expression profiles of gcIL-17D in head kidney and head kidney leukocytes following in vivo bacterial infection and in vitro LPS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, recombinant gcIL-17D (rgcIL-17D) was prepared in grass carp kidney cells and was able to promote the gene expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-? and CXCL-8) in grass carp primary head kidney cells, revealing gcIL-17D can function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, rgcIL-17D appeared to activate NF-?B signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of I?B? and up-regulated CXCL-8 mRNA expression possibly through NF-?B pathway. Our data shed new light on the functional role of teleost IL-17D in inflammatory response. PMID:24120974

Du, Linyong; Qin, Lei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Wei, He; Zhou, Hong

2014-02-01

271

Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie  

PubMed Central

Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

2014-01-01

272

Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis (or posterior blood islet), head kidney and trunk kidney. In addition, the hematopoietic tissue around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis transformed into that of the trunk kidney, which is the first description of the ontogeny of the trunk kidney hematopoietic tissue in teleosts. The mAb's used in this study reacted with carp myeloid surface molecules that are already transcribed and processed from the first appearance of myeloid cells, and thus serve a significant role in unraveling ontogenetic processes of teleost immunology. Finally, this study associated the first appearance of myeloid cells with an immune response on the molecular level: 2 days post fertilization embryos responded to LPS injection with upregulation of interleukin 1-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and serum amyloid A, and down-regulation of complement factor 3 and alpha2-macroglobulin, implying a functional embryonic innate defense system. PMID:16406121

Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Grou, Cláudia P O; Bergsma, Jorrit; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rombout, Jan H W M

2006-01-01

273

Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

2012-09-01

274

Retina-specific cis-elements and binding nuclear proteins of carp rhodopsin gene.  

PubMed

The upstream cis-elements controlling the retina-specific expression of carp rhodopsin gene were fully characterized in vivo. Transgenic studies demonstrated that both carp neural retina leucine zipper response-like element (cNRE, within nucleotides (nt) -63 to -75) and carp-specific element (CSE, nt -46 to -52) were crucial to reporter gene expression in medaka retinae. The retina-specific expression rates of embryos injected with nt -1 to -641 and longer fragments were much higher than those of embryos injected with nt -1 to -138 and shorter fragments, indicating that an enhancer is located in the nt -138 to -641 region. Retinal extracts and the probe BAT-1 (nt -90 to -120) formed two DNA-protein complexes, B1 and B2. Retinal extracts and the probes cNRE and CSE formed the complexes N1 and C1, respectively. The protein factors in B1 and C1 were mammal-like cone-rod homeobox proteins. PMID:11718728

Ma, G C; Wang, T M; Su, C Y; Wang, Y L; Chen, S; Tsai, H J

2001-11-16

275

Bioaccumulation, depuration and biotransformation of 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are extensively used as a class of flame retardants and have become ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Significant biotransformation of some PBDEs via reductive debromination has been observed. However, little is known about the fate of lower brominated BDEs in fish. In this study, the tissue distribution, excretion, depuration and biotransformation of 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE 15) were investigated in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) which were exposed to spiked water solution at different concentrations for 50d, followed by a 14-d depuration period. Bioaccumulation parameters were calculated and the results showed that BDE 15 was mainly concentrated in the gill and liver. In particular, five biotransformation products of BDE 15 in carp were identified using GC-MS/MS. Besides two debrominated metabolites, three of the metabolites were mono-OH-BDE 15, diOH-BDE 15 and bromophenol. Our results unequivocally suggested that BDE 15 oxidation did occur via the formation of hydroxylated (OH-) metabolites in crucian carp exposed in vivo. These findings will be useful for determination of the metabolic pathways of PBDEs in freshwater fish, especially about their oxidation metabolism. PMID:22036552

Cheng, Jie; Mao, Liang; Zhao, Zhigang; Shen, Mengnan; Zhang, Shenghu; Huang, Qingguo; Gao, Shixiang

2012-02-01

276

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

2002-01-01

277

The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

278

Differential screening and characterization analysis of the egg envelope glycoprotein ZP3 cDNAs between gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carp.  

PubMed

Gynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is an intriguing model system. In the present work, a systemic study has been initiated by introducing suppression subtractive hybridization technique into this model system to identify the differentially expressed genes in oocytes between gynogenetic silver crucian carp and its closely related gonochoristic color crucian carp. Five differential cDNA fragments were identified from the preliminary screening, and two of them are ZP3 homologues. Moreover, the full length ZP3 cDNAs were cloned from their oocyte cDNA libraries. The length of ZP3 cDNAs were 1378 bp for gyno-carp and 1367 bp for gono-carp, and they can be translated into proteins with 435 amino acids. Obvious differences are not only in the composition of amino acids, but also in the number of potential O-linked oligosaccharide sites. In addition, gyno-carp ZP3 amino acid sequence has an unexpected higher identity value with common carp (83.5%) than that with the closely related gono-carp (74.7%). The unique homology may be originated from the ancient hybridization. Northern blot analysis confirmed that expression of the ZP3 gene occurred exclusively in the oocytes. Because O-linked oligosaccharides on ZP3 have been demonstrated to play very important roles in fertilization, it is suggested that the extra O-linked glycosylation sites may be related to the unique sperm-egg recognition mechanism in gynogenesis. PMID:11305321

Fan, L C; Yang, S T; Gui, J F

2001-03-01

279

Seasonal Prevalence and Intensity of Infestation by the Ectoparasites in Carps Relating to PhysicoChemical Parameters in Some Ponds of Mymensingh and Bogra Districts of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to find out the seasonal prevalence and intensity of infestation of the ectoparasites of carps in some ponds of Mymensingh and Bogra districts of Bangladesh. Seven species of parasites viz. Trichodina domerguei, Trichodina reticulata, Chilodonella cyprini, Myxobohts koi, Dactylogiroides tripathi, D. extenswi and D. catlarius were found from 640 fry-fingerlings of silver carp, Hypophthalmicthys mohtrix

Abdus Salam Bhuiyan; A. S. M. Musa

2008-01-01

280

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

281

The Muscle Ankyrin Repeat Proteins: CARP, ankrd2\\/Arpp and DARP as a Family of Titin Filament-based Stress Response Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

CARP, ankrd-2\\/Arpp, and DARP, are three members of a conserved gene family, referred to here as MARPs (muscle ankyrin repeat proteins). The expression of MARPs is induced upon injury and hypertrophy (CARP), stretch or denervation (ankrd2\\/Arpp), and during recovery following starvation (DARP), suggesting that they are involved in muscle stress response pathways. Here, we show that MARP family members contain

Melanie K. Miller; Marie-Louise Bang; Christian C. Witt; Dietmar Labeit; Charles Trombitas; Kaori Watanabe; Henk Granzier; Abigail S. McElhinny; Carol C. Gregorio; Siegfried Labeit

2003-01-01

282

Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

2008-01-01

283

A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

2009-01-01

284

Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.  

PubMed

Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

2014-12-01

285

The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids  

PubMed Central

Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-01-01

286

Physiological responses to mercury in feral carp populations inhabiting the low Ebro River (NE Spain), a historically contaminated site.  

PubMed

The low Ebro River course (Northeast Spain) is historically affected by mercury pollution due to a chlor-alkali plant operating at the town of Flix for more than a century. River sediments analysed during the last 10 years showed high mercury levels in the river section starting just downstream the factory and spanning some 90km, down to the river delta. The possible environmental impact was studied by a combination of field and laboratory studies. Mercury concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle of feral carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled downstream Flix were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from carps sampled upstream Flix. Elevated levels of mercury in these samples associated with significant increases on the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and on mRNA expression of two metallothionein genes, MT1 and MT2, in kidney and, partially, in scales, but not in liver. Conversely, no biochemical evidence for oxidative stress or DNA damage was found in these tissues. Non-contaminated carps subjected to intraperitoneal mercury injection resulted in a 20-fold increase of MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels in carp kidney, with minimal changes in liver levels. Our data suggests the coordinate increase of metallothionein mRNA in kidney and of GSH in liver constitutes an excellent marker of exposure to sub-toxic mercury levels in carps. This study also demonstrates that apparently healthy fish populations may exceed the mercury contamination acceptable for human consumption. PMID:19482362

Navarro, Anna; Quirós, Laia; Casado, Marta; Faria, Melissa; Carrasco, Luís; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Díez, Sergi; Raldúa, Demetrio; Barata, Carlos; Bayona, Josep M; Piña, Benjamin

2009-06-28

287

The cestode Atractolytocestus huronensis (Caryophyllidea) continues to spread in Europe: new data on the helminth parasite of the common carp.  

PubMed

The caryophyllidean tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958, originally described from the common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio L. from North America, has recently been introduced into Europe (UK, Hungary). In the present study, the dispersion of the tapeworm in other countries of Central Europe (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) is described, including its first observation in the common carp of the Tisa River, southeastern Slovakia. Because of the transboundary location of the river, there are possible consequences of the rapid distribution of the parasite to other regions throughout the Danube River basin. The parasite has also been found in cultured carp from fishponds in South Bohemia, from where the carp are imported to many European countries. Rapid dissemination of this cestode in Europe indicates its ability to colonise new regions, and represents another example of man-made introduction of potential pathogens of carp and other farmed fish. The morphology of the A. huronensis specimens found is compared with that of specimens from Hungary and North America as well as that of Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya and Akhmerov, 1965) from the same fish host in eastern Asia. PMID:15648838

Oros, M; Hanzelová, V; Scholz, T

2004-11-23

288

Assessment of pesticide residues and gene expression in common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos: Health risk assessments.  

PubMed

This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the expression levels of heat shock proteins genes (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and pesticide residues in the kidney tissue. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 were induced in the kidney of common carp by ATR, CPF, and ATR/CPF mixture. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the kidney tissues exhibited dose-dependency. These results exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that the expression levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp. PMID:25568939

Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Zhilei; Wu, Hongda; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Tao; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

2015-03-01

289

Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

1998-01-01

290

Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2013-01-01

291

Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.  

PubMed

Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

2013-01-01

292

Efficacy of some anticoccidial drugs for treating coccidial enteritis of the common carp caused by Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).  

PubMed

In this study, nine anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry were tested for efficacy for the prevention and treatment of Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To establish experimental infection with G. carpelli, paratenic host oligochaetes of the genera Tubifex and Limnodrilus were infected with oocysts, and laboratory-cultured parasite-free common carp fingerlings were infected by feeding to them oligochaetes containing sporozoites. The anticoccidial drugs (amprolium, narasin, maduramicin, salinomycin Na, lasalocid Na, diclazuril, robenidine HCl, monensin Na and toltrazuril), mixed in the food of the fish in a dose of 200 mg/kg, were fed for 12 days. Common carp fingerlings fed diclazuril, lasalocid, robenidine HCl or maduramicin and killed on day 14 after exposure were free from infection, while other groups treated with amprolium, toltrazuril, monensin Na, narasin or salinomycin Na harboured oocysts in the mucus and epithelium of the gut. PMID:17385557

Molnár, K; Ostoros, Györgyi

2007-03-01

293

Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio  

PubMed Central

Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

2013-01-01

294

Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.  

PubMed

In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

2014-07-01

295

26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

2012-09-07

296

Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration. PMID:23456946

Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

2013-08-01

297

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of innate immunity. In this study, a long-form PGRP, designated as gcPGRP6, was identified from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcPGRP6 is composed of 464 residues with a conserved PGRP domain at the C-terminus. The gcPGRP6 gene consists of four exons and three introns, spacing approximately 2.7 kb of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcPGRP6 is clustered closely with zebrafish PGLYRP6, and formed a long-type PGRP subfamily together with PGLYRP2 members identified in teleosts and mammals. Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that gcPGRP6 is constitutively expressed in organs/tissues examined, and its expression was significantly induced in liver and intestine of grass carp in response to PGN stimulation and in CIK cells treated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and peptidoglycan (PGN). Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting analyses revealed that gcPGRP6 is effectively secreted to the exterior of CIK cells. The over-expression of gcPGRP6 in CIK cells leads to the activation of NF-?B and the inhibition of intracellular bacterial growth. Moreover, cell lysates from CIK cells transfected with pTurbo-gcPGRP6-GFP plasmid display the binding activity towards Lys-type PGN from Staphylococcus aureus and DAP-type PGN from Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokine IL-2 and intracellular PGN receptor NOD2 had a significantly increased expression in CIK cells overexpressed with gcPGRP6. It is demonstrated that the PGRP6 in grass carp has a role in binding PGN, in inhibiting the growth of intracellular bacteria, and in activating NF-?B, as well as in regulating innate immune genes. PMID:24099967

Li, Jun Hua; Yu, Zhang Long; Xue, Na Na; Zou, Peng Fei; Hu, Jing Yu; Nie, P; Chang, Ming Xian

2014-02-01

298

Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane  

SciTech Connect

Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

Devirgiliis, Chiara [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Gaetani, Sancia [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Apreda, Marianna [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Bellovino, Diana [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

2005-07-01

299

Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics.  

PubMed

The goal of this laboratory study was to provide better knowledge about the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (causative agent: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliate bacteria) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following questions were investigated: (1) the effectiveness of different chemicals (formalin, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Perotan, Virkon, Aquahumin, Baycox, and Ivomec) and at different concentrations and durations of application, (2) the number of treatments and the time intervals between treatments that were necessary to remove the parasite, and (3) how treatment effectiveness differed between the two species. The most effective treatment was a 37% stock solution of formalin at 110 microL/L of bath water for 1 h in rainbow trout and for 2 h in common carp. Aquahumin (150 microL/L for 2 h) was effective in slightly or moderately infected rainbow trout and at low water temperatures, but it was not effective for common carp. All other tested chemicals were ineffective. With formalin and Aquahumin, five treatments were necessary to remove I. multifiliis infestation. At 10 +/- 1 degrees C, the parasites were eradicated when the treatment was performed at 48-h intervals. At 18 +/- 1 degrees C the infestation was eliminated when treatment was performed at 24-h intervals but not at 48-h intervals. At 25 +/- 1 degrees C, treatment at 24-h intervals was ineffective; however, shorter intervals between treatments might improve treatment efficacy at this temperature. In contrast, the number of treatment repetitions played a minor role, and parasites were eliminated with five treatments in all experiments when the type of chemical and treatment interval were optimal. PMID:18201060

Lahnsteiner, Franz; Weismann, Thomas

2007-09-01

300

Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have verified the protective role of fish lipids in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of fish lipids on health boost remain undefined. Large amounts of by-products, such as fish brain which contains high level of lipids, are produced with silver carp processing. Fish brain is rich in bioactive lipids which are overwhelmingly effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacological activities of silver carp brain lipids against diseases by inhibiting platelet-activating factor (PAF), suppressing bacterial growth and scavenging free radicals. Methods Total lipids (TL) were extracted from silver carp brain and separated into polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL). The capabilities of the lipid fractions in aggregating washed rabbit platelet or in inhibiting PAF-induced platelet aggregation were tested. Their antibacterial and antiradical activities were studied as well. Results The lipid fractions exhibited strong inhibitory activities, and the activity of TL was mainly attributed to NL. TL exhibited antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, while NL managed to fight against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. PL excelled TL and NL in simultaneously suppressing the growths of Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi besides those of S. aureus and E. coli. The scavenging effect of PL on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was considerably higher than those of TL and NL. Conclusion The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health. PMID:23805935

2013-01-01

301

Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio TLR5M  

PubMed Central

TLR5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the TLR5M gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The TLR5M cDNA was 3182?bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). The entire coding region of the TLR5M gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA and contained a single exon. The aa sequence of carp TLR5M showed the highest similarity (84.46%) to Cirrhinus mrigala. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the TLR5M gene by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed its broad distribution in various organs and tissues; however, the highest level of TLR5M expression was noted in the liver. TLR5M gene expression was examined after flagellin stimulation and showed highly significant (p<0.01) induction in the spleen, heart, liver and kidney. The induction of TLR5M was analyzed in various organs infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. TLR5M gene expression in the kidney and spleen was significantly (p<0.01) increased. Concurrently, modulation of TLR5M gene expression and the induction of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-?4 were analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes after lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, and flagellin stimulation. In the treated group, significant induction of these genes was noted, although the intensity varied between the tissues. These findings may indicate a crucial role for TLR5M in the innate immunity of common carp in response to pathogenic invasion. PMID:23930591

Duan, Duo; Sun, Zhen; Jia, Shengmei; Chen, Yilong; Feng, Xiangru

2013-01-01

302

Direct detection of unamplified spring viraemia of carp virus RNA using unmodified gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a viral disease that mainly affects carp Cyprinus carpio and other cyprinid fish, causing severe economic losses. Rapid detection and identification of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is crucial for effective disease management. Recent advances in nanoscience are having a significant impact on many scientific fields, especially biodiagnostics, where a number of nanoparticle-based assays have been introduced for biomolecular detection. Single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides can be adsorbed on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in colloidal solution under certain conditions. We exploited this phenomenon to develop a specific hybridization assay for direct detection of SVCV-RNA without prior amplification. The result of the hybridization process could be detected visually within 1 min when the colour of the reaction mixture changed from red to blue (positive reaction) or remains red (negative). The lower detection limit of the assay was estimated to be 10-3 TCID50 ml-1 SVCV-RNA, and it has the feasibility to detect the target virus-RNA in clinical specimens without previous amplification. In order to obtain an indication of the assay's performance on clinical samples we compared the optimized assay with nested RT-PCR in detection of SVCV-RNA in infected fish samples. The concordance of the 2 methods was defined as 100% when compared to nested RT-PCR positive and negative samples. The SVC-AuNPs assay requires only 15 min, eliminates the need for thermal cycling or detection instruments and is a specific and rapid tool for detection of SVCV-RNA directly from clinical samples. PMID:22885508

Saleh, Mona; Soliman, Hatem; Schachner, Oskar; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2012-08-13

303

Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.  

PubMed

Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. PMID:23415978

Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

2013-06-01

304

Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists  

PubMed Central

Background In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR) to carbacholine (CCh) and isoprenaline (Iso) were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA) and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA) temperatures. Results Inhibitory action of CCh was much stronger on atrial contractility than HR. CCh reduced force of atrial contraction at an order of magnitude lower concentrations (EC50 2.75-3.5·10-8 M) in comparison to its depressive effect on HR (EC50 1.23-2.02·10-7 M) (P < 0.05) without differences between winter and summer acclimatized fish. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with 100 ?M L-NMMA did not change the response of the sinoatrial tissue to CCh. Reduction of atrial force was associated with a strong shortening of action potential (AP) duration to ~50% (48 ± 10 and 50 ± 6% for CA and WA fish, respectively) and 11% (11 ± 3 and 11 ± 2% for CA and WA fish, respectively) of the control value at 3·10-8 M and 10-7 M CCh, respectively (P < 0.05). In atrial myocytes, CCh induced an inwardly rectifying K+ current, IK,CCh, with an EC50 value of 3-4.5·10-7 M and inhibited Ca2+ current (ICa) by 28 ± 8% and 51 ± 6% at 10-7 M and 10-6 M, respectively. These currents can explain the shortening of AP. Iso did not elicit any responses in crucian carp sinoatrial preparations nor did it have any effect on atrial ICa, probably due to the saturation of the ?-adrenergic cascade in the basal state. Conclusion In the crucian carp, HR and force of atrial contraction show cardio-depressive responses to the cholinergic agonist, but do not have any responses to the ?-adrenergic agonist. The scope of inhibitory regulation by CCh is increased by the high basal tone of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP cascade. Higher concentrations of CCh were required to induce IK,CCh and inhibit ICa than was needed for CCh's negative inotropic effect on atrial muscle suggesting that neither IK,CCh nor ICa alone can mediate CCh's actions but they might synergistically reduce AP duration and atrial force production. Autonomic responses were similar in CA winter fish and WA summer fish indicating that cardiac sensitivity to external modulation by the autonomic nervous system is not involved in seasonal acclimatization of the crucian carp heart to cold and anoxic winter conditions. PMID:20540719

2010-01-01

305

Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.

1987-03-01

306

Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. PMID:25632673

Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

2014-12-01

307

Ethnic Studies Undergraduate Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

Ethnic Studies Undergraduate Major Major Advisors Dewey St. Germaine & Laura Jimenez-Olvera 530@berkeley.edu http://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ The Group Major in Ethnic Studies The group major in ethnic studies. Students majoring in ethnic studies study the history, culture, politics, and sociology of Third World

Walker, Matthew P.

308

CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

309

Grass carp prolactin: Molecular cloning, tissue expression, intrapituitary autoregulation by prolactin and paracrine regulation by growth hormone and luteinizing hormone.  

PubMed

Prolactin (PRL), a pituitary hormone with diverse functions, is well-documented to be under the control of both hypothalamic and peripheral signals. Intrapituitary modulation of PRL expression via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms has also been reported, but similar information is still lacking in lower vertebrates. To shed light on autocrine/paracrine regulation of PRL in fish model, grass carp PRL was cloned and its expression in the carp pituitary has been confirmed. In grass carp pituitary cells, local secretion of PRL could suppress PRL release with concurrent rises in PRL production and mRNA levels. Paracrine stimulation by growth hormone (GH) was found to up- regulate PRL secretion, PRL production and PRL transcript expression, whereas the opposite was true for the local actions of luteinizing hormone (LH). Apparently, local interactions of PRL, GH and LH via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms could modify PRL production in carp pituitary cells through differential regulation of PRL mRNA stability and gene transcription. PMID:25458702

Lin, Chengyuan; Jiang, Xue; Hu, Guangfu; Ko, Wendy K W; Wong, Anderson O L

2015-01-01

310

Elimination of malachite green residues from meat of rainbow trout and carp after water-born exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake, accumulation and depuration of malachite green (MG) in muscle and skin of rainbow trout and carp were studied. The concentrations of MG and its mayor metabolite leuchomalachite green (LMG) were determined with liquid chromatography coupled with an absorbance and a fluorescence detector. Rainbow trout were exposed to 1mgl?1 of MG for 1 and 3h and to a slightly increased

Zlatka Bajc; Vlasta Jen?i?; Ksenija Šinigoj Ga?nik

2011-01-01

311

ISOMER DEPENDENT BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...

312

Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids or a protein-free diet  

E-print Network

Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids) weighing 200 mg were fed a diet containing either casein (CAS) or a mixture of synthetic amino acids (AA). Growth, digestibility of protein and amino acids, transit, postprandial nitrogen excretion and oxygen

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

313

Recent Duplication of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Genome as Revealed by Analyses of Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome duplications may have played a role in the early stages of vertebrate evolution, near the time of divergence of the lamprey lineage. Additional genome duplication, specifically in ray-finned fish, may have occurred before the divergence of the teleosts. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been considered tetraploid because of its chromosome number (2n ¼100) and its high DNA content.

Lior David; Shula Blum; Marcus W. Feldman; Uri Lavi; Jossi Hillel

2003-01-01

314

Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

315

Characterization and expression analysis of two distinct neuropeptide Ya paralogues in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  

PubMed

Two distinct neuropeptide Ya paralogues (jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2) were cloned and characterized in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), with a highly conserved organization encoded by four exons and three introns. The cDNAs for jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 were 693 and 730 bp in size, respectively. jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 both encoded a 96-amino acid protein, which shared 97.9 % identity. Phylogenetic tree showed that it has two NPYa genes, called jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2, that presumably resulted from the tetraploidization event in the carp lineage. Analysis of expression profiles of jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 showed that the two NPY genes had a broad tissue distribution but expressed primarily in the forebrain, hypothalamus, testis and liver. The expression pattern was different in juvenile and adult (female and male) Jian carp. In juvenile, the highest expression level of jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 was detected in the testis. In adult, it was detected in the forebrain. In female hypothalamus, the expression level of jlNPYa1 was significantly higher than that of jlNPYa2. However, the opposite was true in male hypothalamus. The differing distribution patterns of the two NPY genes suggested that jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 might play different roles in Jian carp. PMID:25015546

Tang, Yongkai; Li, Hongxia; Li, Jianlin; Yu, Fan; Yu, Juhua

2014-12-01

316

RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

317

SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

318

Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological observations were made in common carp larvae in order to understand the origin of the phospholipid (PL) requirement of fish during their young stages. Larvae were fed for 6 or 8 days after start-feeding on semi-purified diets containing peanut oil and supplemented with or without different PL fractions enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI). A group of larvae

Stéphanie Fontagné; Inge Geurden; Anne-Marie Escaffre; Pierre Bergot

1998-01-01

319

Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

320

Uptake and transport of intact macromolecules in the intestinal epithelium of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and the possible immunological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protein antigens, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ferritin, have been administered to the digestive tract of carp. Electron-microscopical observations reveal considerable absorption of both antigens in the second segment of the gut (from 70 to 95% of the total length) and also, although to a lesser extent, in the first segment (from 0 to 70% of the total length). Even

J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; M. H. Helfrich; A. Dekker; J. J. Taverne-Thiele

1985-01-01

321

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of the common carp.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in animal. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the levels of global DNA methylation and the expression of methylation enzymes (DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylcytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)) in the brain and gonad tissues. The results revealed that a significant global DNA hypomethylation in the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture was observed compared to the control fish. The MBD2 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the brain and gonad of the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture, in contrast, the DNMTs mRNA expression was down-regulated. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on DNA methylation status generated in this study is important for pesticides toxicology evaluation. However, the effect of ATR and CPF on the methylation status of specific genes, as well as its detailed mechanism requires further investigation. PMID:25460047

Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hongda; Chen, Dechun; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

2015-02-01

322

Interactions among Fertile Male, Female, and Sterile Male Sea Lampreys during Spawning in the Carp River, Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spawning interactions among fertile male, female, and sterilized male sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus were examined by placing externally attached radiotransmitters on 4% (52 animals) of the population of sea lampreys that was introduced above a barrier to their passage in the Carp River, which flows into Lake Superior, during 1996 and 1997. Movements and interactions on nests made by sea

J. R. M. Kelso; W. M. Gardner; R. B. McDonald

2001-01-01

323

Absence of albumin in the plasma of the common carp Cyprinus carpio: binding of fatty acids to high density lipoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was investigated whether an albumin-like protein, active in the transport of free fatty acids, is present in the blood of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In contrast with the brown trout Salmo trutta, no free fatty acid-binding protein could be found with a molecular mass and isoelectric point similar to human serum albumin. On the other hand, free fatty

H. De Smet; R. Blust; L. Moens

1998-01-01

324

Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements. PMID:19520514

Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

2009-10-14

325

Interaction between type I interferon and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in two genetic lines of common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and its ornamental koi varieties can induce the severe systemic disease known as koi herpesvirus disease. This disease is characterised by a rapid replication and spreading of the virus through multiple organs and results in a fast onset of mortality (starting on Day 6 post infection) in up to 100% of infected fish. During the first phase of viral infections, type I interferons (IFNs) have generally been proven to be essential in inducing an innate immune response; however, very little is known about the type I IFN response to herpesviruses in fish. The aim of this work was to study the type I IFN responses during CyHV-3 infection in 2 genetically divergent lines of common carp which presented differing survival rates. Our results show that CyHV-3 induced a systemic type I IFN response in carp, and the magnitude of type I IFN expression is correlated with the virus load found in skin and head kidney. In this in vivo experimental setup, the level of type I IFN response cannot be linked with higher survival of carp during CyHV-3 infection. PMID:25266898

Adamek, Miko?aj; Rakus, Krzysztof L; Brogden, Graham; Matras, Marek; Chyb, Jaros?aw; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

2014-09-30

326

Effects of dietary tannic acid and quebracho tannin on growth performance and metabolic rates of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of tannic acid (a hydrolysable tannin) and quebracho tannin (a condensed tannin) on common carp at a level of 2% in a soybean and fish meal-based diet containing about 40% crude protein have been studied. Quebracho tannin did not affect feed intake, body weight gain, average metabolic growth rate and oxygen consumption during the experimental period (84 days).

Klaus Becker; H. P. S Makkar

1999-01-01

327

Purification, characterization, and molecular cloning of an outer layer protein of carp fertilization envelope.  

PubMed

An outer layer protein of carp fertilization envelope (FE), FEO-1, was purified from carp oocytes. The cDNAs encoding FEO-1 were cloned. The mature protein of FEO-1 is 21 kDa in molecular weight and contains 177 amino acid residues whose sequence has 58% identity to the outer layer protein of chick vitelline membrane. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry show that FEO-1 is expressed in oocytes and liver. In oocytes, FEO-1 is stored in the cortical granules. During cortical reaction, it is exocytosed to the perivitelline space and then gradually added to the outer layer of FE (FE(o)). FEO-1 first appears as discrete deposits along FE(o), then merges to form a continuous layer. The thickness of FE(o) increases as cortical reaction proceeds. In addition to FEO-1, FE(o) contains cystatin, fibroin-like substance (FLS), and cathepsin-like substance (CLS) as well. They are stored in the cortical granules and are exocytosed to FE(o) simultaneously with FEO-1 during cortical reaction. In FE(o), FEO-1 is present in monomer form and can be completely extracted by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-mercaptoethanol (MSH). On the other hand, the cystatin, FLS, and CLS present in FE(o)are cross-linked together. They are partially extracted by SDS-MSH but can be completely extracted by guanidium thiocyanate-lauroylsarcosine. PMID:10471479

Chang, Y S; Lu, L F; Lai, C Y; Kou, Y H; Huang, F L

1999-10-01

328

The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

Št?pánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škori?, Miša; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2012-01-01

329

Transgenic Common Carp Do Not Have the Ability to Expand Populations  

PubMed Central

The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of “all-fish” growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-01-01

330

Effect of frying in different culinary fats on the fatty acid composition of silver carp.  

PubMed

The influence of frying with four different oils (sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil, and corn oil) on the fatty acid composition of silver carp was evaluated. The fat content of the fillets increased after frying while the moisture content decreased in all evaluated samples. Mean saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, ??3, and ??6 contents of raw fish were 26.1 ± 0.5, 52.1 ± 1.1, 15.1 ± 0.6, 8.9 ± 0.1, and 6.1 ± 0.4%, respectively. Frying led to exchange of fatty acids between the silver carp lipid and frying fats. As a result of interactions, MUFA, PUFA, ??6, and PUFA/SFA ratio of samples fried in sunflower, soybean, and corn oil significantly increased while the amounts of SFA decreased. Frying had a negative effect on the ??3/?6 ratio but reduction in olive oil-fried samples is the least among the other samples. Except in soybean oil, long-chain ?3-PUFA content of samples was not affected by frying. PMID:24804033

Naseri, Mahmood; Abedi, Elahe; Mohammadzadeh, Behrooz; Afsharnaderi, Azam

2013-07-01

331

Toxic effects of paraquat on cytokine expression in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

In this study, the acute toxicity of paraquat (PQ) in common carp was determined. Then, the contents and mRNA levels of the cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interferon-? (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were evaluated following subacute exposure to PQ. The results show that the LC50 of PQ for common carp at 72 and 96 h was 15.962 and 15.106 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, after 7 days of subacute PQ exposure, the IL-1? content in the fish liver and kidney increased, although it decreased in spleen. However, changes in the IFN-? content showed an irregular trend. The TNF-? content increased in the liver and spleen but decreased in the kidney. Additionally, PQ exposure also induced alterations in the mRNA levels of IL-1?, IFN-?, and TNF-?. These results suggest that PQ exposure may result in suppression or excessive activation of the immune system in treated fish and lead to immune dysfunction and reduced immunity. PMID:24989943

Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yao; Niu, Daichun

2014-11-01

332

Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion by carp.  

PubMed

1. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion were studied for carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). 2. The concentrations of these pesticides in muscle and viscera of the carp reached plateaus in 12-48 hr exposure. 3. The average values of bioconcentration factors (BCF) for diazinon were 20.9 in muscle, 60.0 in liver, 111.1 in kidney and 32.2 in gallbladder over the 168 hr exposure period. Similarly, those values were 4.3-26.7 for IBP, 2.7-17.3 for malathion, and 36.0-157.1 for fenitrothion. 4. The excretion rate constants of malathion (hr-1) were 0.13 for muscle, 0.12 for liver, 0.08 for kidney and 0.06 for gallbladder. Those of diazinon, IBP and fenitrothion (g.ng-1.hr-1) were 0.002-0.024 for muscle, 0.001-0.020 for liver, 0.0004-0.004 for kidney and 0.002-0.023 for gallbladder, respectively. PMID:1980880

Tsuda, T; Aoki, S; Kojima, M; Harada, H

1990-01-01

333

Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure. PMID:24507130

Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

2014-03-01

334

Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-Ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in Butterflies and Shellfish.  

PubMed

The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

2015-01-01

335

Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.  

PubMed

Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

2013-06-01

336

High Throughput Mining and Characterization of Microsatellites from Common Carp Genome  

PubMed Central

In order to supply sufficient microsatellite loci for high-density linkage mapping, whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequences of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were assembled and surveyed for microsatellite identification. A total of 79,014 microsatellites were collected which were harbored in 68,827 distinct contig sequences. These microsatellites were characterized in the common carp genome. Information of all microsatellites, including previously published BAC-based microsatellites, was then stored in a MySQL database, and a web-based database interface (http://genomics.cafs.ac.cn/ssrdb) was built for public access and download. A total of 3,110 microsatellites, including 1,845 from WGS and 1,265 from BAC end sequences (BES), were tested and genotyped on a mapping family with 192 individuals. A total of 963 microsatellites markers were validated with polymorphism in the mapping family. They will soon be used for high-density linkage mapping with a vast number of polymorphic SNP markers. PMID:22949831

Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Yan; Li, Chao; Zhao, Zixia; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

337

Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).  

PubMed

Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

2014-01-01

338

Improved Methods for Capture, Extraction, and Quantitative Assay of Environmental DNA from Asian Bigheaded Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)  

PubMed Central

Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

Turner, Cameron R.; Miller, Derryl J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Corush, Joel

2014-01-01

339

PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --1 PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --2  

E-print Network

PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University D. Facilities E. Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology 2. Department Faculty and Staff

Sanders, Matthew

340

Effects of Subchronic Exposure to LASSO MTX ® (Alachlor 42% W\\/V) on Hematological Indices and Histology of the Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate subchronic toxic effects of the preparation LASSO MTX (alachlor 42% W\\/V) on hematological\\u000a indices and histology of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In carp exposed for 28 days to LASSO MTX in the concentration of 2,400 ?g L?1, significant differences (p < 0.05), were detected in all indices of the erythrocyte profiles tested except hematocrit (PCV)

Premysl Mikula; Helena Modra; Danka Nemethova; Ladislav Groch; Zdenka Svobodova

2008-01-01

341

Effect of treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and essential oil compounds on the proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid composition of carp fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and 1% essential oil (0.5% carvacrol+0.5% thymol) on the proximate composition and nutritional components (amino acids and fatty acids) of carp fillets at room temperature (25°C). Carp fillet samples were treated with anodic electrolyzed NaCl solution [EW (+)], cathodic electrolyzed NaCl solution [EW (?)] followed by

Barakat S. M. Mahmoud; Y. Kawai; K. Yamazaki; K. Miyashita; T. Suzuki

2007-01-01

342

Preservative effect of combined treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and essential oil compounds on carp fillets during convectional air-drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects on carp fillet samples of treatments with alkaline electrolyzed NaCl solution EW (?) prior to treatment with acidic electrolyzed NaCl solution EW (+) and 1% solutions of the essential oils consisting of 0.5% carvacrol and 0.5% thymol (1% Cv+Ty) were tested. First carp fillet samples were treated with EW (?), then EW (+), followed by

Barakat S. M. Mahmoud; Koji Yamazaki; Kazuo Miyashita; Yuji Kawai; Il-Shik Shin; Tetsuya Suzuki

2006-01-01

343

Changes in the respiratory properties of the blood in the carp, Cyprinus carpio , induced by diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Effects of diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension on acid-base balance and blood respiratory properties were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The carp were subjected to two cycles in ambient\\u000a$$P_{O_2 }$$\\u000a between about 130 mm Hg and about 12 mm Hg at 17°C (cf. Figs. 1 and 2). The first period of hypoxia was characterized by a non-compensated respiratory

Gunnar Lykkeboe; Roy E. Weber

1978-01-01

344

Differential effects of age-structured common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) stocks on pond invertebrate communities: implications for recreational and wildlife use of farm ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development of common carp Cyprinus carpio pond fisheries in Europe postulates their multifunctional use, integrating exploitation of aquaculture resources with recreational\\u000a services and maintenance of high levels of local biodiversity. Age classes of farmed carp are grown separately and pond ecosystems\\u000a may be differently affected by different ontogenetic stages of fish. To examine these relationships, a study was conducted

Janusz Kloskowski

345

Influence of a Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Strain on Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium-producing microcystin (MC), Microcystis aeruginosa (strain RST9501), on detoxification capacity and glutathione (GSH) synthesis in liver, brain, gill, and muscle—as well as\\u000a apoptotic protease (calpain) activity in liver and brain—in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Experimental groups were defined as follows: (1) control (CTR); (2) carp treated with an

Lílian Lund Amado; Márcia Longaray Garcia; Patrícia Baptista Ramos; João Sarkis Yunes; José Maria Monserrat

2011-01-01

346

Effect of salinity level on TSH and thyroid hormones of grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) have marked effect on body metabolism and in controlling osmoregulation activity in fish. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water salinity changes on thyroid hormones level and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of grass carp. For this purpose 120 grass carp were divided randomly in to four groups (10 fish in each group and three replicates per treatment). Three groups were held in three different salinities at concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1. The fourth group was reared in fresh water and considered as control. After three weeks blood samples were collected from the caudal peduncle vein. Then serum was separated and serum thyroid hormones and TSH were measured by LISA on Microwell plates. Our results indicated that the average of T3 levels in 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 groups were 0.43 ± 0.11, 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04 ?g dL-1, respectively. T3 levels in all experimental groups were significantly lower than those of control group (p < 0.05). Serum T4 level in 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 groups were 0.29 ± 62955/40.06, 0.24 ± 43129/50.05 and 2.85 7958/± 05768/40.55 ?g dL-1, respectively. Thyroxine level was significantly higher only in 12 g L-1 group in comparison with the control and other experimental groups (p < 0.05). Thyroxine level in other groups had not any significant difference with the control group (p > 0.05). The level of TSH in salinities of 4 and 8 g L-1 groups was significantly higher than that of control group (p < 0.05). The results showed that increasing water salinity can have significant effect on thyroid activity by decreasing T3 and increasing T4 level in serum of grass carp in experimental condition.

Peyghan, Rahim; Enayati, Ala; Sabzevarizadeh, Mostafa

2013-01-01

347

Carpe diem, Carpe ampulla: a numerical model as an aid to the design of child-resistant closures.  

PubMed

The population of most developed countries is ageing. Despite continuing medical advances, ageing brings with it a host of issues, not least a loss in strength and dexterity. One major area of concern is the ability of elderly consumers to access packaged goods such as food and medicines. In previous studies, the authors developed a numerical model of a human hand that was used to investigate the effect of physical dimensions and choice of grip on joint stresses to aid the understanding between physical effort, ability and discomfort. This previous work was supported by ethnographic studies and led to recommendations for packaging design. In this paper, a small ethnographic study is undertaken which identifies the grip types used to access to a product that is known to cause particular difficulties for the elderly, the "squeeze and turn" child-resistant closure or CRC, commonly used on medicines and cleaning products. One of the grip types used was chosen to be modelled using the numerical model developed in previous studies by the author. Model geometry and loading were adapted to simulate the "squeeze and turn" nature of the initial opening for closures of this type. A series of studies were then undertaken using different hand geometries; an average male hand, an average female hand and a fifth percentile female hand. The prediction from the model here is that female users with smaller hands will experience more discomfort when accessing squeeze and turn CRC's and that the turn process whilst maintaining the squeeze is problematic. PMID:22633561

Yoxall, A; Rodriguez-Falcon, E M; Luxmoore, J

2013-01-01

348

Potential Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Development in the Mekong River Basin on the Migration of Siamese Mud Carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) Elucidated by Otolith Microchemistry  

PubMed Central

The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409–0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

2014-01-01

349

Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

2007-01-01

350

Monoclonal antibodies against G protein of spring viremia of carp virus.  

PubMed

Part of the G protein (3094-4170 bp) of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by dialysis in our study. Two clones of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 1H11 and 4B8) against G protein were generated by fusion of mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 and spleen lymphocytes from part of G protein (3094-4170 bp) immunized mice. The results of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), IFA (indirect immunofluorescent assay), and Western blot assay further demonstrated the characterizations of the two MAbs. Both 1H11 and 4B8 were specific to SVCV G protein. Ten pairs of synthesized overlapping peptides were used to identify the epitope of the MAbs. The MAbs are useful in the development of SVCV diagnostic methods. PMID:25358003

Luo, Peixiao; Ruan, Xindi; Zhang, Qi; Li, Zeming; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

2014-10-01

351

Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.  

PubMed

In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin

2013-12-01

352

Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species. PMID:25240282

Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

2014-11-01

353

Comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the United States.  

PubMed

Five spring viremia of carp viruses (SVCV), Rhabdovirus carpio, were isolated in the United States (US) between 2002 and 2004. Single tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to generate overlapping cDNA fragments from the US isolates of SVCV. Multiple pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify a portion of the phosphoprotein gene, the matrix gene, and the glycoprotein gene of SVCV genogroup Id (corresponding to nucleotides 2174-4942 of GenBank accession NC_002803). Sequences were proofread and aligned to generate a consensus sequence for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 2705 nucleotide consensus sequence revealed that all five US isolates belong to SVCV genogroup Ia, Asian origin isolates, and a PCR primer binding site unique to SVCV genogroup Ia was identified. PMID:17048110

Warg, Janet V; Dikkeboom, Audrey L; Goodwin, Andrew E; Snekvik, Kevin; Whitney, John

2007-08-01

354

Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) were analyzed using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CP) or clobetasone butyrate (CB) individually or in mixture at 1 ?g L(-1) for 21 days. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of CB was calculated as 100, and BCF of CP was less than 16. No effects were found in fish erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers and serum glucose levels after exposure to the selected GCs. On the other hand, serum concentrations of free amino acids significantly increased in GC-exposed groups. Thus, exposures to synthetic GCs at relatively low concentrations seemed to cause enhancement of protein degradation and subsequent increase of serum free amino acids without a corresponding increase in serum glucose levels, an effect which might be related to partial induction of gluconeogenesis by GC. PMID:24492153

Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Hashizume, Naoki; Murakami, Hidekazu; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Go

2014-08-30

355

Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 ?mol/L resulted in decreased expression of both ?- and ?-tubulin but ?-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Dongyi; Chu, Wuying; Liu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ruixue; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Jianshe

2008-11-01

356

Expression and functional characterization of PGRP6 splice variants in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), which are evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors from insects to mammals, recognize bacterial PGN and function in antibacterial innate immunity. The existence of alternative splicing is a common feature for PGRP family. Here the splicing pattern from the splicing at the 5' end of PGRP6 gene was identified in a teleost fish, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Four splice variants of grass carp PGRP6 were designated as gcPGRP6a, gcPGRP6b, gcPGRP6c and gcPGRP6d, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed the different expression of these variants in fish individuals and CIK cell line in response to stimulation with different microbial ligands. Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting showed that the splice variants are intracellular protein. Cell lysates from Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells transfected with gcPGRP6 splice variants are able to bind microbial PAMPs including Lys-type PGN from Staphylococcus aureus, DAP-type PGN from Bacillus subtilis, glucan, mannan, and microorganisms including Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Flavobacterium columnare and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, overexpression of gcPGRP6 variants inhibited earlier stage growth of intracellular bacteria. The data also identified a specific role for gcPGRP6c variant in the positive regulation of cytolytic molecule perforin, and for gcPGRP6a, gcPGRP6b and gcPGRP6c variants in positive regulation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, the gcPGRP6d variant, which encoded basically only the PGRP domain, failed to induce the expression of perforin and AMPs. It is suggested that fish PGRP6 splice variants have common and variant-specific function in innate immune response. PMID:25149135

Yu, Zhang Long; Li, Jun Hua; Xue, Na Na; Nie, Pin; Chang, Ming Xian

2014-12-01

357

Characterizing the In Vitro Hepatic Biotransformation of the Flame Retardant BDE 99 by Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals that are known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 19.4 ?M and 1,120 pmoles hr?1 mg protein?1, respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC50 values of 2.2 ?M, 0.83 ?M, and >1.0 ?M, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

Noyes, Pamela D.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Stapleton, Heather M.

2009-01-01

358

Rheological properties of gelatin from silver carp skin compared to commercially available gelatins from different sources.  

PubMed

Gelatin is used as a functional ingredient in many foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics as a stabilizing, thickening, and gelling agent. The rheological properties of gelatins are important in the potential functionality of gelatin. This study is designed to determine the rheological properties of gelatin extracted from the skins of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes 1844). The extracted gelatin is compared with commercially available gelatins from different sources. The results indicate that the stress-strain relationship of gelatin gels remained in the linear region over a broad range of strains and stresses and gave similar elastic moduli at varying frequency, stress, and strain levels. One exception was a commercial high molecular weight fish skin gelatin that gave a lower elastic modulus indicating that its gel strength was low compared to the other gelatin samples studied. Gel strength varied between 220 and 1230 g while viscosity varied between 4.53 and 6.91 cP among the samples. Melting and gelling temperatures varied between 14.2 and 32.3 °C and 3.2 and 25.4 °C, respectively. Texture profile analysis was done at 2 deformation levels, 25% and 75%, and the results correlated well with gel strength. The correlations between hardness, cohesiveness, and gumminess and gel strength were 0.98, 0.82, and 0.99, respectively, at 25% deformation but lower at 75% deformation. The results suggest that rheological measurements might be used to quickly estimate gel strength using less material. In addition, the silver carp skin gelatin seemed to be of equal quality to some of the commercial gelatins. PMID:21535497

Boran, G; Mulvaney, S J; Regenstein, J M

2010-10-01

359

Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to test the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp spermatozoa. BHT is widely used in the cryopreservation of the spermatozoa of different animal species and successfully sustains the characteristics of spermatozoa during freezing and thawing, but it has not previously been used with fish. After sampling, common carp spermatozoa were diluted with an extender composed of modified Kurokura's extender, 10% DMSO, and 10% egg yolk containing 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. The post-thaw spermatozoa characteristics (i.e., progressive motility percentage (%), duration of progressive motility (s), fertilization rate (%), and eyed-eggs rate (%)) were evaluated and compared with those of the control group. There were significant increases in the percentage of progressive motility and the duration of progressive motility at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.001mM BHT (P<0.05). The duration of post-thawed spermatozoa progressive motility at 0.001mM BHT was significantly greater than that of the other groups (39.6±0.4s, P<0.05), and the fertilization rates and eyed-eggs rates were also higher following the 0.1 and 1mM BHT treatments. BHT at concentrations of more than 1mM caused sperm immobility during the preparatory stages of the sperm freezing. We concluded that 0.001-0.1mM BHT can be beneficial for the cryopreservation of common spermatozoa. PMID:25459081

Ö?retmen, F; ?nanan, B E

2014-12-30

360

Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 ?m) and large (150-200 ?m) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2012-01-01

361

Melanocortin receptor 1 and black pigmentation in the Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi)  

PubMed Central

Colors and their patterns are fascinating phenotypes with great importance for fitness under natural conditions. For this reason and because pigmentation is associated with diseases, much research was devoted to study the genetics of pigmentation in animals. Considerable contribution to our understanding of color phenotypes was made by studies in domesticated animals that exhibit dazzling variation in color traits. Koi strains, the ornamental variants of the common carp, are a striking example for color variability that was selected by man during a very short period on an evolutionary timescale. Among several pigmentation genes, genetic variation in Melanocrtin receptor 1 was repeatedly associated with dark pigmentation phenotypes in numerous animals. In this study, we cloned Melanocrtin receptor 1 from the common carp. We found that alleles of the gene were not associated with the development of black color in Koi. However, the mRNA expression levels of the gene were higher during dark pigmentation development in larvae and in dark pigmented tissues of adult fish, suggesting that variation in the regulation of the gene is associated with black color in Koi. These regulatory differences are reflected in both the timing of the dark-pigmentation development and the different mode of inheritance of the two black patterns associated with them. Identifying the genetic basis of color and color patterns in Koi will promote the production of this valuable ornamental fish. Furthermore, given the rich variety of colors and patterns, Koi serves as a good model to unravel pigmentation genes and their phenotypic effects and by that to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of colors also in natural populations. PMID:23355846

Bar, Ido; Kaddar, Ethan; Velan, Ariel; David, Lior

2013-01-01

362

Effects of acute exposure to metribuzin on some hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate acute toxic effects of the preparation Sencor 70 WG (metribuzin 70% W/V) on hematological, biochemical indices and histology of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In carp exposed for 96 h to Sencor 70 WG in the concentration of 250.2 mg/L, showed significantly lower (p<0.01) values of plasma total proteins, albumins, total globulins, triacylglycerols, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, inorganic phosphate, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean erythrocyte volume, the leucocrite value, lymphocyte, and significantly higher (p<0.01) values of glucose, ammonia, calcium, monocytes, neutrophile granulocytes, developmental forms myeloid sequence and basophiles compared to the control group. Histopathological examination revealed hyaline degeneration of the epithelial cells of renal tubules of the caudal kidney. This alteration of kidney resulted in hypoproteinemia, followed by generation of transudate in body cavity. PMID:19159050

Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Piackova, V; Sudova, E

2009-04-01

363

Chinese herbs ( Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila\\/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment

Guojun Yin; L. Ardó; K. D. Thompson; A. Adams; Z. Jeney; G. Jeney

2009-01-01

364

Influence of nutrition on the lipid quality of pond fish: common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and tench ( Tinca tinca )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like marine fish freshwater fish are an important source of essential fatty acids for human nutrition. However, the fatty\\u000a acid composition of pond fish can vary considerably and strongly depends on that of the ingested food. Investigations on the\\u000a fatty acid composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca) have shown that different methods of rearing and feeding

Werner Steffens; Manfred Wirth

2007-01-01

365

Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in females or a confounding effect of the higher nutrient loads in the Las Vegas Bay environment.

Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

2003-01-01

366

Specializations and limitations in the utilization of food resources by the carp, Cyprinus carpio : a study of oral food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The wide variety of aquatic food is considered to be instrumental for the diversification in fish species. Yet their abilities\\u000a and inabilities of handling food are poorly known. For these reasons the food processing and feeding repertoire of the adult\\u000a carp, Cyprinus carpio, fed on a variety of food types, were analyzed by light and X-ray cinematography of the head

Ferdinand A. Sibbing

1988-01-01

367

Growth and Condition of the Carp and the River Carpsucker in an Altered Environment in Western Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess the populations of the carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, and the river carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque), in Cedar Bluff Reservoir, and the Smoky Hill River, west-central Kansas. Three variables-(1) growth rate, (2) condition factor, and (3) percentage fat content-were used to evaluate the two populations.Data were collected from the spring of 1967 to the fall

Norman P. Stucky; Harold E. Klaassen

1971-01-01

368

Optimal water temperature and pH for development of eggs and growth of spawn of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of water temperatures (26, 28 and 30 C) and pH (5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5) variations on the hatchability of eggs and growth of spawn of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The present results indicated that percentage of hatchability of eggs and incubation period decreased with increase in temperatures from

P. H. Sapkale; R. K. Singh

2011-01-01

369

Prevalence and characteristics of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) inhabiting three rivers in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes lethal disease in common and koi carp. Mortality by CyHV-3 disease has not been reported since 2011 in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Here, we detected and quantified CyHV-3 in common carp inhabiting three rivers in the prefecture to examine if the carp are carriers of CyHV-3 as a source of infection. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 16.7% (12/72) of brain samples in Kagami River, 3.9% (3/76) of brain and 3.9% (3/76) of gill samples in Monobe River, and 5.1% (4/79) of brain and 1.3% (1/79) of gill samples in Wajiki River. CyHV-3 genotypes identified in the 23 samples were classified as the J genotype A1 that has been found in Japan. The CyHV-3 DNA load did not differ statistically between sampling months, indicating that CyHV-3 has been silent in common carp, unlike Lake Biwa where the annual reactivation occurs in spring. Taken together, our results represented definitive evidence that seasonal changes in water temperature do not affect CyHV-3 activity in carp. Considering that infectious virus was not isolated from CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples, it was suggested that CyHV-3 establishes a latent infection in carp populations inhabiting Kagami River, Monobe River and Wajiki River. Further, the presence of circular or concatameric CyHV-3 DNA was detected in five of 23 CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples. Common carp inhabiting Lake Biwa were reported previously to harbor linear but not circular CyHV-3 DNA. This difference suggested that the CyHV-3 genome may be circularized for long-term maintenance without active viral replication. PMID:25554244

Fujioka, Hiroya; Yamasaki, Kenichi; Furusawa, Keiki; Tamura, Kazuki; Oguro, Kazuki; Kurihara, Sumire; Seki, Shingo; Oshima, Syun-Ichirou; Imajoh, Masayuki

2015-02-25

370

Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.  

PubMed

Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

2013-12-01

371

Structural differences in the motor domain of temperature-associated myosin heavy chain isoforms from grass carp fast skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

We determined coding sequences for three types of grass carp myosin subfragment-1 (S1) heavy chain by extending 5'-regions of the three known genes encoding light meromyosin isoforms (10 degrees C, intermediate and 30 degrees C types). The primary structures of these three S1 heavy chain isoforms showed 81.4%, 81.2%, and 97.8% identities between the 10 degrees C and intermediate types, between the 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C types, and between the intermediate and 30 degrees C types, respectively. Isoform-specific differences were clearly observed between the 10 degrees C type and the other two types in 97 amino acid residues. Furthermore, among these amino acid mutations, 51 mutations occurred at the conserved residue sites of S1 heavy chain from fish and homoiotherm. Additionally, the 10 degrees C type showed striking differences compared with the other two types in the two surface loops, loop 1 located near the ATP-binding pocket and loop 2, which is one of the actin-binding sites, suggesting that such structural differences possibly affect their motor functions. Interestingly, this 10 degrees C-type myosin heavy chain isolated from adult grass carp skeletal muscle was surprisingly similar to the embryonic fast-type myosin heavy chain from juvenile silver carp in the structure of S1 heavy chain, indicating that it may also function as embryonic fast-type myosin heavy chain in juvenile stage. PMID:19567272

Tao, Yan; Wang, Sun-Yong; Liang, Chun-Shi; Fukushima, Hideto; Watabe, Shugo

2009-10-01

372

Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

2010-01-01

373

Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in immune organs of the common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos.  

PubMed

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are toxic and subject to long-term in vivo accumulation in different aquatic species throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on cytokines in the head kidney and spleen of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA expression of IL-6fam (IL-6), IL-8, TNF-?, IL-10 and TGF-?1 (TGF-?) in the head kidney and spleen tissues. These results showed that the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in the head kidney and spleen was upregulated following ATR, CPF and mixed ATR/CPF exposure compared with the control group. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-? mRNA was significantly inhibited in both head kidney and spleen of carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. The results suggested that long-term exposure of ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture in aquatic environments can induce the dysregulation of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on cytokine mRNA expression generated in this study will be important information for pesticides toxicology evaluation. PMID:25175644

Chen, Dechun; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Cao, Ye; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen

2014-09-01

374

Modulation of biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of toxic cyanobacterial biomass in diet.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria are producers of potent and environmentally abundant microcystins, representing an emerging global health issue. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cyanobacterial biomass on biochemical indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., average weight of 246 ± 73 g) under laboratory conditions. The fish were fed a diet containing cyanobacterial biomass with microcystins in high concentration (0.4 mg/kg of fish weight and day) for 28 days. Statistical evaluation of the influence of the cyanobacterial biomass in food on the biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed only minor differences. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase value and the urea concentration were significantly reduced compared to control group. The biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma significantly rose during the experiment in the control group as well as in the experimental group. This state was probably influenced by the environmental conditions and the fish diet. A significant rising value was established in calcium creatinine, total protein, phosphorus, lactate, urea and natrium. The present study demonstrates that the oral exposure of toxic cyanobacterial biomass has a minor influence on the biochemical indices of common carp and that the effect of other factors, e.g., nutrition is more visible. PMID:24972534

Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Navrátil, Stanislav; Mareš, Jan

2014-12-01

375

Effects and bioaccumulation of 17?-estradiol and 17?-ethynylestradiol following long-term exposure in crucian carp.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation and effects of 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were assessed by crucian carp (Carassius auratus) following single and binary mixture exposures in flow-through exposure system for 16 months. In comparison with water control (DWC) and solvent control (SC), a significant reduction in body weight, body length and gonadosomatic index (GSI), and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of E2 and EE2 in fish muscle ranged from 3.2 to 40 and from 64 to 123, respectively. Crucian carp were found to be more sensitive to EE2 than E2. The bioaccumulation and toxicological effects in binary mixture exposed fish (mixture of E2 and EE2) were more significant than exposure of individual compound. Crucian carp is sensitive to E2 and EE2 in long-term laboratory exposure experiments and can be used as a potential model species for investigating the toxicity of hormones. PMID:25463868

Huang, Bin; Sun, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoman; Liu, Jingliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Renmin; Pan, Xuejun

2015-02-01

376

Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

2010-12-01

377

Molecular characterization and expression analysis of two new C-reactive protein genes from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

C-Reactive protein (CRP) plays an important role in the acute phase response. Transcripts encoding two new CRP-like molecules (ccCRP1 and ccCRP2) from European common carp have been characterized which has enabled seven CRP-like genes to be identified in zebrafish. 79.3% (ccCRP1) and 74.5% (ccCRP2) identity to CRP from East-Asian common carp occurs and fish CRP genes form a distinct clade. ccCRP2 gene organization comprises four exons and three introns, in contrast to the two exons/one intron organization of mammalian CRP genes. Gene expression assays showed both ccCRP-like molecules are constitutively expressed in liver, skin, gill, gut, muscle, kidney, spleen and blood. Protein levels of ccCRP in serum and spleen were significantly different from other organs analyzed, and levels were greatest in the liver. It is proposed that the two carp CRP genes defined differ in their expression profiles which may suggest differences in their biological activities. PMID:22079493

Falco, Alberto; Cartwright, Jamie R; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

2012-05-01

378

Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.  

PubMed

Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

2014-08-01

379

Fall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total  

E-print Network

120 BFA Art/Digital Media Art 38 BA Art/Studio Practice 29 BFA Art/Photography 29 BFA Art/Pictorial Counts Graduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total 6 MFA Art/Digital Media Art 17 MFA Art/Photography 13 MFA Art/Pictorial Arts 20 MFA Art/Spatial Arts 27 MA Art/Art History and Visual Culture 1 MFA Art 5 MA Art

Su, Xiao

380

Carpe Diem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a spur-of-the-moment curriculum development activity involving primary-school students researching the "real" Leonardo, Donatello, Raphael, and Michelangelo behind the names of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Notes that the products of the research were shared during a classroom pizza party. (RS)

Siegfried, Sheila M.

1992-01-01

381

Carp Collage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a metal-tooling project for his fourth-graders. Giving the students a specific subject with specific features and textures enabled him to guide them step-by-step in the metal-tooling process. This project would be a great practice project for even high-school students before doing other relief work. After…

Laux, David

2009-01-01

382

A Novel Soluble Immune-Type Receptor (SITR) in Teleost Fish: Carp SITR Is Involved in the Nitric Oxide-Mediated Response to a Protozoan Parasite  

PubMed Central

Background The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I-) type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. Conclusion/Significance We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR) in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a protozoan parasite. PMID:21305002

Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Bird, Steve; Raes, Geert; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H.; Schijns, Virgil E. J. C.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

2011-01-01

383

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors Laura Jimenez-Olvera & Dewey St. Germaine 532 & 530://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Native American Studies Program exists to broaden the understanding of students interested in the history, culture, and contemporary situations of Native Americans in the United States

Walker, Matthew P.

384

Effects of salt concentration on biogenic amine formation and quality changes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 and 20 °C.  

PubMed

The effects of different salt concentrations on the quality changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets were evaluated in terms of biogenic amines, adenosine triphosphate and its related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and total viable counts during 4 and 20 °C storage. Grass carp fillets were brined in solutions of 2% NaCl (T1) and 10% NaCl (T2), and unsalted carp fillets were used as controls (CK). T1 and T2 showed higher sensory scores than CK. According to the TVB-N values, CK, T1, and T2 could maintain the freshness of carp for approximately 9, 12, and 27 days, respectively, when stored at 4 °C. The higher salt concentration had better inhibitory effect on the accumulation of some biogenic amines, such as tryptamine (TRM), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), and cadaverine (CAD). TVB-N of untreated grass carp fillets showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TRM, PHE, PUT, and CAD during storage. PUT and CAD showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TVB-N for T2 at 20 °C and T1 at 4 °C. PMID:24780335

Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Yin, Xiaofei; Wu, Hua; Bao, Yulong; Hong, Hui

2014-05-01

385

Promoter analysis and transcriptional regulation of a Gig2 gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-induced gene 2 (Gig2) is recognized as a new antiviral factor involved in response to viral infection. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind the transcriptional regulation of Gig2 when infected by virus. In this study, the upstream promoter region of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Gig2 gene (CiGig2) was identified by homology cloning strategy. CiGig2 promoter sequence was found to be 859 bp in length and contained three scattered IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE). In addition, some grass carp IRFs (CiIRF1, CiIRF2 and CiIRF3) ORF sequences were subcloned into the expression plasmids pET-32a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, then the expressed proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind Resin. Gel mobility shift assay was employed to screen the transcriptional regulatory factor for CiGig2. The results revealed that the recombinant polypeptides of CiIRF1, CiIRF2 and CiIRF3 bound to CiGig2 promoter with high affinity; indicating that IRF1, IRF2 and IRF3 could be the potential transcriptional regulatory factors for Gig2. Subsequently, CiGig2 promoter sequence was cloned into pGL3-Basic vector and the ORFs of CiIRF1, CiIRF2 and CiIRF3 were cloned into the expression plasmids pcDNA3.1 (+). Then, pGL3-CiGig2 promoter sequence and pcDNA3.1-CiIRFs were co-transfected into C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. The in vivo effects of CiIRFs on CiGig2 promoter were measured by dual-luciferase assays in the transfected CIK cells. Our results showed that the roles of CiIRFs were diversified in regulating CiGig2 transcription, e.g., CiIRF3 played a positive role in during this process; on the contrary CiIRF1 worked as a suppressor; however the effect of CiIRF2 on CiGig2 transcription was not obvious. For further study the roles of the three ISREs in CiGig2 transcription, we cloned three mutant CiGig2 promoters called ISRE1mut-luc (deleted ISRE1), ISRE2mut-luc (deleted ISRE2) and ISRE3mut-luc (deleted ISRE3), respectively. In vitro, gel mobility shift assays showed that all three mutant promoters also were combined with CiIRFs. CIK cells were co-transfected with CiGig2 promoter mutants (ISRE1mut-luc, ISRE2mut-luc or ISRE3mut-luc, respectively) and pcDNA3.1-IRFs. The results suggested that different ISRE played the diverse roles. ISRE2 is more important than ISRE1 and ISRE3 to the transcription of CiGig2 induced by CiIRF1. ISRE1 and ISRE3 are important to the transcription of CiGig2 induced by CiIRF2 and CiIRF3. PMID:25463285

Chen, Huarong; Sun, Changgui; Liu, Wenqun; Gu, Meihui; Lin, Gang; Liu, Yong; Mi, Yichuan; Fan, Lihua; Wang, Binhua; Hu, Chengyu

2015-02-01

386

Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels  

SciTech Connect

The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.

2000-03-01

387

Mechanisms of neuroblastoma cell growth inhibition by CARP-1 functional mimetics.  

PubMed

Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory ?B (I?B) ? and ? proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K

2014-01-01

388

Synthetic Pyrethroid effect on blood plasma biomarker enzymes and histological changes in Catla catla  

PubMed Central

Alpha-cypermethrin is an isoform of cypermethrin; it is an active pyrethroid used extensively to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and animal breeding. In this study four groups of six fish were examined. The first group served as a control in fresh water alone, with no pyrethroid. The second, third and fourth groups were exposed to alpha-cypermethrin for 4, 8 and 96 h respectively. At the end of the each exposure period, the fish were sacrificed, and the required muscle tissues were collected for histological examination. The blood was drawn with heparinized needles and processed for serum enzymatic studies. Serum enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), amylase, acid phosphatase (ACP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at 4, 8 and 96 h. AST enzyme activity was significantly increased at 4 h, whereas ALT and amylase enzyme activities were significantly reduced at all the time points. ACP enzyme activity was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 h, whereas GGT enzyme activity was significantly increased at all the time points. Hepatocyte cytoplasmic vacuolisation and degeneration, rupture of blood vessels, and necrosis was found at all time points. Congestion of blood vessels, bulging, distortion of filaments, erosion and disintegration of blood corpuscles and hyperplasia of epithelium were found in treated gills at 4, 8 and 96 h. Breakdown of muscle fibres, vacuolation and accumulation of lipids and melanin in white muscle were observed in treated fish muscle at 4, 8 and 96 h. PMID:23438254

Muthuviveganandavel, Veerappan; Hwang, Inho; Anita, Vanattayen; Malarani, Pattabiraman S; Selvam, Chandrasekar; Hemalatha, Moorthy; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

2013-01-01

389

Antiparasitic effect of cynatratoside-C from Cynanchum atratum against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis on grass carp.  

PubMed

Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich), a fish ectoparasite, comprises an important challenge in the aquaculture industry. In this study, a steroidal glycoside, cynatratoside-C, isolated from Cynanchum atratum roots by bioassay-guided fractionation was used to treat I. multifiliis. The cynatratoside-C at 0.25 mg/L demonstrated a 100% mortality of I. multifiliis in vitro after 5 h exposure. The 5 h median effective concentration (EC50) of cynatratoside-C to nonencysted tomonts was 0.083 mg/L. In addition, cynatratoside-C at concentrations of 0.125 and 0.06 mg/L could completely terminate the reproduction of encysted tomonts. The cynatratoside-C at 2 mg/L could cure the infected grass carp within 48 h. The exact mechanism of cynatratoside-C for killing I. multifiliis is unknown, but it manifests itself microscopically through loss of membrane integrity of nonencysted tomonts or through releasing immature theronts from encysted tomonts. The immature theronts finally died before infecting fish. On the basis of these results, cynatratoside-C could be used as a natural anti-I. multifiliis agent. PMID:24980562

Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Liang, Jing-Han; Wang, Bin

2014-07-23

390

Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon

2012-01-01

391

Phenotypic variation and associated predation risk of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio were collected from 10 lakes with variable predator abundance over 4 months to evaluate if morphological defences increased with increasing predation risk. Cyprinus carpio dorsal and pectoral spines were longer and body depth was deeper when predators were more abundant, with differences becoming more pronounced from July to October. To determine if morphological plasticity successfully reduced predation risk, prey selection of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides foraging on deep- and shallow-bodied C. carpio was evaluated in open and vegetated environments. Predators typically selected deep- over shallow-bodied phenotypes in open habitats and neutrally selected both phenotypes in vegetated habitats. When exposed to predators, shallow-bodied C. carpio phenotypes shoaled in open habitat, whereas deep-bodied phenotypes occupied vegetation. Although deep-bodied phenotypes required additional handling time, shallow-bodied phenotypes were more difficult to capture. These results suggest that juvenile C. carpio gradually develop deeper bodies and larger spines as predation risk increases. Morphological defences made it more difficult for predators to consume these prey but resulted in higher vulnerability to predation in some instances. PMID:22220889

Weber, M J; Rounds, K D; Brown, M L

2012-01-01

392

DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

2008-01-01

393

Identification of promoter within the first intron of Plzf gene expressed in carp spermatogonial stem cells.  

PubMed

Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf), a transcriptional repressor, is involved in survival and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells including embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells in mammals. Its cDNA was characterized and expression in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu (Labeo rohita), a farmed carp, was documented. In teleost, the information on its promoter activity is lacking. Here, we have isolated, sequenced and performed the first characterization of regulatory elements for Plzf being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu. About 3.2 kb of 5'-flanking region, relative to ATG start codon, derived by genome walking was sequenced. The 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis not only mapped the transcriptional start site but also detected non-coding exons. Interestingly, computational analysis detected several putative regulatory elements including TATA-box positioned in the first intron. Luciferase reporter assay was performed for serially deleted constructs to measure their promoter activities. The region containing putative TATA- and CAAT-boxes including GC-rich motif, positioned within first intron, was identified as a potential promoter; but its full promoter activity was dependent on upstream region containing a putative Evi-1-like element. Moreover, our findings also identified a region acting as transcriptional repressor. These findings could be used as roadmap for future understandings of its regulated expression during male germ cell development in fish species. PMID:24990695

Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Barman, Hirak Kumar

2014-10-01

394

Effluent impact assessment using microarray-based analysis in common carp: a systems toxicology approach.  

PubMed

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants to the aquatic environment, and can cause ecotoxicological effects at different levels of biological organization. Since gene expression responses represent the primary interaction site between environmental contaminants and biota, they provide essential clues to understand how chemical exposure can affect organismal health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the applicability of a microarray approach for unraveling modes of action of whole effluent toxicity and impact assessment. A chronic toxicity test with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was conducted where fish were exposed to a control and 100% effluent for 21 days under flow-through conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that effluent treatment mainly affected molecular pathways associated with the energy balance of the fish, including changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as digestive enzyme activity. These gene expression responses were in clear agreement with, and provided additional mechanistic information on various cellular and higher level effects observed for the same effluent. Our results demonstrate the benefit of toxicogenomic tools in a "systems toxicology" approach, involving the integration of adverse effects of chemicals and stressors across multiple levels of biological complexity. PMID:17267021

Moens, Lotte N; Smolders, Roel; van der Ven, Karlijn; van Remortel, Piet; Del-Favero, Jurgen; De Coen, Wim M

2007-05-01

395

Experimental susceptibility of Caspian white fish, Rutilus frisii kutum to Spring viraemia of carp virus.  

PubMed

Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) is a fish of the family Cyprinidae, which is commercially harvested from the Caspian Sea. Experimental infection with Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) was conducted in order to examine susceptibility of caspian White Fish and clinical impacts of infection. Fingerling fish were injected intra-peritoneally or waterborne-exposed with SVCV and were monitored daily for 7 weeks. Dead fish and those survived at the end of experimental period were collected for virus isolation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line was used to re-isolate the virus and indirect fluorescent antibody test was conducted to identify the isolated virus. Infection trials showed that SVCV was highly pathogenic for the Caspian White Fish with mortality rate ranging from 75 to 85 %, depending on the viral challenge model. SVCV genome was detected from dead and apparently healthy fish tissues of both virus exposure models, which showed Caspian White Fish not only can be regarded as a susceptible host, but also serve as a vector of the virus. PMID:24426310

Zamani, H; Ghasemi, M; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S

2014-01-01

396

Caspian White Fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) as a host for Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus.  

PubMed

Rutilus frisii kutum is a fish of the Cyprinidae Family which is native in Caspian Sea and commercially cultured in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate susceptibility of Caspian White Fish to Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus (SVCV) infection and to evaluate influence of different challenge routes on virulence of the virus. Fingerlings were infected by immersion, intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection, cohabitation and orally. Dead and surviving fish were collected for histological examination as well as for virus re-isolation by cell culture, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerization Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) analysis. The results indicated that immersion was the best infectious route of transmission with the highest mortality, whereas oral transmission showed the lowest mortality. The virus was also re-isolated from dead fish and identified by IFAT. In addition, histopathological changes including branchial, hepatic and splenic necrosis as well as glomerulonephritis and necrosis in kidney were observed in diseased fish tissues but not in the survivors. RT-PCR on samples obtained from surviving fish tissues detected viral genome in the fish surviving from immersion, i.p. injection and cohabitation challenges but not in the fish infected orally. In conclusion, Caspian White Fish are susceptible to infection by SVCV and virulence of the virus could be influenced by route of transmission. In addition, SVCV could persist in surviving fish, which may serve as reservoirs of the virus, transmitting infection to healthy fish population. PMID:24685241

Ghasemi, M; Zamani, H; Hosseini, S M; Haghighi Karsidani, S; Bergmann, S M

2014-06-01

397

Impact of Cypermethrin on Fingerlings of Common Edible Carp (Labeo rohita)  

PubMed Central

Laboratory evaluations were made to assess the toxicological and biochemical effect of cypermethrin on fingerlings of common edible freshwater culture carp (Labeo rohita). There was a significant negative (P < 0.05) correlation observed between effective doses of cypermethrin and exposure periods; that is, LC50 values decreased from 0.323??g/L (6?h) to ?>?0.278??g/L (12?h), ?>?0.240??g/L (18?h) and >0.205??g/L (24?h). Exposure to sublethal doses of cypermethrin for 24?h and 96?h exposure period caused significant (P < 0.05) time- and dose-dependent alterations in total protein, total free amino acids, nucleic acids, glycogen, pyruvate, and lactate level and in the activity of enzyme protease, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, acid phosphatases, alkaline phosphatases, acetylcholinesterase, and cytochrome oxidase in liver and muscle tissues of fish. Thus, cypermethrin has potent piscicidal activity against fingerlings of fish Labeo rohita and adversely affects their behavioural patterns, shifting aerobic pathway of fish respiration towards anaerobic pathway and also inhibiting energy production by suppressing ATP synthesis. PMID:22666103

Tiwari, Sudhanshu; Tiwari, Richa; Singh, Ajay

2012-01-01

398

Primary genome scan for complex body shape-related traits in the common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect body shape in common carp Cyprinus carpio, a linkage map, 2159·23 cM long, was constructed with a total of 307 markers covering 51 linkage groups (LG). The map included 167 new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from expressed sequence tags (EST) together with 140 microsatellite markers reported earlier. A primary genome scan was conducted for QTL for standard length (L(S)), head length (L(H)), body height (H(B)), body width (W(B)) and tail length (L(TAIL)) in an F1 line containing 92 offspring. A total of 15 suggestive QTL on six LGs were found to associate with L(S), L(H), H(B), W(B) and L(TAIL) which explained 10·7-17·4% of the variance. Five significant QTL were detected for body-shape related traits and located for LGs (lg1, 12 and 20). These QTL included: one associated with L(S) (21·1% variance explained), three for H(B) (almost 20% variance explained) and one for W(B) (20·7% variance explained). PMID:23331142

Zhang, Y; Wang, S; Li, J; Zhang, X; Jiang, L; Xu, P; Lu, C; Wan, Y; Sun, X

2013-01-01

399

Biological significance of ( sup 14 C)phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of ({sup 14}C)phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J. (Visva-Bharati Univ., Santiniketan (India))

1990-09-01

400

De novo Assembly of the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Transcriptome to Identify miRNA Targets Associated with Motile Aeromonad Septicemia  

PubMed Central

Background De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method of predicting miRNA target genes, especially for organisms without reference genomes. Differentially expressed miRNAs had been identified previously in kidney samples collected from susceptible and resistant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) affected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Target identification for these differentially expressed miRNAs poses a major challenge in this non-model organism. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of susceptible and resistant C. idella were sequenced by Illumina Hiseq 2000 technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 199,593 transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. A BLASTx analysis against a non-redundant protein database revealed that 61,373 unigenes coded for 28,311 annotated proteins. Two cDNA libraries from susceptible and resistant samples showed that 721 unigenes were expressed at significantly different levels; 475 were significantly up-regulated and 246 were significantly down-regulated in the SG samples compared to the RG samples. The computational prediction of miRNA targets from these differentially expressed genes identified 188 unigenes as the targets of 5 conserved and 4 putative novel miRNA families. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The transcriptome assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for C. idella and will provide insights into the gene expression profile analysis and the miRNA function annotations in further studies. PMID:25409340

Fu, Jianjun; Lu, Liqun; Li, Jiale

2014-01-01

401

Major Rock Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the University of Saskatchewan contains general information on the major rock groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Describes the rock cycle and the properties and formation of each major rock group.

402

Genetic analysis of invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in the Mississippi River Basin: evidence for multiple introductions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) have been present in USA aquaculture facilities since the 1980s and wild Black Carp have been found in the Mississippi River Basin since the early 1990s. This study characterizes the genetic diversity and relatedness of the Basin’s Black Carp and clarifies the introduction history. Analyses focused on three mitochondrial markers (control region, cytochrome-b, and 16S) and seven nuclear microsatellite markers (nDNA), using aquaculture and wild-caught samples collected in the upper and lower Mississippi Basin. Of the three mitochondrial haplotypes, two were shared between the aquaculture and wild populations, while a third was only present in upper Mississippi wild-caught specimens. Due to the presence of diploid and triploid fish, microsatellite markers were scored as pseudodominant and revealed low polymorphism (NA = 4.6, NA Ave = 1.5). Nuclear Bayesian clustering analyses identified two genetically distinct groups and four subclusters, each primarily composed of a unique haplotype. Samples from three aquaculture farms were assigned to group 1, while a fourth farm included samples from both groups 1 and 2. Wild-caught fish from the upper Basin were predominantly group 1, whereas wild samples from the lower Mississippi were assigned to both genetic groups. The presence of divergent haplotypes and distinct nDNA groups, along with geographic distribution patterns, indicate that wild populations in the basin likely resulted from multiple introductions. Genetic similarities between wild and captive populations support claims that aquaculture is the introduction source, but a shortage of samples and a history of repeated transfers among facilities obscure the precise pathway.

Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2015-01-01

403

?-Alanine does not act through branched-chain amino acid catabolism in carp, a species with low muscular carnosine storage.  

PubMed

This study was executed to investigate the effect of dietary ?-alanine (BA) on amino acid (AA) metabolism and voluntary feed intake in carp (Cyprinus carpio) at mildly elevated temperature to exert AA catabolism. Twenty-four fish in 12 aquaria were randomly assigned to either a control diet or the same diet with 500 mg BA/kg. A 14-day period at an ideal temperature (23 °C) was followed by 15 days at chronic mildly elevated temperature (27 °C). After the 15 days, all fish were euthanised for muscle analysis on histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD), whole blood on free AA and carnitine esters. The carnosine and anserine analysis indicated that all analyses were below the detection limit of 5 µmol/L, confirming that carp belongs to a species that does not store HCD. The increases in free AA concentrations due to BA supplementation failed to reach the level of significance. The effects of dietary BA on selected whole blood carnitine esters and their ratios were also not significant. The supplementation of BA tended to increase body weight gain (P = 0.081) and feed intake (P = 0.092). The lack of differences in the selected nutrient metabolites in combination with tendencies of improved growth performance warrants further investigation to unravel the mechanism of BA affecting feed intake. This first trial on the effect of BA supplementation on AA catabolism showed that its metabolic effect in carp at chronic mildly elevated temperature was very limited. Further studies need to evaluate which conditions are able to exert an effect of BA on AA metabolism. PMID:25549626

Geda, F; Declercq, A; Decostere, A; Lauwaerts, A; Wuyts, B; Derave, W; Janssens, G P J

2015-02-01

404

Immunological and histopathological responses of the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) sublethally exposed to glyphosate.  

PubMed

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide frequently used world widely in agricultural and non-agricultural areas to control unwanted plants. Health risk of chronic and subchronic exposure of glyphosate on animals and humans has received increasing attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of glyphosate on the immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) in the kidney of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15mgL(-1) of glyphosate for 168h. The results showed that the transcriptions of IgM, C3, or LYZ were altered due to glyphosate-exposure, for example, IgM and C3 initially increased at 24h later it decreased (except for a increase of C3 in higher dose group at 24h) while the expression of G-type LYZ were not affected at 24h, then increased at 72h, but decreased at the end of test, however C-type LYZ expression was initially up-regulated (24-72h) but down-regulated at the end of exposure (168h). However, glyphosate-exposure generally decreased the contents of IgM and C3 or inhibited LYZ activity in the kidney of common carp. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage, mainly including vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in fish kidney. The results of this study indicate that glyphosate causes immunotoxicity on common carp via suppressing the expressions of IgM, C3, and LYZ and also via damaging the fish kidney. PMID:25434756

Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-11-18

405

Growth performance and starch utilization in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in response to dietary chromium chloride supplementation.  

PubMed

A nutrition trial was conducted on juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio), initial mean body weight 15 ± 0.4 g within a controlled facility at 25 ± 0.5°C. Six diets containing various levels of supplementary Cr (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0) mg Cr/kg of diet as Cr chloride hexahydrate were fed to carp for a period of 10 weeks. Lower growth performance was observed in fish fed on the control diet and the diet supplemented with the highest level of Cr (2.0mg Cr/kg). Although fish fed 0.5mg Cr/kg showed the best growth performance, this was not significantly different (P>0.05) from fish fed 1.0mg Cr/kg. The regression of plasma glucose concentration was linear (R(2)=0.97 and P value=0.001) as the Cr content of the diet increased (up to 1.5mg Cr/kg). Cr carcass content was elevated with an increasing level of dietary Cr supplementation up to 1.5mg Cr/kg; but fish fed on the diet supplemented with the highest level of Cr (2.0mg Cr/kg) showed a decrease in Cr carcass content. Histological examination to evaluate the impact of different Cr supplementation on liver and gut tissues showed notable changes. The higher level of Cr (2.0mg Cr/kg) in the diet gave rise to elevated hepatocyte vacuolization and changes in gut tissue morphology. It appeared that Cr chloride significantly improved growth within a defined range (0.2-1.5) mg Cr/kg without any negative impact, while 2.0mg Cr/kg in carp diet seems to be the threshold for the initiation of toxicity. PMID:22748694

Ahmed, Arafat R; Moody, A John; Fisher, Andrew; Davies, Simon J

2013-01-01

406

Effect of water salinity on total protein and electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella  

PubMed Central

In this study the effects of water salinity on serum total protein and its components in grass carp were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity tolerance of fish on total serum protein level and its components as an indicator of liver and kidney activity. One hundred and twenty grass carp were divided into four groups, randomly. The first three groups were reared in concentration of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 of salt solution, respectively, and the fourth group was reared in freshwater and served as control. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected and after harvesting the blood serum, serum total protein and protein components were measured with Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. Results showed that mean value of serum total protein in the control and three salinities groups were 2.75, 3.28, 2.90 and 3.13 g dL-1, respectively. Five fractions of serum protein were electrophoretically observed as: albumin (Alb), alpha-1 globulin (?1-glu), alpha-2 globulin (?2-glu), beta globulin (?-glu) and gamma globulin (?-glu). There were not any significant differences between the average mean of serum total protein of experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels in the experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The average of ?2-glu and ?-glu revealed no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that increasing water salinity could have a significant effect on Alb, ?1-glu and ?-glu levels but not on total serum protein in grass carp. PMID:25568723

Peyghan, Rahim; Khadjeh, Gholam Hosain; Enayati, Ala

2014-01-01

407

The Age of Majority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

408

Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel

1998-12-01

409

Proteomic identification, characterization and expression analysis of Ctenopharyngodon idella VDAC1 upregulated by grass carp reovirus infection.  

PubMed

Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) located in the mitochondrial outer membrane are mitochondrial porins that play central roles in regulating cell life and death. In this present report, the VDAC protein 1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiVDAC1) was found to be upregulated by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection through two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein analysis of infected C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. The full-length cDNA of CiVDAC1 was 995 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 852 bp that encodes a putative 283-amino acid protein. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the complete ORF of CiVDAC1 demonstrated high identity with well characterized mammalian homologs. The deduced CiVDAC1 protein contains an ?-helix at the amino terminal, 19 membrane-spanning ?-strands, and one eukaryotic mitochondrial porin signature motif. Tissue tropism analysis indicated that CiVDAC1 is abundant in muscle, heart, skin, swim bladder, trunk kidney and spleen. Transcriptional expression profiles indicated that the CiVDAC1 gene was upregulated upon viral challenge in a manner similar to the Mx2 gene, which is a marker gene used to indicate activation of innate antiviral immunity. Similar expression patterns of the CiVDAC1 gene were observed in CIK cells stimulated with poly (I:C), as well as grass carp kidney tissue challenged with GCRV in vivo. CiVDAC1 silencing in CIK cells had no impact on progeny virus production, but over-expression of CiVDAC1 in vivo showed strongly protect against challenge with live virus. To interpret the role of other VDAC proteins in viral pathogenesis, CiVDAC2 was characterized and showed to respond positively to GCRV challenge, which suggested that CiVDAC2 might functionally complement CiVDAC1 in C. idella. The present data did demonstrate that CiVDAC1 might be mediated grass carp antiviral immune response. PMID:24434647

Shen, Xiaobao; Wang, Tu; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

2014-03-01

410

Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications  

PubMed Central

Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner. PMID:23718202

2013-01-01

411

Habitat-Specific Locomotor Variation among Chinese Hook Snout Carp (Opsariichthys bidens) along a River  

PubMed Central

The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens), varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not Ucrit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou) showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens. PMID:22829884

Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Zuogang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; He, Xiao-Ke; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, An-Jie

2012-01-01

412

Trypsin from the digestive system of carp Cirrhinus mrigala: Purification, characterization and its potential application.  

PubMed

Trypsin was purified 35.64-fold with 4.97% recovery from the viscera of carp Cirrhinus mrigala (mrigal) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme was active at a wide range of pH (7.0-9.2) and temperature (10-50°C). The purified enzyme exhibited high thermal stability up to 50°C for 1h. The enzyme activity was stabilized by Ca(+2) (2mM) up to 7h at 40°C. The Km and kcat values of purified enzyme were 0.0672mM and 92.09/s/mM, respectively. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and phenylmethylsulphonylflouride completely inhibited the enzyme activity. The specific inhibitor of trypsin, N-?-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone inhibited 99.67% activity. Na(+), K(+) and Li(+) inhibited 20.99±5.25%, 16.53±4.80% and 18.99±1.42% of enzyme activity, respectively. Divalent ions Mg(+2), Zn(+2), Co(+2), Hg(+2) and Cd(+2) inhibited 21.61±2.22%, 31.62±1.78%, 31.62±1.96%, 85.68±1.51% and 47.95±2.13% enzyme activity, respectively. SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular mass of purified enzyme was 21.7kDa. MALDI-TOF study showed a peptide sequence of AFCGGSLVNENKMHSAGHCYKSRIQV at the N-Terminal. This sequence recorded 76-84% identity with trypsin from Thunnus thynnus and other fish species. This confirmed that the purified protein was trypsin. The purified enzyme has potential applications in detergent and food industry because of its thermal stability and alkaline nature. PMID:25577096

Khangembam, Bronson Kumar; Chakrabarti, Rina

2015-05-15

413

[Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild crucian carp and exposure estimation of dietary intake].  

PubMed

The concentration and distribution of PBDEs in liver, heart, brain, egg and muscle tissues of market farmed fish and wild river fish (crucian carp) from Taizhou, which is a large e-waste recycling site in China, were quantitatively measured using gas chromatography -negative chemical ion tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). The dietary intake of PBDEs via the consumption of fish by the population of this region was also estimated. The results showed that the concentrations of PBDEs in the muscle of river fish samples near the e-waste recycling site were significantly higher than those in the market farmed fish without obviously polluted sources of PBDEs. The distribution of PBDEs in various tissues was not even, and the highest and lowest mean concentrations of total PBDEs ( sigma PBDEs) were 18.82 ng x g(-1) and 1.97 ng x g(-1) (wet weight), in heart and egg tissues, respectively. A similar PBDE congener profiles in different tissues of farmed fish were found. Among PBDE congeners, BDE-47 was predominant in various tissues accounting for above 50% of the total PBDEs, and followed by BDE-183 (about 20%), BDE-99 and BDE-153. While different profiles of PBDEs in muscle tissues between wild fish in river and market farmed fish were observed, that BDE-47, -153 and -99 were dominant for the former type. These facts suggested primitive e-waste recycling behavior to be a pollution source of high levels of PBDEs in wild fish. The average estimated daily intake of PBDEs via river fish consumption by local residents near the e-waste recycling site in Taizhou was approximately 29.0 ng, slightly higher than that in other regions. PMID:25338396

Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yang-Cheng; Lin, Kuang-Fei

2014-08-01

414

Spawning areas and early development of long spiky-head carp ( Luciobrama macrocephalus ) in the Yangtze River and Pearl River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spawning areas and early development of long spiky-head carp, Luciobrama macrocephalus (Lacépède), an endemic fish species in China, were investigated in the Yangtze River and Pearl River of central and southeastern China between 1961 and 1993. The potamodromous fish migrated upstream to spawn between May and July as the floodwater began to rise. The water-hardened eggs drifted down the

Zhishen Liang; Bolu Yi; Zhitang Yu; Ning Wang

2003-01-01

415

Examination of the early infection stages of koi herpesvirus (KHV) in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L. using in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a highly infectious disease afflicting common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Various molecular and antibody-based detection methods have been used to elucidate the rapid attachment and dissemination of the virus throughout carp tissues, facilitating ongoing development of effective diagnostic approaches. In situ hybridization (ISH) was used here to determine the target tissues of KHV during very early infection, after infecting carp with a highly virulent KHV isolate. Analysis of paraffin-embedded tissues (i.e. gills, skin, spleen, kidney, gut, liver and brain) during the first 8 h and following 10 days post-infection (hpi; dpi) revealed positive signals in skin mucus, gills and gut sections after only 1 hpi. Respiratory epithelial cells were positive as early as 2 hpi. Viral DNA was also detected within blood vessels of various tissues early in the infection. Notable increases in signal abundance were observed in the gills and kidney between 5 and 10 dpi, and viral DNA was detected in all tissues except brain. This study suggests that the gills and gut play an important role in the early pathogenesis of this Alloherpesvirus, in addition to skin, and demonstrates ISH as a useful diagnostic tool for confirmation of acutely infected carp. PMID:24925228

Monaghan, S J; Thompson, K D; Adams, A; Kempter, J; Bergmann, S M

2014-06-13

416

Gynogenesis in carp, Cyprinus Carpio L. and tench, Tinca Tinca L. induced by 60Co radiation in highly homogeneous radiating field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with a method of fertility inactivation of fish spermatozoa by gamma radiation. Spermatozoa motility remained unchanged after irradiation. Irradiated sperm has been utilized to induced gynogenesis by means of retention of the second polar body and of mitotic gynogenesis, realized in carp for the first time. Homogeneity of gamma-rays field was + - 1 %.

Pipota, J.; Linhart, O.

417

Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead....

418

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 27 Tho demand for carp in the State is far beyond our present ability to  

E-print Network

command. The dams should be packed down and built at least two feet above the level of the water be lost during the present spring season to introduce water plants into the ponds containing the carp. For this purpose the mater lilies and cresses are excellent, and in no case should the ponds be left unprovided. 4

419

Reciprocal interaction between fish TGF-?1 and IL-1? is responsible for restraining IL-1? signaling activity in grass carp head kidney leukocytes.  

PubMed

In the present study, we found that recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) simultaneously up-regulated grass carp IL-1? (gcIL-1?) and TGF-?1 (gcTGF-?1) expression via NF-?B and MAPK signaling in grass carp head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), promoting us to clarify whether TGF-?1 is an effective antagonist in IL-1? expression and activity. Our results showed that a stimulation of gcIL-1? on its own expression was noted within 6?h, but gcTGF-?1 neutralizing antibody prolonged gcIL-1? autostimulation up to 12?h, indicating a possible inhibitory role of gcTGF-?1 in regulating gcIL-1? effect. This notion was reinforced by the fact that recombinant grass carp TGF-?1 (rgcTGF-?1) could impede rgcIL-1?-induced gcIL-1? gene expression and secretion in a reciprocal manner. Further studies revealed that rgcTGF-?1 was able to attenuate rgcIL-1?-induced mRNA expression of its own receptor signaling molecules and the activation of NF-?B. By contrast, rgcIL-1? significantly amplified rgcTGF-?1-mediated gcTGF-?1 type I receptor (ALK5) expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in the same cell model. Taken together, these data shed light on an intrinsic mechanism for controlling inflammatory response by the reciprocal interaction between TGF-?1 and IL-1? in teleost. PMID:25092146

Yang, Xiao; Wei, He; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Shengnan; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Du, Linyong; Zhou, Hong

2014-12-01

420

Effect of carp pituitary extract and luteinizing hormone releasing analog hormone on reproductive indices and spawning of 3-year-old channel catfish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The efficacy of carp pituitary extract (CPE) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRHa) treatments to induce spawning in young-adult channel catfish undergoing first oogenesis just prior to the spawning season was evaluated in four commercial strains of channel catfish. Prior to injection of ...

421

Comparison of plasma and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the serum and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of enrofloxacin in the serum of rainbow trout showed high variability with two peaks at the third and 24th hour after administration. The highest concentrations were found in the liver. The curves of liver levels showed similar changes to the respective serum samples. In the muscles, enrofloxacin concentrations were also higher compared with the respective serum samples. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were lower and showed smaller variations in all investigated tissues. The serum and tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in common carp showed two peaks, with the first Cmax at the third hour after drug administration as in rainbow trout. Concentrations of both investigated substances were higher in the liver than in the serum. The differences in common carp were less pronounced in comparison with rainbow trout. Relatively high levels of both substances were found in the muscles. Seven days after treatment enrofloxacin concentrations in the serum and tissues were within the therapeutic levels for most of the sensitive microorganisms in trout. Lower concentrations of its metabolite ciprofloxacin were found in the investigated tissues at the last sampling point. Lower levels of both substances were found in carp. PMID:25372241

Kyuchukova, Ralica; Milanova, Aneliya; Pavlov, Alexander; Lashev, Lubomir

2015-01-01

422

Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) binds to Janus kinase 2 (JAK?) to initiate the JAK?/STAT? signal transduction pathway, which plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation, immune regulation, reproduction, lipid metabolism, and other physiological processes of the organism. In this study, the cDNA sequence of the STAT? gene from grass carp was cloned using RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends). Twelve characteristics of the STAT? gene and its encoded protein sequence were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics methods; these features included the general physical and chemical properties, the hydrophobicity, the secondary structure and the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to detect grass carp STAT? expression pattern in different tissues. The results showed that the full-length STAT? gene from grass carp is 2739-bp long and contains a 216-bp 5'UTR, a 300-bp 3'UTR, and a 2223-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 740-amino acid peptide. The deduced protein exhibited 99%?94% homology to the STAT? protein of zebra?sh (Danio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latipes), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis), mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and green pufferfish (Tetraodon ?uviatilis). The deduced grass carp STAT? protein contains a protein interaction domain, an alpha domain, a DNA binding domain, and an SH2 domain. The STAT? protein of grass carp is a hydrophilic and non-secretory protein, and its molecular mass and isoeletronic point were found to be 98,5412.1 Da and 6.39, respectively. The structural elements of STAT? included ?-helixes, ?-sheets, and loops. The grass carp STAT? is expressed in all of the six tissues tested, which were the liver, spleen, gill, muscle, heart, and brain. The highest expression level was found in the liver (P < 0.05), whereas a significantly lower expression level was found in the spleen, gills, brain, and muscle (P < 0.05), and the lowest expression level was found in the heart (P < 0.05). This study provides a basis for further structural and functional exploration of the STAT? from grass carp, including its deduced protein and its signal transduction function. PMID:24055509

Guo, Ting; Leng, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jia-Le; Gao, Jian-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Qin; Gan, Tian; Wei, Jing

2013-11-01

423

Polar metabolites synergize the activity of prostaglandin F2? in a species-specific hormonal sex pheromone released by ovulated common carp.  

PubMed

Many species of teleost fish detect and release F prostaglandins (PGFs), but the specific identities of these compounds and how they function as species-specific pheromones have yet to be resolved. This study addressed these questions in the common carp. An initial set of experiments established that mature male common carp were attracted to chemicals released by ovulated conspecifics, whereas the odor of female goldfish, a close relative, was less attractive. Tests of fractionated holding water from ovulated carp revealed that only the non-polar fraction was attractive on its own. Mass spectrometry and immunoassay next demonstrated that the non-polar fraction contained large quantities of prostaglandin F(2?) (PGF(2?)), 15keto-prostaglandinF(2?), and 13,14-dihydro-15keto-prostaglandin F(2?) (100 g fish released over 1 ?g of all 3 PGFs per h at a ratio of 1.0: 1.7: 0.7). Ovulated goldfish released the same three PGFs but at a slightly greater rate and in a different ratio. Tests of synthetic mixtures of these PGFs revealed that the carp-specific mixture attracted male carp but was no better than the goldfish-specific mixture or PGF(2?) alone and that PGF(2?) was just as attractive as mixture of all three PGFs. A final set of attraction tests revealed that although PGF(2?) could explain all of the activity of the non-polar portion of female carp holding water, it could not explain the entire activity of female water but that a mixture of PGFs and the polar fraction could. We conclude that ovulated female carp release a multi-component sex pheromone complex that is comprised of PGF(2?) and unknown species-specific polar compound(s) that synergize the activity of the former. The pheromone also might be useful in controlling this invasive species. The observation that a fish hormonal sex pheromone incorporates bodily metabolites in addition to relatively common hormonal products demonstrates a mechanism by which species specificity may be conferred to this common type of sex pheromone. PMID:21647722

Lim, Hangkyo; Sorensen, Peter W

2011-07-01

424

Inhibition of spring viraemia of carp virus replication in an Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line by RNAi  

PubMed Central

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is an aetiological agent of a serious disease affecting carp farms in Europe and is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family of viruses. The genome of SVCV codes for five proteins: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L). RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is a powerful tool to inhibit gene transcription and is used to study genes important for viral replication. In previous studies regarding another member of Rhabdoviridae, siRNA inhibition of the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene provided in vitro and in vivo protection against rabies. In this study, synthetic siRNA molecules were designed to target SVCV-N and SVCV-P transcripts to inhibit SVCV replication and were tested in an epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line. Inhibition of gene transcription was measured by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The efficacy of using siRNA for inhibition of viral replication was analysed by RT-qPCR measurement of a reporter gene (glycoprotein) expression and by virus endpoint titration. Inhibition of nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein gene expression by siRNA reduced SVCV replication. However, use of tandem siRNAs that target phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein worked best at reducing SVCV replication. PMID:24460815

Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; Besch, R; El-Matbouli, M

2015-01-01

425

Using Structured Expert Judgment to Assess Invasive Species Prevention: Asian Carp and the Mississippi—Great Lakes Hydrologic Connection  

PubMed Central

Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555

2014-01-01

426

Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0?µg/L, 0.1?mg/L, and 1.0?mg/L) where 1?µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1?mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1?mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

427

Effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the acid-soluble collagen from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) skin.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of alkaline pretreatments and acid extraction conditions on the production of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) from grass carp skin. For alkaline pretreatment, 0.05 and 0.1M NaOH removed non-collagenous proteins without significant loss of ASC at 4, 10, 15 and 20°C; while 0.2 and 0.5M NaOH caused significant loss of ASC, and 0.5M NaOH caused structural modification of ASC at 15 and 20°C. For acid extraction at 4, 10, 15 and 20°C, ASC was partly extracted by 0.1 and 0.2M acetic acid, while 0.5 and 1.0M acetic acid resulted in almost complete extraction. The processing conditions involving 0.05-0.1M NaOH for pretreatment, 0.5M acetic acid for extraction and 4-20°C for both pretreatment and extraction, produced ASC with the structural integrity being well maintained and hence were recommended to prepare ASC from grass carp skin in practical application. PMID:25442628

Liu, Dasong; Wei, Guanmian; Li, Tiancheng; Hu, Jinhua; Lu, Naiyan; Regenstein, Joe M; Zhou, Peng

2015-04-01

428

Viremia-associated ana-aki-byo, a new viral disease in color carp Cyprinus carpio in Japan.  

PubMed

A new virus disease that displays dermal ulceration and high mortality has been occurring since 1996 in color carp Cyprinus carpio reared in warm water in Japan. In histological examinations, initial erosive lesions displayed necrosis, hemorrhage and fibrin deposition in the dermal loose connective tissue and were accompanied by the partial destruction of the epidermis. Developed ulcerative lesions involved the lateral musculature with bacterial invasions. In visceral organs, necrotic cells were observed in the hematopoietic tissue, the spleen and the intestinal tissues as well as in cardiac muscle fibers which showed no signs of bacterial invasion. Electron microscopy revealed corona-like virus particles in these necrotic cells. The necrotic cells of the hematopoietic tissue and the spleen were accompanied by the formation of tubular structures and crystalline inclusions. The putative virus was isolated and cultured in epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cells. Carp experimentally inoculated with the cultured virus showed virus transmission, and the same pathological signs of the disease and mortalities as in natural infections. PMID:10768286

Miyazaki, T; Okamoto, H; Kageyama, T; Kobayashi, T

2000-02-01

429

Immunostimulatory activities of specific bacterial secondary metabolite of Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain SX-4 on carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Aims:? To determine the capacity of secondary metabolite of strain SX-4, to enhance the nonspecific immunity and survival of carp (Cyprinus carpio), and to identify the constituents that are responsible. Methods and Results:? A thermophilic strain SX-4 that is able to produce immunostimulatory metabolite was isolated from sludge sample of hot spring and identified by comparison with 16S rRNA sequences (99% of homology) as Anoxybacillus flavithermus. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from its cell-free culture, one bacterial peptide with the capacity of improving the nonspecific immune responses and disease resistance (relative per cent survival?=?66·67%) was obtained and the compound was characterized as cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) by IR, ESI-MS, (1) H NMR and (13) C NMR spectroscopic analyses. After intraperitoneal administration of this peptide, selected innate immune parameters including phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme activity and serum SOD activity, along with immune-related genes expression (i.e. interleukin-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase), in the blood were found to be significantly increased. Conclusions:? The bacterial peptide cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) significantly enhances nonspecific immunity and survival of carp. Significance and Impact of the Study:? There is a possibility of using cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) as a better natural immunostimulant, which could have a promising role in aquaculture to prevent diseases and disease outbreaks. PMID:21294820

Liu, J; Lei, Y; Wang, F; Yi, Y; Liu, Y; Wang, G

2011-04-01

430

Transcription Alteration of Immunologic Parameters and Histopathological Damage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Caused by Paraquat.  

PubMed

The toxic effects of paraquat (PQ) on the transcription of immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement C3 (C3), and lysozyme (LYZ) and the histopathological alteration of the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp were evaluated by subacute exposure to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 days. The results demonstrated that PQ exposure altered the transcription of IgM, C3, and LYZ. For example, IgM and C3 expression was generally downregulated, but LYZ was either down- or upregulated, suggesting that PQ may disturb the function of the fish immune system. The results of the histopathological examination revealed that the liver, kidney, and spleen of PQ-treated fish were injured. These injuries included cellular swelling, intracytoplasmic vacuolization, nucleus distortion, and pycnosis in the liver and spleen, and vacuolization of the renal parenchyma and intumescence of the renal tubule in the kidney. This finding indicates that PQ causes toxicity in common carp. PMID:25171222

Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

2015-01-01

431

Characterization and expression analysis of an interferon-?2 induced chemokine receptor CXCR3 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Chemokine and chemokine receptor signalling pairs play a crucial role in regulation of cell migration, morphogenesis, and cell activation. Expressed in mammals on activated T and NK cells, chemokine receptor CXCR3 binds interferon-? inducible chemokines CXCL9-11 and CCL21. Here we sequenced the carp CXCR3 chemokine receptor and showed its relationship to CXCR3a receptors found in other teleosts. We found high expression of the CXCR3 gene in most of the organs and tissues of the immune system and in immune-related tissues such as gills and gut, corroborating a predominantly immune-related function. The very high expression in gill and gut moreover indicates a role for CXCR3 in cell recruitment during infection. High in vivo expression of CXCR3 at later stages of inflammation, as well as its in vitro sensitivity to IFN-?2 stimulation indicate that in carp, CXCR3 is involved in macrophage-mediated responses. Moreover, as expression of the CXCR3 and CXCb genes coincides in the focus of inflammation and as both the CXCb chemokines and the CXCR3 receptor are significantly up-regulated upon IFN-? stimulation it is hypothesized that CXCb chemokines may be putative ligands for CXCR3. PMID:25036761

Chadzinska, M; Golbach, L; Pijanowski, L; Scheer, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L

2014-11-01

432

Rodlet Cells in the Head and Trunk Kidney of the Domestic Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Enigmatic Gland Cells or Coccidian Parasites?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodlet cells have been found in the head and trunk kidneys of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). From an experimental sample of 50 carps of various ages, we detected these cells in only seven fishes, contradicting the hypothesis that they constitute a normal component of the fish epithelia. The rodlet cells have a typical structure: 12-16?m in diameter, with a basal nucleus various in form, and an encasing layer of fibrillar structure. The cells contain rodlets, composed of elongated, opaque sacs featuring dark rods in the center, which strongly elongate in ripening cells. Remarkable pseudopodia-like extensions from the apical parts of the rodlet cells penetrate into the delicate blood vessels and sinusoids of the organs. The encasing layer at the cell apex then opens to release the rodlets into the bloodstream. No junctions were found between the rodlet cells and neighboring cells. It is suggested that these cells comprise some kind of "symbiosis" between leukocyte, possible granulocyte cells, and the parasitic rodlets. The cells serve the rodlets as an incubation chamber, as well as a means of transportation into the bloodstream after ripening.

Fishelson, Lev; Becker, Klaus

433

Using structured expert judgment to assess invasive species prevention: Asian carp and the Mississippi-Great Lakes hydrologic connection.  

PubMed

Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555

Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Lodge, David M

2014-02-18

434

Characterizing the transcriptome of yellow-cheek carp (Elopichthys bambusa) enables evolutionary analyses within endemic East Asian Cyprinidae.  

PubMed

The identification of genes that may be responsible for the divergence of closely related species is one of the central goals of evolutionary biology. The species of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae diverged less than 8millionyears ago, and the morphological differences among these species are great. However, the genetic basis of their divergence remains unknown. In this report, we investigated the transcriptome of one endemic East Asian cyprinid - the yellow-cheek carp Elopichthys bambusa. A comparison with the publicly available transcriptomes of other endemic East Asian cyprinids, including the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and blunt-nose black bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), revealed a number of candidate adaptive genes in each species, such as zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 in E. bambusa and zebrafish vitelline envelope protein in M. amblycephala. An enrichment test showed the enrichment of some specific gene ontology (GO) terms for these putatively adaptive genes. Taken together, our work is the first step toward elucidating the genes that may be related to the divergence of endemic East Asian Cyprinidae, and these genes identified as being probably under positive selection should be good candidates for subsequent evolutionary and functional studies. PMID:24973763

Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Ma, Xufa

2014-09-01

435

Minimizing the extra-oral time in autogeneous tooth transplantation: use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) as a duplicate model tooth  

PubMed Central

Objectives The maintenance of the healthy periodontal ligament cells of the root surface of donor tooth and intimate surface contact between the donor tooth and the recipient bone are the key factors for successful tooth transplantation. In order to achieve these purposes, a duplicated donor tooth model can be utilized to reduce the extra-oral time using the computer-aided rapid prototy