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Dietary supplementation with Cynodon dactylon (L.) enhances innate immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.).  


Indian major carp (Catla catla) was subjected to study the immunostimulatory effects when the grass Cynodon dactylon(L) ethanolic extract administrated as feed supplement. C. catla was fed with 0% (Control), 0.05% (group I), 0.5% (group II) and 5% (group III) extract provided for 60 days. Blood samples were collected at every 10 days of interval up to 60 days for analyzing the non-specific humoral (lysozyme activity, antiprotease activity and haemolytic complement) and cellular (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, myeloperoxidase activity) immune response study. The results indicate that C. dactylon ethanolic extract administered as feed supplement significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced most of the non-specific immune parameters tested. Among the experimental diet groups, significantly increased response of non-specific immunity was seen in group III (5%). Disease resistant analysis against Aeromonas hydrophila was performed in control group and plant extract treated fish for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Relative percent survival rate (RPS) was observed in treated samples, which is directly proportional to concentration of the extract. Additionally, electron microscopic studies and gelatin zymography for Matrix Metalo Proteinase (MMPs) were examined in spleen at 7th and 28th days of feeding. Administration of C. dactylon mixed diet delayed the lymphocyte destruction with positive ultrastructural changes. An induced stress (A. hydrophila infection) was observed by using MMPs expression, which was reduced in the experimental diet groups than the control. All these experimental results prove that C. dactylon ethanolic extract enhances the immunity of Catla fish. PMID:21888977

Kaleeswaran, B; Ilavenil, S; Ravikumar, S



The morpho-anatomy and histology of the pineal complex in a major Indian carp, Catla catla: identification of the pineal photoreceptor cells and their responsiveness to constant light and constant darkness during different phases of the annual reproductive cycle.  


In contrast to mammals in which the pineal gland is a discrete structure situated dorsally in the brain, the "pineal gland" in teleost fishes is composed of a number of separate but connected constituent parts, collectively described as the "pineal complex." In this paper, we have described the pineal complex in a common Indian carp, Catla catla, which exhibits an annual reproductive cycle. Attempts have been made to (a) provide an in-depth description of the structure of the pineal complex; and (b) identify the photoreceptor cells of the pineal, by exposing the animals to constant light (LL) and constant darkness (DD). Furthermore, we examined any possible influence of the reproductive status of the fish on the responsiveness of the pineal photoreceptor cells in C. catla following exposure to LL and DD. To this end, a total of four experiments were carried out during the four different phases of the annual reproductive cycle that is characteristic of this species. Each of these four experiments was carried out for a period of 30 days after which the fishes were sacrificed, different parts of the pineal complex were dissected out, and processed for histological and karyometric studies. Our results showed that the pineal complex in this species is composed of three separate but connected parts, (a) an end vesicle (EV); (b) a dorsal sac (DS); and (c) a long and thin pineal stalk (PS) that attaches the EV to the DS. Detailed karyometric and histo-morphologic studies following exposure of the animals to DD and LL showed that constant darkness led to a stimulatory effect on the pineal photoreceptor cells of the EV as evident from a significant increase in the nuclear diameter. In contrast, the nuclear diameter of the photoreceptor cells in animals subjected to constant light showed a significant reduction. Furthermore, the observed cellular changes in the EV of fish exposed either to LL or DD were independent of the stage of the gonadal cycle. The apparent lack of any cellular responses either in the PS, or in the DS, following exposure to LL and DD, suggests that in C. catla the photoreceptor cells are located only within the epithelial lining of the EV and that these cells respond in a manner similar to mammalian pinealocytes when subjected to comparable photoperiod-induced experimental conditions. PMID:14682472

Dey, R; Bhattacharya, S; Maitra, S K; Banerji, T K



Melatonin concentrations in relation to oxidative status and oocyte dynamics in the ovary during different reproductive phases of an annual cycle in carp Catla catla.  


The present study on carp Catla catla is the first attempt to search for a relationship between the concentrations of melatonin, oxidative status, and oocyte dynamics in the ovary of any fish. We measured the levels of melatonin, different antioxidative agents, and the marker of intracellular stress along with the profiles of different developmental stages of oocyte in the ovary of adult carp during four distinct phases in an annual reproductive cycle. Ovarian melatonin titers displayed significant seasonal variations with a peak during spawning and nadir during post-spawning, and thereby underlined its proximity to the course of ovarian development. A significant positive correlation was found between the ovarian levels of melatonin and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione transferase (GST), although each of them showed a negative correlation with the level of malondialdehyde (MDA)-a faithful indicator of intracellular stress. However, ovarian melatonin titers did not exhibit any correlation with the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Collectively, our findings suggest that melatonin measured in carp ovary may be associated with an enhanced activity/level of selective antioxidative agents for reduction in oxidative stress to augment ovarian functions during the spawning. PMID:25201351

Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Moniruzzaman, Mahammed; Maitra, Saumen Kumar



Characterization and physical mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes in Indian major carps (Pisces, Cyprinidae).  


Characterization of the major (18S) and minor (5S) ribosomal RNA genes were carried out in three commercially important Indian major carp (IMC) species, viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala along with their physical localizations using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridization. The diploid chromosome number in the above carps was confirmed to be 50 with inter-species karyo-morphological variations. The 18S rDNA signals were observed on 3 pair of chromosomes in C. catla and L. rohita, and two pairs in C. mrigala. The 5S rDNA signal was found on single pair of chromosome in all the species with variation in their position on chromosomes. The sequencing of 18S rDNA generated 1804, 1805 and 1805 bp long fragments, respectively, in C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala with more than 98% sequence identity among them. Similarly, sequencing of 5S rDNA generated 191 bp long fragments in the three species with 100% identity in coding region and 23.2% overall variability in non-transcribed spacer region. Thus, these molecular markers could be used as species-specific markers for taxonomic identification and might help in understanding the genetic diversity, genome organization and karyotype evolution of these species. PMID:23587674

Ravindra Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Nagpure, Naresh S



Prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings at Santaher, Bogra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to find out the seasonal prevalence of ectoparasites of carp fingerlings. Seven species of parasites viz. Trichodina domerguei, Trichodina reticulata, Chilodonella cyprini, Myxobolus koi, Dactylogyroides tripathi, Dactylogyrus extensus and Dactylogyrus catlarius were recovered from 640 fingerlings of Silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix), Bighead carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Thai punti (Puntius gonionotus), Catla (Catla

M. D. Hossain; M. Kabil Hossain; M. Habibur Rahman; A. Akter; D. A. Khanom



Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.  


In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A



Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.  


Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M



Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic and vitamin C on the immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunostimulatory effect of probiotics and vitamin C has been established in many systems including fish. An investigation was carried out to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a probiotic bacterium “Bacillus subtilis”, vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl polyphosphate and their combination on the immune response of Indian major carp, rohu, (Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings fed for

S. K. Nayak; P. Swain; S. C. Mukherjee



The potential of periphyton-based culture of two Indian major carps, rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia Labeo gonius (Linnaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of periphyton, grown on bamboo substrates, on growth and production of two Indian major carps, rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and gonia, Labeo gonius (Linnaeus), were studied at the Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. For each species, five ponds were provided with bamboo substrates and five ponds without substrate (control). Ponds were stocked at a rate of 10 000 ha1

M. E. Azim; M. A. Wahab; Dam van A. A; M. C. M. Beveridge; M. C. J. Verdegem



Population genetic structure of Catla catla (Hamilton) revealed by microsatellite DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the genetic structure of cultured fish species is essential for optimising fisheries management and stock improvement programs. Eight microsatellite loci (Cc6, Cc7, Cc8, Cc9, Ccat C3, Ccat A12, Ccat G1, and Ccat G2) were analysed to study the genetic variation in three river populations, (the Halda, Jamuna, and Padma rivers) and one hatchery population of Catla catla. Seven



Age and growth in the indian major carp Labeo rohita (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from tropical rivers of Ganga basin, India.  


Labeo rohita is a member of the Indian major carp species and originally an inhabitant of the Ganga river network in India. It is among the top ten aquaculture species of the world. Since there is a lack of information on the growth pattern of the wild populations of this species, this study aimed at evaluating the pattern of age and growth, to support the development of effective management plans. A total of 1082 samples of L. rohita were obtained from May 2009 to July 2012 in six drainages of the Ganga basin. Scales of the fish were used to determine the age and growth by analyzing the annual rings growth. Out of six populations, a maximum 8+ age classes were recorded from two rivers (Betwa and Sharda). The back-calculated lengths at 8+ age class ranged from 86.22 cm to 91.66 cm. However, for the rest of rivers up to 7+ age classes were recorded. Among growth parameters, specific rate of length increase (C(l)) and specific rate of weight increase (Cw) showed decreasing trend, and three distinct life stages of L. rohita were recorded based on growth constant data (C(lt)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the back-calculated length data set of six populations indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05). All three populations showed significant variation in length attainment during 1+ and 3+ age groups, while two populations showed significant variation in length attainment during the 2+ and 7+ age classes. Additionally, analysis of age frequency at different length intervals indicated that with increase in age class, number of fish samples was reduced. Since the pattern of life history traits of L. rohita have not been attempted in the recent past; therefore, this study will guide fisheries biologists about the current stock structure of this fish across different spatial scale of the Ganga basin. PMID:24432546

Mir, Javaid Iqbal; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Gusain, Om Prakash; Dwivedi, Arvind Kumar; Joukrushna, Jena



The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.  


The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. PMID:22887814

Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati



Efficacy of two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin against Argulus siamensis infestation in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.  


The efficacy of two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin via oral and parenteral routes and their prophylactic effects against Argulus siamensis infestation in Indian major carp, Labeo rohita was studied. Doramectin and ivermectin were fed once to L. rohita sub-adults naturally infested with A. siamensis parasites at graded levels of 1000, 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight and 500, 300 and 200 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The mean time of clearance of parasites was 24 ± 0.149 h for 1000 and 24 ± 0.210 h for 750 ?g of doramectin/kg body weight fish, however, the dose of 1,000 ?g resulted in adverse reactions and mortality in fish. A single dose of 500?g/kg body weight of ivermectin also cleared the infestation in 24 ± 0.258 h. In second experiment, L. rohita naturally infested with A. siamensis were administered with doramectin and ivermectin intramuscularly as single dose of 200, 150 and 100 ?g/kg body weight. Both doramectin and ivermectin at 200 ?g/kg body weight cleared the infestation in 4 ± 0.149 and 4 ± 0.258 h respectively, however, those resulted in adverse reactions viz., black pigmentation, lethargy and poor appetite in fish. The mean time of clearance of parasites from fish was 6 ± 0.210 and 12 ± 0.314 h for doramectin and ivermectin, respectively, when given at a lower dose of 150 ?g/kg body weight. The prophylactic effects of both drugs were also evaluated by challenging naïve rohu with metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis after feeding the fish single dose of the doramectin and ivermectin at 750 and 500 ?g/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of both the drugs were found to last for 17-18 days. The effects of bath treatment with doramectin and ivermectin at different concentrations on adult A. siamensis and metanaupliar larvae of A. siamensis were also evaluated. The results suggested that ivermectin could act more rapidly compared to doramectin. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin and ivermectin upon their administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impacts of their usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of these drugs for control of parasitic infections. PMID:22673107

Hemaprasanth, K P; Kar, Banya; Garnayak, S K; Mohanty, J; Jena, J K; Sahoo, P K



Gamma radiation induced micronuclei and erythrocyte cellular abnormalities in the fish Catla catla.  


Ionizing radiation induced DNA damage in fishes is a scarcely studied topic and very few studies are available in fishes exposed to ionizing radiation using the erythrocyte micronucleus assay under laboratory conditions. Since radionuclides released accidentally or during a nuclear disaster can contaminate inland water bodies, biomonitoring methods are required for assessing the impacts of high and low levels of radiation that may ultimately result in ionizing radiation exposure to both humans and non-human biota. Fresh water fish, Catla catla were subjected to protracted (0.002 Gy/min) and acute (3.2 Gy/min) gamma radiation to a total dose of 5 Gy. Peripheral blood samples were collected at different intervals (days 3, 6, 12, 18, 30, 45, 90, 135, 202) and analyzed by the erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Nuclear anomalies observed were micronuclei (MN), deformed nuclei (DN), nuclear bud (NBu), nuclear bridge (NBr), vacuolated nucleus (VN), binucleated cell (BNC), apoptotic cells (AC) while cytoplasmic abnormalities detected were vacuolated cytoplasm (VC), anisochromasia (AN), echinocytes (EC) and enucleus (EN). Both exposures caused a statistically significant increase in nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities that correlated with micronucleus and other nuclear anomalies. However, the extent of damage is higher after an acute exposure lasting for a longer period leading to apoptosis. Nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities are the resultants of gamma radiation induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. PMID:22771702

Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N



Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370??g?g?1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148

Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair



Antimicrobial activity of Leucas aspera engineered silver nanoparticles against Aeromonas hydrophila in infected Catla catla.  


This research describes green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing Leucas aspera. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and inductively coupled plasmon optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). UV-vis analysis proved the wavelength of the sample to be 429 nm, resembling the surface resonance peak (SPR) specific for AgNPs. DLS analysis indicated particles with superior stability with an average diameter of 189.3 nm. TEM results showed that the particles were in the size range of 29-45 nm. FTIR prediction indicated the presence of possible polyphenol and protein encapsulates on the AgNPs. Antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs was tested against Aeromonas hydrophila. Catla catla, the model organism used for the experiment was divided into six groups with 15 animals in each group. In vivo analysis of biochemical parameters and histological architecture provided evidence for the antibacterial effect of AgNPs in the fish model. PMID:23603038

Antony, Jacob Joe; Nivedheetha, Murugaiyan; Siva, Durairaj; Pradeepha, Ganesapandy; Kokilavani, Palanivel; Kalaiselvi, Seenivasan; Sankarganesh, Arunachalam; Balasundaram, Athmanathan; Masilamani, Vivekanandan; Achiraman, Shanmugam



Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.  


Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou



Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: different immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAlmost 4% of the population suffer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underlying immunological mechanism.AIMSTo characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin.METHODSTissue and subcellular distribution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was purified to homogeneity, analysed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism

A Bugajska-Schretter; M Grote; L Vangelista; P Valent; W R Sperr; H Rumpold; A Pastore; R Reichelt; R Valenta; S Spitzauer




Microsoft Academic Search

The salient features of the existing state of the fish seed industry, with special reference to food fishes, in different parts of India are described. Details of the Bengal trade in spawn and fry of the major carps like Catla, Rohu, Mrigal and Calbasu is detailed. Seed collection and stocking of carps such as Labsojmbri- atus and the transplanted Catla



Efficacy of doramectin against natural and experimental infections of Lernaea cyprinacea in carps.  


Efficacy of doramectin administered via oral and parenteral routes against experimentally induced and natural infections of the copepod parasite Lernaea cyprinacea in carps was studied. Administration of doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kg b.wt. of fish for 10 days effectively controlled experimentally induced Lernaea infection in Labeo fimbriatus fingerlings within an average of 19 days of post-treatment as compared to the normal course of 41 days. Similarly, doramectin given through feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish for 10 days was equally effective in controlling natural infection of this parasite in the underyearlings of Catla catla and L. fimbriatus. Intramuscular administration of doramectin at 200microg/kgb.wt. of fish effectively removed adult Lernaea infection in L. fimbriatus as early as 18 days of treatment as compared to the time period of 43 days taken by the untreated fish to get rid of the infection. Single intramuscular administration of the drug was more effective against the parasite than its administration in multiple divided doses. In all cases, doramectin did not cause any noticeable adverse reactions or toxicity to the fish host. In view of the handling associated stress and other operational difficulties involved, a single intramuscular administration of the drug at 200microg/kgb.wt. is suggested for treatment of heavily infected adults and brood stock of carps. Doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish is best suited for treatment of Lernaea infection in young fish including fingerlings. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin upon its administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impact of its usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of this drug for control of parasitic infections of aquatic organisms. PMID:18650018

Hemaprasanth, K P; Raghavendra, A; Singh, Ravinder; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R



Triploid Grass Carp The grass carp, or white amur (Ctenopharyngodon  

E-print Network

developed a method to cre- ate sterile, non-reproducing grass carp by exposing the fertilized eggs to heat carp cannot be identified by their external appearance. Determination of the fertility or sterility lily (Nymphaea), or spe- cies of filamentous algae. They will eat algae in the absence of preferred

Boyer, Elizabeth W.


Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.



Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.



Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.



Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.



Impacts of grass carp and hybrid carp on aquatic macrophytes and endemic fish populations  

E-print Network

Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have been suggested as two of the most effective vegetation control agents. Grass carp are endemic to eastern Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, Grass carp are now widely distributed as a result of having been... Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) have been suggested as two of the most effective vegetation control agents. Grass carp are endemic to eastern Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, Grass carp are now widely distributed as a result of having been...

Luedke, Mark W



The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)



Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Dietary and Aqueous Cadmium by Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated water for 4 weeks in laboratory experiments. When exposed to

M. H. Kraal; M. H. S. Kraak; C. J. Degroot; C. Davids



Chromosome set manipulations in the black carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mollusc-eating black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has economic and health-care potential for biological control of nuisance aquatic molluscs. The present study investigates\\u000a the production of gynogenetic-monosex and triploid-sterile populations of black carp. The goal was to provide a method which\\u000a would eliminate unwanted biological and environmental impacts of introducing this exotic species into areas with nuisance\\u000a mollusc infestation. Meiotic gynogenesis

Shmuel Rothbard; William L. Shelton; Zeev Kulikovsky; Israel Rubinshtein; Yair Hagani; Boaz Moav



Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?  

EPA Science Inventory

There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...


Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics  

E-print Network

). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread


571Tempero et al.--Age, growth and reproduction of koi carp Age composition, growth, and reproduction of koi carp  

E-print Network

, and reproduction of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the lower Waikato region, New Zealand GrAnT W. Tempero nichol, new Zealand email: Abstract A total of 566 koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) from; age; growth; invasive species; maturity; fecundity INTRODUCTION common carp (Cyprinus carpio l

Waikato, University of


Differences in the susceptibility of Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian common carp (Cyprinus carpio), identified by mitochondrial DNA typing, to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).  


In 2004, a massive mortality of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) due to CyHV-3 infection occurred in Lake Biwa. Although common carp of two different mitochondrial types (Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian) occur in the lake, the majority of the dead fish seemed to be the indigenous type. The apparent high mortality in the indigenous type implies a higher susceptibility of this type to CyHV-3. To test the hypothesis that the susceptibility of indigenous and Eurasian types differ, we performed experimental infections with CyHV-3 among 2 groups of the indigenous type, and for the Eurasian type 4 groups of domesticated common carp and 4 groups of koi carp. Fish were immersed in CyHV-3 isolate and kept at 24°C. Both groups of the indigenous type died more rapidly compared with the 8 groups of the Eurasian type. Cumulative mortality in both indigenous groups reached 95-100%, whereas the cumulative mortalities of domesticated common carp (30-95%) and koi carp (35-100%) were more varied. CyHV-3 genome in the organs of the indigenous type increased more rapidly after the viral exposure and reached higher peak levels than those of the domesticated strain. These findings revealed that susceptibility of the indigenous type of carp to CyHV-3 can be considered especially high. PMID:24690375

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Yuasa, Kei



Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.



Name SpecCode Class Order Family SpawnInterval AnaCat Migratory ParentalCare Major MyPhyla IUCN_Code IUCN2 FBname Abramis brama 268 Osteichthyes Cypriniformes Cyprinidae 1 non-migratory non-migratory 0 0 Cypriniformes NL 0 Carp bream  

E-print Network

_Code IUCN2 FBname Abramis brama 268 Osteichthyes Cypriniformes Cyprinidae 1 non-migratory non-migratory 0 0 Cypriniformes NL 0 Carp bream Abramis sapa 23045 Osteichthyes Cypriniformes Cyprinidae 1 non-migratory non-migratory 0 0 Cypriniformes NL 0 White-eye bream Acantholingua ohridana 46506 Osteichthyes Salmoniformes

Jager, Henriette I.


Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.



Experience fusion: the next challenge for CARPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CARPE research community has been addressing the very interesting question of how to effectively capture, archive, and retrieve personal experiences. The vision has been to provide people with a super-diary or Memex device that captures all one's experiences in multimedia form and provides easy ways to index, search, navigate, and even virtually relive relevant portions of experiences. The primary

Gopal Pingali



Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp  

SciTech Connect

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.



Why and how CARPE should be personal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the significance of modeling human personalities is analyzed for improving the value proposition of solutions for Capturing, Archiving and Retrieval of Personal Experiences (CARPE). Differences in human personalities have a significant and often an overriding impact on how raw events are linked and organized into threads of experiences. Recommendations and predictions are presented on how existing technologies

Leslie G. Seymour



Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp  

PubMed Central

Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hakan; Brodersen, Jakob; Bronmark, Christer



Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.


Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.



Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation  

SciTech Connect

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.



The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  


It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona



[Gibbous hand deformity--carpe bossu].  


Fiolle (10) was the first to describe a bony protuberance of a carpometacarpal joint and named it carpe bossu. This anomalous anatomical condition occasionally becomes a--widely unknown--common clinical entity. The reasons are discussed. The clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by a lateral tangential radiograph. Discomfort and pain are rare and can be treated usually by conservative means, surgery is seldom indicated. PMID:1826387

Hermann, B; von Torklus, D




EPA Science Inventory

Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...


Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

E-print Network

Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). S. J. KAUSHIK K of the model were affected by body weight. Introduction. Attempts to feed carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and methods. Eggs of Cyprinus carpio obtained by artificial spawning were hatched in the laboratory (20 °C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments  

E-print Network

date, number of triploid grass carp stocked, mean triploid grass carp total length (mm), mean weight (g) and density per surface hectare and vegetated hectare. 14 July 1991, 1992, and 1993 physicochemical data for Lake Jackson, Sandstone, Lower... and Wike 1986). Vegetation consumption rates for triploid grass carp and diploid grass carp were found to be comparable (Wattendorf and Anderson 1987; Wiley and Wike 1986). Triploid grass carp are presumed to be functionally sterile, therefore making...

Blackwell, Brian Gene



MARP: Multi-Agent Route Planning CARP vs. FPS  

E-print Network

-Agent Route Planning CARP vs. FPS Algorithms Experiments Conclusions Application domains (a) Airport taxi of traffic information in the route choice A. W. ter Mors, C. Witteveen, J. Zutt, F. A. Kuipers Context

Kuzmanov, Georgi


PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.



Grass carp reovirus induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) kidney cell line.  


Grass carp hemorrhage is an acute contagious disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The pathogenesis of GCRV and the relationship between GCRV and the host cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations among apoptosis, intracellular oxidative stress and virus replication in GCRV infected-cells. The results showed that GCRV induced activation of caspase proteases as early as 12 h, and reached maximum activities at 24 h or 48 h post-infection in a grass carp kidney cell line (CIK cells). Meanwhile, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) also were increased in GCRV-infected CIK cells and showed a statistically significant difference from 24 h to 96 h post-infection. The infection of GCRV caused the destruction of entire monolayer and the death of host cells. Accompanied by the infection, a severe oxidative stress occurred, which led to extensive loss of antioxidants and formation of lipid peroxidation after 48 h post-infection. These data suggested that the apoptosis which was triggered at an early stage (12-24 h) in the viral infection cycle, might be independent of virus replication, while the oxidative stress induced by GCRV was mostly related to the virus replication. PMID:24680657

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jia-Hao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guo-Jun



Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.



Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745




E-print Network

. During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Studies of thermal discharges employing continuously monitored

Cooke, Steven J.


Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hinck, J. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Ellersieck, M. R.; Tillitt, D. E.



Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu



Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh  

E-print Network

Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh Vanessa L percent, respectively, following carp exclusion. However, responses by plants and other trophic levels dominated state. INDEX WORDS: Carp exclusion, coastal wetlands, restoration, food web. J. Great Lakes Res

McMaster University


Spatial variability of common carp populations in relation to lake morphology and physicochemical  

E-print Network

, often by mediating nutrient flow and species interactions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is listed 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread invasive species, SD, USA Key words: common carp; Cyprinus carpio; autecology; spatial distribution; abiotic factors


First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes  

E-print Network

University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native


Terminal components of carp complement constituting a membrane attack complex.  


The membrane attack complex (MAC) of carp complement was extracted with deoxycholate from rabbit erythrocytes lysed by carp serum and purified by a two-step chromatographic procedure. On two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of carp MAC, eight bands were detected. The band of M(r) 91,000 was identified as carp C9 by western blotting using anti-carp C9, and two bands of M(r) 62,000 and one band of M(r) 22,000 were confirmed as those of carp C8 alpha, C8 beta and C8 gamma, respectively, by their N-terminal amino acid sequences. The bands of M(r) 102,000 and 73,000, which generated from a 180,000 band under reducing conditions, were those corresponding to human C5b alpha and C5b beta, respectively. The remaining bands of M(r) 115,000 and 106,000 were identified as those corresponding to human C6 and C7, as determined by their molecular size, single-chain structures and similarities in N-terminal amino acid sequences to their mammalian counterparts. Densitometric scan of the gels showed the molar ratio of C5b, C6, C7, C8 and C9 in carp MAC to be 1:1:1:1:4. Based on these results, it appears that, as with mammals, the cytolytic pathway of bony fish complement is composed of five terminal components from C5 to C9. PMID:8960117

Nakao, M; Uemura, T; Yano, T



CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma. PMID:24870804

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan



Do physicochemical variables regulate the distribution of zooplankton communities in reservoirs dominated by filter-feeding carp?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton communities in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Xin'anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang, China, were investigated monthly, between 2009 and 2010. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) dominated the pelagic fish community of this large, deep reservoir. Cladocerans were distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. Rotifers were mainly found in the upper reaches, while copepods tended to assemble in the lower reaches. The Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were used to identify the major physicochemical gradients influencing community variations. Zooplankton community distributions were influenced by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and silicon. Excess nutrients, in particular silicon, stimulated rotifer growth. Based on these findings, it is possible to use rotifer density as a bioindicator of eutrophic status in deep reservoir ecosystems.

Hu, Menghong; Yang, Lili; Liu, Qigen



Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short settling zone upstream of the Grafton Dam, whereas the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers both had extensive settling zones (>5 km) behind major dams. These longer settling zones are likely to capture more eggs than shorter settling reaches. All four rivers exhibited settling zones at their river mouths, with the Lake Erie tributaries having much larger settling zones extending more than 10 km up the tributaries. While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan



Spring Viremia of Carp1 Barbara D. Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, and Roy P.E. Yanong2  

E-print Network

significant mortality in several carp species including the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These species infections with the virus have been reported in common carp (or koi), (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius? Spring viremia of carp is an infection caused by Rhabdo- virus carpio, a bullet-shaped RNA virus. Natural

Watson, Craig A.


Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng



Immune gene discovery in the crucian carp Carassius auratus.  


The crucian carp Carassius auratus (Cyprinidae) is one of the important fish species in aquaculture. Although the crucian carp has several economic benefits, their immune system and gene information have not been investigated in depth as yet. Here, we performed the transcriptome analysis of C. auratus using the pyrosequencing method and selected several immune-related genes. Of unigenes obtained in this species, we identified a number of immune system-related genes (e.g. adhesive protein, antimicrobial protein, apoptosis- and cell cycle-related protein, cellular defense effector, immune regulator, pattern recognition protein, protease, protease inhibitor, reduction/oxidation-related protein, signal transduction-related protein and stress protein) that are potentially useful for studies on fish immunity. To be of public and practical use, we designed primer pairs of each gene from the crucian carp for real-time RT-PCR application and tested the amplicon identity of entire gene sets with the total RNA sample. For comparative analysis, we measured tissue-preferential transcript profiles of selected genes. This study will be helpful to extend our knowledge on the immune system of the crucian carp in comparative aspects and to develop the crucian carp as a potential model organism for aquatic quality monitoring in fish farming. PMID:24287371

Rhee, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Yong Sung; Lee, Chulwoo; Lee, Jae-Seong



Immunological effects of paraquat on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  


Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective worldwide used herbicide and it has been demonstrated to be highly toxic to animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about PQ effect on the immune system and histopathology of fish. In the present study, we aimed to determine the lysozyme activities, content of IgM, and complement C3 content in the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp exposed to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 d. The results showed that lysozyme activity in the liver, kidney, or spleen of common carp was increased at the earlier stages of PQ-exposure (from 1 to 3 d) while decreased at the end of treatment. Moreover, PQ-exposure caused irregular change of IgM content while decreased C3 content. These results suggest that PQ-exposure may disturb the innate immunity of common carp and could result in dysfunction of the specific immunity in common carp. In addition, PQ-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damages in fish gill, fin, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine, indicating that PQ has immunotoxicity on common carp. PMID:24486634

Ma, Junguo; Li, Yuanyuan; Niu, Daichun; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu



Isolation and characterization of glycophorin from carp red blood cell membranes.  


We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko



Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes  

PubMed Central

We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko



Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.



Aggregation and structural changes of silver carp actomyosin as affected by mild acidification with D-gluconic acid ?-lactone.  


The structural changes and aggregation properties of silver carp actomyosin acidified with d-gluconic acid-?-lactone (GDL) were investigated. Results showed that silver carp actomyosin underwent aggregation and formation of precipitate as indicated by turbidity and centrifugation coupled electrophoresis analysis. Circular dichroism indicated that myosin rod unfolded during acidification, resulting in a gradual decrease in ?-helical content. The changes in tertiary structure of actomyosin under acidic conditions were demonstrated by second-derivative UV spectra and intrinsic fluorescence. Tyrosine residues were exposed to the surface of proteins when pH was decreased to 5.5, and were buried inside the protein aggregates with further reduction in pH. In contrast, more tryptophan residues were exposed to the polar environment with decreasing pH. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide crosslinking experiments showed that the intensity of myosin heavy chain (MHC) bands decreased sharply with decreasing pH and the actin bands decreased more slowly, suggesting that MHC is the major protein component involved in the non-covalent cross-linking and formation of aggregates during acidification of silver carp actomyosin. PMID:23107720

Xu, Yanshun; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing



Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.



C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a highly virulent and lethal disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental koi varieties. However, specific knowledge about immune mechanisms behind the infection process is very limited. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the CyHV-3 infection on the profile of 2 major components of the common carp immune acute phase response: the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the complement system. Common carp were infected with CyHV-3 by bath immersion. Fish were sampled before the infection and at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 336 h post-infection for serum and head kidney, liver, gill and spleen tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined from the serum, whereas CRP- and complement-related genes (crp1, crp2, c1rs, bf/c2, c3, masp2) expression profiles were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Both CRP levels and complement activity increased significantly up to 10- and 3-fold, respectively, in the serum of infected fish during the challenge. Analysis revealed distinct organ- and time-dependent expression profile patterns for all selected genes. These results suggest that CRP and complement behave as acute phase reactants to CyHV-3 infection in common carp with an organ- and time-dependent response. PMID:24991845

Pionnier, Nicolas; Adamek, Miko?aj; Miest, Joanna J; Harris, Sarah J; Matras, Marek; Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, Dave



Quantitative profiling of mRNA expression of glutathione S-transferase superfamily genes in various tissues of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).  


The expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a crucial factor in determining the sensitivity of cells and organs in response to a variety of toxicants. In this study, we cloned the core nucleotide of alpha, kappa, mu, mGST, pi, rho, and theta-like GST genes from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). Their derived amino acid sequences were clustered with other vertebrate GSTs in a phylogenetic tree, and the bighead carp GST sequences have the highest similarity with those from common carp and zebrafish. We quantified the constitutive mRNA transcription of GST isoforms in eight different tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, intestine, muscle, heart, brain, and gill). The information obtained from the present study could be distilled into a few generalized principles: multiple GST isoenzymes were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues; majority of GSTs had high constitutive expression in intestine, liver, and kidney. These findings are in agreement with the roles of these tissues in xenobiotic metabolism. At the same time, some unique findings were detected in the current experiment: (1) higher expression of most GSTs was observed in spleen; (2) the expression of GST pi was highest in almost all the studied tissues except muscle; the other two isoforms, GST alpha and rho, were also highly expressed in liver, kidney, intestine, spleen, heart, and brain of bighead carp. All these results strongly imply an important role of these GST isoforms in detoxification of ingested xenobiotics. PMID:20135640

Li, Guangyu; Xie, Ping; Li, Huiying; Chen, Jun; Hao, Le; Xiong, Qian



Do wild fish species contribute to the transmission of koi herpesvirus to carp in hatchery ponds?  


The koi herpesvirus (KHV) has spread worldwide since its discovery in 1998 and causes disease and mortality in koi and common carp populations with a high impact on the carp production industry. Many investigations have been conducted to examine ways of distribution and to identify possible transmission vectors. The answers, however, raise many new questions. In the present study, different wild fish species taken from carp ponds with a history of KHV infection were examined for their susceptibility to the virus. In the tissue of these fish, the virus load was determined and it was tested whether a release of the virus could be induced by stress and the virus then could be transferred to naive carp. Wild fish were gathered from carp ponds during acute outbreaks of virus-induced mortality in summer and from ponds stocked with carp carrying a latent KHV infection. From these ponds, wild fish were collected during the harvesting process in autumn or spring when the ponds were drained. We found that regardless of season, temperature variation, age and infection status of the carp stock, wild fish from carp ponds and its outlets could be tested positive for the KHV genome using real-time PCR with a low prevalence and virus load. Furthermore, virus transfer to naive carp was observed after a period of cohabitation. Cyprinid and non-cyprinid wild fish can therefore be considered as an epidemiological risk for pond carp farms. PMID:23121232

Fabian, M; Baumer, A; Steinhagen, D



Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.



Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.  


This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs. PMID:22012303

Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M



[The analysis of genetic variability of mtDNA 12S rRNA genes in the allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their parents].  


The complete 12S rRNA genes from the five F11 allotetraploids, two diploid gynogens, two triploid crucian carps, one red crucian carp, one xiangjiang common carp, and one Japanese crucian carp were successfully cloned and sequenced. Sequence compositions and variations were analyzed with MEGA 1.0 software. Five F11 allotetraploids shared two haplotypes, and two diploid gynogens, two triploid crucian carps, one red crucian carp, one xiangjiang common carp, one Japanese crucian carp shared one haplotype, respectively. The similarities among red crucian carp, xiangjiang common carp, allotetraploid, diploid gynogen, Japanese crucian carp, and triploid crucian carp varied from 95% to 99%. The similarities between allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their female parents (red crucian carp and Japanese crucian carp, respectively) were higher than those between allotetraploid, triploid crucian carp and their male parents (xiangjiang common carp and allotetraploid, respectively). Such result indicated that mitochondrial 12S rRNA genes of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp were inherited maternally. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the neighbor joining method of the MEGA package. It was noticeable that after nine generations from F3 to F11 hybrids, the five F11 allotetraploids shared two haplotypes (AT-1 and AT-2), indicating the allotetraploid stock had the genetic diversity. The results provided some valuable information for the breeding, genetic conservation, and population rejuvenation of the tetraploid stock. PMID:15640120

Guo, Xin-Hong; Liu, Shao-Jun; Yan, Jin-Peng; Liu, Yun



Effect of mixed starter cultures fermentation on the characteristics of silver carp sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality and functionality and increase the utilization of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) muscle, three groups of silver carp sausages inoculated with the combinations of Staphylococcus xylosus-12 with Lactobacillus plantarum-15, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC33316, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, and a batch without any starter (control) were prepared. During the 48 h fermentation at 30°C, silver carp sausages\\u000a inoculated with mixed

Yongjin Hu; Wenshui Xia; Changrong Ge



Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) Rule and the Importation of Susceptible Fish General Information and Suggested Procedural Checklist for  

E-print Network

(Carassius auratus) Tench (Tinca tinca) Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) If yes, then go to step 2. 2. Do you have (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish

Watson, Craig A.


Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise un jene total et prolong  

E-print Network

Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise à un jeûne in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after prolonged total starvation. 1. Turnover rate and half-life of hepatic

Boyer, Edmond


Tolrance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) un choc acide appliqu au cours  

E-print Network

Tolérance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) à un choc acide appliqué au Corzent 74203 Thonon-les-Bains, France. Summary. Physiological tolerance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggs

Boyer, Edmond


Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  


Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim



Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot



The development of a radioimmunoassay for carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an easily — performed and robust radioimmunoassay (RIA) to carp, Cyprinus carpio, vitellogenin (c-VTG) is described. Purified c-VTG was iodinated using Iodogen. The resulting c-VTG label was useful for\\u000a up to 60 days. High titre antibodies were raised in rabbits to the purified c-VTG. The practical operating range of the c-VTG\\u000a RIA was between 2 and 200

Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter



Food Selection by Grass Carp Fingerlings in a Vegetated Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five thousand grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fry were stocked into a 0.81-hectare pond in Marion County, Florida. The fry grew from 48.2 mm to 186 mm total length in 6 months with a survival rate of less than 7%. Food consumption decreased to near maintenance ration when water temperature fell below 14 C and growth was reduced. The 76 grass

Douglas E. Colle; Jerome V. Shireman; Roger W. Rottmann



Molecular cloning of a carp Jak3 from activated leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Janus kinases (Jaks) are involved in a signalling pathway leading to tyrosine phosphorylation, which is the key step in transducing cytokine signals from the external environment to the nucleus. We report here the molecular cloning of carp Jak3. A partial cDNA of the Jak homologue was initially identified from a cDNA pool obtained by subtracting the cDNAs from Con A-induced

Zhan Yin; Jimmy Kwang



The Political and Economic Implications of the Asian Carp Invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Asian carp will kill jobs and ruin our way of life.”1 Such is the sentiment expressed by Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox and many other politicians and interest groups in the Great Lakes Region. The invasion of non-native species into the Great Lakes is a public policy problem that has the ability to severely damage the region’s environment and economy.

Thomas Just




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Substrate preferences of isolated mitochondria and maximal enzyme activities were used to assess the oxidative capacities of red muscle (RM) and white muscle (WM) of carp (Cyprinus carpio). A 14-fold higher activity of citrate synthase (CS) in RM reflects the higher mitochondrial density in this tissue. RM mitochondria oxidize pyruvate and fatty acyl carnitines (8:O, 12:0, 16:0) at similarly




A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata



Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids or a protein-free diet  

E-print Network

Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids and energy metabolism during the early life history of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, we followed changes, Academy of Agriculture and Techno%gy Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland. Summary. Juvenile carp (Cyrpinus carpio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 11891197 (1998). 1998 NRC Canada Predictions on the effect of common carp  

E-print Network

of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes a study to examine the relationship between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality étudié la relation entre l'exclusion des carpes (Cyprinus carpio), la qualité de l'eau, le zooplancton et

McMaster University


Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

E-print Network

after the start of the particular feeding regime. b) Trials with carp. - Three carp (Cyprinus carpio LInfluence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) S. J. KAUSHIK Denise BLANC Laboratoire de Nutrition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Size-and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

E-print Network

Size- and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Emili, Cyprinus carpio, diet, Lake Banyoles, Spain. ABSTRACT The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyo- les (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant

García-Berthou, Emili


Growth, Fecundity, and Diets of Newly Established Silver Carp in the Middle Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix has spread throughout the Mississippi River drainage. During 2003, we determined its population status and potential impact in the middle Mississippi River (MMR), the conduit between the lower Mississippi River and the upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois rivers. We quantified growth, age structure, fecundity, and diets of silver carp sampled with trammel nets and AC

Christopher J. Williamson; James E. Garvey



First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly

Ramón Lavado; Rémi Thibaut; Demetrio Raldúa; Rebeca Mart??n; Cinta Porte



Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo \\/ctiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and




Effects of Static versus Flowing Water on Aquatic Plant Preferences of Triploid Grass Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were presented with three aquatic plant species (sago pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus, Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum, and American pondweed P. nodosus) in outdoor canals with static and flowing water in winter, spring, and summer. Plant consumption by triploid grass carp in winter was low but increased dramatically in spring and summer. Based on plant shoot lengths,

Robert T. Pine; Lars W. J. Anderson; Silas S. O. Hung



Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten



Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson



Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich



Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics



Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon



Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry. PMID:21547066

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun



Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp  

E-print Network

Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments greater in the subgroups incubated with T3 + steroid hormone, or with T3 + gonadotropic hormone, than

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Biomass-dependent effects of age-0 common carp on aquatic  

E-print Network

in structuring aquatic ecosystems through top-down and bottom-up processes. Adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, although effects may be accrued through different pathways. Keywords Early life history � Cyprinus carpio common carp (Cypri- nus carpio) populations are often associated with the degradation of shallow aquatic


Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and  

E-print Network

Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 NOTE Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). In order for fish to transfer the #12;Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 113 virus Cook University, Queensland, Australia Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus

Gray, Matthew


Influence of the Moran Effect on Spatiotemporal Synchrony in Common Carp Recruitment  

E-print Network

on a regionwide scale may further our understanding of fish population dynamics. Common carp Cyprinus carpio geographical scale (i.e., the Moran effect) would induce synchrony in recruitment for common carp Cyprinus carpio among 18 glacial lakes across a 175-km2 area in eastern South Dakota. Cross-correlation analysis


Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates  

E-print Network

vertebrates. UCPs from two fish species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and carp (Cyprinus carpio), were Acta 1413 (1999) 50^54 #12;ESTs from the carp Cyprinus carpio (accession. carpio `peritoneal exudate cell' cDNA library and from a D. rerio `day 0 fin regeneration' cDNA library

Stuart, Jeffrey A.


Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p < 0.05). In fin and skin, size dependence was evident in winter, but not in summer, while in other tissues (ventricle, atrium, intestine, liver, muscle, and spleen), no size dependence was found. The liver was much bigger in small than large fish ( p < 0.001), and there was a prominent enlargement of the liver in winter irrespective of fish size. As a consequence, the whole body glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko



Development of a novel candidate subunit vaccine against Grass carp reovirus Guangdong strain (GCRV-GD108).  


Grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain (GCRV-GD108) was recently isolated in Guangdong province, China. M6 gene of GCRV-GD108 was speculated encoding virus major outer capsid protein VP4. Blast analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of GCRV-GD108 VP4 was homologous to the structural protein VP4 of known Aquareoviruses (27.3-32.9%). Immunogenicity prediction by DNAStar software revealed there were multiple B cell epitopes on GCRV-GD108 VP4. Prokaryotic expression vector pET32a was used to express VP4 recombinant protein (rVP4) in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain. As expected, the molecular weight of recombinant VP4 was about 87 kDa showed by SDS-PAGE result. Neutralization assay demonstrated that the rabbit polyclonal antibody of rVP4 could prevent virus infection efficiently. After 14 days immunization with the rVP4, grass carps were challenged with GCRV-GD108, the results showed that different doses of rVP4 (1 ?g/g, 3 ?g/g and 5 ?g/g) all provided protection against virus infection (47-82%). The relative percent survival reached 82% in the group immunized with 3 ?g/g of rVP4. ELISA revealed rVP4 induced high antibody titer in immunized fish. IgM expression levels in head kidney of grass carp were detected by RT-PCR, and the results showed that IgM expressed at a significantly higher level in immunization groups than in blank control, indicating the rVP4 can induce strong immune response. In conclusion, rVP4 is a candidate vaccine against GCRV-GD108. PMID:23664915

Tian, Yuanyuan; Ye, Xing; Zhang, Lili; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Yueqiang



Influence of methisoprinol on the replication of rhabdoviruses isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Ictalurus melas): in vitro study.  


Rhabdoviruses constitute one of the most pathogenic viruses isolated from rainbow trout and carp culture. Several viruses were also isolated from other species of fish. These viruses are mostly associated with epizootics and heavy losses. Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) have been the most extensively studied, due to their significant economic impact. Significant progress has been made towards controlling the major bacterial fish diseases using vaccines, but this approach has not yet been successful in preventing viral diseases in fish culture. However, for an effective therapeutic approach, specific drugs should be developed to selectively inhibit virus replication and/or stimulate antiviral protection. In this investigation we examined the in vitro influence of methisoprinol on the SVCV and virus isolated from catfish (Ictalurus melas) replication by measuring their RNA synthesis. The viruses were propagated in EPC cells and cell cultures containing methisoprinol were followed by infection with SVCV or catfish rhabdovirus suspension containing 10(7) TCID50/ml. Methisoprinol (Polfa, Poland) at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 microg/ml of medium (Glasgow MEM) was used in this study. The results of this study show the strong inhibition of incorporation (cpm) of [3H]-uridine into SVCV and catfish rhabdovirus RNA in cell culture exposed to methisoprinol at various concentrations. The highest percent of inhibition of viral RNA at 72 h after infection with two rhabdoviruses were observed in doses of 400 and 500 microg/ml of methisoprinol in medium. The results of this in vitro study showed that methisoprinol inhibits the rhabdoviruses isolated from carp and catfish. PMID:12675468

Siwicki, A K; Pozet, F; Morand, M; Kazu?, B; Trapkowska, S; Ma?aczewska, J



Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.




Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted on common carp and grass carp embryos and larvae developed under laboratory conditions, at various temperatures and in the presence of heavy metals (Cu 0.20-0.27 mg dm -3 , Pb 2.0-4.0 mg dm -3 , Cd 0.2 mg dm -3 ). Heart rate was measured at various developmental stages and was observed to increase along with

Barbara Jezierska


Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe



First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.  


Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas



Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.



Effect of Cadmium Chloride on Metallothionein Levels in Carp  

PubMed Central

Due to anthropogenic activities, heavy metals still represent a threat for various trophic levels. If aquatic animals are exposed to heavy metals, we can obviously observe considerable toxicity. It is well known that organisms treated with heavy metals synthesize low molecular mass compounds rich in cysteine. In this work the effects of cadmium chloride (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/L) on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was investigated. We determined cadmium content in tissue of muscle, liver and kidney by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization and content of metallothionein (MT) in the same tissues by the Brdicka reaction. Electrochemical methods can be considered as suitable and sensitive tools for MT determination in carp tissues. Results of our study showed a gradually enhancing of cadmium content in muscle with time and dose of cadmium chloride in water. MT levels in liver reached both high levels (above 130 ng/g) in fish exposed to 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L and low level (to 50 ng/g) in fish exposed to 10 and 12.5 mg/L of cadmium chloride. This finding confirms that the synthesis of metallothioneins and binding capacity of these proteins is restricted. PMID:22408554

Kovarova, Jana; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech; Harustiakova, Danka; Celechovska, Olga; Svobodova, Zdenka



Asian carp farming systems: towards a typology and increased resource use efficiency  

E-print Network

of the fundamental choice of system. Keywords: carp, freshwater aquaculture, integra- ted systems, resource use Research, 2002, 33, 403±413 � 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd 403 #12;services (waste assimilation) (Beveridge

Lorenzen, Kai


76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 16 [Docket No. FWS-R3-FHC-2010-0094...Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final...



Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed in Osteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

PubMed Central

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10-12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 hr followed by Western blot analysis showed 2-3 fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203×, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S



Temperature-Induced Changes in Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Sensitivity in Carp Melanotropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates whether thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and N-acetyl ?-endorphin (NAc ?-END), or the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine (T3) are involved in the physiological response to temperature changes in the poikilotherm common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Carps were either subjected to a rapid cold exposure or acclimated over time to three different temperatures. Acute cold exposure

Erwin H. van den Burg; Juriaan R. Metz; H. Alec Ross; Veerle M. Darras; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga; Gert Flik



Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development. PMID:22303472

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo



Generation of the first BAC-based physical map of the common carp genome  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a member of Cyprinidae, is the third most important aquaculture species in the world with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the all freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Apparently genomic resources are needed for this species in order to study its performance and production traits. In spite of much progress, no physical maps have been available for common carp. The objective of this project was to generate a BAC-based physical map using fluorescent restriction fingerprinting. Result The first generation of common carp physical map was constructed using four- color High Information Content Fingerprinting (HICF). A total of 72,158 BAC clones were analyzed that generated 67,493 valid fingerprints (5.5 × genome coverage). These BAC clones were assembled into 3,696 contigs with the average length of 476 kb and a N50 length of 688 kb, representing approximately 1.76 Gb of the common carp genome. The largest contig contained 171 BAC clones with the physical length of 3.12 Mb. There are 761 contigs longer than the N50, and these contigs should be the most useful resource for future integrations with linkage map and whole genome sequence assembly. The common carp physical map is available at Conclusion The reported common carp physical map is the first physical map of the common carp genome. It should be a valuable genome resource facilitating whole genome sequence assembly and characterization of position-based genes important for aquaculture traits. PMID:22044723



Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin residue reduction through cooking\\/processing of restructured carp fillets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restructured carp fillets were used to study the potential of reducing dioxin levels during cooking. Carp from Saginaw Bay were mechanically deboned and washed. Samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) by selected ion monitoring GC-MS. Half was spiked to obtain levels of approximately 100 pptr. Fillets (7.5 cm in diameter) were roasted covered and uncovered at 177°C to end internal

N. C. Stachiw; M. E. Zabik; A. M. Booren; M. J. Zabik



The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems  

E-print Network

periods in the Amur Basin (Stanley et, al. 1978). Mean water temperatures in the lower Trinity River during July 1993 were within specified ranges (Shireman and Smith 1983) for spawning and incubation of grass carp eggs. Significant decreases... periods in the Amur Basin (Stanley et, al. 1978). Mean water temperatures in the lower Trinity River during July 1993 were within specified ranges (Shireman and Smith 1983) for spawning and incubation of grass carp eggs. Significant decreases...

Elder, Howard Stanton



A tale of four “carp:” Invasion potential and ecological niche modeling  

E-print Network

of Asia from the Amur River Basin to the West River, including areas in China, Russia, and Northern Indochina [53]. The native range for tench includes Europe and parts of western Asia [52,64]. Because native range limits for common carp are poorly..., Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas [30]; evidence of reproduction has been recorded from the Mississippi River drainage of all of these states except Texas [47]. Grass carp have already adversely affected U.S. ecosystems in several areas...

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.



Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg\\/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the

Lílian L. Amado; Márcia L. Garcia; Talita C. B. Pereira; João S. Yunes; Maurício R. Bogo; José M. Monserrat



An in vivo study of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) liver during prolonged hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia induced apoptosis has been studied extensively in many mammalian cell lines but there are only a few studies using whole animal models. We investigated the response of the intact liver to hypoxia in a hypoxia tolerant fish, the carp (Cyprinus carpio, L). We exposed carp to hypoxia for up to 42 days, using oxygen level (0.5 mgO2\\/L) that were slightly higher

W. L. Poon; C. Y. Hung; K. Nakano; D. J. Randall



Identification of differentially expressed genes in Con A-activated Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA library was constructed from the message RNA (mRNA) obtained from Con A-induced head kidney (HK) leucocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Differential screening of the cDNA was carried out by hybridization against the total cDNA probes from normal, Con A-uninduced HK leucocytes or Con A-induced HK leucocytes of carp. The differential expression patterns of certain cDNA clones were

Z. Yin; J. Y. He; Z. Gong; T. J. Lam; Y. M. Sin



Isolation and expression analyses of the Sox9a gene in triploid crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the evolutional significance of Sox9 in fish, we isolated and characterized Sox9a cDNA and genomic clones in triploid crucian carp. The cDNA encoded a protein of 457 amino acids with an HMG box and showed\\u000a more than 60% amino acid sequence identity with known vertebrate Sox9 proteins. Triploid crucian carp and vertebrate Sox9s showed similar gene structure, and

Xinhong Guo; Jinpeng Yan; Shaojun Liu; Bing Xiang; Yun Liu



Sample digestion for determining chloramphenicol residues in carp serum and muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated after intramuscular injection of a single-dose of 80 mg\\/kgbw. CAP concentrations in carp serum and muscle\\u000a with and without addition of ?-glucuronidase were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection.\\u000a The results showed that CAP-glucuronide (CAP-G), an important conjugate of CAP in the metabolic process and potentially toxic\\u000a to

Zhi-Yong Huang; Qing-Pi Yan; Qiang Zhang; Ai-Hong Peng



The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo



Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun



"Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems"  

E-print Network

Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)in American freshwater systems Luis Zambrano, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Naercio Menezes, and A. Townsend Peterson Abstract: Nonnative fish introductions... disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South...

Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend



[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  


For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K



Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun



The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle



Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future. PMID:22424280



Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer



Sequence analysis and subcellular localization of crucian carp Carassius auratus viperin.  


Human viperin is known as an interferon (IFN)-inducible antiviral protein and localizes to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via its N-terminal amphipathic ?-helix. Little is known about subcellular localization of fish viperin. Herein, we characterized subcellular localization of a fish viperin from crucian carp Carassius auratus. Crucian carp viperin is nearly identical to the other viperin proteins in sequence, with the exception of the first N-terminal 70 amino acids that are defined as N-terminal variable domain including an amphipathic ?-helix. In addition to N-terminal variable domain, crucian carp viperin protein harbors a conserved middle radical SAM domain and a conserved C-terminal domain. Subcellular localization analyses indicate that crucian carp viperin is a cytoplasmic protein associated with ER. Sequence analyses reveal that amino acids 1-74 forms an amphipathic ?-helix domain that drives ER-localization of crucian carp viperin. In addition, Coimmunoprecipitation assays show that crucian carp viperin proteins are able to self-associate. These results together indicate that similar to mammalian homologs, fish viperins likely play important roles in IFN response. PMID:24825429

Wang, Bing; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang



Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 > embryos (240 > adults (540 Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 > adult (120 > embryo (230 The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.



Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants  

SciTech Connect

A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))



Responses of the swimbladder of the carp to sound stimulation.  


The oscillations of the swimbladder anterior chamber of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) following stimulation with tones of 300-1500 Hz were studied by the method of holographic interferometry. The oscillation amplitude appeared to be maximal at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of an air bladder of equivalent volume as well as at frequencies corresponding approximately to the second and third harmonics of the resonance frequency. A change in the frequency of the sound signal or in the instantaneous pressure amplitude could result in spatial displacement of the oscillation centers on the swimbladder wall. The interference picture which resulted from recording the swimbladder oscillations over the tested frequency range was not observed on the holograms recorded within 20-24 h after the fish had been killed. PMID:6746428

Altman, J A; Butusov, M M; Vaitulevich, S F; Sokolov, A V



Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change. PMID:23741344

Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua



Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)



Using ecological niche-based modeling techniques to predict the establishment, abundance1 and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2  

E-print Network

and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2 3 Stefanie A as well as the32 abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the recipient systems.45 46 Keywords: Non-indigenous species, impact, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, ecological

Leung, Brian


Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.



A Tale of Four "Carp": Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation. PMID:19421314

DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.



Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes. PMID:22776770



Effects of gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog and the carp.  


Effects of various gustatory stimulants upon the olfactory spithelia were examined in the olfactory bulb of the bullfrog and the carp. 1. The olfactory epithelia of the two animals responded to the salty, bitter- and acid-tasting substances, but not to the sweet ones. 2. The olfactory epithelium of the bullfrog responded immediately to sodium solutions of high concentrations (the "initial response"), but the response to those of low concentrations showed long latency (the "delayed response"). In the carp, the "initial response" was found, while the "delayed response" was not in most cases. A "negative" delayed response was found only infrequently. 3. Responses only to high alkali or acid solutions were found in the two animals. 4. When 0.05 M NaCl was added to HCl solutions, an enhancing effect was found in the bullfrog, while a reducing effect occurred in the carp. On the contrary, when 0.05 M NaCl was added to NaOH solutions, an enhancing effect occurred in the carp, while no consistent result was founding the bullfrog. 5. Many amino acids were effective stimuli in the bullfrog, but only betaine and 1-aspartic acid were found effective in the carp. 6. Changes in temperatures beyond 35 degrees C or under 10 degrees C elicited responses. Mechanical stimuli were effective in the carp, but not in the bullfrog. 7. The "water response" was found in the bullfrog, but not in the carp. 8. Sensitivities of the olfactory epithelia of the two animals were compared and discussed. PMID:308564

Takagi, S F; Iino, M; Yarita, H



Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the spleen of common carp immune organ.  


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes in eukaryotes; however, miRNAs associated with immune functions in the common carp have not been reported. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the spleen of the common carp. A total of 10,603,456 high-quality clean reads, representing 293,603 unique sequences, were obtained from the small-cDNA library using the Solexa sequencing. By the bioinformatic analysis, 194 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in the carp spleen. The abundant miRNAs principally belong to 30 miRNA gene families such as let-7, mir-10, mir-15, mir-30, and so on. The conservation analysis showed that 23 families were present both in protostomes and deuterostomes, 46 families were conserved only in vertebrates, and 5 families (mir-430, mir-722, mir-724, mir-734, and mir-738) were identified only in fish species. Furthermore, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that miRNAs expressed in the spleen of common carp are involved in immune system development, lymphoid organ development, lymphocyte activation, immune response, B cell receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and so on. This study described the miRNA transcriptome in spleen tissue for the first time in the common carp. The results expand the number of known common carp miRNAs and provides a meaningful framework to understand the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. PMID:24819892

Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Wen, Lin; Liu, Zhonghu; Yan, Fengbin; Gao, Chunsheng



Duplication and differentiation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) myoglobin genes revealed by BAC analysis.  


Two distinct myoglobin (mb) transcripts have been reported in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, which is a hypoxia-tolerant fish living in habitats with greatly fluctuant dissolved oxygen levels. Recombinant protein analysis has shown functional specialization of the two mb transcripts. In this work, analysis for mb-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones indicated different genome loci for common carp myoglobin-1 (mb-1) and myoglobin-2 (mb-2) genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that mb-1 and mb-2 are located on separate chromosomes. In both of the mb-1 and mb-2 containing BAC clones, gene synteny was well conserved with the homologous region on zebrafish chromosome 1, supporting that the common carp specific mb-2 gene originated from the recent whole genome duplication event in cyprinid lineage. Transcription factor binding sites search indicated that both common carp mb genes lacked specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) and myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) binding sites, which mediated muscle-specific and calcium-dependent expression in the well-studied mb promoters. Potential hypoxia response elements (HREs) were predicted in the regulatory region of common carp mb genes. These characteristics of common carp mb gene regulatory region well interpreted the hypoxia-inducible, non-muscle expression pattern of mb-1. In the case of mb-2, a 10 bp insertion to the binding site of upstream stimulatory factor (USF), which was a co-factor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), might cause the non-response to hypoxia treatment of mb-2. The case of common carp mb gene duplication and subsequent differentiation in expression pattern and protein function provided an example for adaptive evolution toward aquatic hypoxia tolerance. PMID:25026501

Zhao, Zi-Xia; Xu, Peng; Cao, Ding-Chen; Kuang, You-Yi; Deng, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Li-Ming; Li, Jiong-Tang; Xu, Jian; Sun, Xiao-Wen




E-print Network



Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  


In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G



Ectoparasitic protozoa fauna of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) caught in the Sinop region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ectoparasitic protozoan fauna resident on farmed and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from two localities in the Sinop region of Turkey were investigated during the period June 1994–May 1995. Following the investigation of 125 common carp, Trichodina acuta Lom, 1961, Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina nigra Lom, 1960, Trichodinella subtilis Lom, 1959, Apiosoma piscicola Blanchard,

A. Özer; O. Erdem



Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident  

E-print Network

Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

Franic, Z



A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild

M. G. M Alam; A Tanaka; G Allinson; L. J. B Laurenson; F Stagnitti; E. T Snow



Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS  

E-print Network

been validated as an accurate structure for estimating age of common carp Cyprinus carpio. However be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987


Effects of ions on the motility of fresh and demembranate spermatozoa of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study was summarize the factors activating and\\/or inhibiting the motility of intact and\\/or demembranated spermatozoa of common carp and paddlefish as teleostean and chondrostean models using methods of sperm demembranation. The movement of spermatozoa of cyprinids species, common carp, is influenced by osmotic pressure or high concentration of ions. The movements of spermatozoa of chrondrostean species, paddlefish,

O. Linhart; J. Cosson; S. D. Mims; M. Rodina; D. Gela; W. L. Shelton



Antioxidant response modulated by copper in healthy or parasitized carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by Ptychobothrium sp. (Cestoda).  


An increased antioxidant response (catalase, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GRd) activities in liver and GST activity in head kidney) was observed in carp parasitized by Ptychobothrium sp. compared to healthy fish. In case of a copper contamination of these fish, the decrease in enzymatic activities observed was less pronounced in parasitized than in healthy carp. PMID:12383935

Dautremepuits, C; Betoulle, S; Vernet, G



Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.



[An investigation of metazoan parasites of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Lake Eber, Afyon, Turkey.].  


In this study, metazoan parasites of the following fish species were investigated in Lake Eber (Afyon) from July 2002-2003. At the end of this research, 2 species of Monogenea (Gyrodactylus elegans, Dactylogyrus extensus) were found on the gills and fins of the fishes; 1 species of Digenea (Posthodiplostomum cuticola), on skin and fins; 1 species of Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the intestines; and 1 species of Arthropoda (Argulus foliaceus), the skin, gills and fins of fish. The distribution of these parasites in various fish species are given below: The distribution of these parasites are as follows: 3456 Gyrodactylus elegans in 51 specimens of common carp (67.1% prevalence, 67.75+/-162.52 parasite/fish); 2980 Dactylogyrus extensus (73.6%, 53.21+/-52.95) in 56 specimens of common carp; 55 Posthodiplostomum cuticola (18.4%, 3.93+/-5.42) in 14 specimens of common carp; 1240 Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (43.4%, 37.55+/-53.98) in 33 specimens of common carp and 6 Argulus foliaceus (6.5%, 1.20+/-0.44); in 5 specimens of common carp. PMID:17160824

Oztürk, M O?uz



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa



Accumulation and effects of metals in caged carp and resident roach along a metal pollution gradient.  


Metal accumulation and effects on plasma Ca(2+), alanine transaminase (ALT) and fish condition factor were examined in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio) and resident roach (Rutilus rutilus) at four locations along the Grote Nete River system (Belgium). Cadmium and zinc accumulation were found in carp and roach, with highest concentrations at the most contaminated site (dissolved Cd: 1.82 microg/l, Zn: 967 microg/l). On the tissue level, highest cadmium concentrations were measured in kidneys of carp and roach, followed by gills, intestine and liver, while low concentrations were observed in carcass and muscle. For zinc, a similar pattern was observed (intestine>kidney>gills>liver>carcass>muscle). Comparison between species showed higher cadmium concentrations in feral roach, while zinc levels were lower, owing to the high zinc concentrations in control carp. Furthermore, comparison of metal concentrations between two sampling periods (2005 and 2000-2001) revealed a drastic decrease in cadmium concentration in gills, liver and muscle of roach, similar to the reduction in waterborne cadmium concentrations, while differences for zinc were much less pronounced. In addition to metal accumulation, increased metallothionein concentrations (approximately 2x) were found in carp and roach, while no metal-related effects were found on ALT, Ca(2+)or condition factor. However, negative effects on fish community structure, as assessed by the index of biotic integrity (IBI), were found along the pollution gradient and indicated long-term adverse effects of metal pollution. PMID:18061244

Reynders, H; Bervoets, L; Gelders, M; De Coen, W M; Blust, R



Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) in the UK: the road to freedom.  


Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a disease of international importance that predominantly affects cyprinid fish and can cause significant mortality. In the United Kingdom (UK), SVC was first detected in 1977 with further cases occurring in fisheries, farms, wholesale and retail establishments throughout England and Wales (but not Scotland, where few cyprinid populations exist, nor Northern Ireland where SVC has never been detected) over the subsequent 30 years. Following a control and eradication programme for the disease initiated in 2005, the UK was recognised free of the disease in 2010. This study compiles historic records of SVC cases in England and Wales with a view to understanding its routes of introduction and spread, and assessing the effectiveness of the control and eradication programme in order to improve contingency plans to prevent and control future disease incursions in the cyprinid fish sectors. Between 1977 and 2010 the presence of SVC was confirmed on 108 occasions, with 65 of the cases occurring in sport fisheries and the majority of the remainder occurring in the ornamental fish sector. The study found that throughout the history of SVC in the UK, though cases were widely distributed, their occurrence was sporadic and the virus did not become endemic. All evidence indicates that SVC was not able to persist under UK environmental conditions, suggesting that the majority of cases were a result of new introductions to the UK as opposed to within-country spread. The control and eradication programme adopted in 2005 was highly effective and two years after its implementation cases of SVC ceased. Given the non-persistent nature of the pathogen the most important aspect of the control programme focused on preventing re-introduction of the virus to the UK. Despite the effectiveness of these controls against SVC, this approach is likely to be less effective against more persistent pathogens such as koi herpesvirus, which are likely to require more stringent measures to prevent within-country spread. PMID:23597621

Taylor, N G H; Peeler, E J; Denham, K L; Crane, C N; Thrush, M A; Dixon, P F; Stone, D M; Way, K; Oidtmann, B C



Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on individual or populations of carp or other species. Future studies should shift to more intensive study of fewer sites, including reference and contaminated sites, in order to address these additional questions.

Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.



Assimilation efficiencies of Cd and Zn in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): effects of metal concentration, temperature and prey type.  


The impact of several factors on the assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cd and Zn from food in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. Tested prey species were midge larvae (Chironomus riparius), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and oligochaetes (Tubifex tubifex). The Cd load of the larvae did not affect the Cd AE in the carp. The Zn AE however, was negatively related to the Zn load of the prey. Food quantity and starvation of the carp did not significantly affect the Cd AE. For Zn, a significant decrease in AE was found when carp were fed ad libitum. Decreasing the temperature from 25 degrees C to 15 degrees C did not influence the Cd AE, while for Zn a significant decrease of the AE was measured. Carp assimilated Cd from both zebra mussels and oligochaetes with a significantly lower efficiency in comparison to the midge larvae, although Zn AEs was prey independent. PMID:16764974

Van Campenhout, K; Bervoets, L; Blust, R



Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.



Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.



Recognition of surface antigens on spermatozoa of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., Teleostei) using monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy.  


The distribution of antigenic determinants, recognized by seven anti-carp spermatozoa monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and two anti-carp spermatogonia MAbs were studied using fresh, unfixed carp spermatozoa. The location of the antigenic determinants was analysed in light- and in scanning electron microscopy, in the latter with the backscattered imaging mode. With all seven anti-carp spermatozoa MAbs a similar regular distribution of the immuno-gold labeling was present on heads, midpieces and tails of carp spermatozoa, whereas with the anti-carp spermatogonia MAbs only low or no labeling was observed. The regular distribution of antigenic determinants, as observed with the anti-spermatozoa MAbs in carp, is in agreement with data on agglutination of spermatozoa by autoantibodies in Salmo gairdneri and data on distribution of antigenic sites on spermatozoa in Xenopus laevis. It differs from data in mammals in which the presence of specialized domains on spermatozoa was shown. These results are discussed. PMID:7536015

van Winkoop, A; Dulos, G J; Timmermans, L P



Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  


Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D



Effects of cylindrospermopsin on a common carp leucocyte cell line.  


Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxin produced by different cyanobacterial species, increasingly detected in water reservoirs worldwide. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. The aim of the study was to elucidate the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the selected parameters of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). The cells were incubated with the cyanotoxin at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1?µg?ml(-1) for up to 48?h. Cell viability and proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis induction, cell morphology and phagocytic activity were determined. The two higher toxin concentrations occurred to be evidently cytotoxic in a time-dependent manner and influenced all studied parameters. The lowest used concentration had no effects on cell viability and cell number; however, a strong reduction of bacteria uptake after 24-h exposure was detected. The obtained results indicate that cylindrospermopsin may interfere with the basic functions of fish phagocytic cells and as a consequence influence the fish immunity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24477983

Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna



Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N. E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Kolar, C. S.



Major depression  


... major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed ... responsible. This may be due to a problem with your genes. Or ...


Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.  


Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso



Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso



Antigenic analysis of grass carp reovirus using single-chain variable fragment antibody against IgM from Ctenopharyngodon idella.  


Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important species of freshwater aquaculture fish in China. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in yearling populations. Until now, a strategy to define the antigenic capacity of the virus's structural proteins for preparing an effective vaccine has not been available. In this study, some single-chain variable fragment antibodies (scFv), which could specifically recognize grass carp IgM, were selected from a constructed mouse naïve antibody phage display cDNA library. The identified scFv C1B3 clone was shown to possess relatively higher specific binding activity to grass carp IgM. Furthermore, ELISA analysis indicated that the IgM level in serum from virus-infected grass carp was more than two times higher than that of the control group at 5-7 days post infection. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the outer capsid protein VP7 has a specific immuno-binding-reaction with the serum IgM from virus-infected grass carp. Our results suggest that VP7 can induce a stronger immune response in grass carp than the other GCRV structural proteins, which implies that VP7 protein could be used as a preferred immunogen for vaccine design. PMID:23314868

Chen, CongLin; Sun, XiaoYun; Liao, LanJie; Luo, ShaoXiang; Li, ZhouQuan; Zhang, XiaoHua; Wang, YaPing; Guo, QionLin; Fang, Qin; Dai, HePing



Freshwater fungi isolated from eggs of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungal infection in the eggs of freshwater fish is well known as a problematic disease. We had a chance to examine fungal infection in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) eggs at fish farms in Khon Kaen province, northeast Thailand, in February 2002, attempting to isolate fungi from eggs with fungal infection at three fish farms (A, B, and C). Nineteen

Kanit Chukanhom; Kishio Hatai



Toxic and Feeding Deterrent Effects of Native Aquatic Macrophytes on Exotic Grass Carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass

Joseph E. Murphy; Kimberlee B. Beckmen; Julie K. Johnson; Rhian B. Cope; Todd Lawmaster; Val R. Beasley



Ovarian differentiation in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) in relation to growth rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate is influenced by density-dependent factors and in turn may affect the ontogeny of some systems. Population density gradients were established in common carp nursery ponds to develop differential growth rates. Ovarian development at the anatomical and cytological stages of differentiation were examined in relation to growth. Size at the end of 66 ± 2 and 155 ± 5-day

William L. Shelton; Venkatesh Wanniasingham; Ana E. Hiott




EPA Science Inventory

We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in starved, fed, and 5,6-benzoflavone-pretreated carp following i.p. administration of benzo(a)pyrene. 32p-postlabeling analysis of the liver DNAs showed the presence of one predominant (>92%) adduct in all three groups. ochromato...


Fluctuations in gonadotropin and ovarian steroids during the annual cycle and spawning of the common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the paper is to describe the annual changes in hormones associated with reproduction in the female carp under the conditions prevailing in the Israeli fish culture. Fish were sampled monthly throughout 1984; gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated and the diameter of ovarian follicles was measured. Gonadotropin (GTH) content in the pituitary and the circulating GTH, estradiol,

Zvi Yaron; Berta Levavi-Zermonsky



Gonadosomatic Index and Testis Morphology of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Rivers Contaminated with Estrogenic Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of estrogenic chemicals on fish, the gonadosomatic index (GSI = (testis weight\\/body weight) × 100) and testis histology of mature common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from 2 contaminated sites (Ishizu and Wada rivers, Osaka) and a control site were examined between June 1998 and March 2001. The concentration of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17?-estradiol in the Ishizu




Evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the facial nerve in the carp tectum mesencephali  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tectal evoked potentials to stimulation of the facial nerve, containing afferent fibers of nonolfactory chemoreception, in the carp are positive evoked potentials with a latent period of 5 to 25 msec which show no phase shift as the microelectrode is advanced to a depth of 600 µ. Depending on the amplitude and latency of evoked potentials seven active zones differing

N. E. Vasilevskaya; L. N. Stankevich



Establishment and evaluation of a new model for studying lipogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) preadipocytes.  


The objective of this study was to establish and evaluate a new model for studying lipogenesis in grass carp preadipocytes. The morphology characteristic from preadipocytes to mature adipocytes was observed with the microscopic morphology, and the proliferation kinetics of cells was tested by cell counting. In addition, the nature and differentiation degree of cells were evaluated using Oil Red O staining, lipase activity determination, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay. Morphologically, grass carp preadipocytes started to attach and grow on day 3, then they resembled fibroblasts, and most underwent attachment, proliferation, and growth arrest with subsequent accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets before becoming mature adipocytes. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity was increased gradually during the progress of culture. Analysis of RT-PCR confirmed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? expression patterns were consistent with my observations regarding GPDH activity. In summary, grass carp preadipocytes cultured with 10% FBS at 28°C in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere have high proliferation potential. Furthermore, the cells synthesize a range of markers that are consistent with this cell type. We conclude therefore that the grass carp preadipocytes described here have high capacity for lipogenesis and may, therefore, represent a unique tool for studying fish fat cell development and metabolism. PMID:22179677

Li, Ying



Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet



Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas



Isolation and expression analyses of the Sox9a gene in triploid crucian carp.  


To investigate the evolutional significance of Sox9 in fish, we isolated and characterized Sox9a cDNA and genomic clones in triploid crucian carp. The cDNA encoded a protein of 457 amino acids with an HMG box and showed more than 60% amino acid sequence identity with known vertebrate Sox9 proteins. Triploid crucian carp and vertebrate Sox9s showed similar gene structure, and two introns in the coding region were located at conserved positions. On the basis of the amino acid sequences, Sox9a can be categorized into the same subgroup of Sox-E proteins as Sox8, 9, and 10. Interestingly, the expression of triploid crucian carp Sox9a was predominantly observed not in the ovary but in the testis by Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis. The expression analysis of Sox9a suggested that it may seldom contribute to the formation of normal functions of spermatozoa, but it may play an important role in the development of testicular tubules. Besides the testicular expression, Sox9a was also shown to be expressed in many other tissues including the brain, kidney, and heart of triploid crucian carp, indicating that Sox9 may have unique functions in some specific tissues during development. PMID:20467853

Guo, Xinhong; Yan, Jinpeng; Liu, Shaojun; Xiang, Bing; Liu, Yun



Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a  

E-print Network

Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a , Marc André nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus

Meyers, Marc A.



E-print Network

in the past decade. As this species advances towards Lake Michigan, the threat of their invasion, the invasive silver carp (Hypothalmichthys molitrix) has migrated into the native waters of 16 states dispersal. They have the potential to compete with native species for critical habitat and food, which


Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission 2008 Approved Triploid Grass Carp Dealers  

E-print Network

(740)622-0681 227-08 Fish Haven Farm Richard G. Musa 978 Owego Road Candor NY 13743 (607)659-3474 219. Robert P. Jones 3433 Church Street Newton OH 45244 (513)561-2615 221-08 Keo Fish Farms, Inc. MarthaPennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission 2008 Approved Triploid Grass Carp Dealers Dealer Name Contact

Boyer, Elizabeth W.


Isolation of enriched carp spermatogonial stem cells from Labeo rohita testis for in vitro propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro culture system for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) is a powerful tool for exploring molecular mechanisms of male gametogenesis and gene manipulation. Very little information is available for fish SSC biology. Our aim was to isolate highly pure SSCs from the testis of commercially important farmed carp, Labeo rohita. The minced testis of L. rohita was dissociated with

R. P. Panda; H. K. Barman; C. Mohapatra




EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...


Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  


Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu




EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...


The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of synthetic estrogen quinestrol in crucian carp.  


The occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic species have attracted close attention during the last decades. In this study, the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of synthetic estrogen quinestrol, one of the typical EDCs, in the plasma and liver of crucian carp, were investigated by a newly developed and validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection method. Crucian carp were exposed to quinestrol in concentration of 2, 10, 50, 100 ?g/L (5.49, 27.43, 137.17, 274.34 nmol/L) for 60 days. After 60 days' exposure, the concentrations of quinestrol found in liver and plasma were in the range of 0.25-0.69 mg/kg and 0.19-0.30 mg/L respectively, positively correlated with the exposure concentrations ranged 2-100 ?g/L (5.49-274.34 nmol/L). There was a negative correlation between the bio-accumulation ratios and the exposure concentrations of quinestrol. 17?-Ethinylestradiol was also found in liver and plasma, and the concentrations were 0.02-0.19 mg/kg and 0.37-0.96 mg/L, respectively. The results indicated that quinestrol can be accumulated and transformed to 17?-ethinylestradiol in crucian carp. Moreover, exposure to quinestrol caused oxidative damages to crucian carp and the content of malondialdehyde increased in all treatment concentrations. PMID:24997302

Geng, Qianqian; Li, Pingliang; Zhang, Wenbing; Deng, Yufang; Duan, Yongheng; Cao, Yongsong



Bioaccumulation of micropollutants and biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


At four different aquatic sites in Flanders (Belgium) with different types and degrees of contamination, juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed in cages for 4 weeks. After exposure, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in the tissues of the carp. Besides pollutant accumulation, several effects were measured as well. Condition measures such as changes in weight, condition factor (CF), and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were assessed. In addition, activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and a set of blood biochemical parameters were measured. At all sites, accumulation of metals in the fish tissues was observed. Levels of cadmium and lead at some of the exposure sites were higher than the levels at the start and comparable to levels in fish from moderately metal-contaminated sites. For most organic pollutants, however, levels were not significantly higher than at the start. Only for two PCB congeners, levels had slightly increased but were still lower than levels in carp captured at noncontaminated sites. Although food limitation probably caused some of the observed effects, significant relationships were found between metal load in tissues and CF, AChE, plasma osmolality and HSI. This study shows that caged carp might be useful for the assessment of bioaccumulation and some effects of micropollutants in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19038452

Bervoets, Lieven; Van Campenhout, Karen; Reynders, Hans; Knapen, Dries; Covaci, Adrian; Blust, Ronny



Stress Responses and Changes in Protein Metabolism in Carp Cyprinus carpio during Cadmium Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress responses and changes in protein metabolism were studied in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to 0, 0.8, 4, and 20 ?M cadmium (Cd) over a 29-day period. Blood and other tissue samples were taken after 4 and 29 days of exposure. The highest Cd concentration proved to be lethal to the fish, resulting in 100% mortality after 21 days

Hans De Smet; Ronny Blust




E-print Network

. The hatching capacity, which is nom four mil- lion, mill be increased to nine million a week. The additional matter. While they suit the cold mountain streams, they do not suitthe middle or lower streams; aud whilethe carp cannot be recommended especially for mountain streams, there is not a mountain farm that does


Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism of color patterns and promote aquaculture of Oujiang color varieties of common carp through molecular marker assisted-selective breeding. PMID:24603653

Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing



The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake  

PubMed Central

Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.



Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)  

PubMed Central

The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR?=?0.212M0.776 and MMR?=?0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping



Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian



Identification of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) microRNAs and microRNA-related SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exist pervasively across viruses, plants and animals and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of genes. In the common carp, miRNA targets have not been investigated. In model species, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reported to impair or enhance miRNA regulation as well as to alter miRNA biogenesis. SNPs are often associated with diseases or traits. To date, no studies into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and regulation in the common carp have been reported. Results Using homology-based prediction combined with small RNA sequencing, we have identified 113 common carp mature miRNAs, including 92 conserved miRNAs and 21 common carp specific miRNAs. The conserved miRNAs had significantly higher expression levels than the specific miRNAs. The miRNAs were clustered into three phylogenetic groups. Totally 394 potential miRNA binding sites in 206 target mRNAs were predicted for 83 miRNAs. We identified 13 SNPs in the miRNA precursors. Among them, nine SNPs had the potential to either increase or decrease the energy of the predicted secondary structures of the precursors. Further, two SNPs in the 3’ untranslated regions of target genes were predicted to either disturb or create miRNA-target interactions. Conclusions The common carp miRNAs and their target genes reported here will help further our understanding of the role of miRNAs in gene regulation. The analysis of the miRNA-related SNPs and their effects provided insights into the effects of SNPs on miRNA biogenesis and function. The resource data generated in this study will help advance the study of miRNA function and phenotype-associated miRNA identification. PMID:22908890



Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of cathepsin D from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


Cathepsin D is a lysosomal aspartic proteinase which participates in various degradation functions within the cell. In this current study, we cloned and characterized the complete cDNA of grass carp cathepsin D through 5'- and 3'-RACE. The cathepsin D contained a 56 bp 5' terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR), a 1197 bp open reading frame encoding 398 amino acids, and a 394 bp 3'-UTR. Grass carp cathepsin D shared high similarity with those from other species, and showed the highest amino acid identity of 91% to Danio rerio. Unlike many other organisms, the grass carp cathepsin D contains only one N-glycosylation site closest to the N-terminal. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that Cathepsin D expressed in all twelve tissues (bladder, brain, liver, heart, gill, muscle, fin, eye, intestines, spleen, gonad and head kidney). The relative expression levels of Cathepsin D in gonad and liver were 26.58 and 24.95 times as much as those in fin, respectively. The expression level of Cathepsin D in muscle approximately 16-fold higher, in intestines and spleen were 12-fold higher. The cathepsin D expression showed an upward trend during embryonic development. After challenged with Aeromonas hydrophil, the expression of grass carp cathepsin D gene showed significant changes in the four test tissues (liver, head kidney, spleen and intestines). The fact that the bacterial infection can obviously improve the cathepsin D expression in immune-related organs, may suggest that cathepsin D plays an important role in the innate immune response of grass carp. PMID:23009921

Dong, Zhong-dian; Zhang, Jiao; Ji, Xiang-shan; Zhou, Fen-na; Fu, Yong; Chen, Weiyun; Zeng, Yong-qing; Li, Tong-ming; Wang, Hui



Effects of nitrite exposure on blood respiratory properties, acid-base and electrolyte regulation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult carp were subjected to 1 mM environmental nitrite for 48 h and nitrite uptake and changes in blood respiratory properties, extracellular electrolyte composition and acid-base status were examined.

Frank B. Jensen; Niels A. Andersen; Norbert Heisler



Evaluation of Emamectin Benzoate for the Control of Experimentally Induced Infestations of Argulus sp. in Goldfish and Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 0.2% emamectin benzoate (SLICE; Intervet\\/ Schering-Plough Animal Health, Roseland, New Jersey) administered in top-dressed, pelleted commercial fish feed was evaluated for control of freshwater Argulus sp. in goldfish Carassius auratus and koi carp, a variant of common carp Cyprinus carpio, in freshwater aquaria at 24–25°C. Sixteen individually housed goldfish were each exposed to 37 Argulus. The number

Shari K. Hanson; Jeffrey E. Hill; Craig A. Watson; Roy P. E. Yanong; Richard Endris



Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Waters and Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibition in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal\\u000a Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of\\u000a the irrigation system. Results indicated that

S. J. Gruber; M. D. Munn



Study of bioaccumulation of copper in liver and muscle of common carp Cyprinus carpio after copper sulfate bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp were exposed to two routine therapeutic concentrations of copper sulfate (10?mg\\/l in 1?h and 1?mg\\/l in 24?h).\\u000a At different times after the copper sulfate bath (1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days), the copper concentrations in liver and muscle\\u000a of carp was determined by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that the concentration of

R. Peyghan; M. Razijalaly; M. Baiat; A. Rasekh



Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Velí‰ek J., Z. Svobodová: Anaesthesia of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with 2-phenoxyethanol: Acute Toxicity and Effects on Biochemical Blood Profile. Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 247-252. The aim of the present study was to assess acute toxicity of the 2-phenoxyethanol anaesthetic in carp, and assess changes in their tissues using the biochemical blood profiles. Acute toxicity values of 2-phenoxyethanol




Absorption of bioactive human growth hormone after oral administration in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and its enhancement by deoxycholate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human growth hormone was administered orally to carp and serum levels of absorbed bioactive hormone were investigated using a highly sensitive Nb2 rat lymphoma cell bioassay and radioimmumoassay. Serum levels of bioactive hGH reached maximum values 30 min after oral intubation and then gradually decreased. Co-administration of the hormone with deoxycholate to fasted carp resulted in up to a

Yitzhak Hertz; Amir Tchelet; Zecharia Madar; Arieh Gertler



Major Programs

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.


Antagonists of Anaphase-promoting Complex (APC)-2-Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 Interaction Are Novel Regulators of Cell Growth and Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

CARP-1/CCAR1, a perinuclear phosphoprotein, is a regulator of cell growth and apoptosis signaling. Although CARP-1 is a regulator of chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis, it is also a part of the NF-?B proteome and a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors as well as ?-catenin signaling. Our yeast two-hybrid screen revealed CARP-1 binding with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome E3 ubiquitin ligase component APC-2 protein. CARP-1 also binds with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1. Following mapping of the minimal epitopes involved in CARP-1 binding with APC-2, a fluorescence polarization assay was established that indicated a dissociation constant (Kd) of 480 nm for CARP-1/APC-2 binding. Fluorescence polarization assay-based high throughput screening of a chemical library yielded several small molecule antagonists of CARP-1/APC-2 binding, termed CARP-1 functional mimetics. CFM-4 (1(2-chlorobenzyl)-5?-phenyl-3?H-spiro[indoline-3,2?-[1,3,4]thiadiazol]-2-one), a lead compound, binds with and stimulates CARP-1 expression. CFM-4 prevents CARP-1 binding with APC-2, causes G2M cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis with an IC50 range of 10–15 ?m. Apoptosis signaling by CFM-4 involves activation of caspase-8 and -9 and caspase-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-independent loss of cyclin B1 and Cdc20 proteins. Depletion of CARP-1, however, interferes with CFM-4-dependent cell growth inhibition, activation of caspases, and apoptosis. Because CFM-4 also suppresses growth of drug-resistant human breast cancer cells without affecting the growth of human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells, elevating CARP-1 by CFM-4 and consequent apoptosis could in principle be exploited to further elucidate, and perhaps effectively target, often deregulated cell cycle pathways in pathological conditions, including cancer. PMID:21903591

Puliyappadamba, Vineshkumar Thidil; Wu, Wenjuan; Bevis, Debra; Zhang, Liyue; Polin, Lisa; Kilkuskie, Robert; Finley, Russell L.; Larsen, Scott D.; Levi, Edi; Miller, Fred R.; Wali, Anil; Rishi, Arun K.



[The dynamics of the ectoparasite count and the protein level in the blood serum of infested carp under experimental conditions].  


Carps of one and two years age used for laboratory experiments were collected in winter time. 7 groups of carps of one year age were examined each 10th day during 70 days and 5 groups of two years age were examined each 15 days during 75 days. In carps of one year age the increase of different parasites was observed in different time: Dactylogyrus extensus--after 40 and 70 days, Icthyophthirius multifiliis--after 50 days, Trichodina sp.--after 60 days. In carps of two years age the increase of all parasite groups observed after 45 days, extremely great number of D. extensus was recorded after 60-70 days. Contents of proteins in a blood plasma of both age groups of carps is reliably decreased when the number of parasites is increased. Fluctuations of parasite abundance on the body and gills and some morphophysiological indices in carps of one year age in a control and in conditions of starvation were examined. PMID:10206854

Kurovskaia, L Ia



Dietary taurine can improve the hypoxia-tolerance but not the growth performance in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine, as a feed additive, on the hypoxia-tolerance and growth performance of the juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, one of the most important and intensively cultured freshwater fish, with the largest production in China. Graded levels of taurine (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grass carp juveniles (mean weight: 5.26 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The survival time during acute hypoxia increased as dietary levels of taurine increased, with the highest dose of taurine resulting in the best acute hypoxia-tolerance. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility in grass carp was significantly improved when dietary taurine level was at least 1.5 g kg(-1) diet and can be improved much more when dietary taurine level was up to 2.5 g kg(-1) diet. A significant correlation between hemolysis rate of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and the survival time of acute hypoxia (r = -0.873, P = 0.023 < 0.05) strongly suggested that the biomembrane stabilization function of taurine may contribute to its role of enhancing acute hypoxia-tolerance in grass carp. Dietary taurine cannot improve growth performance of grass carp, but it can increase the value of mesenteric fat index, indicating that dietary taurine influences the lipid metabolism. This study provides valuable information to improve hypoxia-tolerance of grass carp. PMID:23277098

Yang, Huijun; Tian, Lixia; Huang, Junwa; Liang, Guiying; Liu, Yongjian



[Correlation and path analyses of phenotypic traits and body mass of transgenic carp with growth hormone gene of salmon].  


Thirty 2-year old transgenic carp individuals with growth hormone gene of salmon were randomly selected to study the affecting degree of their phenotypic traits on their body mass by the methods of correlation and path analyses, with 30 individuals of non-transgenic carp as the control, aimed to ascertain the main phenotypic parameters affecting the body mass of the transgenic and non-transgenic carps. The test phenotypic traits were total length, body length, body height, least height of caudal peduncle, length of caudal peduncle, length of head, snout length, eyes horizontal diameter, inter-orbital distance, and body depth. Correlation analysis showed that for both of the transgenic and non-transgenic carps, most of the test phenotypic parameters were significantly correlated to body mass (P<0.01). Path analysis indicated that for transgenic carp, its body length and body height were the main predictable factors affecting body mass, with the path coefficient being 0.572 and 0.415, respectively, while for non-transgenic carp, its body depth and tail length were the main predictable factors affecting body mass, with the path coefficient being 0.610 and 0.377, respectively. PMID:22007470

Liu, Chun-lei; Chang, Yu-mei; Liang, Li-qun; Xu, Li-hua; Liu, Jin-liang; Chi, Bing-jie; Wu, Xue-gong



Major depression.  


Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A



Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.


Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.  


Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522-528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25044130

Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M



CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-?B signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs. PMID:23826121

Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.



Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Carp, Snail, Aphid, Comb Jelly, Chocolate Vine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the big head carp, the giant African snail, the balsam wooly aphid, the comb jelly and the chocolate vine. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.




Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of light-induced response (L-, RG-, and YRB-type S-potentials) recorded from isolated retinas of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were identified by their spectral response and later by morphological localization of the recording sites marked with an intracellular Lucifer Yellow (LY). Horizontal cells in a given layer, generating one of the above response types, are electrically coupled via gap junctions,



PCR-DGGE analysis of bacterial communities in funazushi , fermented crucian carp with rice, during fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Funazushi (fermented Crucian Carp with rice) is a fermented fish product found only around Lake Biwa in Shiga Prefecture, Japan. It\\u000a is characterized by a unique cheese-like flavor and characteristic sour taste. We analyzed the changes in the microbial community\\u000a during funazushi fermentation by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments (PCR-DGGE) and by plate counts.\\u000a The plate

Tateo Fujii; Shoko Watanabe; Masako Horikoshi; Hajime Takahashi; Bon Kimura



Cloning and expression of carp acetylcholinesterase gene in Pichia pastoris and characterization of the recombinant enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gene encoding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was cloned from common carp muscle tissue. The full-length cDNA was 2368bp that contains a coding region of 1902bp, corresponding to a protein of 634 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a significant homology with those of ichthyic AChEs and several common features among them, including T peptide encoded by exon T in

Ryohei Sato; Toru Matsumoto; Norio Hidaka; Yasuko Imai; Katsumasa Abe; Shouji Takahashi; Ryo-hei Yamada; Yoshio Kera



Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin



Brackishwater carp culture in potentially waterlogged areas using animal wastes as pond fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the possibilities of utilizing drainage effluents (salinity range 5.0–12.5‰), fish culture experiments were carried out. Experiments on polyculture using cow dung (24 000 kg ha-1 y-1) as pond fertilizer were conducted at five different salinity levels (0.3–8.5‰). Studies have revealed that carp perform well in salinities up to 7.5‰ and reasonably high fish production has been

S. K. Garg



Growth performance in clonal crucian carp, Carassius langsdorfii. Effects of genetic difference and feeding history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal crucian carp was used to assess the relative importance of disproportional food acquisition and genetic differences in ‘growth depensation’ i.e. increased variation in size-frequency distribution over time. When larval feeding was limited on the 5th, 9th, and both the 5th and 9th days after hatching in a clonal population, subsequent growth was significantly retarded compared to the group recently

Tetsuya Umino; Katsutoshi Arai; Heisuke Nakagawa



Purification and Characterization of Myofibril-bound Serine Proteinase from Carp Cyprinus carpio Ordinary Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A novel myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBP) has been purified from ordinary muscle of the carp Cyprinus carpio. 2. It was solubilized from the myofibril fraction with acid treatment (under the conditions of 0.6 M KCl, pH 4.0), then purified by column chromatographic steps on Ultrogel AcA 54, and Arginine-Sepharose 4B. 3. The purified enzyme revealed a single protein band

Kiyoshi Osatomi; Hiroshi Sasai; Minjie Cao; Kenji Hara; Tadashi Ishihara



Biosynthesis of fatty acids by the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in relation to environmental temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation in vivo of sodium 1-14C-acetate into different lipid classes and fatty acids of total lipids and phospholipids of warm adapted and cold adapted\\u000a carp livers was studied at 5 C and 22 C, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids was also\\u000a determined. The level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both total lipid and




Identification and expression profiling analysis of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella LGP2 cDNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2), a homologue of RIG-I (Retinoic acid inducible gene-I) and MDA5 (Melanoma differentiation associated gene 5) without the CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain) required for signaling, plays a pivotal role in modulating signaling by RIG-I and MDA5 for interferon (IFN) synthesis. In this study, a novel LGP2 gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

Teng Huang; Jianguo Su; Jianfu Heng; Jie Dong; Rongfang Zhang; Huiming Zhu



Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan



Size-structured effects of common carp on reproduction of pond-breeding amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fish in driving amphibian communities has been widely recognized. However, little is known about size-structured\\u000a interactions between amphibian and fish populations. This study compared the taxonomic occurrence and densities of larval\\u000a amphibians between unstocked ponds and ponds stocked with different age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio differing in average body size. The average total densities of

Janusz Kloskowski



Molecular analysis of silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) clones by SCAR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers specific for one, two or three clones have been identified from five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) using RAPD markers developed earlier. In this study, three RAPD markers (RA1-PA, RA2-EF and RA4-D) produced by Opj-1, and two RAPD DNA fragments (RA3-PAD and RA5-D) produced by Opj-7, were selected

Li Zhou; Yang Wang; Jian-Fang Gui



Food Provisioning in Red-Necked Grebes ( Podiceps Grisegena ) at Common Carp ( Cyprinus Carpio ) Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental feeding patterns were studied in red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena) broods throughout the entire period of parental care in a common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish-pond area in SE Poland in 1993–2002. Fish formed a substantial part of prey provided to the flightless young from their second week of life. Although the numbers of large invertebrates and tadpoles, the alternative prey

Janusz Kloskowski



The Acute Toxicity of Praziquantel to Grass Carp and Golden Shiners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute toxicity and highest nonlethal concentration of praziquantel (LC0) were determined in the laboratory for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and golden shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, two cyprinids known to harbor the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with tapeworms. The 24-h and 96-h LC50 values were 55.1 and 49.7 mg\\/L for golden shiners (1.3

Andrew J. Mitchell; Melissa S. Hobbs



Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki



Physical and chemical changes of silver carp sausages during fermentation with Pediococcus pentosaceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in protein composition and physicochemical properties of silver carp sausages during fermentation were investigated. As fermentation progressed, the amount of salt-soluble and water-soluble proteins decreased gradually with a concomitant increase in insoluble proteins and non-protein constituents. The rapid reduction in pH to 4.5 within 48h of fermentation coincided with a progressive increase in titratable acidity. The increasing content of

Yanshun Xu; Wenshui Xia; Fang Yang; Xiaohua Nie



Syrtis Major  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent dark, triangular albedo feature (dark by contrast with its surroundings) on the Martian equator, centered approximately at 10 °N, 70 °E. It takes its name from the historical name for the larger of two quicksands off the North African coast. Syrtis Major is prominent in telescopic views of the planet, and was in fact the first feature of Mars ever to be recorded, in a sketch made by C...

Murdin, P.



Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.



Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system.  


The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis (or posterior blood islet), head kidney and trunk kidney. In addition, the hematopoietic tissue around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis transformed into that of the trunk kidney, which is the first description of the ontogeny of the trunk kidney hematopoietic tissue in teleosts. The mAb's used in this study reacted with carp myeloid surface molecules that are already transcribed and processed from the first appearance of myeloid cells, and thus serve a significant role in unraveling ontogenetic processes of teleost immunology. Finally, this study associated the first appearance of myeloid cells with an immune response on the molecular level: 2 days post fertilization embryos responded to LPS injection with upregulation of interleukin 1-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and serum amyloid A, and down-regulation of complement factor 3 and alpha2-macroglobulin, implying a functional embryonic innate defense system. PMID:16406121

Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Grou, Cláudia P O; Bergsma, Jorrit; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rombout, Jan H W M



Ultrastructure of blood vessels in the head kidney of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed Central

The ultrastructural features of blood vessels were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy in the perfused and nonperfused head kidney of the carp. They consisted mainly of the sinusoidal capillaries, arterioles, veins and portal veins. The sinusoidal capillaries were composed of endothelial cells that frequently exhibited large pores and an indistinct basal lamina. Some endothelial cells were trabecular in shape and protruded into the lumen. The reticular cells frequently attached to the outside of the endothelial cells, and macrophages were located on the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelial cells. The arterioles possessed continuous endothelial cells with a thick basal lamina, continuous smooth muscle layers and a thick adventitia with collagen fibres and reticular cells. The veins were characterised by fenestrated endothelial cells and thin connective tissue. The portal veins were composed of continuous electron-lucent endothelial cells and thick layers of reticular cells and collagen fibres. The differences between the endothelial cells in each blood vessel probably reflect the various functions of the carp head kidney. The ultrastructural features of the sinusoids and the portal veins resemble those of lymphatic vessels of mammals and appear to relate to macrophage and lymphoid cell migration and proliferation in the carp head kidney. Images Fig. 2 Figs 3,4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:7649788

Imagawa, T; Kitagawa, H; Uehara, M



Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.  


This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 ?g/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids. PMID:22422543

Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos



CXC chemokines and leukocyte chemotaxis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


CXC chemokines, structurally recognizable by the position of four conserved cysteine residues, are prominent mediators of chemotaxis. Here we report a novel carp CXC chemokine obtained through homology cloning and compare it with fish orthologues genes and with a second, recently elucidated, carp CXC chemokine. Phylogenetic analyses clearly show that neither CXC chemokine resembles any of the mammalian CXC chemokines in particular. However, basal expression is most prominent in immune organs like anterior kidney and spleen, suggesting involvement in the immune response. Furthermore we show that anterior kidney phagocyte-enriched leukocyte suspensions express both chemokines and that this expression is upregulated by brief (4 h) stimulation with PMA, but not lipopolysaccharide. Neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched leukocytes display chemotaxis to human recombinant CXCL8 (hrCXCL8; interleukin-8), confirming CXC chemokine mediated chemotaxis of neutrophilic granulocytes in teleost fish. Factors secreted from carp phagocytes are also capable of inducing chemotaxis and secretion of these factors into culture supernatants is upregulated by PMA. Finally we demonstrate involvement of both CXC chemokines as well as CXCR1 and CXCR2 in acute Argulus japonicus infection. Collectively the data presented implicate the involvement of CXC chemokines in chemotaxis of fish neutrophils in a fashion that shares characteristics with the mammalian situation. However, the CXC chemokines involved differ enough from those involved in neutrophil chemotaxis in mammals to warrant their own nomenclature. PMID:12880637

Huising, Mark O; Stolte, Ellen; Flik, Gert; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy



Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.



Hydroxylated PAHs alter the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in subcellular fractions of carp gonads.  


Four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene) and their hydroxylated metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxychrysene) were investigated for their ability to alter the synthesis of steroids by testes and ovaries of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Parental compounds had no significant effect on C17,20-lyase (CYP17), CYP11? and 11?-HSD catalyzed activities, all of them involved in the synthesis of active androgens in carp testes. Conversely, hydroxylated metabolites significantly inhibited C17,20-lyase and CYP11? activities; the strongest inhibitor was 9-hydroxyphenanthrene with IC50s of 10.8 and 31.3 ?M for CYP17 and CYP11?, respectively. As for the biosynthesis of estrogens, only 9-hydroxyphenanthrene had a significant inhibitory effect on ovarian CYP19 activity (IC50: 4.3 ?M). The study highlights the potential of hydroxylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particularly 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, to disrupt the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in carp gonads. PMID:23376527

Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta



Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka



Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei



Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N



Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls to carp.  


The relative bioavailability of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 138, 153, and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB-contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the sediment-dosed diets and oil-dosed diets at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n?=?90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish?×?6 treatments?×?3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 d). Next, 1 fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 d), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. The PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil groups, concentrations of PCBs 138, 153, and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment-bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet. PMID:24677303

Gaillard, Juliette; Banas, Damien; Thomas, Marielle; Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril



Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterova, Zuzana; Machova, Jana; Stara, Alzbeta; Tumova, Jitka; Velisek, Josef; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka



A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.



Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R. B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J. F.



Seasonal Prevalence and Intensity of Infestation by the Ectoparasites in Carps Relating to PhysicoChemical Parameters in Some Ponds of Mymensingh and Bogra Districts of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research work was conducted to find out the seasonal prevalence and intensity of infestation of the ectoparasites of carps in some ponds of Mymensingh and Bogra districts of Bangladesh. Seven species of parasites viz. Trichodina domerguei, Trichodina reticulata, Chilodonella cyprini, Myxobohts koi, Dactylogiroides tripathi, D. extenswi and D. catlarius were found from 640 fry-fingerlings of silver carp, Hypophthalmicthys mohtrix

Abdus Salam Bhuiyan; A. S. M. Musa



The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia


Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi



The homologue of mannose-binding lectin in the carp family Cyprinidae is expressed at high level in spleen, and the deduced primary structure predicts affinity for galactose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) participates in the innate immune system as an activator of the complement system and as an opsonin after binding to certain carbohydrate structures on microorganisms. We isolated and characterized cDNA transcripts encoding an MBL homologue from three members of the carp family Cyprinidae, the zebrafish Danio rerio, the goldfish Carassius auratus, and the carp Cyprinus carpio. The

Lars Vitved; Uffe Holmskov; Claus Koch; Børge Teisner; Søren Hansen; Karsten Skjødt



Distribution of catch-relaxing peptide (CARP)-like immunoreactive neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system of Helix pomatia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunocytochemistry was performed on the nervous system of Helix by the use of an antibody raised against a myotropic neuropeptide, the catch-relaxing peptide (CARP), isolated from Mytilus edulis. In each ganglion of the central nervous system of Helix pomatia, numerous CARP-immunoreactive cell bodies and a dense immunoreactive fiber system could be observed with a dominancy in the cerebral and pedal

L. Hernádi; Y. Terano; Y. Muneoka; T. Kiss



IFN-?-activated lymphocytes boost nitric oxide production in grass carp monocytes/macrophages.  


It is well known that IFN-? is a prime activator of nitric oxide (NO) production by monocytes/macrophages in mammals and fish. In parallel, whether IFN-?-activated lymphocytes are associated with NO production remains unclear. In this study, grass carp monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes from head kidney were isolated and effects of recombinant grass carp IFN-? (rgcIFN-?) on NO releases by these two cell populations were determined. Results showed that rgcIFN-? time- and dose-dependently increased NO production by monocytes/macrophages but not lymphocytes, which are consistent with the findings in mammals. Interestingly, rgcIFN-? displayed a greater stimulation on NO production in the co-cultures of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes when compared with that in the culture of monocytes/macrophages alone. Furthermore, the media harvested from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes were effective in boosting NO release in monocytes/macrophages. These data suggest that secretions from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes may be involved in the NO release by monocytes/macrophages. To address this hypothesis, effect of rgcIFN-? on the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in grass carp lymphocytes was examined, showing that it consistently stimulated the mRNA expression of grass carp TNF-? and IL-1? but not IFN-?. Furthermore, treatment of rgcIFN-? combined with recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced a NO production by monocytes/macrophages, which was significantly higher than those induced by either cytokine alone. It provides the evidence that the cytokines secreted by the activated lymphocytes may facilitate the NO production by monocytes/macrophages. Taken together, our findings point out a new mechanism for the involvement of IFN-?-activated lymphocytes in the NO production by monocytes/macrophages in fish. This knowledge not only strengthens the role of IFN-? in immune system but also provides the evidence for the existence of a close relationship between lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in fish. PMID:24056277

Yang, Kun; Zhang, Shengnan; Chen, Danyan; Zhang, Anying; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong



Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.  


Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A



The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids  

PubMed Central

Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen



The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.  


Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen



Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S. J.; Munn, M. D.



Proliferation and resistance difference of a liver-parasitized myxosporean in two different gynogenetic clones of gibel carp.  


Some myxosporeans have been demonstrated to be harmful to worldwide aquaculture. However, the proliferation information has remained unclear in the fish hosts. In this study, we utilized the mix-culturing equality to reveal significant difference in disease assistance between two different clones of gibel carp, in which clone D had been cultured for nearly 40 years, whereas clone A(+) was a newly created clone. According to morphological and genetic analysis of isolated spores, the diseasing pathogen was identified as Myxobolus wulii of the genus Myxobolus in Myxosporea. Subsequently, a polyclonal antibody specific to soluble proteins of the purified spores was generated. Using the antibody, we performed immunofluorescence observation of the liver lump sections sampled from the heavily diseased clone D individuals, and found that the liver lumps were completely composed of numerous honeycomb-like cysts, full of maturing and mature myxosporean spores, and almost all of liver tissues were destroyed. Comparative co-localization detection revealed a significantly inducing expression of apo-14 protein around the infected myxosporean sporoplasms and plasmodia, and the inducing level was much stronger in clone A(+) than in clone D. Furthermore, a primarily screening of 15 different major histocompatibility complex class I? variants also excavated major variants that respectively belong to clones D and A(+). Therefore, these data provide significant information for differences in myxosporean proliferation and disease resistance in fish clone hosts with different genetic background. Further studies on myxosporean development and the mechanism for disease resistance will be very important for preventing and controlling the parasitic myxosporean disease. PMID:24488077

Zhai, Yan-Hua; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhong-Wei; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Gui, Jian-Fang



Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!



Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Pati?o, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.



Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, Sunnie G.; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.



Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.  


In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang



Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.



Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments. The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming. We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp (carassius auratus). A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well. With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force. Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

Chen, Ming; Jia, Lai-Bing; Yin, Xie-Zhen



The effect of ?-glucan on formation and functionality of neutrophil extracellular traps in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been characterised as a novel antimicrobial host defence strategy of neutrophils besides phagocytosis and degranulation, which may lead to entrapment and subsequent immobilisation and/or killing of bacterial pathogens. Here we studied the effect of the feed additive ?-glucan, namely MacroGard(®), on the formation and functionality of NETs in carp. Therefore, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) head kidney and kidney cells were isolated and treated with or without ?-glucan over time. The formation of NETs was analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy and revealed a distinct increase of NET-formation with ?-glucan. Furthermore the subsequent entrapment of Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish pathogen, was increased after stimulating the cells with ?-glucan. However, ?-glucan did not lead to a stimulation of antimicrobial activity of neutrophils against A. hydrophila. In conclusion, the data underline the fact that the feed additive ?-glucan is able to modulate carp neutrophil functions. PMID:24434196

Brogden, Graham; Krimmling, Tanja; Adamek, Miko?aj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren



Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.  


The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M



26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)



A novel cardiac-restricted target for doxorubicin. CARP, a nuclear modulator of gene expression in cardiac progenitor cells and cardiomyocytes.  


Doxorubicin (Dox), a cardiotoxic antineoplastic drug, disrupts the cardiac-specific program of gene expression (Kurabayashi, M., Dutta, S., Jeyaseelan, R., and Kedes, L. (1995) Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 6386-6397; Jeyaseelan, R., Poizat, C., Wu, H. Y., and Kedes, L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 5828-5832). To determine whether this drug might interfere with the function of cardiac-specific regulatory pathways, we used a differential display strategy to clone from neonatal rat cardiomyocyte candidate mRNAs that were rapidly sensitive to Dox. We report here the identification of a constitutively expressed, cardiac-restricted, nuclear protein whose mRNA level is exquisitely sensitive to Dox. Hence we have named this protein cardiac adriamycin-responsive protein (CARP). CARP mRNA is present at the earliest stages of cardiac morphogenesis. It was detected by in situ hybridization within the cardiogenic plate of 7. 5-day post coitum (p.c.) embryos, and in 8.5-day p.c. embryos CARP transcripts are present in uniformly high levels in the myocardium. Throughout cardiac development, CARP expression is specific for the myocardium; endocardial cushions and valves exhibit only background levels of signal. Transcript levels persist but gradually decrease in neonatal, 2-week-old, and adult hearts. There were no stages when CARP mRNA could not be detected. The pattern and timing of CARP mRNA expression, including transient expression in the tongue at 14.5 days p.c., coincides with that of Nkx2.5/Csx (a putative homolog of tinman, the Drosophila melanogaster gene responsible for cardiac development). The cloned full-length 1749 nucleotide CARP cDNA encodes a 319-amino acid 40-kDa polypeptide containing five tandem ankyrin repeats. CARP appears to be the rat homolog of a previously reported human single-copy gene (C-193; Chu, W., Burns, D. K., Swerlick, R. A., and Presky, D. H. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 10236-10245), whose mRNA is inducible by cytokines only in human endothelial cells. CARP appears to function as a negative regulator of cardiac-specific gene expression. Overexpression of CARP in cardiomyocytes suppresses cardiac troponin C and atrial natriuretic factor transcription. Cotransfection experiments in HeLa cells indicate that CARP inhibits Nkx2.5 transactivation of atrial natriuretic factor promoter. When fused to a GAL4 DNA-binding domain, CARP has transcriptional inhibitory properties in noncardiac cells. CARP thus represents the first example of a cardiac-restricted transcriptional regulatory protein that is sensitive to Dox. PMID:9278441

Jeyaseelan, R; Poizat, C; Baker, R K; Abdishoo, S; Isterabadi, L B; Lyons, G E; Kedes, L



Characterisation of the genomes of four putative vesiculoviruses: tench rhabdovirus, grass carp rhabdovirus, perch rhabdovirus and eel rhabdovirus European X.  


The complete coding sequences were determined for four putative vesiculoviruses isolated from fish. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the five main proteins assigned tench rhabdovirus and grass carp rhabdovirus together with spring viraemia of carp and pike fry rhabdovirus to a lineage that was distinct from the mammalian vesiculoviruses. Perch rhabdovirus, eel virus European X, lake trout rhabdovirus 903/87 and sea trout virus were placed in a second lineage that was also distinct from the recognised genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Establishment of two new rhabdovirus genera, "Perhabdovirus" and "Sprivivirus", is discussed. PMID:23719670

Stone, David M; Kerr, Rose C; Hughes, Margaret; Radford, Alan D; Darby, Alistair C



Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio TLR5M  

PubMed Central

TLR5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the TLR5M gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The TLR5M cDNA was 3182?bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). The entire coding region of the TLR5M gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA and contained a single exon. The aa sequence of carp TLR5M showed the highest similarity (84.46%) to Cirrhinus mrigala. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the TLR5M gene by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed its broad distribution in various organs and tissues; however, the highest level of TLR5M expression was noted in the liver. TLR5M gene expression was examined after flagellin stimulation and showed highly significant (p<0.01) induction in the spleen, heart, liver and kidney. The induction of TLR5M was analyzed in various organs infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. TLR5M gene expression in the kidney and spleen was significantly (p<0.01) increased. Concurrently, modulation of TLR5M gene expression and the induction of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-?4 were analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes after lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, and flagellin stimulation. In the treated group, significant induction of these genes was noted, although the intensity varied between the tissues. These findings may indicate a crucial role for TLR5M in the innate immunity of common carp in response to pathogenic invasion. PMID:23930591

Duan, Duo; Sun, Zhen; Jia, Shengmei; Chen, Yilong; Feng, Xiangru



Mink biomagnification factors for dioxin-like compounds fed Saginaw Bay carp  

SciTech Connect

Diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% Saginaw Bay carp were fed to ranch mink to assess reproductive effects. All carp diets adversely affected reproduction. The diets and livers of the adult mink at the end of the study were chemically analyzed for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHS) that induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)/ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD). Biomagnification factors (BMFS) from diets to mink livers were calculated. AHH and EROD-active PCB congeners uniformly magnified across diets except for PCB 126, which had higher magnification at lowest carp and control diets. PCB and PCDF congener magnification ranged from incalculable to 60-fold higher and individual PCDDs ranged from incalculable to 165 times the diet. As expected from previous mammalian studies, 2378-TCDD magnified over an order of magnitude more than 2378-TCDF but by 4 to 5-fold less than 23478-PCDF. Based on dioxin equivalents theory and TEFS, PCB 126 ranked first in the liver residues of 2378-TCDD equivalents followed by PCB 105, 23478-PCDF and 2378-TCDD. Magnification factors allow for interpretation of relative exposure risks from certain wild forage species if wild mink liver concentrations are known. Conversely, knowledge of wild mink forage item concentrations allows for calculation of an estimated wild mink liver residue, when the concentration and dietary forage percentage are multiplied by the BMF. Therefore, BMFs can assist in the elucidation of relative risk of a population to these contaminants without necessarily having large numbers of mink samples, especially in habitats such as the Saginaw Bay area where mink and otter populations are presumed to be affected by high PHH contamination.

Kubiak, T.J. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA (United States). Division of Environmental Contaminants; Tillitt, D.E.; Heaton, S.N. [National Biological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). National Fisheries Contaminant Research Center; Bursian, S.N.; Giesy, J.P.; Render, J.A.; Aulerich, R.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)



Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296



Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have verified the protective role of fish lipids in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of fish lipids on health boost remain undefined. Large amounts of by-products, such as fish brain which contains high level of lipids, are produced with silver carp processing. Fish brain is rich in bioactive lipids which are overwhelmingly effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacological activities of silver carp brain lipids against diseases by inhibiting platelet-activating factor (PAF), suppressing bacterial growth and scavenging free radicals. Methods Total lipids (TL) were extracted from silver carp brain and separated into polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL). The capabilities of the lipid fractions in aggregating washed rabbit platelet or in inhibiting PAF-induced platelet aggregation were tested. Their antibacterial and antiradical activities were studied as well. Results The lipid fractions exhibited strong inhibitory activities, and the activity of TL was mainly attributed to NL. TL exhibited antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, while NL managed to fight against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. PL excelled TL and NL in simultaneously suppressing the growths of Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi besides those of S. aureus and E. coli. The scavenging effect of PL on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was considerably higher than those of TL and NL. Conclusion The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health. PMID:23805935



Complete mitochondrial genome of a natural triploid crucian carp mutant, Carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis, and phylogenetic analysis of different ploidies in crucian carp.  


Carassius auratus var. pingxiangnensis is a natural triploid crucian carp mutant. In order to understand its placement and genetic background at the gene level, the characteristics of mitochondrial DNA sequences and phylogenetic relationship were examined. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNA is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule that is 16,576 bp in length with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Mitochondrial genes overlapped by a total of 40 bp in 11 different locations from 1 to 14 bp. The base composition of the C. auratus mitogenome was estimated to be 29.70% A, 26.74% C, 15.35% G, and 28.21% T. The central conserved blocks and the conserved blocks were compared and were similar among C. auratus var. pingxiangnensis and six other cyprinids with different ploidies. The origin of light strand replication was similar to that of other vertebrates; it was 33 bp, but the characteristic sequence motif 5?-GCCGG-3? at the base of the stem within tRNA(Cys) was mutated to 5?-GGCGG- 3?. Our phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitogenome sequences indicated that C. auratus var. pingxiangnensis was clustered with C. auratus and then sister-grouped with Carassius gibelio. The systemic developmental tree of crucian carp with different chromosome ploidies showed that diploid C. auratus auratus was clustered with triploid C. auratus auratus, sister-grouped with tetraploid C. auratus auratus, and clustered with other diploid, triploid, and tetraploid C. auratus. PMID:25117343

Sheng, J Q; Wang, J H; He, S H; Zeng, L G; Peng, K; Hong, Y J



Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.



Spermiation of paddlefish ( Polyodon spathula, Acipenseriformes) stimulated with injection of LHRH analogue and carp pituitary powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of carp pituitary powder (CPP) at one dose, or the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogue, des–Gly10,(d–Ala6)–LH-RH–ethylamide, at three different doses to stimulate spermiation in paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) was tested. Single injections of the LH-RH analogue at 0.2, 0.1, or 0.05 mg·kg–1 increased the number of spermatozoa per kilogram of body weight (kg–1 b.w.) by 4.7, 3.4, and 3.4

Otomar Linhart; Steve D. Mims; Boris Gomelsky; Anna E. Hiott; William L. Shelton; Jacky Cosson; Marek Rodina; David Gela



Cadmium Induces Liver Cell Apoptosis through Caspase-3A Activation in Purse Red Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping



Aphanius vladykovi , a new species of tooth-carp from the Zagros Mountains of Iran (Osteichthyes: Cyprinodontidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius vladykovi, is described from the Zagros Mountains of Iran. The new species is uniquely characterised by a high count of lateral line scales and by different pigmentation patterns from its closest, putative relative A. sophiae. It also possesses several meristic and morphometric differences with topotypic A. sophiae. It became separated from a common ancestor

Brian W. Coad



Transcriptional analysis of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) immune response to the fish louse Argulus japonicus Thiele (Crustacea: Branchiura)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated changes in transcription levels of a panel of selected immune relevant genes in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and skin samples collected from carp exposed to larval Argulus japonicus. We show that in skin up-regulation of gene transcription of the chemokine CXCa, and to a lesser extent the chemokine receptor CXCR1 and the cytokine TNF?,

Maria Forlenza; Peter D. Walker; Beitske J. de Vries; Sjoerd E. Wendelaar Bonga; Geert F. Wiegertjes



[Development of the trypanosomes (Trypanosoma) and cryptobians (Cryptobia) of carp and tench in the leech Piscicola geometra].  


The paper presents the results of studies of the development of trypanosomes and cryptobiae of carp and tench in Piscicola geometra. The paper describes an unknown way of reproduction by means of fusion of individuals and formation of cystlike bodies, the subsequent development of which results in a special form schizogony with a formation of rosettes. PMID:3975069

Kha?bulaev, K Kh; Guse?nov, M A



Recent Duplication of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Genome as Revealed by Analyses of Microsatellite Loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome duplications may have played a role in the early stages of vertebrate evolution, near the time of divergence of the lamprey lineage. Additional genome duplication, specifically in ray-finned fish, may have occurred before the divergence of the teleosts. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been considered tetraploid because of its chromosome number (2n ¼100) and its high DNA content.

Lior David; Shula Blum; Marcus W. Feldman; Uri Lavi; Jossi Hillel



Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological observations were made in common carp larvae in order to understand the origin of the phospholipid (PL) requirement of fish during their young stages. Larvae were fed for 6 or 8 days after start-feeding on semi-purified diets containing peanut oil and supplemented with or without different PL fractions enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI). A group of larvae

Stéphanie Fontagné; Inge Geurden; Anne-Marie Escaffre; Pierre Bergot



Uptake and transport of intact macromolecules in the intestinal epithelium of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and the possible immunological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protein antigens, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ferritin, have been administered to the digestive tract of carp. Electron-microscopical observations reveal considerable absorption of both antigens in the second segment of the gut (from 70 to 95% of the total length) and also, although to a lesser extent, in the first segment (from 0 to 70% of the total length). Even

J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; M. H. Helfrich; A. Dekker; J. J. Taverne-Thiele



The effect of seed morphology on the dispersal of aquatic macrophytes by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The potential for seed dispersal by fish (ichthyochory) will vary among aquatic plants because of differences in seed size and morphology. 2. To examine how seed morphology influences the probability of dispersal by the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), we studied seed ingestion, retention time and subsequent egestion and germination of seeds of Sparganium emersum and Sagittaria sagittifolia, two aquatic

B. J. A. Pollux; Jong de M; A. Steegh; N. J. Ouborg; Groenendael van J. M; M. R. J. Klaassen



Interaction between type I interferon and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in two genetic lines of common carp Cyprinus carpio.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and its ornamental koi varieties can induce the severe systemic disease known as koi herpesvirus disease. This disease is characterised by a rapid replication and spreading of the virus through multiple organs and results in a fast onset of mortality (starting on Day 6 post infection) in up to 100% of infected fish. During the first phase of viral infections, type I interferons (IFNs) have generally been proven to be essential in inducing an innate immune response; however, very little is known about the type I IFN response to herpesviruses in fish. The aim of this work was to study the type I IFN responses during CyHV-3 infection in 2 genetically divergent lines of common carp which presented differing survival rates. Our results show that CyHV-3 induced a systemic type I IFN response in carp, and the magnitude of type I IFN expression is correlated with the virus load found in skin and head kidney. In this in vivo experimental setup, the level of type I IFN response cannot be linked with higher survival of carp during CyHV-3 infection. PMID:25266898

Adamek, Miko?aj; Rakus, Krzysztof L; Brogden, Graham; Matras, Marek; Chyb, Jaros?aw; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takashi; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter



Molecular, Physical, and Clinical Evidence that Golden Shiner Virus and Grass Carp Reovirus are Variants of the Same Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moribund golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas sampled during winter and spring and moribund grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella sampled during summer were necropsied and cultured on cyprinid cell lines. In all cases, a syncytial cytopathic effect occurred and viruses were successfully passaged. Characterization by electron microscopy, diethyl ether resistance, iododeoxyuridine resistance, and acid resistance confirmed that the isolates were aquareoviruses. We used

Mathew E. McEntire; Luke R. Iwanowicz; Andrew E. Goodwin



Structural and biochemical characterization of a new type of lectin isolated from carp eggs.  

PubMed Central

A previously unidentified glycoprotein present in the eggs of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) was isolated and structurally characterized. The protein binds to a Sepharose 4B matrix and can be eluted with 0.4 M N -acetylglucosamine. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 26686.3 Da. On the basis of gel-filtration chromatography, the protein appears to be present in solution as a monomer. The sequence of its 238 amino acids, the position of its four disulphide bridges and the composition of its single N-linked carbohydrate chain were determined. The lectin shows a very low agglutinating activity for human A-type erythrocytes and interacts with both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These latter interactions are inhibited by N -acetylglucosamine. A database search shows that its amino acid sequence is similar to that of the members of an invertebrate lectin family that includes tachylectin-1. Tachylectin-1 is present in the amoebocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, and plays a role in the innate defence system of this species. Homologous genes are also present in other fish, having 85% identity with a gene expressed in the oocytes of the crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ) and 78% identity with a gene in the cDNA library of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). PMID:12956625

Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo; Campagnoli, Monica; Sala, Alberto; Visai, Livia; Amoresano, Angela; Pucci, Piero; Casbarra, Annarita; Cauci, Marco; Perduca, Massimiliano; Monaco, Hugo L



Toxic and feeding deterrent effects of native aquatic macrophytes on exotic grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


Declines of amphibians have been attributed to many factors including habitat degradation. The introduction of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) as a biological agent for aquatic plant control in ponds and lakes managed narrowly for human recreation has likely contributed to amphibian declines through massive plant removal and associated habitat simplification and thus degradation. This research examined the interactions among grass carp and three Midwestern aquatic plants (Jussiaea repens, Ranunculus longirostris, and R. flabellaris) that may be of value in rehabilitation of habitats needed by amphibians. The feeding preference study found that C. idella avoided eating both J. repens and R. longirostris. Ranunculus species studied to date contain a vesicant toxin called ranunculin that is released upon mastication. The study that compared the effects of R. flabellaris, J. repens and a control food administered by tube feeding to C. idella found significant lesions only in the mucosal epithelium of the individuals exposed to R.flabellaris. The avoidance by C. idella of J. repens and R. longirostris in the feeding preference study, and the significant toxicity of R. flabellaris demonstrated by the dosing study, indicate these plants warrant further examination as to their potential effectiveness in aquatic amphibian habitat rehabilitation. PMID:12211697

Murphy, Joseph E; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Johnson, Julie K; Cope, Rhian B; Lawmaster, Todd; Beasley, Val R



[Production of a carp-based hamburger-like product by reducing the water activity].  


The experimental conditions were determined in order to conserve lean fish by means of combined factors based on Aw and pH reduction as well as the addition of an antifungal. Theoretical Aw was determined in formulas containing fish, sodium chloride, glycerol and sorbitol applying a mathematic model. From the results of the prediction, 4 formulas were prepared experimentally with (Cyprinus carpio). Phosphoric acid was added to the products in order to obtain a 5.5-6.0 pH. The final formulas were packed in plastic bags and stored with a control product (100% carp pulp) at 25 +/- 2 degrees C and 38 +/- 3% R.H. during one month. Aw, water content and pH determinations were carried at weekly intervals. Results indicated a slight but significative (P < 0.025) lowering of Aw, water content and pH. Microbiological analysis showed an increase in MAB count with no growth of pathogens. A control product (100% carp pulp) was deteriorated in a five day period. Sensory evaluation of the products indicated a slight acceptance among an inexperienced panel. PMID:1341858

Santillán, M; Morales, L J



From aquaculture goals to real social and ecological impacts: carp introduction in rural Central Mexico.  


Aquaculture has been seen as a solution to food/protein availability in rural populations of poor countries. It is mainly based on exotic species, that produce changes in host system dynamics once introduced. Aquaculture not only changes the ecology of freshwater systems, but can also lead to modification of social relations. Until now, aquaculture programs have not been adequately analyzed no questioned enough. We evaluate both ecological effects and local social benefits of common carp aquaculture programs in shallow ponds of rural areas, using a municipality in Central Mexico as a case study. Using an "environmental entitlements" approach, our findings suggest that: i) carp aquaculture increases water turbidity and depletes native species reducing the poor people's access to them; ii) aquaculture mainly benefits pond owners rather than poor peasants. This mainly results from changes in fishing rights. We conclude that aquaculture policy goals and assumptions of benefits should be reviewed, if the negative ecological effects are to be decreased and conditions for people in rural areas are to be improved. PMID:12956589

Tapia, Mónica; Zambrano, Luis



Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3?mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n?=?45, 20.3?±?0.13?g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. PMID:21895778

Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K



The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

Št?pánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škori?, Miša; Svobodová, Zde?ka



Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.  


Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin



Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.  


The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

Lian, Hao; Hu, Wei; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping



Antioxidant effects of propolis on carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to arsenic: biochemical and histopathologic findings.  


Propolis, a resinous material produced by worker bees from the leaf buds and exudates of plants, is reported to possess various therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of propolis on biochemical parameters and histopathologic findings in carp Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to arsenic. A sublethal concentration of arsenic (0.01 mg l-1) and/or 10 mg l-1 propolis were administered to fish for 1 wk. Catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in liver, gill and muscle tissues in control, arsenic only, propolis only and arsenic+propolis treatment groups. Results showed that CAT activity decreased in the arsenic group compared to the control and propolis groups. CAT activity in the arsenic+propolis group was significantly higher compared to the arsenic group. MDA levels in fish exposed to 0.01 mg l-1 arsenic significantly increased compared to the control group. However, MDA levels in the arsenic+propolis group were significantly lower compared to the arsenic group. Histopathological changes in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of carp were examined by light microscopy: various changes were observed in all tissues of fish in the arsenic group. Propolis showed important antioxidant effects against arsenic toxicity in all fish tissues. PMID:24695237

Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Gulhan, Mehmet Fuat; Erdogan, Kenan; Orun, Ibrahim



Toxic effects of malathion in carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio: protective role of lycopene.  


The present study was carried out in order to investigate the potential protective effects of lycopene against malathion-induced toxicity in carp. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of malathion (0.5 and 1mgL(-1)) for 14 days, and lycopene (10mgkg(-1) of fish weight) was simultaneously administered. Samples of the blood and tissue (liver, kidneys, and gills) were collected at the end of the experimental period and their haematological profiles [red blood cell (RBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, haematocrit (Ht) levels, and erythrocyte indices, including the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC)], immune responses [white blood cell (WBC) counts, oxidative radical production (nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity), total plasma protein (TP) and total immunoglobulin (TI) levels and phagocytic activities (PA)] and oxidant/antioxidant statuses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations] were analysed. The findings of the present study demonstrated that the exposure of carp to malathion resulted in alterations in the haematological profiles and immune responses, and lead to increased reactive oxygen species formation, resulting in oxidative damage and inhibition of the antioxidant capacities. However, the administration of lycopene prevented malathion-induced toxic effects. PMID:23932509

Yonar, Serpil Mi?e



Taste response in the facial nerve of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  


The stimulating effect of taste substances on the external chemoreceptors of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was studied by recording the electrical activity from the facial taste fibers innervating the facial skin surface. The integrated responses from each whole nerve bundle of the trigemino-facial complex nerve revealed that gustatory receptors on the snout of the carp were extremely sensitive to salts, acids and the extract of silk worm pupae. Quinine-HCl and sucrose elicited relatively small responses. Responses occurred to several amino acids, and especially to betaine. The threshold concentration for both mono- and di-valent salts was estimated to be about 5 X 10-3 M and that for acids about 10-4 M. Single fiber analysis was performed on 77 preparations. According to responsiveness to the 4 basic chemicals, the fibers were classified into 5 types: type I, activated by one stimulus (22 fibers out of 77); type II by two (29); type III by three (11); type IV by four (13); and type V showing inhibition by quinine-HCl (2) as their notable feature. Single fibers responsive to several amino acids, and the worm extract were found, among which the last was the most effective stimulus as shown in the whole nerve experiments. PMID:7300043

Funakoshi, M; Kawakita, K; Marui, T



Isolation and analysis of membrane lipids and lipid rafts in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Cell membranes act as an interface between the interior of the cell and the exterior environment and facilitate a range of essential functions including cell signalling, cell structure, nutrient uptake and protection. It is composed of a lipid bilayer with integrated proteins, and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer comprises of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains. Lo microdomains, also named as lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and certain types of proteins, which facilitate cell signalling and nutrient uptake. Lipid rafts have been extensively researched in mammals and the presence of functional lipid rafts was recently demonstrated in goldfish, but there is currently very little knowledge about their composition and function in fish. Therefore a protocol was established for the analysis of lipid rafts and membranous lipids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) tissues. Twelve lipids were identified and analysed in the Ld domain of the membrane with the most predominant lipids found in all tissues being; triglycerides, cholesterol, phosphoethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. Four lipids were identified in lipid rafts in all tissues analysed, triglycerides (33-62%) always found in the highest concentration followed by cholesterol (24-32%), phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Isolation of lipid rafts was confirmed by identifying the presence of the lipid raft associated protein flotillin, present at higher concentrations in the detergent resistant fraction. The data provided here build a lipid library of important carp tissues as a baseline for further studies into virus entry, protein trafficking or environmental stress analysis. PMID:24326265

Brogden, Graham; Propsting, Marcus; Adamek, Mikolaj; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter



Hyperplasia and cellularity changes in IGF-1-overexpressing skeletal muscle of crucian carp.  


The zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific promoter mylz2 was used to cause crucian carp overexpression of the zebrafish IGF-1 cDNA. In stable transgenic germline F1 progenies, a 5-fold increase in the level of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle was observed. Evident skeletal muscle hyperplasia was observed in the transgenic fish through histologic analysis. By analyzing the RNA sequencing transcriptome of the skeletal muscle of IGF-1 transgenic fish and nontransgenic control fish at 15 months of age, 10 966 transcripts with significant expression levels were identified with definite gene descriptions based on the corresponding zebrafish genome information. Based on the results of our RNA sequencing transcriptome profiling analysis and the results of the real-time quantitative PCR analysis performed to confirm the skeletal muscle transcriptomics analysis, several pathways, including IGF-1 signaling, aerobic metabolism, and protein degradation, were found to be activated in the IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish. Intriguingly, our transcriptional expression and protein assays indicated that the overexpression of IGF-1 stimulated a significant shift in the myofiber type toward a more oxidative slow muscle type. Although the body weight was surprisingly decreased by IGF-1 transgenic expression, significantly higher oxygen consumption rates were measured in IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish compared with their nontransgenic control fish. These results indicate that the sustained overexpression of IGF-1 in crucian carp skeletal muscle promotes myofiber hyperplasia and cellularity changes, which elicit alterations in the body energy metabolism and skeletal muscle growth. PMID:24617525

Li, Dongliang; Lou, Qiyong; Zhai, Gang; Peng, Xuyan; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Dai, Xiangyan; Zhuo, Zijian; Shang, Guohui; Jin, Xia; Chen, Xiaowen; Han, Dong; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan



Helper function of CD4? lymphocytes in antiviral immunity in ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.  


Although many recent studies have suggested that CD4(+) helper T cell (Th-cell) functions are well conserved among teleost fishes and mammals, there is little evidence that CD4(+) Th-cells in fish are actually involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity during a secondary immune response. In the present study, adoptive transfer using clonal ginbuna crucian carp and crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV) was used to investigate the functions of CD4(+) cells during humoral and cell-mediated immunity. With regard to humoral immunity, transplanting CHNV-sensitized donor cells, containing CD4(+) cells, into naive fish induced more rapid and stronger antibody production than by transplanting non-sensitized donor cells or sensitized donor cells lacking CD4(+) cells. During cell-mediated immunity, no significant differences were found in recipients that received sensitized cells regardless of whether the donor cells contained CD4(+) cells, although recipients that received both sensitized donor cells (with and without CD4(+) cells) exhibited more efficient cell-mediated cytotoxicity than those that received non-sensitized donor cells. These findings suggest that inducing a secondary antibody response requires CD4(+) cell help, and secondary cell-mediated immunity can be induced both by CD4(+) cells and leukocytes other than CD4(+) cells. PMID:24342571

Somamoto, Tomonori; Kondo, Masakazu; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Nakao, Miki



Tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, and effects of erythromycin in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).  


In this study, the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (ERY) were investigated in fish using crucian carp (Carassius auratus) as a model. Crucian carp were exposed to various concentrations of ERY (4, 20, and 100 ?g/L) for 28 days. The UPLC/MS/MS analysis of both water and tissue provided the bioconcentration of ERY and its metabolites in the fish body. The results from tissue samples showed that a maximum tissue concentration occurred in the muscle and that the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 72.2 was lower than the theoretical BCF of 90.4 calculated from the octanol-water coefficient of ERY. A significant portion of the absorbed ERY was metabolized via demethylation and dehydration and observed in the form of descladinose in fish. In addition, the relevant biomarkers, including acetylcholinesterase in the brain, as well as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and superoxide dismutase in the liver, changed significantly during 28 days of exposure (P<0.05). These results clearly indicated that ERY accumulated in fish and that similar metabolites as those observed in mammals were produced, resulting in the biochemical disturbance of biological systems. PMID:24911771

Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Ding, Jiannan; Zhang, Zhenghua; Wang, Yonghua



Hypotonic treatment prior to freezing improves cryoresistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) spermatozoa.  


Post-thaw motility rate, curvilinear velocity (VCL), and fertilizing ability of carp spermatozoa can be improved by short-term treatment with moderately hypotonic media prior to freezing. Before cryopreservation, carp sperm samples were treated with NaCl solutions of differing osmolalities, ranging from 100 to 300mOsmkg(-1) for 10s, after which final osmolality was adjusted to 300mOsmkg(-1). The resulting sperm suspension was diluted 1:1 with cryoprotective medium and frozen using conventional techniques. Control samples were treated in the same way, without the pre-dilution step. Post-thaw motility rate in samples pretreated with 200mOsmkg(1) NaCl was significantly higher (44±10%) than in controls (21±15%) and samples pretreated with 100mOsmkg(-1) (25±15%) and 300mOsmkg(-1) (25±12%) NaCl. Significantly higher mean VCL were observed in samples pretreated with 100, 150, and 200mOsmkg(-1) (119±24, 118±22, and 115±32?ms(-1), respectively) compared to controls (92±27?ms(-1)). Fertilization rate of frozen-thawed sperm treated with 200mOsmkg(-1) solution of 2M NaCl was significantly higher (25±18%) than that of sperm treated with 300mOsmkg(-1) NaCl solutions (12±7%) and the control (9±6%). PMID:23270681

Dzyuba, Borys; Cosson, Jacky; Yamaner, Gunes; Bondarenko, Olga; Rodina, Marek; Gela, David; Bondarenko, Volodymir; Shaliutina, Anna; Linhart, Otomar



Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


This study investigates the protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment. After 20 days of treatment, the fish were intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) CCl4 at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight. The fish were killed 3 days after CCl4 intoxication, and then, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Results showed that CCl4-induced liver CYP2E1 activity, oxidative stress, and injury, as indicated by the depleted glycogen storage, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and liver histological damage. Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups exhibited reduced CYP2E1 activity, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity (increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % groups (p < 0.05). Histological assay further confirmed the protective effect of betanin. In conclusion, betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin. PMID:24271879

Han, Junyan; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong



Modulation of drug-metabolizing systems by bacterial endotoxin in carp liver and immune organs.  


This report describes a study of the effects of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] on cytochrome P450 levels and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in liver and two main immune organs of carp: spleen and head kidney. Also studied was the paucity of the carp drug-metabolizing system in an environment subject to pollution by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), when fish respond to an immune activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the presence of bacterial endotoxin the basal cytochrome P450 levels were decreased in liver and spleen. EROD activity was increased in liver and basal GST activity was increased in spleen. When fish were treated concomitantly with 3MC and LPS, a suppression of cytochrome P450 induction in liver and head kidney was observed. EROD activity induced by 3MC was not modified by administration of LPS. GST activity was suppressed by treatment with LPS and inducing agent in liver and head kidney. In the present study it was found that endotoxin can have profound and differential effects on fish basal biotransformation of drugs in the liver and immune organs. Also, the induction of biotransformation enzymes by 3MC was modified when fish responded to an immune stimulation. PMID:9756707

Marionnet, D; Chambras, C; Taysse, L; Bosgireaud, C; Deschaux, P



Studies of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Crucian Carp--An Oxygen Dependent Enzyme in an Anoxia Tolerant Vertebrate  

PubMed Central

The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O2) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp. PMID:22916159

Sandvik, Guro K.; Tomter, Ane B.; Bergan, Jonas; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Barra, Anne-Laure; R?hr, Asmund K.; Kolberg, Matthias; Ellefsen, Stian



Gonadotropin content of the pituitary gland of gonadal tumor-bearing common carp x goldfish hybrids from the Great Lakes, as assessed by bioassay and radioimmunoassay.  


The hybrids of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) collected from the lower Great Lakes between 1978 and 1981 exhibited epizootics of gonadal neoplasm which were rare in the parental species. The pituitary glands of hybrids were, on average, 2.5 times larger than that of carp of similar body size. Histologically, the hypertrophy was due to hyperplasia of proximal pars distalis basophils (the presumptive gonadotropes). Using a carp gonadotropin (GtH) radioimmunoassay it was found that hybrid pituitaries contained more GtH than sympatric carp and that pituitary GtH concentration in hybrids was positively correlated with pituitary weight. Both this and histological evidence suggested that gonadotrope hyperplasia was a progressive event. Two heterologous gonad bioassays indicated that hybrid GtH had biological activity. Whether pituitary hyperplasia in hybrids is a primary problem or secondary to gonadal sterility has not been determined. PMID:3366360

Down, N E; Peter, R E; Leatherland, J F



Selection of a specific peptide from a nona-peptide library for in vitro inhibition of grass carp hemorrhage virus replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp hemorrhage virus (GCHV), a member of Reoviridae, causes severe hemorrhagic disease of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in China. Icosahedral virions of GCHV were used as to assay the effect of specific peptides for the inhibition of GCHV infectivity. A random nona-peptide library displayed on phage fUSE5 was constructed, and the expressed peptides were fused onto the amino terminus

Bing Wang; Li-Hua Ke; Hong Jiang; Chuan-Zhao Li; Po Tien



Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.  


Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China. PMID:23957862

Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M



Changes in the respiratory properties of the blood in the carp, Cyprinus carpio , induced by diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Effects of diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension on acid-base balance and blood respiratory properties were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The carp were subjected to two cycles in ambient\\u000a$$P_{O_2 }$$\\u000a between about 130 mm Hg and about 12 mm Hg at 17°C (cf. Figs. 1 and 2). The first period of hypoxia was characterized by a non-compensated respiratory

Gunnar Lykkeboe; Roy E. Weber



Preservative effect of combined treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and essential oil compounds on carp fillets during convectional air-drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial and antioxidant effects on carp fillet samples of treatments with alkaline electrolyzed NaCl solution EW (?) prior to treatment with acidic electrolyzed NaCl solution EW (+) and 1% solutions of the essential oils consisting of 0.5% carvacrol and 0.5% thymol (1% Cv+Ty) were tested. First carp fillet samples were treated with EW (?), then EW (+), followed by

Barakat S. M. Mahmoud; Koji Yamazaki; Kazuo Miyashita; Yuji Kawai; Il-Shik Shin; Tetsuya Suzuki



Differential effects of age-structured common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) stocks on pond invertebrate communities: implications for recreational and wildlife use of farm ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development of common carp Cyprinus carpio pond fisheries in Europe postulates their multifunctional use, integrating exploitation of aquaculture resources with recreational\\u000a services and maintenance of high levels of local biodiversity. Age classes of farmed carp are grown separately and pond ecosystems\\u000a may be differently affected by different ontogenetic stages of fish. To examine these relationships, a study was conducted

Janusz Kloskowski


Influence of a Toxic Microcystis aeruginosa Strain on Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione-S-Transferase Activity in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium-producing microcystin (MC), Microcystis aeruginosa (strain RST9501), on detoxification capacity and glutathione (GSH) synthesis in liver, brain, gill, and muscle—as well as\\u000a apoptotic protease (calpain) activity in liver and brain—in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Experimental groups were defined as follows: (1) control (CTR); (2) carp treated with an

Lílian Lund Amado; Márcia Longaray Garcia; Patrícia Baptista Ramos; João Sarkis Yunes; José Maria Monserrat



Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced hepatocyte damage in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is aiming at evaluating the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (2.5, 5 and 10 ?g\\/ml) on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced carp hepatocyte damage in vitro. Glycyrrhiza glabra extract was added to the carp primary hepatocytes before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after\\u000a (pre- and post-treatment) the incubation of the hepatocytes with CCl4. CCl4

Guojun YinLiping; Liping Cao; Pao Xu; Galina Jeney; Miki Nakao; Chengping Lu



A comparative study of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities in crucian carp and three other vertebrates: apparent adaptations to ethanol production.  


In the final step of the pathway producing ethanol in anoxic crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.), acetaldehyde is reduced to ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase. The presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase in the tissues responsible for ethanol production could cause an undesired oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetate coupled with a reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Moreover, acetaldehyde could competitively inhibit the oxidation of reactive biogenic aldehydes. In the present study, the distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase (measured with a biogenic aldehyde) and alcohol dehydrogenase (measured with acetaldehyde) were studied in organs of crucian carp, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson), and Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout). The results showed that alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were almost completely spatially separated in the crucian carp. These enzymes occurred together in the other three vertebrates. In the crucian carp, alcohol dehydrogenase was only found in red and white skeletal muscle, while these tissues contained exceptionally low aldehyde dehydrogenase activities. Moreover, the low aldehyde dehydrogenase activity found in crucian carp red muscle was about 1000 times less sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde than that found in other tissues and other species. The results are interpreted as demonstrating adaptations to avoid a depletion of ethanol production, and possibly inhibition of biogenic aldehyde metabolism. PMID:3220990

Nilsson, G E




E-print Network

and the world: Developmental Psychology, Social Psy- chology, Cognitive Psychology, Theories of PersonalityPSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University

Sanders, Matthew


Proteolytic characterisation in grass carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus.  


The proteolysis in grass carp sausages inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 and Pediococcus pentosaceus GY23 was investigated. As fermentation progressed, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins in both sausages were obviously degraded, and the proteolytic process was more intense in sausages inoculated with P. pentosaceus GY23. The increases in ?-amino nitrogen, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides and free amino acids were also detected in both sausages. The differences in ?-amino nitrogen content and free amino acids concentration were due to the activity of inoculated lactic acid bacteria, while endogenous enzymes contributed to the release of TCA-soluble peptides. Our findings indicate that lactic acid bacteria influence proteolytic characterisation in fermented fish sausage, with strain-dependent activity. PMID:24128554

Nie, Xiaohua; Lin, Shengli; Zhang, Qilin



Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The karyotype and other chromosomal characteristics the crucian carp (Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)) were revealed by means of conventional banding protocols (C, CMA3, AgNOR). The diploid chromosome number (2n) in this species was 100. Its karyotype was composed of 10 pairs of metacentric, 18 pairs of submetacentric and 22 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes without any microchromosomes. C-banding identified blocks of telomeric heterochromatin on seven chromosome pairs. The NORs were situated on the p arms of the 14th pair of submetacentric chromosomes and on the p arms of the 32nd pair of subtelo-acrocentric chromosomes; AgNOR-positive signals corresponded to the CMA3-positive signals. These chromosome characteristics may suggest a paleo-allotetraploid origin of Carassius carassius genome. PMID:24260701

Knytl, Martin; Kalous, Lukas; Rab, Petr



Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.



Generation and analysis of ESTs from the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  


Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844), is an economically important species widely cultured in the world, but its genome research resources are largely lacking. The objectives of this study were to construct normalized cDNA libraries for efficient EST analysis, to generate ESTs from these libraries, and to identify EST-related molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic analysis of this species. A total of 6,269 ESTs were generated representing 4,815 unique sequences, from which 105 putative microsatellites and 5,228 SNPs were identified. These genome resources provide the material basis for future genetic and functional analyses in this species. PMID:20967641

Xu, Bing; Wang, Shaolin; Jiang, Yan; Yang, Linlin; Li, Ping; Xie, Caixia; Xing, Jubin; Ke, Zhonghe; Li, Jiale; Gai, Junwei; Yang, Guimei; Bao, Baolong; Liu, Zhanjiang



Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 ?mol/L resulted in decreased expression of both ?- and ?-tubulin but ?-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Dongyi; Chu, Wuying; Liu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ruixue; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Jianshe



Sensitive apoptosis induced by microcystins in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) lymphocytes in vitro.  


Microcystins including leucine-arginine l-amino acid (MCLR) and arginine-arginine l-amino acid (MCRR) can inhibit several serine/threonine protein phosphatases. In this study, we focused on the efficient biomarker for analyzing toxic cyanobacteria blooms using in vitro apoptosis bioassay. We explored the existence of sensitive apoptosis induced by MCLR and MCRR on isolated lymphocytes of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) at a low exposure level. Apoptosis was detected in vitro and was clearly distinguished by condensation of nuclear chromatin and formation of apoptotic bodies, after 2 h exposure at 1, 5, 10 nM MCLR and MCRR, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis further revealed DNA fragmentation (DNA ladder) caused by apoptosis. We found that MCLR and MCRR can induce lymphocyte apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner with flow cytometry analysis. Our study provides the first evidence that microcystins can induce fish lymphocytes apoptosis and may impair fish immune function. PMID:16271850

Zhang, Jianying; Zhang, Hangjun; Chen, Yingxu



Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species. PMID:25240282

Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen



Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  


Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) were analyzed using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CP) or clobetasone butyrate (CB) individually or in mixture at 1 ?g L(-1) for 21 days. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of CB was calculated as 100, and BCF of CP was less than 16. No effects were found in fish erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers and serum glucose levels after exposure to the selected GCs. On the other hand, serum concentrations of free amino acids significantly increased in GC-exposed groups. Thus, exposures to synthetic GCs at relatively low concentrations seemed to cause enhancement of protein degradation and subsequent increase of serum free amino acids without a corresponding increase in serum glucose levels, an effect which might be related to partial induction of gluconeogenesis by GC. PMID:24492153

Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Hashizume, Naoki; Murakami, Hidekazu; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Go



Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) elucidated by otolith microchemistry.  


The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi



Transcriptome Analysis of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus), an Important Aquaculture and Hypoxia-Tolerant Species  

PubMed Central

The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO) category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ?50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species. PMID:23630630

Liao, Xiaolin; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Peng; Lu, Guoqing; Wachholtz, Michael; Sun, Xiaowen; Chen, Songlin



Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 ?m) and large (150-200 ?m) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.



Stress adaptation, cortisol and pubertal development in the male common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


This paper reviews a series of recent studies on the effect of adaptation to chronic stress on pubertal development in the common carp. In pre-pubertal male common carp adaptation to temperature stress caused a retardation of testicular development. Stress-induced delay of the first wave of spermatogenesis could be prevented by treatment with a cortisol antagonist, indicating that the stress effect is mediated by cortisol. Chronically elevated cortisol levels affected all parts of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG)-axis. In the hypothalamus lower levels of sGnRH were observed, in the pituitary the steady state levels of FSHbeta-m RNA were decreased, while the testicular production of especially the 11-oxygenated androgens 11-ketoandrostenedione (OA) and 11keto-testosterone (11KT) was strongly diminished. OA and 11KT have been shown to promote testicular development in fish. The LH-induced androgen synthesis in vitro was strongly inhibited by cortisol and its agonist dexamethasone. Although cortisol was shown also to interfere with the synthesis of the 11-oxygenated androgens in vivo, the lower androgen levels induced by cortisol were mainly due to the reduced testicular mass. Restoration of the plasma concentrations of these androgens by implantation could not prevent the cortisol-induced retardation of testicular growth and the first wave of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is suggested that cortisol acts directly on Sertoli cells and/or on germ cells, which is supported by the demonstration of GRs on germ cells. We have little indication that the cortisol-induced retardation of testicular development is mediated by a decreased secretion of LH, but a crucial role for FSH can not be excluded. PMID:12431803

Goos, H J Th; Consten, D



Expression and functional characterization of PGRP6 splice variants in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.  


Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), which are evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors from insects to mammals, recognize bacterial PGN and function in antibacterial innate immunity. The existence of alternative splicing is a common feature for PGRP family. Here the splicing pattern from the splicing at the 5' end of PGRP6 gene was identified in a teleost fish, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Four splice variants of grass carp PGRP6 were designated as gcPGRP6a, gcPGRP6b, gcPGRP6c and gcPGRP6d, respectively. Real-time PCR revealed the different expression of these variants in fish individuals and CIK cell line in response to stimulation with different microbial ligands. Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting showed that the splice variants are intracellular protein. Cell lysates from Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells transfected with gcPGRP6 splice variants are able to bind microbial PAMPs including Lys-type PGN from Staphylococcus aureus, DAP-type PGN from Bacillus subtilis, glucan, mannan, and microorganisms including Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Flavobacterium columnare and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, overexpression of gcPGRP6 variants inhibited earlier stage growth of intracellular bacteria. The data also identified a specific role for gcPGRP6c variant in the positive regulation of cytolytic molecule perforin, and for gcPGRP6a, gcPGRP6b and gcPGRP6c variants in positive regulation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). However, the gcPGRP6d variant, which encoded basically only the PGRP domain, failed to induce the expression of perforin and AMPs. It is suggested that fish PGRP6 splice variants have common and variant-specific function in innate immune response. PMID:25149135

Yu, Zhang Long; Li, Jun Hua; Xue, Na Na; Nie, Pin; Chang, Ming Xian



Characterizing the In Vitro Hepatic Biotransformation of the Flame Retardant BDE 99 by Common Carp  

PubMed Central

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals that are known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 19.4 ?M and 1,120 pmoles hr?1 mg protein?1, respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC50 values of 2.2 ?M, 0.83 ?M, and >1.0 ?M, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

Noyes, Pamela D.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Stapleton, Heather M.



GC/MS-based metabolomics approach to identify biomarkers differentiating survivals from death in crucian carps infected by Edwardsiella tarda.  


Microbial disease problems constitute the largest single cause of economic losses in aquaculture. An understanding of immune system in aquaculture animals how to function in defense against bacterial infections is especially important to control these diseases and improve food quality and safety. In the present study, we use a crucian carp model to explore which pathways and metabolites are crucial for the defense against infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda EIB202. We establish the metabolic profile of crucian carps and then compare the metabolic difference between survivals and dead fish by self-control. We identify elevating unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and decreasing fructose and mannose metabolism as the most key pathways and increasing palmitic acid and decreasing d-mannose as the most crucial metabolites differentiating survivals from death in these fish infected by E. tarda. Our findings highlight the importance of metabolic strategy against bacterial infections. PMID:24837326

Guo, Chang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Man-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Ren, Shi-Tong; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian



Determination of the effect of microbial transglutaminase on technological properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of microbial transglutaminase (TG) on processed meat of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.). Three levels of microbial transglutaminase (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) combined with three levels of NaCl (0, 1 and 2%), added to support the binding reaction, were examined. For the evaluation of quality changes in restructured fish

F. Vácha; I. Novik; J. Špi?ka; M. Podola



Fatty Acid Composition in Intramuscular Lipids of Experimental Scaly Crossbreds in 3YearOld Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Buchtová H., Z. Svobodová, M. K?ížek, F. Vácha, M. Kocour, J. Velíšek: Fatty Acid Composition in Intramuscular lipids of experimental Scaly Crossbreds in 3-Year-Old Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio l.). Acta Vet. Brno 2007, 76: S73-S81. The aim of the study was to determine the differences in the composition of fatty acids (in % of total fatty acids investigated), their

H. Buchtová; Z. Svobodová; M. K?ížek; F. Vácha; M. Kocour; J. Velíšek



Impact of long term storage on the instrumental textural properties of frozen common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) flesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to measure and confirm changes in the qualitative properties of frozen carp flesh (Cyprinus carpio L.), during 84 days storage at -20 °C, using instrumental texture profile analysis, focused on hardness, cohesiveness and springiness. Hardness in fresh fish was 2.908 N in fish stored 28 days 1.238 N, after 56 days 0.505 N and

Frantisek Vacha; Milos Cepak; Martin Urbanek; Pavel Vejsada; Petr Hartvich; Michael Rost



Vitellogenin Induction and Other Biochemical Responses in Carp, Cyprinus carpio , After Experimental Injection with 17a-Ethynylestradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prespawning, adult male and female carp, Cyprinus carpio, were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 500 7g\\/kg of 17!-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Blood samples were taken and vitellogenin levels were recorded previous to the injection and 8 days afterward. Western blot analysis of plasma VTG showed a marked response in both males (90-fold) and females (67-fold) after EE2 injection. Also, a

M. Solé; C. Porte; D. Barceló



Effects of long-term exposure to simazine in real concentrations on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The effects of a 90 day simazine exposure at concentrations of 0.06 (reported concentration in Czech rivers), 1, 2, and 4 ?g L?¹ were assessed in one-year-old common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Its influence on biometric parameters, hematology, blood biochemistry, liver biomarkers, and histology was investigated. Biometric parameters of common carp exposed to simazine at 0.06 ?g L?¹ showed no differences from untreated fish. Simazine concentrations of 1, 2, and 4 ?g L?¹ caused significant (p<0.01) increase of hepatosomatic indices relative to controls. Hematological profiles showed significant (p<0.01) decrease in leukocyte count relative to controls at all concentrations. Biochemical profiles of common carp exposed to simazine at all concentrations showed significant (p<0.01) increase in activity of alkaline phosphatase. In addition, at concentrations of 1 and 2 ?g L?¹, there was a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05), and, at 4 ?g L?¹, a significant increase in total protein (p<0.05), albumins (p<0.05), and alanine aminotransferase (p<0.05) compared with controls. Renal histology revealed severe hyaline degeneration of the epithelial cells of caudal kidney tubules in fish at all exposure levels compared to controls. Chronic exposure of common carp to simazine caused significant shifts in hematological, biochemical, and biometric profiles, and histopathological changes. The results of this study indicate that chronic exposure of simazine has altered multiple physiological indices in fish hematology and biochemistry, which potentially may be a biomarker of simazine toxicity; however, before these parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual simazine in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future. PMID:22036208

Velisek, J; Stara, A; Machova, J; Svobodova, Z



Expression characterization of testicular DMRT1 in both Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells of polyploid gibel carp.  


Dmrt1 has been suggested to play significant roles in sex determination and differentiation, but various expression patterns and cell types have been observed in the testis of vertebrates. Polyploid gibel carp, because of the multiple modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, has become a unique case to explore the evolution of sex determination and differentiation. However, the sex-determination related genes in gibel carp have remained unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized 4 cDNAs of Dmrt1 genes. Subsequently, a polyclonal antibody specific to CagDMRT1 was prepared to examine its expression and distribution patterns at protein level. Significantly, both relative real-time PCR and Western blot detection confirmed predominant expression of CagDmrt1 in the adult testis of gibel carp. Moreover, the intensive expression of CagDMRT1 around spermatogenic cysts was revealed during spermatogenesis. And, following immunofluorescence co-localization of CagDMRT1 and CagVASA, a prominent CagDMRT1 expression in Sertoli cells and a mild CagDMRT1 expression in spermatogenic cells including spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were clearly characterized. The CagDMRT1 signal in Sertoli cells is extensively distributed in both nuclei and cytoplasm, while the CagDMRT1 in spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes is mainly expressed in nuclei, and there is only the remained CagDMRT1 signal in the cytoplasm of secondary spermatocytes. These findings suggest that DMRT1 should be related to testis differentiation and spermatogenesis in gibel carp. PMID:25020260

Li, Xi-Yin; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang



Combined Effects of Different Food Rations and Sublethal Copper Exposure on Growth and Energy Metabolism in Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed two different rations, 0.5% body weight (low ration; LR) and 5% body weight (high ration; HR), throughout acclimation,\\u000a sublethal (64 ?g\\/L) Cu exposure for 28 days, and a subsequent 2-week recovery period. Growth, liver water content, and liver\\u000a energy stores were assessed during this period. Growth rates were elevated in HR fish compared to

Shodja Hashemi; Ronny Blust; Gudrun De Boeck



Specializations and limitations in the utilization of food resources by the carp, Cyprinus carpio : a study of oral food processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The wide variety of aquatic food is considered to be instrumental for the diversification in fish species. Yet their abilities\\u000a and inabilities of handling food are poorly known. For these reasons the food processing and feeding repertoire of the adult\\u000a carp, Cyprinus carpio, fed on a variety of food types, were analyzed by light and X-ray cinematography of the head

Ferdinand A. Sibbing



Effects of Vegetation Control by Grass Carp on Selected Water-Quality Variables in Four Florida Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (50\\/hectare) were introduced into three central-Florida lakes with dense infestations of the aquatic macrophyte hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata; aquatic vegetation and water quality were monitored for 43 months. They also were introduced (61\\/hectare) into a north-Florida reservoir with dense populations of Illinois pondweed Potamogeton illinoensis and Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum; aquatic vegetation and water quality were monitored

Andrew J. Leslie Jr; Larry E. Nall; Jess M. Van Dyke



Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.  


Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B



[Effect of silver carp stocking and fertilization on plankton community in enclosures in saline-alkaline ponds].  


The effect of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) stocking and fertilization on plankton community of enclosures ecosystem in saline-alkaline ponds were studied. After stocking silver carp in enclosures, the abundance, chlorophyll-a content and primary productivity of phytoplankton increased, and the biomass of phytoplankton was mainly composed by small species, such as diatom and green algae. Moreover, Euglnophyta and Chrysophyta were also subdominant species. The biomass of zooplankton decreased with fish stocking, and that of Cladocera was greater in control than in fish-culture enclosures. Zooplankton community was dominated by larger species such as Daphnia carinata in control enclosures. Fertilization, especially applying inorganic fertilizer, significantly increased the abundance and primary productivity of phytoplankton and the biomass of zooplankton. Although the biomass of plankton in the enclosures applied organic fertilizer was greater than that of control enclosures, the primary productivity and chlorophyll-a content of phytoplankton, the diversity index of plankton, and the P/R ratio were very low, and thus, silver carp grew slowly. The effect of filter feeding fish and applying fertilizer on the structure of plankton community was also discussed. PMID:11757386

Zhao, W; Dong, S; Zhang, Z; Li, D



Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

Vinodhini, Rajamanickam



Modulation of biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of toxic cyanobacterial biomass in diet.  


Cyanobacteria are producers of potent and environmentally abundant microcystins, representing an emerging global health issue. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cyanobacterial biomass on biochemical indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., average weight of 246 ± 73 g) under laboratory conditions. The fish were fed a diet containing cyanobacterial biomass with microcystins in high concentration (0.4 mg/kg of fish weight and day) for 28 days. Statistical evaluation of the influence of the cyanobacterial biomass in food on the biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed only minor differences. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase value and the urea concentration were significantly reduced compared to control group. The biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma significantly rose during the experiment in the control group as well as in the experimental group. This state was probably influenced by the environmental conditions and the fish diet. A significant rising value was established in calcium creatinine, total protein, phosphorus, lactate, urea and natrium. The present study demonstrates that the oral exposure of toxic cyanobacterial biomass has a minor influence on the biochemical indices of common carp and that the effect of other factors, e.g., nutrition is more visible. PMID:24972534

Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Navrátil, Stanislav; Mareš, Jan



Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.  


Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando



The existence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D sub 3 -1. alpha. -hydroxylase in the liver of carp and bastard halibut  

SciTech Connect

We have found that carp and bastard halibut contain 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}(25-D{sub 3})-1{alpha}-hydroxylase in the liver besides in the kidney by the following in vivo and in vitro experiments. When ({sup 3}H)-25-D{sub 3} was intraperitoneally injected to vitamin D(D)-deficient carp and normal bastard halibut, the profiles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the plasma lipid extract showed the formation of a peak corresponding to ({sup 3}H)-1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}(1,25-D{sub 3}). When ({sup 3}H)25-D{sub 3} was incubated with liver homogenates of the fish, a peak corresponding to ({sup 3}H)-1,25-D{sub 3} was also observed in the profile of HPLC. The formation of the metabolite was confirmed by the thermal isomerization into the pre-isomer and mass fragmentography. Although the 1{alpha}-hydroxylase was also observed in the kidney, the activity of the enzyme was lower than that in the liver. The results suggest that 25-D{sub 3}-1{alpha}-hydroxylase exists in the liver of carp and bastard halibut and the 25-D{sub 3} formed from D{sub 3} in the liver is immediately metabolized into 1,25-D{sub 3} in the same tissue.

Takeuchi, Atsuko; Okano, Toshio; Kobayashi, Tadashi (Kobe Women's College of Pharmacy (Japan))



Evaluation of a vector-control strategy of haemorrhagic thelohanellosis in carp, caused by Thelohanellus hovorkai (Myxozoa).  


The life cycle of Thelohanellus hovorkai (Myxozoa), the causative agent of haemorrhagic thelohanellosis of carp Cyprinus carpio, involves the alternate oligochaete host Branchiura sowerbyi, which plays the role of vector in the parasite's transmission. Field investigations in carp farms suggested that oligochaete fauna were closely associated with the substrate type of the pond. The pond bottom in the enzootic farm consisted of clay soil and soft sediments comprised of organic mud, in which B. sowerbyi dominated in high densities, with a maximum of 5.6 ind. kg(-1) soil. In another case, in a carp farm with no previous history of the disease, the pond bottom was sandy soil, in which small-sized oligochaetes, composed mainly of Limnodrilus socialis, dominated. Laboratory studies on the substrate preference of oligochaetes proved that B. sowerbyi prefers mud to sand, whereas L. socialis has no tendency to substrate tropism. The delicate body surface of B. sowerbyi was subject to damage by rugged-edged sand particles, which inflicted severe injuries to the worms. Transmission experiments showed that L. socialis, which are non-susceptible to T. hovorkai, suppressed the production of T. hovorkai actinospores in B. sowerbyi in a mixed assemblage of oligochaetes. Field and experimental evidence in this study imply that substrate replacement in culture ponds might regulate the benthic oligochaete communities, resulting in minimization of the impact of haemorrhagic thelohanellosis. We propose that ecological control of oligochaete fauna by environmental management is a promising strategy against myxozoan diseases. PMID:12887252

Liyanage, Yasoja S; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Hisatsugu



Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in immune organs of the common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos.  


Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are toxic and subject to long-term in vivo accumulation in different aquatic species throughout the world. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on cytokines in the head kidney and spleen of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA expression of IL-6fam (IL-6), IL-8, TNF-?, IL-10 and TGF-?1 (TGF-?) in the head kidney and spleen tissues. These results showed that the expression of cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? in the head kidney and spleen was upregulated following ATR, CPF and mixed ATR/CPF exposure compared with the control group. The expression of IL-10 and TGF-? mRNA was significantly inhibited in both head kidney and spleen of carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. The results suggested that long-term exposure of ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture in aquatic environments can induce the dysregulation of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on cytokine mRNA expression generated in this study will be important information for pesticides toxicology evaluation. PMID:25175644

Chen, Dechun; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Cao, Ye; Xing, Houjuan; Xu, Shiwen



Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.  


Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates. PMID:24859683

Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang



Observations on the effects of caged carp culture on water and sediment metal concentrations in lake Kasumigaura, Japan.  


The concentrations of 24 elements in the sediment and associated water column were monitored at two sites, one an area of intensive cage culture of carp, the other a wild site far from known cage culture areas, in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. The concentrations of most elements in Lake Kasumigaura are mostly sub-parts per billion, except those for Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, and Si. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, and Fe in Lake Kasumigaura are higher than the values in Lake Mashu, Lake Shikotsu, and Lake Biwa, and comparable to the levels in open ocean. Statistically significant differences in metal concentrations were observed between the culture and wild sites, with metal concentrations consistently higher at the culture site. Although cage culture of carp in the Lake Kasumigaura system may be causing localized increase in metal concentrations in the sediments, we must treat the results with caution, since the concentrations of metals observed in the sediments in 1995 were lower than those observed in 1979 for all metals at both sampling sites. In conclusion, further study of the concentrations of metals in the lake as a whole must be undertaken before the differences between the culture and wild sites can be proved, or disproved, to be the result of carp culture. PMID:11161684

Alam, M G; Tanaka, A; Stagnitti, F; Allinson, G; Maekawa, T



Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382



Effects of salt concentration on biogenic amine formation and quality changes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets stored at 4 and 20 °C.  


The effects of different salt concentrations on the quality changes of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fillets were evaluated in terms of biogenic amines, adenosine triphosphate and its related compounds, sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and total viable counts during 4 and 20 °C storage. Grass carp fillets were brined in solutions of 2% NaCl (T1) and 10% NaCl (T2), and unsalted carp fillets were used as controls (CK). T1 and T2 showed higher sensory scores than CK. According to the TVB-N values, CK, T1, and T2 could maintain the freshness of carp for approximately 9, 12, and 27 days, respectively, when stored at 4 °C. The higher salt concentration had better inhibitory effect on the accumulation of some biogenic amines, such as tryptamine (TRM), 2-phenylethylamine (PHE), putrescine (PUT), and cadaverine (CAD). TVB-N of untreated grass carp fillets showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TRM, PHE, PUT, and CAD during storage. PUT and CAD showed a significant (P < 0.05) correlation with TVB-N for T2 at 20 °C and T1 at 4 °C. PMID:24780335

Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Yin, Xiaofei; Wu, Hua; Bao, Yulong; Hong, Hui



Pre-treating algae-laden raw water by silver carp during Microcystis-dominated and non-Microcystis-dominated periods.  


Performance of pre-treating algae-laden raw water by silver carp during a non-Microcystis-dominated period (period I) and a Microcystis-dominated period (period II) was investigated in terms of algae cell concentration, total phosphorus content, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton species structure. During period I the ineffective filter-feeding for small green algae resulted in the increase of small single algae, which led to the negative removal of chlorophyll a, and when the biomass was higher, the negative was more significant. However, due to the effective filter-feeding of silver carp for Microcystis flos-aquae, the average removal efficiency exceeded 50% at all stocking biomass levels (20-120 g/m(3)) used in experiments during period II. Total phosphorus removal efficiencies could exceed 50% at silver carp biomass stocking levels of 60-80 g/m(3) during both period I and period II. The experimental results indicated that silver carp stocking contributed to the removal of colony-forming cyanobacteria, but led to the increase of single-cell algae (mainly green algae and diatoms) during both period I and period II. The initial phytoplankton community structure and the control of nutrient level were important factors in the choice of silver carp stocking biomass when used to purify algae-loaded water. PMID:22466592

Ma, Hua; Cui, Fuyi; Liu, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhiwei



Genetic differences between the Chinese and European races of the common carp.I. Analysis of genotype-environment interactions for growth rate.  


Growth rate of 12 groups of common carp was measured at five experimental environments. Three of the 12 tested groups were strains of the domesticated European race of the common carp, one group was a representative of the Big-Belly Chinese race, and the remaining eight groups were F1 crossbreds among the European strains and between the European and the Chinese races. The average growth rate over the five environments of the Chinese Big-Belly was considerably poorer than that of the European carp. All the inter-race crossbreds and the crossbreds among the European strains showed heterosis. When the genotype-environment interaction was presented as a linear function of the quality of the environment, the regression coefficient (the overall responsiveness parameter) assumed relatively low values in the Big-Belly and two to two-and-a-half fold higher values in the European carp. The overall responsiveness of crossbreds was, on the average, intermediate between the two parents. When, however, it was partitioned into a scale function of the average genotype and specific independent responsiveness, the two components showed a high degree of heterosis but in opposite directions. An explanation of this genetic system in terms of adaptive evolution to the diverse modes of carp domestication in Europe and China was given. PMID:1056320

Moav, R; Hulata, G; Wohlfarth, G



Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.  


The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3 %) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (sem 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3 % FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar



Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Cell Growth Inhibition by CARP-1 Functional Mimetics  

PubMed Central

Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory ?B (I?B) ? and ? proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.



Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels  

SciTech Connect

The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.



Native American Studies Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors Laura Jimenez-Olvera & Dewey St. Germaine 532 & 530:// Undergraduate Program The Native American Studies Program exists to broaden the understanding of students interested in the history, culture, and contemporary situations of Native Americans in the United States

Walker, Matthew P.


[Composition of leucocytes of the head kidney of the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) as affected by invasion of cestode Digramma interrupta (Cestoda; Pseudophyllidea)].  


The composition of leucocytes of the head kidney is studied in the crucian carps (Carassius auratus) either contaminated or uncontaminated with Digramma interrupta. The composition of leucocytes in the pronephros of the crucian carp from Lake Baikal basin has a lymphoid character. Compared to the crucian carp from the European part of Russia, in the fish from Baikal the granulocytopoetic processes are more pronounced. This is proved by the high content of young forms of granulocytes. In the fish infected with digramma, the immune suppression of proliferation of blasts and young forms of eosinophils was revealed. On the other hand, the inflammatory and humoral specific immune reactions are enhanced. Partial suppression of the immune response of C. auratus to invasion by D. interrupta facilitates development of the parasite. PMID:22292296

Kutyrev, I A; Pronin, N M; Dugarov, Zh N



Information processing in the system from light to horizontal cell response of the carp retina.  


In this paper, two types of experiments in the carp retina are presented. One is the analysis of responses to white-noise-modulated light at different average mean intensity levels recorded from L-type horizontal cells. For weak light, the responses fluctuated symmetrically around mean values. For brighter light, however, the distribution of amplitude of the response departed from the normal distribution. The deviation from the normal distribution was characterized in terms of symmetry rather than peakedness. The deviation also implies the existence of a nonlinearity in the system. The other type is with barium ion. Ba2+ produced dramatic effects on the spectral response patterns of horizontal cells; the depolarizing response to long wavelength light of the R/G cell and the hyperpolarizing response to deep red light of the Y/RB cell were eliminated in Ba2+-containing solutions. The response of the L cell to white-noise-modulated light was also changed by application of Ba2+. In Ba2+-containing solution, the response became larger as well as slower than that in normal solution. The results of Ba2+ are discussed in relation to the interactions between cone and horizontal cells. PMID:6659373

Umino, O; Watanabe, K



Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100?nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200??g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50??g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms. PMID:23093839

Lee, Byoungcheun; Duong, Cuong Ngoc; Cho, Jaegu; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Kyungtae; Seo, Youngrok; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Yoon, Junheon



On Reaction Order of the Denaturation of Carp Muscle Proteins in KCI solution During Frozen Storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A kinetic analysis was made, in some details, of the published data showing the rates of denaturation of carp muscle actomyosin or myofibrils in the frozen KCI solution. The logarithm of protein solubility or ATPase activity were correlated by two straight lines with different slopes in plotting against storage time. However, the first-order rate constants decreased significantly with the storage time. When the reciprocals of protein solubility or activity were plotted against storage time, a straight line was obtained throughout the almost entire storage period. The second-order rate constants were reasonably constant for the storage period. The reaction order of denaturation was approximately 3/2 to 5/2, as estimated by the differential method from the denaturation curves. The facts indicate that the reaction of freeze-denaturation in KCI solution is not of first-order, but of around second-order. The applicability of the first-order and second-order rate constants as a measure in evaluating the variables effect on denaturation was discussed.

Ohta, Fuyuo; Miki, Hidemasa; Nishimoto, Jun-Ichi


[Experimental study of 241Am transfer from herbal food to organs and tissues of crucian carp].  


Freshwater fishes (Carassius auratus gibelio, crucian carp) were fed through catheter with homogenized biomass of submerged macrophytes labeled with transuranium element 241Am. The intensity of excretion of americium and its accumulation in organs and tissues of fishes were investigated. The highest release of americium (up to 70%) was recorded on the second day after feeding. 94-98% of americium were excreted during 3-4 days; however, americium was also recorded in the excrements after 11 days. Americium was registered in organs and tissues of fishes, including those tissues that had no direct contact with americium (bones and muscles). This implies assimilation of americium via digestive tract. The activity concentration of americium in bones (11 Bq/kg, fresh mass) was twice as high as that in muscles, heads and external tissues and organs (skin, scales and fins). The highest activity concentration of americium was registered in viscera (33 Bq/kg, 48% of the total activity in the body). Accumulation of americium in muscles enhances the probability of the further transfer of americium along a food chain. PMID:21674957

Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dement'ev, D V; Bolsunovski?, A Ia



Identification of promoter within the first intron of Plzf gene expressed in carp spermatogonial stem cells.  


Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf), a transcriptional repressor, is involved in survival and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells including embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells in mammals. Its cDNA was characterized and expression in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu (Labeo rohita), a farmed carp, was documented. In teleost, the information on its promoter activity is lacking. Here, we have isolated, sequenced and performed the first characterization of regulatory elements for Plzf being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu. About 3.2 kb of 5'-flanking region, relative to ATG start codon, derived by genome walking was sequenced. The 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis not only mapped the transcriptional start site but also detected non-coding exons. Interestingly, computational analysis detected several putative regulatory elements including TATA-box positioned in the first intron. Luciferase reporter assay was performed for serially deleted constructs to measure their promoter activities. The region containing putative TATA- and CAAT-boxes including GC-rich motif, positioned within first intron, was identified as a potential promoter; but its full promoter activity was dependent on upstream region containing a putative Evi-1-like element. Moreover, our findings also identified a region acting as transcriptional repressor. These findings could be used as roadmap for future understandings of its regulated expression during male germ cell development in fish species. PMID:24990695

Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Barman, Hirak Kumar



Silver nanoparticles disrupt olfaction in Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis).  


The present study investigates the effect of silver nanoparticles on olfaction in Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). The electro-olfactogram (EOG) signal was recorded by stimulating the olfactory epithelium with pulses of the odorant L-alanine during the pre-exposure, silver exposure and recovery periods, respectively. The nanosilver suspension concentrations applied were 0.00, 0.45 and 45 ?g L?¹, respectively. Secondly, to compare the toxicity of silver nanoparticles with silver ions, perch were exposed to ionic silver. During exposure to nanosilver suspension, the olfactory epithelium rapidly hyperpolarized, which was not found after exposure to silver ion solution. Exposure to 0.45 ?g L?¹ nanosilver suspension led to enhanced EOG responses, whereas exposure to 45 ?g L?¹ silver nanoparticle suspension and silver ion solution resulted in suppressed EOG signals. The EOG signals partly recovered in silver-free water. The silver nanoparticle olfactory toxicity is believed to be a combination of silver particles and released silver ions. PMID:21570937

Bilberg, Katrine; Døving, Kjell B; Beedholm, Kristian; Baatrup, Erik



Prevalence and characterization of quinolone resistance in Laribacter hongkongensis from grass carp and Chinese tiger frog.  


Laribacter hongkongensis is a food-borne bacterium associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and diarrhoea. Quinolone resistance was recently reported in bacterial isolates from aquatic products, but the molecular mechanisms for resistance were still unknown. In this study, a total of 157 L. hongkongensis strains were isolated from grass carps (n = 443) and Chinese tiger frogs (n = 171). Twenty-one ciprofloxacin-resistant strains were analysed for mutations in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR), acquired quinolone resistance (AQR) genes and the role of efflux pumps in resistance. All QRDR mutations in gyrA (codons 85 and 89) and parC (codons 83 and 231) were found to be closely associated with ciprofloxacin resistance. The AQR gene aac(6')-Ib-cr was found in 42.9% (9/21) of the resistant strains, but qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS and qepA were not detected. No significant change of MICs to ciprofloxacin was observed in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, indicating the role of efflux pump was probably absent. All 21 ciprofloxacin-resistant strains showed different electrophoretic patterns, which suggested they were not genetically related. These data highlight the importance of QRDR mutations and the AQR gene aac(6')-Ib-cr during the development of quinolone resistance in a heterogeneous population of L. hongkongensis. PMID:23906590

Chen, Ding-Qiang; Yang, Ling; Luo, Yu-Ting; Mao, Min-Jie; Lin, Yong-Ping; Wu, Ai-Wu



DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

Emmenegger, E. J.; Kurath, G.



In vivo effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) on innate immune responses of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important members of Fusarium toxins since it often can be found in relevant concentrations in animal feeds. The effects of this group of toxins on fish are mostly unknown. The present study shows results from a feeding trial with carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using three different concentrations of DON (352?gkg(-1), 619?gkg(-1), and 953?gkg(-1) final feed, respectively) which are comparable to levels found in commercial fish feeds. Effects on growth and mass of fish were not observed during this 6weeks lasting experiment. Only marginal DON concentrations were found in muscle and plasma samples. Blood parameters were not influenced although smaller erythrocytes occurred in fish treated with 352?gkg(-1) DON. Analysis of antioxidative enzymes in erythrocytes showed increased superoxid dismutase and catalase activities in fish fed the low-dose feed. Immunosuppressive effects of DON were confirmed whereby cytotoxic effects on immune cells only partly explained the impairment of innate immune responses. Exact polarization of the immune system into pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses due to DON exposure should be clarified in further experiments, especially since the current results raise concern about impaired immune function in fish raised in aquaculture. PMID:24650758

Pietsch, Constanze; Michel, Christian; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia



Molecular cloning and expression analysis of mannose receptor C type 1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  


Mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a significant role in immune responses. Much work on MRC1 has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this study, we cloned and characterized MRC1 in grass carp (gcMR). The full-length gcMR contained 5291bp encoding a putative protein of 1432 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that gcMR contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich (CR) domain, a fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic domain. gcMR were constitutively expressed in different organs with the higher expression in spleen and head kidney. During embryonic development, gcMR transcript levels were highest at cleavage stage. The up-regulation expression of gcMR, IL-1? and TNF-? in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection indicating it involved in innate immune regulation during bacterial infections. PMID:24184700

Wang, Li; Liu, Lichun; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoheng; Xi, Mingjun; Wei, Shun; Fang, Rui; Ji, Wei; Chen, Nan; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Xueqin; Wang, Weimin; Asim, Muhammad; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li



Effects and mechanism of modified starches on the gel properties of myofibrillar protein from grass carp.  


The effects and mechanism of cassava starch (CS), hydroxypropylated cassava starch (HCS) and cross-linked hydroxypropylated cassava starch (CHCS), on gel properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) from grass carp were investigated using texture analyzer, dynamic rheometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and circular dichroism (CD). Water holding capacity (WHC) of MP gels increased from 70% to ca. 90% with an increase in additive amount of modified starches (MS) and HCS improved WHC most effectively. The MS (HCS and CS) at proper additive amount (1.5 wt%) improved the textural properties of MP gels significantly (P<0.05). In rheological test, all MS-MP solutions showed viscoelastic nature of MP, but adding MS resulted in much higher G', suggesting the effect of MS (especially 2.5 wt% CHCS) was considerable and equal to increasing protein concentration. The SEM photographs showed the MP gel with 2.5 wt% CHCS or 0.5 wt% HCS formed compact and homogeneous network, while the gel with CS agglomerated and the agglomerate phenomenon occurred more obviously with increasing additive amount. The addition of MS, especially CHCS, promoted the heat-induced conformational transition from the ?-helix companied with ?-turn to ?-sheet, leading to the MP molecules stretching out. PMID:24296404

Sun, Fengyuan; Huang, Qilin; Hu, Ting; Xiong, Shanbai; Zhao, Siming



Biological significance of ( sup 14 C)phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of ({sup 14}C)phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J. (Visva-Bharati Univ., Santiniketan (India))



Majority Gate Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methods for realizing simple threshold functions of n arguments by networks of k-input majority gates, where k?n. An optimal network realization of the 5-argument majority function using 3-input majority gates is given, and it is then generalized by steps with realizations for the (2n-l)-argument majority function (where n = 3, 4, ...) using (2n-3)-input majority gates, and

S. Amarel; G. Cooke; R. O. Winder



De novo Assembly of the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Transcriptome to Identify miRNA Targets Associated with Motile Aeromonad Septicemia  

PubMed Central

Background De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method of predicting miRNA target genes, especially for organisms without reference genomes. Differentially expressed miRNAs had been identified previously in kidney samples collected from susceptible and resistant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) affected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Target identification for these differentially expressed miRNAs poses a major challenge in this non-model organism. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of susceptible and resistant C. idella were sequenced by Illumina Hiseq 2000 technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 199,593 transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. A BLASTx analysis against a non-redundant protein database revealed that 61,373 unigenes coded for 28,311 annotated proteins. Two cDNA libraries from susceptible and resistant samples showed that 721 unigenes were expressed at significantly different levels; 475 were significantly up-regulated and 246 were significantly down-regulated in the SG samples compared to the RG samples. The computational prediction of miRNA targets from these differentially expressed genes identified 188 unigenes as the targets of 5 conserved and 4 putative novel miRNA families. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The transcriptome assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for C. idella and will provide insights into the gene expression profile analysis and the miRNA function annotations in further studies. PMID:25409340

Fu, Jianjun; Lu, Liqun; Li, Jiale



Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4–25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0–275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), ?- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na+/K+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na+/K+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG. PMID:23922879

Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu



Regulation of adipocytes lipolysis by n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in vitro and in vivo.  


N-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) have been shown to inhibit body fat accumulation in animals. To clarify the mechanism of this fat-lowering effect of n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, isolated grass carp mature adipocytes were incubated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations for 6 h. The release of glycerol to the medium was detected, and the expression of the lipolysis-related genes was analyzed. In experiment 2, a 95-day feeding trial was conducted with two diets formulated with either lard oil (as control) or fish oil (supplying n-3 HUFA as treatment) as the main lipid source. The glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) released from the isolated adipocytes of both groups were detected after the feeding period. The expression of select lipolysis-related genes in adipose tissue was also analyzed. The results from experiment 1 showed that the release of glycerol was significantly increased by DHA and EPA (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of lipolysis-related genes, such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and leptin, was also significantly elevated in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Experiment 2 demonstrated that glycerol and FFA release from the isolated adipocytes were significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The expression level of ATGL, HSL, TNF? and leptin in the treatment group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The present results provide novel evidence that n-3 HUFAs could regulate grass carp adipocyte lipolysis in vitro or in vivo, and the effect might be in part associated with their influence on the expression of lipolysis-related genes and lipolysis-related adipokines genes. PMID:24737494

Liu, Pin; Li, Chao; Huang, Jiqin; Ji, Hong



Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of interferon-? promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.  


IPS-1 (interferon-? promoter stimulator 1), also known as MAVS/VISA/Cardif, plays a central role in antiviral immunity. In this manuscript, we cloned and characterized IPS-1 from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (designated as CiIPS-1). The CiIPS-1 cDNA is 2412 bp long and consists of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 124 bp, a 3' UTR of 497 bp with three cytokine RNA instability motifs (ATTTA) and a polyadenylation signal (AATAAA), and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1791 bp encoding a polypeptide of 596 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 64.1 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.79. Structural analysis showed that the CiIPS-1 protein contained an N-terminal CARD (caspase activation and recruitment domain), a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Similarity analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the CiIPS-1 by MatGAT software revealed that the CiIPS-1 shared 27.8-76.4% identity and 47.4-85.2% similarity with other known piscine IPS-1 sequences. The CiIPS-1 mRNA was constitutively expressed in the examined tissues, higher in spleen, and was induced by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) injection by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the CiIPS-1 mRNA expression was rapidly and significantly up-regulated in vivo and in vitro after GCRV infection, and the CiIPS-1 transcripts were also significantly enhanced in vitro post the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic potassium salt (poly(I:C)) stimulation. These results indicated that CiIPS-1 was an inducible acute-phase protein and involved in the immune reaction to GCRV in grass carp. PMID:21078397

Su, Jianguo; Huang, Teng; Yang, Chunrong; Zhang, Rongfang



Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on activity and transcription of glutathione S-transferase in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


Glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes (GSTs) play a critical role in detoxification pathways. Here we report the tissue distribution of four antioxidant GSTs gene in common carp, and their expression profiles. We also investigated the GSTs activity in different tissues after exposure to the agricultural chemicals atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and their mixture. Relative changes in the mRNA abundance of the GST isoforms were examined by real time PCR in liver, brain, kidney and gill of common carp. After exposure and recovery, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the GSTs activity in animals exposed to high concentrations of ATR (428 ?g/L), CPF (116 ?g/L), and their mixture (113 ?g/L). At basal levels of tissue expression, four GSTs transcript were detected in liver, brain, kidney, and gill. High expression levels were found in all examined tissues. Transcription of some GST isoforms, GST kappa (GSTK), GST theta (GSTT) and GST rho (GSTR), decreased after exposure to CPF and ATR for the entire experimental period in both the kidney and gill. However, increased transcription of GST mu (GSTM) was observed in the kidney or gill 20 d after exposure to ATR or CPF, respectively. Transcription of both GSTT and GSTR was inhibited for the entire experimental period in the brain, kidney and gill of animals exposed to the ATR/CPF mixture, but transcription of GSTM was induced in the liver after 40 d of exposure. In summary, changes in the GSTs activity and their transcription varied within each organ and among organs of common carp after exposure to ATR, CPF, and their mixture. PMID:22236720

Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Xu; Sun, Gang; Gao, Xuejiao; Xu, Shiwen; Wang, Xiaolong



Spectral sensitivity of the electroretinogram b-wave in dark-adapted Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio Bloch, 1782).  


One of the purposes of this study was to examine whether b-wave measurements can be used in the evaluation of scotopic spectral sensitivity in Prussian carp measurements when the eyes were surgically deprived of cornea, lens, and most of the vitreous. Another goal was testing the new fitting procedure for A2-based photopigments. Using fitted amplitude-log intensity functions for threshold calculation, and two models for computer-assisted fitting of spectral sensitivity curves, no significant differences in ? max were found between rod photopigments and b-wave-based spectral sensitivity. PMID:25151269

Ga?i?, Z; Baji?, A; Miloševi?, M; Nik?evi?, M; Mi?kovi?, B; Hegediš, A; Ga?i?, L; Damjanovi?, I



Developmental toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in artificially fertilized crucian carp (Carassius auratus) embryo.  


2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent bioaccumulative environmental contaminant that is an endocrine disruptor. Embryos of various fish species are responsive to TCDD and have been used as an alternative method to the acute toxicity test with juvenile and adult fish. The TCDD test has similar endpoints of developmental toxicity. However, their sensitivity and signs of TCDD-induced toxicity are different depending on fish species and its habit. Crucian carp (Carassius auratus) - the sentinel species for persistent organic pollutants and a common foodfish in China, Japan, and Korea - was used to identify the developmental toxicity of TCDD. We obtained the fertilized eggs from the artificial fertilization of crucian carp (97.45% success rate). Embryos at 3h post fertilization (hpf) were exposed to no vehicle, vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, 0.1% v/v) or TCDD (0.128, 0.32, 0.8, 2 and 5 ?g/L) for 1h and then fresh water was changed and aerated. Embryonic development and toxicity were monitored until 150 hpf. TCDD-exposed group showed no effects on embryo mortality and hatching rate from 6 to 126 hpf. On the other hand, the post-hatching mortality rate in TCDD-exposed group was increased in a dose-dependent manner, especially at high doses (0.8, 2 and 5 ?g/L). The LD50 for larval mortality was calculated to 0.24 ng TCDD/g embryo. Pericardial edema was continuously observed in larvae of TCDD-exposed groups from hatching complete time (78 hpf), followed by the onset of yolk sac edema. Hemorrhage and edema showed a significant increase depending on exposure concentration and time. Expression of TCDD-related CYP1A genes was evaluated quantitatively. Embryo and larvae in TCDD-exposed groups displayed a significant increase of CYP1A gene expression. Overall, we defined TCDD-induced toxicity in artificially fertilized crucian carp embryo and these results suggest that crucian carp can be applied as an early life stage model of TCDD-induced toxicity. PMID:24751158

Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Min Jee; Kim, Ha Ryong; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min



Seasonal fluctuation of Myxobolus gibelioi (myxosporea) plasmodia in the gills of the farmed allogynogenetic gibel carp in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal fluctuation of the plasmodia of Myxobolus gibelioi Wu et Wang, 1982 in the gill filaments of the allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in a fish pond in Hubei Province of China was investigated from August 1999 to July 2000. A total of 445 fish was examined; the overall prevalence of the plasmodium infection in the fish was 64.94% and mean abundance of plasmodia was 11.65±27.85 (mean±SD). Significant seasonal changes in prevalence and mean abundance, with higher levels of the plasmodia infection from late spring to autumn, were observed.

Wang, Guitang; Yao, Weijian; Gong, Xiaoning; Wang, Jianguo; Nie, Pin



Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel



Synthetic Pyrethroid effect on blood plasma biomarker enzymes and histological changes in Catla catla  

PubMed Central

Alpha-cypermethrin is an isoform of cypermethrin; it is an active pyrethroid used extensively to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and animal breeding. In this study four groups of six fish were examined. The first group served as a control in fresh water alone, with no pyrethroid. The second, third and fourth groups were exposed to alpha-cypermethrin for 4, 8 and 96 h respectively. At the end of the each exposure period, the fish were sacrificed, and the required muscle tissues were collected for histological examination. The blood was drawn with heparinized needles and processed for serum enzymatic studies. Serum enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), amylase, acid phosphatase (ACP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at 4, 8 and 96 h. AST enzyme activity was significantly increased at 4 h, whereas ALT and amylase enzyme activities were significantly reduced at all the time points. ACP enzyme activity was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 h, whereas GGT enzyme activity was significantly increased at all the time points. Hepatocyte cytoplasmic vacuolisation and degeneration, rupture of blood vessels, and necrosis was found at all time points. Congestion of blood vessels, bulging, distortion of filaments, erosion and disintegration of blood corpuscles and hyperplasia of epithelium were found in treated gills at 4, 8 and 96 h. Breakdown of muscle fibres, vacuolation and accumulation of lipids and melanin in white muscle were observed in treated fish muscle at 4, 8 and 96 h. PMID:23438254

Muthuviveganandavel, Veerappan; Hwang, Inho; Anita, Vanattayen; Malarani, Pattabiraman S; Selvam, Chandrasekar; Hemalatha, Moorthy; Pandurangan, Muthuraman



Major Rock Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the University of Saskatchewan contains general information on the major rock groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Describes the rock cycle and the properties and formation of each major rock group.



The Age of Majority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.


GRP78 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) provides cytoplasm protection against thermal and Pb2+ stress.  


Glucose regulated protein (GRP) located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was a member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family. The protective mechanism adapted to ER stimuli was closely related to GRP. GRP78, known as BiP, was one of central regulator responded to stress in ER. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) GRP78 (CiGRP78) was up-regulated in almost tissues, especially in liver, under heat shock (34 °C), cold stress (4 °C) or lead nitrate (0.25 mmol/L) stress. In order to understand the function of CiGRP78 in cellular protection, CiGRP78 ORF cDNA was inserted into the plasmid of pET-32a(+) or pEGFP-C1 respectively, then the recombinant plasmids were transformed or transfected into Escherichia coli cells, mouse myeloma cells (SP2/0) or grass carp kidney cells (CIK). In the cells, CiGRP78 was over-expressed following thermal, cold or Pb(2+) stress. Results showed that CiGRP78 not only contributed to protecting prokaryotic cells against thermal or cold extremes, but also played the same role in SP2/0 and CIK cells. After treatment with heat stress at 42 °C for 1 h, although the viability of the cells declined a lot, CIK cells with pEGFP-C1/CiGRP78 exhibited a higher survival rate (28%) than wild-type cells (7%) or cells with only pEGFP-C1 (5.1%). When the time lag extended to 2.5 h, the survival rates were 19%, 5.7%, 4.8% respectively. In addition, CiGRP78 would also provide a transient cytoplasm protection against Pb(2+) stress in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After treatment with lead nitrate at concentration of 10 ?mol/L for 12 h, 24 h or 36 h, the survival rates of cells with pEGFP-C1 or wild-type cells were 46.7% or 46.7% (12 h), 25% or 22% (24 h), 10% or 11% (36 h) respectively. When the cells were treated with lead nitrate at the concentration of 25 ?mol/L, the survival rates of cells with pEGFP-C1 or wild-type cells were 45.5% or 30% (12 h), 16.7% or 25% (24 h), 6.5% or 8% (36 h), respectively. CiGRP78 provided a distinct protection in CIK cells at the low concentration for 24 h. The survival rates of CIK cells with pEGFP-C1/CiGRP78 treated with lead nitrate at concentration of 10 ?mol/L or 25 ?mol/L were 65.9% or 58.8% respectively. When the cells were treated with lead nitrate at concentration of 50 ?mol/L for 24 h, the survival rate of the CIK cells was only about 30%. If the process-time was extended to 36 h, CiGRP78 could not provide any cytoplasm protection for CIK cells. PMID:23274159

Zhu, Yujiao; Fan, Qidi; Mao, Huiling; Liu, Yong; Hu, Chengyu



Gene-based polymorphisms, genomic organization of interferon-? promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) gene and association study with the natural resistance to grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.  


Interferon-? promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1) plays a pivotal role in the production of type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Though its function in innate immunity was widely studied, its genetic polymorphisms and evolution information were rarely known. Herein, the present study firstly identified and characterized the genomic organization of CiIPS-1 (IPS-1 gene of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella) and its nucleotide polymorphisms. CiIPS-1 consists of 8789 bp, with a 314 bp 5'-flanking region, 6 exons and 5 introns. After a challenge experiment, statistical analysis was performed to assess the association between the 17 polymorphisms of CiIPS-1 and the natural resistance of C. idella to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), which revealed that -3741 C/T in the intron 1, 933 C/G in the coding sequence and 2299 G/T in the last intron were significant (P < 0.05). The subsequent secondary challenge test further confirmed that -3741TT group were more resistant than -3741CC group to GCRV infection, while 933GG and 2299GG stocks were respectively more susceptible than 933CC and 2299TT stocks (P < 0.05). In addition, haplotype and polymorphism-polymorphism interaction analyses uncovered four significant haplotypes (P < 0.05) and two notable polymorphisms. These findings may provide basic data for the further functional research of CiIPS-1, and genetic markers for molecular and transgenic breeding of C. idella. PMID:24001582

Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo; Chen, Xiaohui; Yang, Chunrong



Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications  

PubMed Central

Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner. PMID:23718202



[Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in wild crucian carp and exposure estimation of dietary intake].  


The concentration and distribution of PBDEs in liver, heart, brain, egg and muscle tissues of market farmed fish and wild river fish (crucian carp) from Taizhou, which is a large e-waste recycling site in China, were quantitatively measured using gas chromatography -negative chemical ion tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS). The dietary intake of PBDEs via the consumption of fish by the population of this region was also estimated. The results showed that the concentrations of PBDEs in the muscle of river fish samples near the e-waste recycling site were significantly higher than those in the market farmed fish without obviously polluted sources of PBDEs. The distribution of PBDEs in various tissues was not even, and the highest and lowest mean concentrations of total PBDEs ( sigma PBDEs) were 18.82 ng x g(-1) and 1.97 ng x g(-1) (wet weight), in heart and egg tissues, respectively. A similar PBDE congener profiles in different tissues of farmed fish were found. Among PBDE congeners, BDE-47 was predominant in various tissues accounting for above 50% of the total PBDEs, and followed by BDE-183 (about 20%), BDE-99 and BDE-153. While different profiles of PBDEs in muscle tissues between wild fish in river and market farmed fish were observed, that BDE-47, -153 and -99 were dominant for the former type. These facts suggested primitive e-waste recycling behavior to be a pollution source of high levels of PBDEs in wild fish. The average estimated daily intake of PBDEs via river fish consumption by local residents near the e-waste recycling site in Taizhou was approximately 29.0 ng, slightly higher than that in other regions. PMID:25338396

Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yang-Cheng; Lin, Kuang-Fei



Habitat-Specific Locomotor Variation among Chinese Hook Snout Carp (Opsariichthys bidens) along a River  

PubMed Central

The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in its flow regime and habitat condition. Dams have been built along the Wujiang River and have altered the habitats profoundly enough that they may give rise to reproductive isolation. To test whether the swimming performance and morphology of the Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens), varied among habitats and whether the possible differences had a genetic basis, we measured the steady and unsteady swimming performance, external body shape and genetic distance among fish collected from both the main and tributary streams of the upper, middle and lower reaches along the river. We also measured the routine energy expenditure (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), cost of transport (COT) and calculated the optimal swimming speed. The steady swimming capacity, RMR, MMR and optimal swimming speed were all higher and the COT was lower in the upper reach or tributary streams compared with the lower reach or main stream. However, unsteady swimming performance showed no variation among collecting sites. Flow regimes as suggested by river slope and water velocity were positively correlated with steady swimming performance but not with unsteady swimming performance. Predation stress were significantly related with body morphology and hence energy cost during swimming but not Ucrit value. The fish from only one population (Hao-Kou) showed relatively high genetic differentiation compared with the other populations. Fish from the upper reach or tributary streams exhibited improved steady swimming performance through improved respiratory capacity and lower energy expenditure during swimming at the cost of higher maintenance metabolism. There was no correlation between the steady and unsteady swimming performance at either the population or the individual levels. These results suggest that a trade-off between steady and unsteady swimming does not occur in O. bidens. PMID:22829884

Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Zuogang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; He, Xiao-Ke; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, An-Jie



Overexpression of Hsp90 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) increases thermal protection against heat stress.  


With homologous DNA probes, we had screened a grass carp heat shock protein 90 gene (CiHsp90). The full sequence of CiHsp90 cDNA was 2793 bp, which could code a 798 amino acids peptide. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CiHsp90 shared the high homology with Zebrafish Grp94. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that CiHsp90 was ubiquitously expressed at lower levels in all detected tissues and up-regulated after heat shock at 34 °C or cold stress at 4 °C. To understand the function of CiHsp90 involving in thermal protection, an expression vector containing coding region cDNA was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) plysS. Upon transfer from 37 °C to 42 °C, these cells that accumulated CiHsp90 peptides displayed greater thermoresistance than the control cells. While incubated at 4°C for different periods, it could also improve the cell viability. After transient transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/CiHsp90 into mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0, we found that CiHsp90 could contribute to protecting cells against both thermal and cold extremes. On the contrary, the mutant construct ?N-CiHsp90 (256-798aa) could abolish the protection activity both in prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Additionally, both CiHsp90 and ?N-CiHsp90 peptides could reduce the level of citrate synthase aggregation at the high temperature. PMID:22510210

Wu, Chu-Xin; Zhao, Feng-Yun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Yu-Jiao; Ma, Mei-Sheng; Mao, Hui-Ling; Hu, Cheng-Yu



Growth, production and food preference of rohu Labeo rohita (H.) in monoculture and in polyculture with common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) under fed and non-fed ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out in 18 earthen ponds to investigate the effects of the addition of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) and artificial feed on natural food availability, food utilization and fish production in rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) ponds. Ponds were fertilized fortnightly with cow manure, urea and triple super phosphate. Rohu was stocked in all ponds at a

M. M. Rahman; M. C. J. Verdegem; L. A. J. Nagelkerke; M. A. Wahab; A. Milstein; J. A. J. Verreth



152 CULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. of wine pour one-half gill warm vinegar over the pieces of carp before  

E-print Network

in a covered dish. Take some spices and herbs as in No. 1, and boil thoroughly with onepint water, one pint red softened with water, three sardels, some capers, mace, salt, pepper, lemon peel, onion, and the liver the pieces of carp before putting them into the pot, and add it to the boiling. Boil fifteen minutes longer


Reciprocal interaction between fish TGF-?1 and IL-1? is responsible for restraining IL-1? signaling activity in grass carp head kidney leukocytes.  


In the present study, we found that recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) simultaneously up-regulated grass carp IL-1? (gcIL-1?) and TGF-?1 (gcTGF-?1) expression via NF-?B and MAPK signaling in grass carp head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), promoting us to clarify whether TGF-?1 is an effective antagonist in IL-1? expression and activity. Our results showed that a stimulation of gcIL-1? on its own expression was noted within 6?h, but gcTGF-?1 neutralizing antibody prolonged gcIL-1? autostimulation up to 12?h, indicating a possible inhibitory role of gcTGF-?1 in regulating gcIL-1? effect. This notion was reinforced by the fact that recombinant grass carp TGF-?1 (rgcTGF-?1) could impede rgcIL-1?-induced gcIL-1? gene expression and secretion in a reciprocal manner. Further studies revealed that rgcTGF-?1 was able to attenuate rgcIL-1?-induced mRNA expression of its own receptor signaling molecules and the activation of NF-?B. By contrast, rgcIL-1? significantly amplified rgcTGF-?1-mediated gcTGF-?1 type I receptor (ALK5) expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in the same cell model. Taken together, these data shed light on an intrinsic mechanism for controlling inflammatory response by the reciprocal interaction between TGF-?1 and IL-1? in teleost. PMID:25092146

Yang, Xiao; Wei, He; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Shengnan; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Du, Linyong; Zhou, Hong



Comparative analysis of differential gene expression in kidney tissues of moribund and surviving crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in response to cyprinid herpesvirus 2 infection.  


Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) has recently been associated with high mortality of cultured crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) in eastern China. In this study, we established a real-time PCR method to confirm viral infection of crucian carp and to quantify CyHV-2 particles obtained by sucrose gradient centrifugation from diseased fish. Virus-free crucian carp were artificially infected with CyHV-2 using an injection method, which resulted in a dose-dependent death rate. In situ hybridization analysis indicated that there was extensive viral replication and lysis in the kidneys of moribund fish, in contrast to very limited replication in surviving fish. To probe the host immune response to viral infection at the level of gene expression, we identified virus-responsive genes using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) in head kidney tissues, the principal immune organ of fish, from moribund and surviving crucian carps after viral challenge. From the moribund SSH library, 363 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were clustered to 234 unigenes (including 15 singletons and 45 contigs). From the survivor SSH library, 599 ESTs was clustered to 549 unigenes (including 107 singletons and 105 contigs). We further analyzed the transcriptional levels of all immune-related genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which confirmed the upregulation of 90.48 % of these genes. The significantly upregulated immune-related genes identified in this study can serve as candidate marker genes for acute CyHV-2 infection. PMID:24585042

Xu, Lijuan; Podok, Patarida; Xie, Jun; Lu, Liqun



Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar



Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Ae34, Isolated from a Septicemic and Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), a Freshwater Aquarium Fish.  


Aeromonas hydrophila is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila Ae34, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the kidney of a moribund koi carp (Ciprinus carpio koi) with signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. PMID:24926056

Jagoda, S S S De S; Tan, Engkong; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo; Asakawa, Shuichi



Gynogenesis in carp, Cyprinus Carpio L. and tench, Tinca Tinca L. induced by 60Co radiation in highly homogeneous radiating field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with a method of fertility inactivation of fish spermatozoa by gamma radiation. Spermatozoa motility remained unchanged after irradiation. Irradiated sperm has been utilized to induced gynogenesis by means of retention of the second polar body and of mitotic gynogenesis, realized in carp for the first time. Homogeneity of gamma-rays field was + - 1 %.

Pipota, J.; Linhart, O.


Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead....


Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas hydrophila Strain Ae34, Isolated from a Septicemic and Moribund Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio koi), a Freshwater Aquarium Fish  

PubMed Central

Aeromonas hydrophila is an important opportunistic pathogen that infects a variety of aquatic and terrestrial animals, including humans. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. hydrophila Ae34, a multidrug-resistant isolate from the kidney of a moribund koi carp (Ciprinus carpio koi) with signs of hemorrhagic septicemia. PMID:24926056

Jagoda, S. S. S. De S.; Tan, Engkong; Arulkanthan, Appudurai; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo



Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver, spleen, and head kidney following experimental Listeria monocytogenes infection.  


Infection of carp with Listeria monocytogenes 4b resulted in decreased liver, spleen, and head kidney enzyme activities, involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. After infection, cytochrome P-450 levels and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were decreased while conjugation enzymes remained unaffected. The maximum decrease for phase I enzymes occurred on d 3. This loss of monooxygenase levels and activity could not be directly correlated with an increase in the number of organisms, as consistently high bacterial counts were observed in all three organs during infection. The effect of L. monocytogenes infection was also measured in carp exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Cytochrome P-450 levels and EROD activity were significantly reduced, especially on d 3. A significant decreased activity of conjugation enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) was also observed for all days studied. Listeria infection inhibited MCA-induced increases in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities. These results indicate that infection may have deleterious effects on basal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase levels. Furthermore, MCA treatment aggravates the insult to xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes by L. monocytogenes infection, by impairing a number of detoxification enzymes. These findings could result in significant changes in the susceptibility of fish to pollutants. PMID:9973004

Chambras, C; Marionnet, D; Taysse, L; Deschaux, P; Moreau, J; Bosgiraud, C



Using Structured Expert Judgment to Assess Invasive Species Prevention: Asian Carp and the Mississippi--Great Lakes Hydrologic Connection  

PubMed Central

Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555



Effect of chronic exposure to simazine on oxidative stress and antioxidant response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


We investigated the chronic effect of simazine, an s-triazine herbicide commonly present in aquatic environments, on the antioxidant system and oxidative stress indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of 0.06 ?g l(-1) (environmental concentration in Czech rivers), 2 mg l(-1), and 4 mg l(-1) for 14, 28 and 60 days. Indices of oxidative stress [reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)], and antioxidant parameters [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH)] in fish brain, gill, muscle, liver, and intestine were measured. Chronic exposure to simazine showed the impact of the increased production of ROS leading to oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and inhibition of antioxidant capacity. Activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in groups with high concentrations (2 mg l(-1), 4 mg l(-1)) increased at 14 and 28 days, but decreased after 60 days exposure (p<0.01) as compared with the control group. Changes in enzyme activity were mainly in the liver, but also in gills and brain. Prolonged exposure to simazine resulted in excess ROS formation finally resulting in oxidative damage to cell lipids and proteins and also inhibited antioxidant capacities in common carp tissue. PMID:22301164

Stara, Alzbeta; Machova, Jana; Velisek, Josef



Using structured expert judgment to assess invasive species prevention: Asian carp and the Mississippi-Great Lakes hydrologic connection.  


Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555

Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Lodge, David M



Effects of Subchronic Exposure to N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide on Selected Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is the most common active ingredient in the insect repellents commonly detected in European groundwater. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic DEET exposure on biochemical and haematological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, and the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Two specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes were selected to assess an immunological status of the fish. Fish were exposed for 28 days to three concentrations of DEET (1.0?µg/L, 0.1?mg/L, and 1.0?mg/L) where 1?µg/L is corresponding to the concentration found in the environment. DEET had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on increased RBC, decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin value (MCH) compared to control groups in the concentration of 1?mg/L. A significant decline (P < 0.05) in triacylglycerols (TAG) in plasma was found in the concentration of 1?mg/L compared to the control groups. The parameters of oxidative stress in tissues of common carp were weekly affected and immunological parameters were not affected. PMID:24795897

Slaninova, Andrea; Modra, Helena; Hostovsky, Martin; Sisperova, Eliska; Blahova, Jana; Matejova, Iveta; Vicenova, Monika; Faldyna, Martin; Zelnickova, Lenka; Tichy, Frantisek; Svobodova, Zdenka



Integrated biomarkers in wild crucian carp for early warning of water quality in Hun River, North China.  


Metabolizing enzymes play important roles in the detoxification of various pollutants in aquatic organisms, thereby they can also be used to provide early-warning signals of environmental risks. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were developed to quantify cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The methods were then used to detect the respective mRNA expression levels in liver tissue in wild crucian carp from the Hun River, North China. CYP1A mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in fish from stations S5, S6, and S8 (p < 0.05). SOD mRNA expression was significantly down-regulated in downstream areas relative to fish from upstream sites (p < 0.05); GPx and CAT mRNA expression levels were also down-regulated at S9 (p < 0.05). In contrast, GST mRNA expression showed no obvious change between fish collected from up- or downstream areas of the river. Finally, an integrated biomarker response was used to evaluate the integrated impact of pollutants in the Hun River and allow better comprehension of the real toxicological risk of these investigated sites. PMID:25079422

Zheng, Binghui; Lei, Kun; Liu, Ruizhi; Song, Shuangshuang; An, Lihui



Immunostimulatory activities of specific bacterial secondary metabolite of Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain SX-4 on carp, Cyprinus carpio.  


Aims:? To determine the capacity of secondary metabolite of strain SX-4, to enhance the nonspecific immunity and survival of carp (Cyprinus carpio), and to identify the constituents that are responsible. Methods and Results:? A thermophilic strain SX-4 that is able to produce immunostimulatory metabolite was isolated from sludge sample of hot spring and identified by comparison with 16S rRNA sequences (99% of homology) as Anoxybacillus flavithermus. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from its cell-free culture, one bacterial peptide with the capacity of improving the nonspecific immune responses and disease resistance (relative per cent survival?=?66·67%) was obtained and the compound was characterized as cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) by IR, ESI-MS, (1) H NMR and (13) C NMR spectroscopic analyses. After intraperitoneal administration of this peptide, selected innate immune parameters including phagocytic activity, superoxide anion production, serum lysozyme activity and serum SOD activity, along with immune-related genes expression (i.e. interleukin-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase), in the blood were found to be significantly increased. Conclusions:? The bacterial peptide cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) significantly enhances nonspecific immunity and survival of carp. Significance and Impact of the Study:? There is a possibility of using cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly) as a better natural immunostimulant, which could have a promising role in aquaculture to prevent diseases and disease outbreaks. PMID:21294820

Liu, J; Lei, Y; Wang, F; Yi, Y; Liu, Y; Wang, G



Rodlet Cells in the Head and Trunk Kidney of the Domestic Carp (Cyprinus carpio): Enigmatic Gland Cells or Coccidian Parasites?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rodlet cells have been found in the head and trunk kidneys of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). From an experimental sample of 50 carps of various ages, we detected these cells in only seven fishes, contradicting the hypothesis that they constitute a normal component of the fish epithelia. The rodlet cells have a typical structure: 12-16?m in diameter, with a basal nucleus various in form, and an encasing layer of fibrillar structure. The cells contain rodlets, composed of elongated, opaque sacs featuring dark rods in the center, which strongly elongate in ripening cells. Remarkable pseudopodia-like extensions from the apical parts of the rodlet cells penetrate into the delicate blood vessels and sinusoids of the organs. The encasing layer at the cell apex then opens to release the rodlets into the bloodstream. No junctions were found between the rodlet cells and neighboring cells. It is suggested that these cells comprise some kind of "symbiosis" between leukocyte, possible granulocyte cells, and the parasitic rodlets. The cells serve the rodlets as an incubation chamber, as well as a means of transportation into the bloodstream after ripening.

Fishelson, Lev; Becker, Klaus


Complementary DNA cloning and functional characterization of cytochrome P450 3A138 in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  


The full-length sequence of a cytochrome P450 3A 138 (CYP3A138) cDNA in common carp was cloned and sequenced. The transcriptional and microsome enzyme activities of CYP3A138 in the fish liver after rifampicin exposure were also determined in this study. The results showed that the full-length CYP3A138 cDNA is 1912 base pairs (bp) long and contains an open reading frame of 1551 bp encoding a protein of 517 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that CYP3A138 is highly conserved in fish. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CYP3A138 in common carp is constitutively expressed in all tissues, but mainly in the liver and intestine. Additionally, rifampicin exposure promoted both the expression of CYP3A138 at the transcriptional level and the activity of the protein, suggesting that CYP3A138 is a member of the CYP3A subfamily. PMID:24623513

Ma, Junguo; Bu, Yanzhen; Li, Yao; Niu, Daichun; Li, Xiaoyu



Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  


Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) binds to Janus kinase 2 (JAK?) to initiate the JAK?/STAT? signal transduction pathway, which plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation, immune regulation, reproduction, lipid metabolism, and other physiological processes of the organism. In this study, the cDNA sequence of the STAT? gene from grass carp was cloned using RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends). Twelve characteristics of the STAT? gene and its encoded protein sequence were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics methods; these features included the general physical and chemical properties, the hydrophobicity, the secondary structure and the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to detect grass carp STAT? expression pattern in different tissues. The results showed that the full-length STAT? gene from grass carp is 2739-bp long and contains a 216-bp 5'UTR, a 300-bp 3'UTR, and a 2223-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 740-amino acid peptide. The deduced protein exhibited 99%?94% homology to the STAT? protein of zebra?sh (Danio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latipes), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis), mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and green pufferfish (Tetraodon ?uviatilis). The deduced grass carp STAT? protein contains a protein interaction domain, an alpha domain, a DNA binding domain, and an SH2 domain. The STAT? protein of grass carp is a hydrophilic and non-secretory protein, and its molecular mass and isoeletronic point were found to be 98,5412.1 Da and 6.39, respectively. The structural elements of STAT? included ?-helixes, ?-sheets, and loops. The grass carp STAT? is expressed in all of the six tissues tested, which were the liver, spleen, gill, muscle, heart, and brain. The highest expression level was found in the liver (P < 0.05), whereas a significantly lower expression level was found in the spleen, gills, brain, and muscle (P < 0.05), and the lowest expression level was found in the heart (P < 0.05). This study provides a basis for further structural and functional exploration of the STAT? from grass carp, including its deduced protein and its signal transduction function. PMID:24055509

Guo, Ting; Leng, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jia-Le; Gao, Jian-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Qin; Gan, Tian; Wei, Jing



Oxidative burst and nitric oxide responses in carp macrophages induced by zymosan, MacroGard(®) and selective dectin-1 agonists suggest recognition by multiple pattern recognition receptors.  


?-Glucans are glucose polymers that are found in the cell walls of plants, bacteria, certain fungi, mushrooms and the cell wall of baker's yeast. In mammals, myeloid cells express several receptors capable of recognizing ?-glucans, with the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 in conjunction with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), considered key receptors for recognition of ?-glucan. In our studies to determine the possible involvement of these receptors on carp macrophages a range of sources of ?-glucans were utilized including particulate ?-glucan preparations of baker's yeast such as zymosan, which is composed of insoluble ?-glucan and mannan, and MacroGard(®), a ?-glucan-based feed ingredient for farmed animals including several fish species. Both preparations were confirmed TLR2 ligands by measuring activation of HEK293 cells transfected with human TLR2 and CD14, co-transfected with a secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene. In addition, dectin-1-specific ligands in mammals i.e. zymosan treated to deplete the TLR-stimulating properties and curdlan, were monitored for their effects on carp macrophages by measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals production, as well as cytokine gene expression by real-time PCR. Results clearly show the ability of carp macrophages to strongly react to particulate ?-glucans with an increase in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals and an increase in cytokine gene expression, in particular il-1?, il-6 and il-11. We identified carp il-6, that was previously unknown. In addition, carp macrophages are less, but not unresponsive to selective dectin-1 agonists, suggesting recognition of ?-glucans by multiple pattern recognition receptors that could include TLR but also non-TLR receptors. Candidate receptors for recognition of ?-glucans are discussed. PMID:23831551

Pietretti, D; Vera-Jimenez, N I; Hoole, D; Wiegertjes, G F



Differences in IgY gut absorption in gastric rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and agastric common carp (Cyprinus carpio) assessed in vivo and in vitro.  


Oral IgY antibodies offer promising potential for passive immunization strategies. To evaluate barriers for successful IgY plasma recovery after oral application in vivo, gastric rainbow trout and agastric common carp were comparatively assessed. A positive control that received a low dose of unspecific IgY antibodies by intraperitoneal injection (0.0076mgIgYgBW(-1)d(-1); BW=body mass) was compared with an oral administration of 75 and 150 fold in rainbow trout (corresponding to 0.57 and 1.14mggBW(-1)) and in carp (0.57mggBW(-1)). Dietary antibodies were delivered with the antacid sodium bicarbonate and three different putative uptake enhancers (Tween 20, vitamin E TPGS, sodium deoxycholate). IgY concentrations in the plasma were determined 1d (rainbow trout) or 5d after last feeding (both species). Irrespective of the enhancer used, ELISA revealed IgY absorption after feeding in carp, whereas IgY concentration in rainbow trout remained below the detection threshold. Intraperitoneal injections revealed IgY in plasma of both species. In vitro Ussing chamber experiments with posterior intestine tissue of carp and trout were carried out to determine whether species-specific differences in IgY translocation were due to acidic stomach passage or species-specific differences in transepithelial IgY passage. Significantly higher IgY translocation was measured in carp at high application dosage compared to all other groups, indicating that species-specific differences in IgY uptake after oral administration are not only related to peptic IgY degradation in the stomach, but also likely a result of differences in IgY transcytosis in the posterior intestine. PMID:25224559

Winkelbach, Anja; Günzel, Dorothee; Schulz, Carsten; Wuertz, Sven



Minimizing the extra-oral time in autogeneous tooth transplantation: use of computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) as a duplicate model tooth  

PubMed Central

Objectives The maintenance of the healthy periodontal ligament cells of the root surface of donor tooth and intimate surface contact between the donor tooth and the recipient bone are the key factors for successful tooth transplantation. In order to achieve these purposes, a duplicated donor tooth model can be utilized to reduce the extra-oral time using the computer-aided rapid prototyping (CARP) technique. Materials and Methods Briefly, a three-dimensional digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) image with the real dimensions of the donor tooth was obtained from a computed tomography (CT), and a life-sized resin tooth model was fabricated. Dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were calculated. And extra-oral time was recorded during the autotransplantation of the teeth. Results The average extra-oral time was 7 min 25 sec with the range of immediate to 25 min in cases which extra-oral root canal treatments were not performed while it was 9 min 15 sec when extra-oral root canal treatments were performed. The average radiographic distance between the root surface and the alveolar bone was 1.17 mm and 1.35 mm at mesial cervix and apex; they were 0.98 mm and 1.26 mm at the distal cervix and apex. When the dimensional errors between real tooth, 3D CT image model and CARP model were measured in cadavers, the average of absolute error was 0.291 mm between real teeth and CARP model. Conclusions These data indicate that CARP may be of value in minimizing the extra-oral time and the gap between the donor tooth and the recipient alveolar bone in tooth transplantation. PMID:23431083

Lee, Seung-Jong



Thalassaemia major in Deutschland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Thalassaemia minor tritt sporadisch in der Bevölkerung Deutschlands auf. 1941 wurde auf Grund klinischer Befunde der erste Fall von Thalassaemia major bei einem deutschen Patienten beschrieben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird über ein deutsches, aus dem Westerwald stammendes Kind berichtet, bei dem die Diagnose einer Thalassaemia major durch Hämoglobinelektrophorese und Bestimmung des alkali-resistenten Hämoglobins gesichert werden konnte.

G. Flatz; H. Hauke; E. Kleihauer




E-print Network

Music Majors ADVISING & REGISTRATION INFORMATION For any student looking to pursue a degree within the Department of Music please visit the following website for additional program information: Advising and Registration Information: As a music major you will need to complete OARS as OARS provides

Fernandez, Eduardo


Przewalski's naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii): an endangered species taking a metabolic holiday in Lake Qinghai, China.  


The naked carp is an endangered cyprinid that migrates annually between freshwater rivers, where it spawns, and Lake Qinghai, where it feeds and grows. Lake Qinghai is a high-altitude lake (3,200 m) in western China that currently exhibits the following composition (in mmol L(-1): [Na(+)] 200, [Cl(-)] 173, [Mg(2+)] 36, [Ca(2+)] 0.23, [K(+)] 5.3, total CO(2) 21, titration alkalinity 29; osmolality 375 mOsm kg(-1); pH 9.3), but concentrations are increasing because of water diversion and climate change. We studied the physiology of river water to lake water transfer. When river fish are transferred to lake water, there is a transitory metabolic acidosis followed by a slight respiratory alkalosis, and hemoconcentration occurs. All plasma electrolytes rise over the initial 48 h, and final levels in lake water-acclimated fish are very close to lake water concentrations for [Na(+)], [Cl(-)], [K(+)], and osmolality, whereas [Ca(2+)] continues to be regulated well above ambient levels. However, [Mg(2+)] rises to a much greater extent (fourfold in 48 h); final plasma levels in lake fish may reach 12 mmol L(-1) but are still much lower than in lake water (36 mmol L(-1)). At the same time, urine flow rate decreases drastically to <5% of river water values; only the renal excretion of Mg(2+) is maintained. Both gill and kidney Na(+),K(+)-ATPase rapidly decline, with final levels in lake water fish only 30% and 70%, respectively, of those in river water fish. Metabolic rate also quickly decreases on exposure to lake water, with O(2) consumption and ammonia-N excretion rates eventually falling to only 60% and 30%, respectively, of those in river fish, while plasma ammonia rises fivefold. The fish appear to be benefiting from a metabolic holiday at present because of decreases in iono- and osmoregulatory costs while in lake water; elevated plasma [Mg(2+)] and ammonia may be additional factors depressing metabolic rate. If the lake continues to dehydrate, these benefits may change to pathology. PMID:17160880

Wood, Chris M; Du, Jizeng; Rogers, Joe; Brauner, Colin J; Richards, Jeffrey G; Semple, Jeffrey W; Murray, Brent W; Chen, X-Q; Wang, Yuxiang



A novel nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid clone formed via androgenesis in polyploid gibel carp  

PubMed Central

Background Unisexual vertebrates have been demonstrated to reproduce by gynogenesis, hybridogenesis, parthenogenesis, or kleptogenesis, however, it is uncertain how the reproduction mode contributes to the clonal diversity. Recently, polyploid gibel carp has been revealed to possess coexisting dual modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction and to have numerous various clones. Using sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male and subsequent 7 generation multiplying of unisexual gynogenesis, we have created a novel clone strain with more than several hundred millions of individuals. Here, we attempt to identify genetic background of the novel clone and to explore the significant implication for clonal diversity contribution. Methods Several nuclear genome markers and one cytoplasmic marker, the mitochondrial genome sequence, were used to identify the genetic organization of the randomly sampled individuals from different generations of the novel clone. Results Chromosome number, Cot-1 repetitive DNA banded karyotype, microsatellite patterns, AFLP profiles and transferrin alleles uniformly indicated that nuclear genome of the novel clone is identical to that of clone A, and significantly different from that of clone D. However, the cytoplasmic marker, its complete mtDNA genome sequence, is same to that of clone D, and different from that of clone A. Conclusions The present data indicate that the novel clone is a nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid between the known clones A and D, because it originates from the offspring of gonochoristic sexual reproduction mating between clone D female and clone A male, and contains an entire nuclear genome from the paternal clone A and a mtDNA genome (cytoplasm) from the maternal clone D. It is suggested to arise via androgenesis by a mechanism of ploidy doubling of clone A sperm in clone D ooplasm through inhibiting the first mitotic division. Significantly, the selected nucleo-cytoplasmic hybrid female still maintains its gynogenetic ability. Based on the present and previous findings, we discuss the association of rapid genetic changes and high genetic diversity with various ploidy levels and multiple reproduction modes in several unisexual and sexual complexes of vertebrates and even other invertebrates. PMID:21439093



Effect of eutrophication on mercury, selenium, and essential fatty acids in Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) from reservoirs of eastern China.  


Analyses of the risks and benefits of consuming fish assess the content of beneficial fatty acids found in fish relative to harmful pollutants such as methylmercury (MeHg). Quantifying the effect of eutrophication on mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and essential fatty acids (EFAs) in fish is necessary to determine how measures of risk vary with productivity. Total Hg and MeHg, Se and fatty acids, including the EFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were analyzed in Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) dorsal muscle tissue from seven subtropical reservoirs of eastern China. Individual elements and fatty acids, as well as derived measures of risk (Se:Hg and hazard quotient, HQEFA) were regressed against indicators of eutrophication, including total phosphorous (TP), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phytoplankton species composition. We found low MeHg concentrations (range=0.018-0.13?g/g ww) and Se concentrations (range=0.12-0.28?g/g ww), and Se:Hg molar ratios that were well above 1.0, indicating a low risk of Hg toxicity. Bighead Carp had a high content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (?PUFAs=44.2-53.6%), which included both EPA (6.9-12.5%) and DHA (16.1-23.2%). However, fish had significantly lower Se:Hg molar ratios in reservoirs with high TP, and lower EPA content with increasing plankton density (i.e. higher chl-a). Phytoplankton species composition predicted Se concentrations, but not Hg concentrations or EFA content. Overall, Hg concentrations in Bighead Carp were very low relative to consumption guidelines, and Se concentrations were adequate to confer protective benefits against MeHg toxicity. Our findings suggest that changes to plankton species composition and density with eutrophication may result in fish of lower nutritional value and thus increase risks to fish consumers by changing the availability of Se and EPA relative to MeHg. PMID:25173860

Razavi, N Roxanna; Arts, Michael T; Qu, Mingzhi; Jin, Binsong; Ren, Wenwei; Wang, Yuxiang; Campbell, Linda M



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Major Appliance Management Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Major appliances (also called 'white goods') have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly appa...

M. R