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1

Hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of Indian major carp Catla catla during chronic sublethal exposure to inorganic arsenic.  

PubMed

In the present study the acute toxicity of arsenic trioxide in fingerlings of Catla catla an Indian major carp was evaluated with renewal bioassay method. The median lethal concentration of arsenic trioxide to the fish C. catla for 96 h was found to be 20.41 ppm (with 95% confidence limits). From this a non-lethal dose of (2.041 ppm; 1/10th of LC 50 96 value) was selected and fingerlings were exposed to 35 d and hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses were studied at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Arsenic trioxide produced a significant increase in hemoglobin, hematocrit, WBC count, plasma GPT levels and reduction in RBC count, plasma sodium, chloride, potassium, glucose, protein, GOT, LDH levels as compared to the control group. Gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was influenced by arsenic trioxide exposure. A biphasic response was noted in the value of MCH and MCV. However the MCHC level was not altered in arsenic trioxide treated fish throughout the study period. Results of the present investigation suggest that arsenic trioxide affects the hematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory parameters of fish and alterations of these parameters can be useful in environmental biomonitoring of arsenic contamination. PMID:21094981

Lavanya, Subramani; Ramesh, Mathan; Kavitha, Chokkalingam; Malarvizhi, Annamalai

2011-02-01

2

Genetic variation of wild and hatchery populations of the catla Indian major carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822: Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) revealed by RAPD markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation is a key component for improving a stock through selective breeding programs. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic variation in three wild population of the catla carp (Catla catla Hamilton 1822) in the Halda, Jamuna and Padma rivers and one hatchery population in Bangladesh. Five decamer random primers were used to amplify RAPD markers from 30 fish from each population. Thirty of the 55 scorable bands were polymorphic, indicating some degree of genetic variation in all the populations. The proportion of polymorphic loci and gene diversity values reflected a relatively higher level of genetic variation in the Halda population. Sixteen of the 30 polymorphic loci showed a significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001) departure from homogeneity and the FST values in the different populations indicated some degree of genetic differentiation in the population pairs. Estimated genetic distances between populations were directly correlated with geographical distances. The unweighted pair group method with averages (UPGMA) dendrogram showed two clusters, the Halda population forming one cluster and the other populations the second cluster. Genetic variation of C. catla is a useful trait for developing a good management strategy for maintaining genetic quality of the species.

2009-01-01

3

Digestive proteases of three carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix: partial characterization and protein hydrolysis efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics and functional efficacy of digestive pro- teases of Catla catla, catla, Labeo rohita, rohu and Hyp- ophthalmichthys molitrix, silver carp were studied. Total protease activity was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rohu (1.219 ± 0.059 U mg protein)1 min)1) followed by silver carp (1.084 ± 0.061 U mg protein)1 min)1), and catla (0.193 ± 0.006 U mg protein)1

S. KUMAR; F. L. GARCIA-CARREÑO; R. CHAKRABARTI; M. A. N. TORO; J. H. CÓRDOVA-MURUETA

2007-01-01

4

Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of visceral waste proteins of Catla ( Catla catla) for preparing protein hydrolysate using a commercial protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of Catla (Catla catla), an Indian freshwater major carp. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature, pH and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using a factorial design. Model equation was proposed with regard to the effect of time,

N. Bhaskar; T. Benila; C. Radha; R. G. Lalitha

2008-01-01

5

Protein hydrolysate from visceral waste proteins of Catla ( Catla catla): Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for a commercial neutral protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein hydrolysate was prepared from visceral waste proteins of an Indian freshwater major carp, Catla catla. Hydrolysis conditions (viz., time, temperature and enzyme to substrate level) for preparing protein hydrolysates from the fish visceral waste proteins using in situ pH of the visceral mass were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) by employing a factorial design. The regression coefficient close

N. Bhaskar; N. S. Mahendrakar

2008-01-01

6

Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.  

PubMed

The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

2012-06-15

7

Analysis of lactate and malate dehydrogenase enzyme profiles of selected major carps of wetland of Calcutta.  

PubMed

The East Calcutta Wetland (ECW), a Ramsar site in India, acts as the only sink for both city sewages as well as effluents from the surrounding small-scale industries and is alarmingly polluted with heavy metals. The three best edible major carp species rohu (Labeo rohita,), catla (Catla catla,) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala) were undertaken to monitor lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) to assess the effects of pollutants, if any. Crude tissue extracts were prepared from brain, eye, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney tissue respectively from each type of fish. No differences were not found in MDH of catla from both sites for all tissues analyzed in this study. Rohu also showed similar mobility for all tissues except for heart tissue which was distinctly different in fishes from ECW site than that of its counterpart from non ECW site. On the other hand, MDH of two tissues of mrigala, eye and muscle respectively showed different migration patterns. LDH profiles for all tissues of three fish species from both the sites were consistently similar, only the expression levels of muscle LDH of mrigala and kidney LDH of rohu varied little. PMID:23360005

Manna, Madhumita; Chakraborty, Priyanka

2012-07-01

8

Isolation of carp genes encoding major histocompatibility complex antigens.  

PubMed Central

In the evolution of the adaptive immune system unique to vertebrates, teleost fish occupy the critical position. This is the most primitive class of lower vertebrates in which the capacity for acute allograft rejections can be demonstrated, thus suggesting the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and, therefore, T cells. Here, we report the identification of two putative MHC-antigen-encoding sequences in the carp Cyprinus carpio. One, identified as TLAI alpha-1, had reasonable homology to MHC class I heavy chains of mammalian and avian species, while the other, identified as TLAII beta-1, was homologous to MHC class II beta chain of the aforementioned higher vertebrates. For these isolations of fish MHC genes, we have identified two highly conserved amino acid sequence blocks surrounding two cysteine residues in the second domain of MHC class II beta chains as well as the third domain of class I heavy chains of humans, mice, and chickens. Two kinds of mixed oligonucleotide probes corresponding to these two regions were synthesized. The carp genomic DNA was subjected to amplification by polymerase chain reaction using the above two synthetic DNA fragments as primers. Subsequently, two different DNA sequences sandwiched by these primers were isolated from the amplified products. Their use as secondary probes led to the identification of TLAI alpha-1 and TLAII beta-1. We also discuss the applicability of the above approach for isolation from lower vertebrates of other genes belonging to the immunoglobulin super-family as well as the evolutionary origin of vertebrate MHC antigens. Images

Hashimoto, K; Nakanishi, T; Kurosawa, Y

1990-01-01

9

Hexabromocyclododecanes in crucian carp and sediment from the major rivers in Korea.  

PubMed

The concentration of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was measured in crucian carp muscles and eggs and in surrounding sediments collected from the 3 major rivers in Korea. HBCDs were detected in all carp and sediment samples, indicating widespread contamination of this area by HBCD flame retardants. The ?HBCD (sum of ?-, ?-, and ?-HBCDs) concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 13 ng g(-1)dry wt in sediments, 1.7 to 7.2 ng g(-1)lipid wt in carp eggs, and 4.8 to 6.6 ng g(-1)lipid wt in the muscle of carp. The ?-diastereomer predominated in the crucian carp and ?-diastereomer predominated in sediments, accounting for 76% and 77% to the ?HBCD, respectively. The ?HBCD concentrations in carp and sediment samples collected along the rivers were higher than those in samples collected from an isolated pond, suggesting that the rivers are likely contaminated by HBCDs from the upstream or the environment surrounding the rivers. The diastereomer ratios in carp were different from those in commercial mixtures due to the enrichment of ?-diastereomer in carp. The origin of this transition, however, is yet not known, since various transformation processes can lead to a change from the diastereomer ratio in commercial mixtures to that observed in the environment. PMID:24290101

Jeong, Gi Ho; Hwang, Na Rae; Hwang, Eun-Hye; Lee, Byoung-Cheun; Yoon, Junheon

2014-02-01

10

Cross-priming of microsatellite loci in subfamily cyprininae (family Cyprinidae): their utility in finding markers for population genetic analysis in three Indian major carps.  

PubMed

This study is aimed to identify polymorphic microsatellite markers and establish their potential for population genetics studies in three carp (family cyprinidae; subfamily cyprininae) species, Labeo rohita, Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala through use of cyprinid primers. These species have high commercial value and knowledge of genetic variation is important for management of farmed and wild populations. We tested 108 microsatellite primers from 11 species belonging to three different cyprinid subfamilies, Cyprininae, Barbinae and Leuciscinae out of which 63 primers (58.33 %) successfully amplified orthologous loci in three focal species. Forty-two loci generated from 29 primers were polymorphic in these three carp species. Sequencing of amplified product confirmed the presence of SSRs in these 42 loci and orthologous nature of the loci. To validate potential of these 42 polymorphic loci in determining the genetic variation, we analyzed 486 samples of three focal species collected from Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river systems. Results indicated significant genetic variation, with mean number of alleles per locus ranging from 6.80 to 14.40 and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.50 to 0.74 in the three focal species. Highly significant (P < 0.00001) allelic homogeneity values revealed that the identified loci can be efficiently used in population genetics analysis of these carp species. Further, thirty-two loci from 19 primers were useful for genotyping in more than one species. The data from the present study was compiled with cross-species amplification data from previous results on eight species of subfamily cyprininae to compare cross-transferability of microsatellite loci. It was revealed that out of 226 heterologous loci amplified, 152 loci that originated from 77 loci exhibited polymorphism and 45 primers were of multispecies utility, common for 2-7 species. PMID:24792330

Masih, Prachi; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Das, Rakhi; Gupta, Arti; Mohindra, Vindhya; Singh, Rajeev K; Srivastava, Rohit; Chauhan, U K; Jena, J K; Lal, Kuldeep K

2014-08-01

11

Isolation of Carp Genes Encoding Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the evolution of the adaptive immune system unique to vertebrates, teleost fish occupy the critical position. This is the most primitive class of lower vertebrates in which the capacity for acute allograft rejections can be demonstrated, thus suggesting the presence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and, therefore, T cells. Here, we report the identification of two putative MHC-antigen-encoding

Keiichiro Hashimoto; Teruyuki Nakanishi; Yoshikazu Kurosawa

1990-01-01

12

Dietary methionine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala fingerling (3.85 0.50 cm, 0.50 0.02 g) were fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (40% CP, 4.28 kcal g?1, GE) containing casein, gelatin and crystalline amino acids with graded levels of L- methionine (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25,\\u000a 1.50 and 2.00 g\\/ 100 g, dry diet) with 1.00% cystine fixed, to determine its dietary methionine requirement. A

Imtiaz Ahmed; Mukhtar A. Khan; A. K. Jafri

2003-01-01

13

Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

2012-01-01

14

Comparative organoleptic quality of Indian major carps collected from pond and reservoir.  

PubMed

An attempt was made to distinguish the possible organoleptic differences between the pond reared and wild fish species of reservoirs and correlate these with the physicochemical characteristics of water bodies. The texture was found to firmer in wild varieties of fishes than pond reared fish, with best in Catla catla followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. All the cultured fishes had lighter colour than wild fish species which were darker in appearance. Comparatively, higher dissolved oxygen and transparency levels with low temperature and alkalinity levels were found in reservoirs. Hydrobiologically, the efficient ecosystem of reservoir was responsible for stronger texture and dark colouration in wild fish species. The fishes from reservoir exhibit tendency to lead active and agile life, comparatively the fishes from ponds are docile. Reservoirs have the potential of enhanced quality fish production. PMID:24640254

Gupta, Monika; Upadhyay, A K; Pandey, N N

2013-07-01

15

Bioaccumulation of lead and the influence of chelating agents in Catla catla fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead is a widespread element and one of the persistent and cumulative pollutants of the environment. The present study deals\\u000a with the bioaccumulation of lead and the influence of chelating agents, meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), D-Penicillamine\\u000a and CaNa2EDTA in reducing the concentration of lead on the selected organs of Catla catla fingerlings for both acute and chronic exposures by using

P. L. R. M. Palaniappan; N. Krishnakumar; M. Vadivelu

2009-01-01

16

Secondary structure and 3D homology modeling of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) major histocompatibility complex class I molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

No information to date is available on the structure of fish major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and ?2-microglobulin (?2m) proteins. In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) MHC class I (Ctid-MHC I) and ?2-microglobulin (Ctid-?2m) genes were expressed as soluble maltose binding protein (MBP)-proteins and purified in a pMAL-p2X\\/Escherichia coli TB1 system. The expressed proteins were purified on

Hui Fang Hao; Xin-Sheng Li; Feng-Shan Gao; Wen Xue Wu; Chun Xia

2007-01-01

17

Kinetic study of hepatic ?-glucuronidase in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).  

PubMed

Liver is the metabolic factory and contains several valuable enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions. ?-glucuronidase is one of the well-known lysozymes that participates in the carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues of various vertebrates. In the present study, an attempt was made to study the kinetic properties of hepatic ?-glucuronidase of the Indian major carp (IMC), Labeo rohita. It was observed that the enzyme activity increased largely at pH 5 (0.1 M acetate buffer) when exposed to 38°C. However, the maximum activity was noticed at 52°C and later it started declined up to 70°C. It was also observed that with time the enzyme activity increased until substrate was completely used up. It has been concluded that it is a heat stable enzyme and cannot be destroyed at room temperature. Enzyme activity was observed to increase in response to increase in enzyme and substrate concentrations. The reaction velocity maxima (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were recorded using Lineweaver-Burk plot that was 18.182 ?g/h and 2.907 mM, respectively. PMID:20336485

Chilke, Arun M

2010-12-01

18

Innate immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita infected with oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces invadans.  

PubMed

The fish pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a fish disease of international significance and reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In spite of the current and potential impact of A. invadans infection on fisheries and aquaculture sectors of the world, very little is known about the host-A. invadans interactions. In the present study, following experimental infection with A. invadans in one of the Indian major carps, Labeo rohita, sequential changes in various innate immune parameters were monitored. The results indicated that at early stages of infection, no significant changes in any of the studied innate immune parameters were observed. However, at the advanced stages of infection from 6 to 12 days post infection (dpi), the respiratory burst and alternate complement activity were significantly higher whereas lysozyme, antiproteases and ?-2 macroglobulin values were significantly lower than the control group and also from the infected group at earlier stages of infection. Since, the possibility of vaccination of fish against A. invadans appears remote due to difficulties in eliciting a specific antibody response, the information generated in the present study could be useful for developing strategies for improving resistance to A. invadans infection by stimulating the innate immunity through immunomodulation. PMID:24945572

Yadav, Manoj K; Pradhan, Pravata K; Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Verma, Dev K; Debnath, Chandan; Sahoo, Lopamudra; Chauhan, U K; Punia, Peyush; Jena, Joy K

2014-08-01

19

Studies on the identification and control of pathogen Saprolegnia in selected Indian major carp fingerlings at mid hill altitude.  

PubMed

The Indian major carp cultured in ponds in the North Eastern hilly states of India frequently suffer from fungal disease during winter months resulting in mass mortality. This study examined the pathogenic fungi isolated from farmed raised Indian major carp fingerlings and identified as Saprolegnia. For treatment, the diseased fish were exposed to 4g salt per litre of water for 2 min followed by dip treatment with 5ppm KMnO4 for 10 min, thrice every week for a period of 6 weeks. The treatment resulted in recovery from the disease after 6 weeks from the beginning of treatment. Soon after recovery, the pond management practices such as removal of pond bottom soil, application of lime and replenishment with freshwater were followed in the infected ponds. Our study concluded that rapid decrease in pond water temperature from 22 to 8 degrees C that remains low for months together coupled with increased water pH (9) and decreas dissolved oxygen (4ppm) causes saprolegniasis to the fingerlings of Indian major carps. PMID:23029901

Das, S K; Murmu, K; Das, A; Shakuntala, I; Das, R K; Ngachan, S V; Majhi, S K

2012-05-01

20

Effect of a probiotic bacterium Bacillus circulans PB7 in the formulated diets: on growth, nutritional quality and immunity of Catla catla (Ham.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus circulans PB7, isolated from the intestine of Catla catla, was evaluated for use as a probiotic supplement in the feeds for the fingerlings of Catla catla. The effect of supplement on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, and immune response was evaluated. Catla\\u000a fingerlings (ave. wt. 6.48 ± 0.43 g) were fed diets supplemented with 2 × 104 (feed C1), 2 × 105 (feed C2), and

Partha Bandyopadhyay; Pradeep K. Das Mohapatra

2009-01-01

21

Effect of waterborne boron and molybdenum on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of either boron (B) or molybdenum (Mo) on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton), advanced fry was studied in two separate experiments. Survival rates of C. mrigala fry (2.78±0.14 g) following 50 days’ exposure to B at 0.01 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg·L were 100% at all concentrations except 8.0 mg·L where

S. Adhikari; M. Mohanty

2011-01-01

22

Effect of waterborne boron and molybdenum on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of either boron (B) or molybdenum (Mo) on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton), advanced fry was studied in two separate experiments. Survival rates of C. mrigala fry (2.78±0.14 g) following 50 days’ exposure to B at 0.01 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg·L were 100% at all concentrations except 8.0 mg·L where

S. Adhikari; M. Mohanty

2012-01-01

23

Establishment and characterization of an epithelial cell line from thymus of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822).  

PubMed

A cell line, CTE, derived from catla (Catla catla) thymus has been established by explant method and subcultured for more than 70 passages over a period of 400 days. The cell line has been maintained in L-15 (Leibovitz) medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. CTE cell line consists of homogeneous population of epithelial-like cells and grows optimally at 28°C. Karyotype analysis revealed that the modal chromosome number of CTE cells was 50. Partial amplification, sequencing and alignment of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that CTE cell line originated from catla. Significant green fluorescent signals were observed when the cell line was transfected with phrGFP II-N mammalian expression vector, indicating its potential utility for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. The CTE cells showed strong positivity for cytokeratin, indicating that cell line was epithelial in nature. The flow cytometric analysis of cell line revealed a higher number of cells in S-phase at 48 h, suggesting a high growth rate. The extracellular products of Vibrio cholerae MTCC 3904 were toxic to the CTE cells. This cell line was not susceptible to fish betanodavirus, the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in a large variety of marine fish. PMID:23026220

Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Sood, Neeraj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, P K; Agarwal, N K; Jena, J K

2013-01-10

24

Effects of environmental factors on natural reproduction of the four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River, China.  

PubMed

The four major Chinese carps are commercially important fish species with high production in China. However, their recruitment decreased sharply in the Yangtze River since the late 20(th) century. In the present study, to reveal the relationships between spawning activities of the four species and environmental factors, drifting eggs were collected at Yidu City, in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, from May to July each year between 2005 and 2010. Classification and regression trees (CART) analysis was applied to identify the key factors associated with spawning activities of the four carp species. Twelve predictor variables (hydrological and meteorological variables) and one response variable (egg presence or number of egg) were included in the CART. Our CART analysis showed that water temperature and the diurnal increase of water level were the two most significant factors for the spawning activities. When water temperature was between 18°C and 24°C, especially in association with the diurnal increase of water level greater than 0.55 m·d(-1), spawning activities was always favored. Unlike the hydrological factors, meteorological factors seemed to have no influence on initiating the spawning activities. The density of drifting eggs of the four species was mainly influenced by the diurnal variation of water level, the diurnal variation of water discharge, water temperature, humidity, and air pressure. We then related our results to the ecological regulation of the Three Gorge Reservoir in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. We suggested that, when water temperature was between 18-24°C from May to July, to ensure the successful spawning of the four carp species, the ecological regulation should be managed to create flood peaks and make the diurnal increase of water level greater than 0.55 m·d(-1). PMID:23537240

Li, Mingzheng; Gao, Xin; Yang, Shaorong; Duan, Zhonghua; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhuang

2013-04-01

25

Comparative susceptibility of carp fingerlings to Lernaea cyprinacea infection.  

PubMed

Study was conducted to find out the comparative susceptibility of fingerlings of seven species of carps (Labeo fimbriatus, L. rohita, L. calbasu, Catla catla, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio and Hypophthamichthys molitrix) grown under both mono and polyculture to Lernaea cyprinacea infection. Under monoculture, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu, did not acquire Lernaea infection and were thus considered resistant, whereas C. idella, H. molitrix, C. catla and L. fimbriatus were susceptible. Even challenge with higher infective doses of copepodids under monoculture did not result in infection in the resistant fish species. The resistance of L. rohita and C. carpio to Lernaea infection under monoculture was not sustained when these two fish species were maintained in polyculture along with susceptible fish species. Labeo calbasu, even under polyculture, however, did not acquire Lernaea infection indicating that this fish species is the most resistant and least preferred host for this parasite. Similarly, C. carpio, L. rohita and L. calbasu when grown together in polyculture and exposed to a higher infective dose (120 copepodids/fish) also did not develop the infection. The possible reasons for differences in susceptibility shown by these carp species in monoculture and the loss of resistance by rohu and common carp while in polyculture with susceptible species are discussed. The ability of resistant fish species to prevent establishment of anchor worms on them under monoculture can be utilized to control this parasitic infection commonly encountered in culture ponds. PMID:21255932

Hemaprasanth; Singh, Ravinder; Raghavendra, A; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R; Eknath, A E

2011-05-31

26

Influence of zinc on cadmium induced haematological and biochemical responses in a freshwater teleost fish Catla catla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The haematological (Hb, RBC, WBC) and biochemical (protein and glucose) profiles of a freshwater fish Catla catla were studied under sub-lethal toxicity of cadmium chloride for 25 days (Treatment I). In addition, the influence of zinc\\u000a on cadmium toxicity was investigated for haematological and biochemical parameters (Treatment II). In both the experiments,\\u000a blood haemoglobin and plasma protein level decreased in the

Sweety R. Remyla; Mathan Ramesh; Kenneth S. Sajwan; Kurunthachalam Senthil Kumar

2008-01-01

27

The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.  

PubMed

The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 788-796, 2014. PMID:22887814

Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati

2014-05-01

28

Classical crosses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) show co-segregation of antibody response with major histocompatibility class II B genes.  

PubMed

In cyprinids, two paralogous groups of major histocompatibility (MH) class II B genes, DAB1 and DAB3, have been reported but have not been studied in detail. In our study on MH association with immune responsiveness in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) we have taken a long-term approach using divergent selection for antibody production. We report the co-segregation of Cyca-DAB1-like and Cyca-DAB3-like genes with antibody response, in backcrosses to high- and low-responsive parental carp lines. We show that the presence of Cyca-DAB1-like, but not Cyca-DAB3-like genes, preferentially leads to a high DNP-specific antibody response in carp. Background genes other than Cyca-DAB genes also influenced the level of antibody response. Our data support the hypothesis of a genetic control by Cyca-DAB genes on the antibody response measured. We could not detect an association of the Cyca-DAB genes with disease resistance to the parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Sequence information, constitutive transcription levels and our co-segregation data indicate that both paralogous Cyca-DAB1-like and Cyca-DAB3-like groups represent functional MH class II B genes. Previously defined differences in allelic diversity between Cyca-DAB1-like genes, especially, identify Cyca-DAB1 as the most interesting DAB gene for further study in common carp. PMID:18817879

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Forlenza, Maria; Stet, René J M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

2009-03-01

29

Major distinctions in the antioxidant responses in liver and kidney of Cd(2+)-treated common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

This study is related to the accumulation of Cd(2+), its effects on oxidative stress biomarkers and its role in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp. We present evidence of an increased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in both organs after 10 mg/L Cd(2+) exposure, with different underlying biological mechanisms and consequences. In the liver, the expressions and/or activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase increased to cope with the Cd(2+)-generated toxic effects during the first 48 h of treatment. In contrast, none of these selected antioxidant markers was significantly altered in the kidney, whereas the expression of glutathione synthetase was upregulated. These results suggest that the major defense mechanism provoked by Cd(2+) exposure involves the regeneration of GSH in the liver, while its de novo synthesis predominates in the kidney. High levels of accumulation of Cd(2+) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) were detected in the kidney; the major consequences of ONOO(-) toxicity were enhanced lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. The accumulation of ONOO(-) in the kidney suggests intensive production of NO and the development of nitrosative stress. In the liver the level of hydrogen peroxide was elevated. PMID:23919949

Dugmonits, Krisztina; Ferencz, Ágnes; Jancsó, Zsanett; Juhász, Renáta; Hermesz, Edit

2013-11-01

30

Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370??g?g?1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation.

Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

2014-01-01

31

Hematological, biochemical and enzymological responses in an Indian major carp Labeo rohita induced by sublethal concentration of waterborne selenite exposure.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) pollution in aquatic ecosystem is an environmental issue throughout the world. Elevated concentrations of inorganic Se from agricultural and industrial processes may cause adverse biological effects in aquatic organisms such as fish. In the present study, Labeo rohita an Indian major carp were exposed to sublethal concentration of Se (sodium selenite) for 35days and certain hematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters were estimated. The median lethal concentration of waterborne sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) to L. rohita was found to be 23.89mgL(-1) for 96h. During sublethal (2.38mgL(-1)) treatment, hematological and biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb) (except 14th day), hematocrit (Hct), erythrocyte (RBC) count and protein levels were found to be decreased in Se treated fish whereas leucocyte (WBC) count and glucose level increased in Se treated fish throughout the study period. The enzymatic parameters such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were found to be increased in liver of Se treated fish L. rohita. A biphasic response was observed in the value of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The alterations of these parameters can be used as suitable biomarkers in monitoring of selenium in the aquatic environment and to protect aquatic life. PMID:24183823

Ramesh, Mathan; Sankaran, Marimuthu; Veera-Gowtham, Velusami; Poopal, Rama Krishnan

2014-01-25

32

Diversity of beta-propeller phytase genes in the intestinal contents of grass carp provides insight into the release of major phosphorus from phytate in nature.  

PubMed

Phytate is the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in nature, and microbial mineralization of phytate by phytase is a key process for phosphorus recycling in the biosphere. In the present study, beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene fragments were readily amplified from the intestinal contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) directly or from phytate-degrading isolates from the same source, confirming the widespread occurrence of BPP in aquatic communities. The amounts of sequences collected using these two methods differed (88 distinct genes versus 10 isolates), but the sequences showed the same general topology based on phylogenetic analysis. All of the sequences fell in five clusters and were distinct from those of Anabaena, Gloeobacter, Streptomyces, Flavobacterium, Prosthecochloris, and Desulfuromonas, which have never been found in the grass carp intestine. Analysis of the microbial diversity by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that unculturable bacteria were dominant bacteria in the grass carp intestine and thus the predominant phytate-degrading organisms. The predominant cultured species corresponding to the phytate-degrading isolates, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Shewanella species, might be the main source of known BPPs. A phytase from Brevundimonas was first obtained from cultured species. Combining our results with Lim et al.'s inference that phytate-mineralizing bacteria are widely distributed and highly diverse in nature (B. L. Lim, P. Yeung, C. Cheng, and J. E. Hill, ISME J. 1:321-330, 2007), we concluded that BPP is the major phytate-degrading enzyme in nature, that most of this enzyme might originate from unculturable bacteria, and that the distribution of BPP may be related to the type of niche. To our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally estimate BPP diversity in situ. PMID:19151187

Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shao, Na; Wang, Guozeng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

2009-03-01

33

Diversity of Beta-Propeller Phytase Genes in the Intestinal Contents of Grass Carp Provides Insight into the Release of Major Phosphorus from Phytate in Nature?  

PubMed Central

Phytate is the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in nature, and microbial mineralization of phytate by phytase is a key process for phosphorus recycling in the biosphere. In the present study, beta-propeller phytase (BPP) gene fragments were readily amplified from the intestinal contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) directly or from phytate-degrading isolates from the same source, confirming the widespread occurrence of BPP in aquatic communities. The amounts of sequences collected using these two methods differed (88 distinct genes versus 10 isolates), but the sequences showed the same general topology based on phylogenetic analysis. All of the sequences fell in five clusters and were distinct from those of Anabaena, Gloeobacter, Streptomyces, Flavobacterium, Prosthecochloris, and Desulfuromonas, which have never been found in the grass carp intestine. Analysis of the microbial diversity by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis demonstrated that unculturable bacteria were dominant bacteria in the grass carp intestine and thus the predominant phytate-degrading organisms. The predominant cultured species corresponding to the phytate-degrading isolates, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Shewanella species, might be the main source of known BPPs. A phytase from Brevundimonas was first obtained from cultured species. Combining our results with Lim et al.'s inference that phytate-mineralizing bacteria are widely distributed and highly diverse in nature (B. L. Lim, P. Yeung, C. Cheng, and J. E. Hill, ISME J. 1:321-330, 2007), we concluded that BPP is the major phytate-degrading enzyme in nature, that most of this enzyme might originate from unculturable bacteria, and that the distribution of BPP may be related to the type of niche. To our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally estimate BPP diversity in situ.

Huang, Huoqing; Shi, Pengjun; Wang, Yaru; Luo, Huiying; Shao, Na; Wang, Guozeng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

2009-01-01

34

Family association between immune parameters and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Seven innate immune parameters were investigated in 64 full-sib families (the offspring of 64 sires and 45 dams) from two year-classes of farmed rohu carp (Labeo rohita). Survival rates were also available from Aeromonas hydrophila infection (aeromoniasis) recorded in controlled challenge tests on a different sample of individuals from the same families. Due to strong confounding between the animal additive genetic effect and the family effects (common environmental+non-additive genetic), reliable additive (co)variance components and hence heritabilities and genetic correlations could not be obtained for the investigated parameters. Therefore, estimates of the association of challenge test survival with the studied immune parameters were obtained as product moment correlations between family least square means. These correlations revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) negative correlations of survival with bacterial agglutination titre (-0.48), serum haemolysin titre (-0.29) and haemagglutination titre (-0.34); and significant positive correlation with ceruloplasmin level (0.51). The correlations of survival to aeromoniasis with myeloperoxidase activity, superoxide production and lysozyme activity were found to be not significantly different from zero (p>0.05). Assuming that the negatively correlated candidate traits are not favourable as indirect selection criteria, the results suggest that ceruloplasmin level could potentially be a marker for resistance to aeromoniasis in rohu. The use of this immune parameter as an indirect selection criterion for increased resistance to aeromoniasis in rohu will, however, require that the parameter shows significant additive genetic variation and a significant genetic correlation with survival. Further studies are therefore needed to obtain a reliable heritability estimate for ceruloplasmin and its genetic correlation with survival from aeromoniasis. PMID:18486488

Sahoo, P K; Mahapatra, K Das; Saha, J N; Barat, A; Sahoo, M; Mohanty, B R; Gjerde, B; Odegård, J; Rye, M; Salte, R

2008-07-01

35

Short and long-term effects of clofibric acid and diclofenac on certain biochemical and ionoregulatory responses in an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.  

PubMed

Extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine and aquaculture practices pose a serious threat to aquatic organisms. In the present investigation, Cirrhinus mrigala an Indian major carp was exposed to different concentrations of clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) and certain biochemical and ionoregulatory responses were assessed under short and long term exposures. During short-term (96h) exposure period, plasma glucose and sodium (Na(+)) levels were increased at all concentrations (1, 10 and 100?gL(-1)) of CA and DCF treated fish. Plasma protein and chloride (Cl(-)) levels were found to be decreased at all concentrations of CA and DCF exposed fish comparatively to control groups. Meanwhile an increase in plasma potassium (K(+)) level was noted in fish exposed to CA treatments alone and in DCF treatments it was decreased. In long-term exposure (35d), plasma Na(+) and Cl(-) levels were found to be significantly increased at all concentration of CA and DCF. However, a biphasic trend was observed in plasma glucose, protein and K(+) levels. In both the treatments, a significant (P<0.01 and P<0.05) changes were observed in all parameters measured in fish exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. The results of the present investigation indicate that both the drugs caused significant changes in biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of fish at all concentrations. The alterations of these parameters can be useful in monitoring of pharmaceutical residues present in aquatic environment. PMID:23777676

Saravanan, M; Ramesh, M

2013-09-01

36

Alteration in certain enzymological parameters of an Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala exposed to short- and long-term exposure of clofibric acid and diclofenac.  

PubMed

The extensive use of pharmaceuticals in human and veterinary medicine may enter the aquatic environment and pose a serious threat to non-target aquatic organisms like fish. In this study, Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala was exposed to different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ?g L?¹) of most commonly used pharmaceutical drugs clofibric acid (CA) and diclofenac (DCF) to evaluate its impacts on certain enzymological parameters during short- and long-term exposures. During short-term (96 h) exposure period, plasma glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and gill Na?/K?-ATPase activity were significantly altered at all concentrations of both the CA- and DCF-treated fish. In long-term exposure (35 days), gill Na?/K?-ATPase activity was found to be significantly increased at all concentration of CA and DCF exposures throughout the study period (except at the end of 7th day in 10 and 100 µg L?¹) . However, a biphasic trend was observed in plasma GOT and GPT activity when compared to the control groups. In both short- and long-term exposure, a significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) changes were observed in all enzymological parameters of fish C. mrigala exposed to different concentrations of CA and DCF. The alterations of these enzymological parameters can be effectively used as potential biomarkers in monitoring of pharmaceutical toxicity in aquatic environment and organisms. PMID:23579460

Saravanan, Manoharan; Ramesh, Mathan; Petkam, Rakpong

2013-12-01

37

In vitro assay for the toxicity of silver nanoparticles using heart and gill cell lines of Catla catla and gill cell line of Labeo rohita.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are used in commercial products for their antimicrobial properties. The Ag-NPs in some of these products are likely to reach the aquatic environment, thereby posing a health concern for humans and aquatic species. The silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using, UV-vis spectra, Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Acute toxicity tests on fish were conducted by exposing Catla catla and Labeo rohita for 96h to AgNO3 and Ag-NPs under static conditions. The cytotoxic effect of AgNO3 and Ag-NPs in Sahul India C. catla heart cell line (SICH), Indian C. catla gill cell line (ICG) and L. rohita gill cell line (LRG) was assessed using MTT and neutral red (NR) assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro EC50 and the in vivo LC50 data were highly significant. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation (condensation) were assessed by comet assay and Hoechst staining, respectively in SICH, ICG and LRG cells exposed to Ag-NPs. The results of antioxidant parameter obtained show significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT in SICH, ICG and LRG cell lines after exposure to increasing Ag-NPs in a concentration-dependent manner. This work proves that fish cell lines could be used as an alternative to whole animals using cytotoxicity tests, genotoxicity tests and oxidative stress assessment after exposure to nanoparticles. PMID:24524868

Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Nambi, K S N; Sahul Hameed, A S

2014-04-01

38

Effect of a probiotic bacterium Bacillus circulans PB7 in the formulated diets: on growth, nutritional quality and immunity of Catla catla (Ham.).  

PubMed

Bacillus circulans PB7, isolated from the intestine of Catla catla, was evaluated for use as a probiotic supplement in the feeds for the fingerlings of Catla catla. The effect of supplement on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, and immune response was evaluated. Catla fingerlings (ave. wt. 6.48 +/- 0.43 g) were fed diets supplemented with 2 x 10(4) (feed C1), 2 x 10(5) (feed C2), and 2 x 10(6) (feed C3) B. circulans PB 7 cells per 100 g feed for 60 days at 5% of the body weight per day in two equal installments in triplicate treatments. The control feed (CC) was not supplemented with the B. circulans. All the feeds were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Fish fed with feed C2 displayed better growth, significantly (P < or = 0.05) highest RNA/DNA ratio, a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR), and a higher protein efficiency ratio (PER) than the other experimental diets. Highest carcass protein and lipid was also observed in the fish fed C2 feed compared to the others. Significantly (P < or = 0.05), highest protease was recorded in fish fed feed C2 (47.9 +/- 0.016) and lowest in fish fed feed C3 (32.10 +/- 0.009), where alpha-amylase activity did not differ significantly (P < or = 0.05) beyond the lowest inclusion level. ALP, ACP, GOT, and GPT in the liver of Catla catla were the highest (P < or = 0.05) in fish fed C2 feed. The highest TSP, albumin, and globulin was observed in fish treated with C2 feed after 60 days feeding trial, but the lowest glucose level was observed in the same treatment. After the feeding trial, the non-specific immunity levels and disease resistance of fish were also studied. Phagocytic ratio, phagocytic index, and leucocrit value were the highest in fish fed feed C2. After the feeding trial, the fish were challenged for 10 days by bath exposure to Aeromonas hydrophila (AH1) (10(5)c.f.u. ml(-1) for 1 h, and, after 7 days, 10(7)c.f.u. ml(-1) for 1 h). Highest survival percentage was observed in fish fed with feed C2 compared with only 6.66% in the controls, which indicated the effectiveness of B. circulans PB 7 in reducing disease caused by A. hydrophila. PMID:18931930

Bandyopadhyay, Partha; Das Mohapatra, Pradeep K

2009-08-01

39

Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Olfactory System, Forebrain and Pituitary of the Indian Major Carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus: Organisation and Interaction with Neuropeptide Y in the Preoptic Area.  

PubMed

Dopamine (DA) inhibits, whereas gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates, luteinisiing (LH) cells in the pituitary of some but not all teleosts. A reduction in the hypophysiotropic dopaminergic tone is necessary for the stimulatory effect of GnRH on LH cells. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as one of the potent, endogenous agent that modulates LH secretion directly or indirectly via GnRH. Involvement of NPY in the regulation of hypophysiotropic DA neurones, however, is not known, but there is good evidence suggesting an interaction in the mammalian hypothalamus. DA neurones, identified by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactivity, were observed widely throughout the brain of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus. The granule cells and ganglion cells of terminal nerve in the olfactory bulb, and cells in ventral telencephalon and preoptic area (POA) showed conspicuous TH immunoreactivity. In the POA, the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), divisible into anterior (NPPa) and posterior (NPPp) components, showed prominent TH-immunoreactivity. The majority of TH neurones in NPPa showed axonal extensions to the pituitary and were closely associated with LH cells. The NPPa also appeared to be the site for intense interaction between NPY and DA because it contains a rich network of NPY fibres and few immunoreactive cells. Approximately 89.7 ± 1.5% TH neurones in NPPa were contacted by NPY fibres. Superfused POA slices treated with a NPY Y2 -receptor agonist, NPY 13-36 resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in TH-immunoreactivity in NPPa. TH neurones in NPPa did not respond to NPY Y1 -receptor agonist, [Leu(31) , Pro(34) ] Neuropeptide Y treatment. We suggest that, by inhibiting DAergic neurones in NPPa via Y2 -receptors, NPY may contribute to the up-regulation of the GnRH-LH cells axis. The microcircuitry of DA and NPY and their interaction in NPPa might be a crucial component in the central regulation of LH secretion in the teleosts. PMID:24750502

Kumar, S; Singh, U; Saha, S; Singru, P S

2014-06-01

40

Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.  

PubMed Central

Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B

Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

1996-01-01

41

Effects of polyherbal formulation 'ImmuPlus' on immunity and disease resistance of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita at different stages of growth.  

PubMed

A series of experiments were performed to determine the impact of polyherbal immunomodulatory formulation 'ImmuPlus' (AquaImmu) on growth, immunity and disease resistance of rohu (Labeo rohita), one of the Indian major carp at different stages of growth. Rohu larvae were fed on plankton, ImmuPlus-mixed compound feed, and plankton plus ImmuPlus-mixed compound feed (ImmuPlus added at three dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 g/kg feed) from 4th day of hatching to 14th day. ImmuPlus-mixed diets enhanced growth of larvae, survival and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, compared to only plankton-fed group. In two other experiments, advanced rohu larvae and fingerlings were fed with ImmuPlus-mixed compound feed (at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) for 15, 30 and 45 days. At the end of 45 days for advanced larvae and 30 days for fingerlings, the fish fed with ImmuPlus at 1.0 g/kg level showed significantly higher growth and disease resistance against A. hydrophila challenge. In a separate experiment, juveniles of rohu were fed with 1 g/kg of ImmuPlus incorporated feed for 15 and 30 days. At the end of the trial, the ImmuPlus fed fish showed enhanced non-specific immunity (as measured through nitroblue tetrazolium reduction assay, serum lysozyme activity, serum haemolysin titre and resistance against A. hydrophila challenge in non-vaccinated fish as well as specific immunity levels (as measured through bacterial agglutination titre against A. hydrophila in vaccinated fish). Incorporation of ImmuPlus at 1 g/kg level in the diet of rohu may be beneficial for enhancing disease resistance. PMID:17373376

Kumari, Jaya; Sahoo, P K; Giri, S S

2007-03-01

42

Food Habits of the Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L., in Five Oklahoma Reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alimentary tracts were examined of 1010 carp collected by commercial fishermen from four riverine reservoirs, and of 211 adult and 45 young carp from Lake Carl Blackwell, a headwaters reservoir. The major food items were algae, plant fragments, seeds, ent...

R. C. Summerfelt P. E. Mauck G. Mensinger

1970-01-01

43

Diversity of Beta-Propeller Phytase Genes in the Intestinal Contents of Grass Carp Provides Insight into the Release of Major Phosphorus from Phytate in Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytate is the most abundant organic phosphorus compound in nature, and microbial mineralization of phytate by phytase is a key process for phosphorus recycling in the biosphere. In the present study, beta- propeller phytase (BPP) gene fragments were readily amplified from the intestinal contents of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) directly or from phytate-degrading isolates from the same source, confirming the

Huoqing Huang; Pengjun Shi; Yaru Wang; Huiying Luo; Na Shao; Guozeng Wang; Peilong Yang; Bin Yao

2009-01-01

44

Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.  

PubMed

Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

2003-09-01

45

Purification and characterization of ? 1 -proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III: major serpins of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchuss mykiss ) and carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) blood plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main serine proteinase inhibitors of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchuss mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) blood plasma were isolated and purified. The investigated inhibitors, ?1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI) and antithrombin III (AT III), act by forming stable complexes with target proteinases. The association rate constants\\u000a k\\u000a on for the interaction of fish plasma inhibitors with several serine proteinases have been determined:

B. Mickowska

2009-01-01

46

Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: different immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDAlmost 4% of the population suffer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underlying immunological mechanism.AIMSTo characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin.METHODSTissue and subcellular distribution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was purified to homogeneity, analysed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism

A Bugajska-Schretter; M Grote; L Vangelista; P Valent; W R Sperr; H Rumpold; A Pastore; R Reichelt; R Valenta; S Spitzauer

2000-01-01

47

Resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 is influenced by major histocompatibility (MH) class II B gene polymorphism.  

PubMed

The role of MH class II B (Cyca-DAB1-like) genes in resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV) was analysed. The material consisted of 934 fish from six carp crosses. Fish were challenged with CyHV-3 at an age of 7 and 10 months. During challenge experiments the peak of mortality caused by CyHV-3 was observed at days 8-12 p.i. and the overall cumulative mortality reached 79.9%. Among six Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes, revealed by PCR-RF-SSCP analysis, one genotype (E) was found associated with higher resistance to CyHV-3. Three other genotypes (B, H and J) could be linked to higher susceptibility to CyHV-3. Analysis of the alleles that compose the Cyca-DAB1-like genotypes linked one particular allele (Cyca-DAB1*05) to significantly increased, and two alleles (Cyca-DAB1*02 and Cyca-DAB1*06) to significantly decreased resistance to CyHV-3. Our data indicate that MH class II B genes could be used as potential genetic markers in breeding of common carp for resistance to this virus. PMID:19328856

Rakus, Krzysztof ?; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Adamek, Miko?aj; Siwicki, Andrzej K; Lepa, Agnieszka; Irnazarow, Ilgiz

2009-05-01

48

Purification and characterization of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III: major serpins of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchuss mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) blood plasma.  

PubMed

The main serine proteinase inhibitors of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchuss mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) blood plasma were isolated and purified. The investigated inhibitors, alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (alpha(1)-PI) and antithrombin III (AT III), act by forming stable complexes with target proteinases. The association rate constants k (on) for the interaction of fish plasma inhibitors with several serine proteinases have been determined: k (on) for both carp and rainbow trout alpha(1)-PI were >10(7) M(-1) s(-1) for human neutrophil elastase, and in the case of bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin k (on) values were 2.0-5.2 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1). Association rate constants k (on) for the interaction of carp and rainbow trout AT III with bovine trypsin and thrombin were about 1.3 x 10(4)-7.9 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) without and >10(7) M(-1) s(-1) in presence of heparin; so antithrombins require the presence of heparin to become effective proteinase inhibitors. The high degree of homology of the estimated amino acid sequences of fish inhibitors reactive site loops confirms their similarity with other proteinase inhibitors from the serpin family. PMID:19343519

Mickowska, B

2009-06-01

49

Occurrence of higher chlorinated benzenes in livers of grass carp and common carp collected from markets of Xinxiang, China.  

PubMed

Five higher chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and three isomers of tetrachlorobenzens) were measured in the livers of grass carp and common carp collected from five markets in Xinxiang city, China. HCB and PeCB were detected in all samples. The major component of the higher CBs residue was HCB and significant correlations existed between HCB and PeCB in both grass carp and common carp livers. The ratio range of HCB/PeCB in grass carp and common carp were 3.4-6.2 and 4.9-7.7, respectively, which implied the sources of higher CBs originate mainly from the revolatilization of industrial HCB with a minor impact from PeCB. PMID:24042841

Li, Yong-Fang; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Yong

2013-11-01

50

FT-IR study of the effect of lead and the influence of chelating agents, DMSA and D-Penicillamine, on the biochemical contents of brain tissues of Catla catla fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of lead and the influence of chelating agents,meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and D-Penicillamine, on the biochemical contents of the brain tissues of Catla catla fingerlings by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra revealed significant differences in absorbance intensities\\u000a between control and lead-intoxicated brain tissues, reflecting a change in protein

P. L. R. M. Palaniappan; N. Krishnakumar; M. Vadivelu

2008-01-01

51

Carpe Noctem 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carpe Noctem is a Mid-Size League RoboCup team at the University of Kassel. It is part of the Distributed Autonomous Systems Laboratory of the Distributed Systems Group which is well known for its research contributions on middleware platforms, distributed system management, and software technologies for distributed systems. Carpe Noctem is a team of researchers, students, and robots that collectively aim

P. A. Baer; R. Reichle; K. Baumgart; T. Kleppe; C. Hoppe; S. Triller; D. Saur; J. Wollenhaupt; T. Amma; M. Blumenstein; F. Seute; A. Witsch; K. Geihs

52

Efficacy of doramectin against natural and experimental infections of Lernaea cyprinacea in carps.  

PubMed

Efficacy of doramectin administered via oral and parenteral routes against experimentally induced and natural infections of the copepod parasite Lernaea cyprinacea in carps was studied. Administration of doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kg b.wt. of fish for 10 days effectively controlled experimentally induced Lernaea infection in Labeo fimbriatus fingerlings within an average of 19 days of post-treatment as compared to the normal course of 41 days. Similarly, doramectin given through feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish for 10 days was equally effective in controlling natural infection of this parasite in the underyearlings of Catla catla and L. fimbriatus. Intramuscular administration of doramectin at 200microg/kgb.wt. of fish effectively removed adult Lernaea infection in L. fimbriatus as early as 18 days of treatment as compared to the time period of 43 days taken by the untreated fish to get rid of the infection. Single intramuscular administration of the drug was more effective against the parasite than its administration in multiple divided doses. In all cases, doramectin did not cause any noticeable adverse reactions or toxicity to the fish host. In view of the handling associated stress and other operational difficulties involved, a single intramuscular administration of the drug at 200microg/kgb.wt. is suggested for treatment of heavily infected adults and brood stock of carps. Doramectin incorporated in feed at 1mg/kgb.wt. of fish is best suited for treatment of Lernaea infection in young fish including fingerlings. However, detailed studies on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of doramectin upon its administration to aquatic organisms and the environmental impact of its usage are required to be undertaken before finally recommending the safe use of this drug for control of parasitic infections of aquatic organisms. PMID:18650018

Hemaprasanth, K P; Raghavendra, A; Singh, Ravinder; Sridhar, N; Raghunath, M R

2008-10-01

53

Impact of anthropogenic activities on physico-chemical parameters of water and mineral uptake in Catla catla from river Ravi, Pakistan.  

PubMed

The river Ravi, while passing through Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan, gets highly polluted owning heavy loads of untreated municipal sewage and industrial effluents of diverse kinds. The fish, Catla catla sampled in two different seasons from three downstream polluted sites were compared with the samples of the same fish from an upstream, a less polluted site, for their physico-chemical parameters. The data were statistically analysed to study the effect of sites, seasons and their interaction on the physico-chemical parameters of waters and mineral uptake in fish muscles. Significant differences (P?

Shakir, Abdullah; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

2013-03-01

54

Lactococcosis in Silver Carp.  

PubMed

An adult Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with a focally extensive skin lesion near the caudal peduncle and mild iridial hemorrhage was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, Mississippi, as part of a fish kill investigation. Touch impressions of this musculoskeletal lesion revealed small cocci (?1 ?m) in pairs or chains within an inflammatory milieu. A pure Gram-positive cocci isolate was obtained from the brain, while cultures of the kidney and muscle yielded multiple bacterial colony types, including the Gram-positive cocci seen in the brain. This brain isolate was characterized biochemically and identified as Lactococcus spp. Analysis of the near complete 16S small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequences revealed the bacterium to be L. lactis subsp. lactis (SSU rDNA: 100% identity, 1,372/1,372 bp; gyrB: 99.7% identity, 1,779/1,785 bp). Comparatively, at the gyrB locus the case isolate shared less than 90% similarity to L. lactis subsp. cremoris (1,599/1,781 bp) and less than 80% homology to L. garvieae (1409/1775 bp). Histopathological examination confirmed a severe meningoencephalitis, a moderate mononuclear myositis, and a mild interstitial nephritis. We believe this represents the first report of a natural infection by L. lactis subsp. lactis in Silver Carp. PMID:24689953

Khoo, Lester H; Austin, Frank W; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Gaunt, Patricia S; Riecke, Dennis K; Jacobs, Alicia M; Meals, Keith O; Dunn, Arthur W; Griffin, Matt J

2014-03-01

55

Digestibility of Bamboo-Grown Periphyton by Carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and Tor khudree) and Hybrid Red Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. niloticus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periphyton development on bamboo substrate was quantified over six weeks in fertilized mud-bottomed cement tanks. Dry matter, ash and pigment content of periphyton were analyzed at weekly intervals. On a dry matter basis, periphyton production reached the maximum on the 21st day and showed a decline thereafter. Periphyton was scraped and fed ad libitum daily over 30 days to fingerlings

B. Gangadhara; P. Keshavanath; T. J. Ramesha; M. Priyadarshini

2004-01-01

56

Asian Carp in the Missouri River: Analysis from Multiple Missouri River Habitat and Fisheries Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, collectively referred to as Asian carps, are invasive species that were either accidentally or intentionally intro...

G. A. Wanner R. A. Klumb

2009-01-01

57

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) vitellogenin: characterization of yolk proteins, development of immunoassays and use as biomarker of exposure to environmental estrogens.  

PubMed

The precursor protein of egg yolk, vitellogenin (Vg), is cleaved into three major components (lipovitellin, phosvitin and beta'-component) at the time of incorporation by growing oocytes. We purified three yolk proteins (YP1, YP2 and YP3) from ovaries of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by a combined method of ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. Biochemical analyses of the purified proteins of this species suggest that YP1, YP2 and YP3 are lipovitellin, beta'-component and phosvitin, respectively. A specific antiserum against purified carp YP1 (lipovitellin) was used to develop a single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) technique and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for carp Vg. By SRID and ELISA, we measured the circulating carp Vg level to be in the ranges of 12.5-400 microg/ml and 2.0-1000 ng/ml, respectively, which cover a wide range of Vg levels. From 1997-1998, male and female carp were captured at points of effluent discharge from a sewage treatment plant connected to the Tama River, where estrogenic compounds were later detected, and the presence of Vg in their circulation was examined. Vg was detected in both male and female carp at the mg/ml level, suggesting that estrogens such as estrone and estradiol were sufficiently high to induce Vg in male carp inhabiting this area. The result of this study supports the use of carp Vg as a biomarker of fish exposure to environmental estrogens. PMID:17585296

Hara, Akihiko; Hirano, Kaori; Shimizu, Munetaka; Fukada, Haruhisa; Fujita, Toshiaki; Ito, Fuminari; Takada, Hideshige; Nakamura, Masaru; Iguchi, Taisen

2007-01-01

58

Comparison of Hybrid Carp and Grass Carp with Respect to Food Preference, Food Consumption and Growth.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To compare the grass carp and the hybrid carp in their relative effectiveness in controlling vegetation, it is ideal to raise these fishes under controlled laboratory conditions at similar stocking densities. The objective of this investigation is to comp...

R. V. Kilambi A. Zdinak

1980-01-01

59

First Report of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) in Wild Common Carp in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spring 2002, an estimated 1,500 common carp Cyprinus carpio in Cedar Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, died over a 6-week period from late April through the first week in June. Three moribund carp were necropsied and had signs consistent with spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, including petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the skin, ascites, and edematous kidney and spleen. A

Audrey L. Dikkeboom; Craig Radi; Kathy Toohey-Kurth; Susan Marcquenski; Marty Engel; Andrew E. Goodwin; David M. Stone; Clare Longshaw

2004-01-01

60

Introgressive Hybridization between Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian carps are classified as either bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis or silver carp H. molitrix by multiple presumptively diagnostic morphological characteristics; however, hybrids pose a dilemma. Fish sharing the morphological characteristics of both species were observed in an Illinois River backwater (Calhoun County, Illinois) approximately 5 mi (8 km) upriver from the confluence with the Mississippi River as well as

James Thomas Lamer; Chad Ryan Dolan; Jessica Lynn Petersen; John Howard Chick; John Michael Epifanio

2010-01-01

61

Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

Rach, J. J.; Luoma, J. A.; Marking, L. L.

1994-01-01

62

„Germanofilia” lui P. P. Carp - P. P. Carp’s „Germanophilia” (Romanian version)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the public conscience as well as in specialized literature, P.P. Carp, the conservative political man, appears as one of the most vehement „Germanophiles” in modern Romania, an attitudinal immobility which had supposedly ruined his perception on the course of history. According to the perspective-oriented interpretation, the “Germanophilia” of the Romanian conservative was not based on love but on Calculus.

Silvia BOCANCEA

2011-01-01

63

Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.  

PubMed

A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115?125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17?-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats. PMID:22889892

Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

2012-11-01

64

Asian Carps of the Genus Hypophthalmichthys (Pisces, Cyprinidae): A Biological Synopsis and Environmental Risk Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Genus and Species Description and Distinguishing Characteristics (Genus: Hypophthalmichthys, Species: Bighead Carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Species: Silver Carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Species: Large scale Silver Carp, Hy...

C. M. Housel C. S. Kolar D. C. Chapman D. P. Jennings W. R. Courtenay

2005-01-01

65

Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

PubMed Central

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

66

Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

2013-01-01

67

CULTURAL PROSPECTS OF CHINESE CARPS IN TAMILNADU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of Chinese carps was studied in the plains and uplands of Tamilnadu. Grass carp, when less than I 50 mm, feed on plankton and chopped vegetation. Larger fish feed on sub- merged weeds, but they are of doubtful utility against emergent and marginal plants. Terrestrial shrubs like Tridux can also be fed. Preference for softer varieties was noted.

G. Prabhavathy; A. Sreenivasan

68

A consensus linkage map provides insights on genome character and evolution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is cultured worldwide and is a major contributor to the world's aquaculture production. The common carp has a complex tetraploidized genome, which may historically experience additional whole genome duplication than most other Cyprinids. Fine maps for female and male carp were constructed using a mapping panel containing one F1 family with 190 progeny. A total of 1,025 polymorphic markers were used to construct genetic maps. For the female map, 559 microsatellite markers in 50 linkage groups cover 3,468 cM of the genome. For the male map, 383 markers in 49 linkage groups cover 1,811 cM of the genome. The consensus map was constructed by integrating the new map with two published linkage maps, containing 732 markers and spanning 3,278 cM in 50 linkage groups. The number of consensus linkage groups corresponds to the number of common carp chromosomes. A significant difference on sex recombinant rate was observed that the ratio of female and male recombination rates was 4.2:1. Comparative analysis was performed between linkage map of common carp and genome of zebrafish (Danio rerio), which revealed clear 2:1 relationship of common carp linkage groups and zebrafish chromosomes. The results provided evidence that common carp did experienced a specific whole genome duplication event comparing with most other Cyprinids. The consensus linkage map provides an important tool for genetic and genome study of common carp and facilitates genetic selection and breeding for common carp industry. PMID:23073608

Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Xianhu; Kuang, Youyi; Zhao, Zixia; Zhao, Lan; Li, Chao; Jiang, Li; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-06-01

69

Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

2011-01-01

70

Inactivation of koi-herpesvirus in water using bacteria isolated from carp intestines and carp habitats.  

PubMed

Since its first outbreak in Japan in 2003, koi-herpesvirus (KHV) remains a challenge to the carp Cyprinus carpio L. breeding industry. In this study, inactivation of KHV in water from carp habitats (carp habitat water) was investigated with the aim of developing a model for rapidly inactivating the pathogen in aquaculture effluent. Experiments with live fish showed that, in carp habitat water, KHV lost its infectivity within 3 days. Indications were that inactivation of KHV was caused by the antagonistic activity of bacteria (anti-KHV bacteria) in the water from carp habitats. Carp habitat water and the intestinal contents of carp were therefore screened for anti-KHV bacteria. Of 581 bacterial isolates, 23 showed anti-KHV activity. An effluent treatment model for the disinfection of KHV in aquaculture effluent water using anti-KHV bacteria was developed and evaluated. The model showed a decrease in cumulative mortality and in the number of KHV genome copies in kidney tissue of fish injected with treated effluent compared with a positive control. It is thought that anti-KHV bacteria isolated from the intestinal contents of carp and from carp habitat water can be used to control KHV outbreaks. PMID:24102339

Yoshida, N; Sasaki, R-K; Kasai, H; Yoshimizu, M

2013-12-01

71

Effect of pectins on the gelling properties of surimi from silver carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein–carbohydrate interactions affect the functional properties in foods where proteins are the major ingredients, such as meat and fish processed products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pectin gum with different degree of methoxylation and calcium chloride on the mechanical properties of surimi gels. Surimi from silver carp was supplemented with pectin gum at 1%

A. M Barrera; J. A Ram??rez; J. J González-Cabriales; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

72

The mystery of the curious Crucian carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-10-01

73

Differences in the susceptibility of Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian common carp (Cyprinus carpio), identified by mitochondrial DNA typing, to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).  

PubMed

In 2004, a massive mortality of wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) due to CyHV-3 infection occurred in Lake Biwa. Although common carp of two different mitochondrial types (Japanese indigenous and domesticated Eurasian) occur in the lake, the majority of the dead fish seemed to be the indigenous type. The apparent high mortality in the indigenous type implies a higher susceptibility of this type to CyHV-3. To test the hypothesis that the susceptibility of indigenous and Eurasian types differ, we performed experimental infections with CyHV-3 among 2 groups of the indigenous type, and for the Eurasian type 4 groups of domesticated common carp and 4 groups of koi carp. Fish were immersed in CyHV-3 isolate and kept at 24°C. Both groups of the indigenous type died more rapidly compared with the 8 groups of the Eurasian type. Cumulative mortality in both indigenous groups reached 95-100%, whereas the cumulative mortalities of domesticated common carp (30-95%) and koi carp (35-100%) were more varied. CyHV-3 genome in the organs of the indigenous type increased more rapidly after the viral exposure and reached higher peak levels than those of the domesticated strain. These findings revealed that susceptibility of the indigenous type of carp to CyHV-3 can be considered especially high. PMID:24690375

Ito, Takafumi; Kurita, Jun; Yuasa, Kei

2014-06-25

74

Evidence for Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA in Triploid Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp and compare the complete mtDNA sequences between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp and between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid. Our results indicate that the complete mtDNA nucleotide identity (98%) between the triploid crucian carp and its male parent allotetraploid was higher than that (93%) between the triploid crucian carp and its female parent Japanese crucian carp. Moreover, the presence of a pattern of identity and difference at synonymous sites of mitochondrial genomes between the triploid crucian carp and its parents provides direct evidence that triploid crucian carp possessed the recombination mtDNA fragment (12,759 bp) derived from the paternal fish. These results suggest that mtDNA recombination was derived from the fusion of the maternal and paternal mtDNAs. Compared with the haploid egg with one set of genome from the Japanese crucian carp, the diploid sperm with two sets of genomes from the allotetraploid could more easily make its mtDNA fuse with the mtDNA of the haploid egg. In addition, the triple hybrid nature of the triploid crucian carp probably allowed its better mtDNA recombination. In summary, our results provide the first evidence of mtDNA combination in polyploid fish.

Guo, Xinhong; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yun

2006-01-01

75

Physiological changes in carps induced by pollution  

SciTech Connect

Several pollutants like DDT, atrazine, PCP, and others induce changes of cortisol and glucose levels in serum, variations of the amount of liver glycogen and liver function, and exert changes of the activity of gill ATPase and acetylcholinesterase in brain and serum of carps. There is always a biphasic response, an increase of concentration or enzyme activity for a short time, and a decrease or inhibition of the enzymes after a longer exposure to the pollutants. The time scale, the duration of the period of increase and that of decrease, depends on the concentration and the toxicity of the pollutants. The influence of the pollutants in normal fresh water was compared with the effects occurring in carps acclimated to 1.2% salt water. This condition enables one to show that the carps are more sensitive to the pollutants under this condition. All responses are unspecific. Advice for the use of these tests as criteria for water quality are given.

Hanke, W.; Gluth, G.; Bubel, H.; Mueller, R.

1983-04-01

76

A new haplotype variability in complement C6 is marginally associated with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.  

PubMed

Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes haemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortality and tremendous economic loss in cultured grass carp in the mainland China. The complement component C6 is a constituent of a biochemical cascade that serves as a major effector of the human innate and adaptor immunity, and eliminates infected cells. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C6 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. The gcC6 genomic sequence is composed of 9292 bp, containing 18 exons and 17 introns. The promoter sequence of gcC6 gene contained several consensus sequences for hepatic-specific transcription factors. We sequenced a total of 9744 bp of the C6 gene from a diverse population of grass carp and identified 8 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of association between any individual SNPs and resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. The SNPs 1214G>A, 1380G>C, 2095A>C and 2167T>C were linked together (r(2) > 0.8). The haplotype GCCC generated with these four SNPs was associated marginally with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest a lack of strong association of the C6 polymorphisms with the A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. PMID:23422818

Shen, Yubang; Zhang, Junbin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjun; Li, Jiale

2013-05-01

77

Effects of Temperature on Food Consumption, Food Conversion, and Growth of Grass Carp 'Ctenopharyngodon idella'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was conducted to determine the food consumption and growth of Grass Carp under different temperatures, effects of temperature on food conversion and growth of grass carp, and relationship between grass carp production and increase in nutrient le...

R. V. Kilambi W. R. Robison

1978-01-01

78

Evaluating Asian Carp Colonization Potential and Impact in the Great Lakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Filter-feeding Asian carp (bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) threaten to invade Lake Michigan and other Great Lakes through the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and through introductions via bait use or...

W. Hill

2008-01-01

79

Induced interspecific androgenesis using diploid sperm from allotetraploid hybrids of common carp×red crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, viable diploid androgenetic individuals (AT-ag) (2n=100) have been developed in UV-radiated eggs of goldfish (GF) (Carassius auratus) following fertilization with diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrid (AT) F13 (4n=200) of red crucian carp (C. auratus red var.) (?)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?). In the experimental groups, eggs were inactivated by UV-rays, the range of UV-radiation

Yuandong Sun; Chun Zhang; Shaojun Liu; Wei Duan; Yun Liu

2007-01-01

80

The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp × common carp hybrids by androgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A0) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (?) ? common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A0

Wei Duan; QinBo Qin; Song Chen; ShaoJun Liu; Jing Wang; Chun Zhang; YuanDong Sun; Yun Liu

2007-01-01

81

Microsatellites within genes and ESTs of common carp and their applicability in silver crucian carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six new microsatellites were identified from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by screening through genes found in GenBank, EST sequences from a testis cDNA library and a genomic DNA library enriched for CA repeats. Eleven of the twenty-eight microsatellites identified from genes and ESTs were AT repeats, suggesting their high abundance in the genome of common carp. Characterization of the

Gen Hua Yue; Mei Yin Ho; Laszlo Orban; Johannes Komen

2004-01-01

82

Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses  

PubMed Central

Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus.

Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

83

Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

2014-01-01

84

Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.; Fairchild, J. F.

2003-01-01

85

Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

86

The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

2014-02-25

87

Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp.  

PubMed Central

When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with the duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl2), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. In the nontreated group, metallothionein was present in the acinar cells of hepatopancreas and renal convoluted tubules. In the Cd-treated group (2 mg/kg IP daily for 3 days), metallothionein was present in the nuclei, sinusoids, and extracellular space of hepatopancreas, in addition to the acinar cells. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups. The metallothionein contents increased in hepatopancreas and kidney in the order: Zn greater than Cd greater than control group. Images FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6.

Kito, H; Ose, Y; Sato, T

1986-01-01

88

Energy metabolism of carp swimming muscles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromyography has been used to study the recruitment of red, pink and white muscle fibres of the Mirror carp at different swimming speeds. Locomotion below 0.3–0.5 L\\/S (lengths per second) is achieved primarily by fin movements after which the red myotomal muscle becomes active. Pink muscle fibres are the next type to be recruited at speeds around 1.1–1.5 L\\/S. White

I. A. Johnston; W. Davison; G. Goldspink

1977-01-01

89

Slow PIII component of the carp electroretinogram  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow PIII component of the electroretinogram (ERG) was studied in the isolated, aspartate-treated carp retina. Although the latter is richly populated with cones, flow PIII appeared to reflect almost exclusively the activity of rods; e.g. the spectral sensitivity of the potential paralleled closely the rod pigment curve, its operating range (i.e. the V-log I curve) was limited to 3

PAUL WITKOVSKY; F. E. DUDEK; HARRIS RIPPS

1975-01-01

90

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

1982-01-01

91

Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

Chapman, Duane C.

2010-01-01

92

Intensive Feeding of Grass Carp in Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and feed consumption were determined for yearling grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stocked at a rate of 8,000\\/hectare in earthen ponds and fed either a practical-type catfish diet or diets in which dehydrated alfalfa meal comprised either 19 or 38% of the formula. The diets were formulated to be approximately equal in estimated digestible energy (2.9 kcal\\/g) and digestible protein

B. O. Mgbenka; R. T. Lovell

1986-01-01

93

The role of HIRA and maternal histones in sperm nucleus decondensation in the gibel carp and color crucian carp.  

PubMed

The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly during male pronucleus formation in Drosophila. However, the role of HIRA during fertilization in vertebrates remains unclear. The gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is a unique gynogenetic crucian carp (gyno-carp). Heterologous sperm nuclei cannot decondense when incorporated in the egg, thus the eggs produce a clonal lineage of all females by typical gynogenesis. In contrast, after entering the egg, homologous sperm can undergo decondensation and sexual reproduction is activated, which may produce both female and male offspring. Therefore, this fish is a useful model for studying the mechanisms of fertilization. Herein, we first compared HIRA expression during embryogenesis between gyno-carp and the gonochoristic color crucian carp (Carassius auratus; gono-carp). In gono-carp, a dramatic reduction of HIRA protein occurs shortly after fertilization, whereas HIRA protein is consistently expressed during embryogenesis of gyno-carp. Next, we used immunodepletion and an in vitro sperm decondensation system, and found that complete removal of HIRA inhibited sperm decondensation in both of the fish. Immunofluorescence localization showed that in the condensed sperm nuclei of gono-carp incubated in gyno-carp egg extracts, HIRA was detected, but neither the histone H2A variant H2af1o nor acetylated histone H4 was observed. These results suggest that HIRA may be a critical factor required for sperm nucleus decondensation, while the defect in deposition of some maternal histones in the sperm nucleus could be one reason why heterologous sperm cannot decondense in the gibel carp egg. PMID:21337451

Zhao, Zhan-Ke; Li, Wei; Wang, Meng-Yu; Zhou, Li; Wang, Jia-Lin; Wang, Yu-Feng

2011-02-01

94

Competitive Interactions between Age0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout

Sally J. Schrank; Christopher S. Guy; James F. Fairchild

2003-01-01

95

Feeding Rate of Carp Estimated by a Radioisotopic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding rate was estimated for yearling carp living in a small lake contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. The amount of Cs that must be ingested to maintain the equilibrium body burden of the carp was calculated from measured values for body burden, biological elimination rates, and assimilation factors. The radioisotope was ingested by the fish as an integral part

N. R. Kevern

1966-01-01

96

Zooplankton abundance and diversity in Central Florida grass carp ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) upon the zooplankton in three adjacent experimental ponds (0.139 ha each) was studied for one year. The ponds contained nine species of aquatic macrophytes. Grass carp were stocked into Pond 1 (65 per ha) and Pond 2 (611 per ha) three months after the study was started. At the time

Douglas L. Fry; John A. Osborne

1980-01-01

97

Physiological and biochemical investigations on egg stickiness in common carp.  

PubMed

The properties and behaviour of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, eggs in water and in ovarian fluids were studied at different temperature, pH, and with divalent cation concentrations. The biochemical composition of zona radiata externa (ZRE) was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively on amino acids, carbohydrates, uronic acid and sialic acids using chemical assays; on proteins using electrophoresis. Comparative biochemical studies were performed on the chub, Leuciscus cephalus, the vimba, Vimba vimba and the bleak, Chalcalburnus chalcoides. Eggs of common carp became sticky within seconds after mixing with water. Egg stickiness was not affected by water pH in a range of 6-9, by water temperatures between 4 and 30 degrees C, by divalent cations in concentrations < or =20 mmol/l, and by sodium chloride concentrations < or =50 mmol/l. Our investigations indicated that specific proteins of the cyprinid ovarian fluid are controlling (inhibiting) the initiation of egg stickiness: egg stickiness did not develop as long as the eggs were incubated in ovarian fluid. When however the ovarian fluid proteins were removed from the ovarian fluid by heat treatment, eggs developed stickiness within seconds, like they do in water. Biochemically, the ZRE consisted of nine types of proteins whereby four of them were glycoproteins. Glucose, fructose, galactose, and uronic acids were the major carbohydrates. Treatment of the egg membrane with invertase or amyloglucosidase did not affect the egg stickiness. Treatment with protease prevented stickiness. From these results and from additional histochemical results, we conclude that glycoproteins are likely to be the molecules responsible for stickiness. PMID:18938050

Mansour, N; Lahnsteiner, F; Patzner, R A

2009-08-01

98

Relationship between meteorological conditions and natural reproduction behavior of the four famous Chinese carps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known as the four famous carps in China, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are commercially important fish species with a high production in China. To reveal the relationships between meteorological\\u000a conditions and the natural spawning behavior of these fishes, we considered six meteorological factors (including wind, rainfall,\\u000a temperature,

Ke Wang; Wengen Liao; Chong Li; Daqing Chen; Shaoping Liu; Xinbin Duan

2010-01-01

99

Grass carp status in the United States: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.

Pierce, Barry A.

1983-03-01

100

Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

2013-01-01

101

Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2012-01-01

102

Increased leptin expression in common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) after food intake but not after fasting or feeding to satiation.  

PubMed

Leptin is a key factor in the regulation of food intake and is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, more than a decade after the discovery of leptin in mouse, information regarding leptin in any nonmammalian species is still scant. We report the identification of duplicate leptin genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The unique gene structure, the conservation of both cysteines that form leptin's single disulfide bridge, and stable clustering in phylogenetic analyses substantiate the unambiguous orthology of mammalian and carp leptins, despite low amino acid identity. The liver is a major yet not the only site of leptin expression. However, neither 6 d nor 6 wk of fasting nor subsequent refeeding affected hepatic leptin expression, although the carp predictably shifted from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism. Animals that were fed to satiation grew twice as fast as controls; however, they did not show increased leptin expression at the termination of the study. Hepatic leptin expression did, however, display an acute and transient postprandial increase that follows the postprandial plasma glucose peak. In summary, leptin mRNA expression in carp changes acutely after food intake, but involvement of leptin in the long-term regulation of food intake and energy metabolism was not evident from fasting for days or weeks or long-term feeding to satiation. These are the first data on the regulation of leptin expression in any nonmammalian species. PMID:16935838

Huising, Mark O; Geven, Edwin J W; Kruiswijk, Corine P; Nabuurs, Sander B; Stolte, Ellen H; Spanings, F A Tom; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy; Flik, Gert

2006-12-01

103

[Polymorphism of microsatellite markers in breeds of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) of Russian breeding].  

PubMed

Using five microsatellite loci, genotyping and genetic diversity estimates were obtained for nine samples representing seven common carp breeds most widespread in Russia. For comparison, the samples of Amur wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and a sample of European Hungarian common carp were used. In the samples examined (n = 148) a total of 78 alleles were revealed. The highest mean allele number per locus (4.3) was identified in Amur wild common carp, while the lowest number was found in Cherepets carps (4.0). In different breeds, the observed heterozygosities varied from 0.819 (Altai carp) to 0.651 (Cherepets scaly carp). Three out of five microsatellite loci (MFW-24, MFW-28, and MFW-19) revealed a high level of population differentiation. In the dendrogram of genetic differences, all breeds clustered into two groups. One of these groups was composed of the two strains of Ropsha common carp, Stavropol common carp, Amur wild common carp, and the two samples of Cherepets common carp. The second cluster included Altai common carp (Cis-Ob' and Chumysh populations), two Angelinskii common carp breeds (mirror and scaly), and Hungarian common carp. The pairs of breeds/populations/strains, having common origin, were differentiated. Specifically, these were two populations of Altai common carp, two strains of Ropsha common carp, as well as the breeds of Angelinskii and Cherepets common carps. The reasons for genetic differentiation of Russian common carp breeds, as well as the concordance of the evolutionary histories of these breeds, some of which originated from the European breeds, while the others contain substantial admixture of the Amur wild common carp, are discussed. PMID:20583601

Ludanny?, R I; Khrisanfova, G G; Prizenko, V K; Bogeruk, A K; Semenova, S K

2010-05-01

104

Common Carp Abundance, Biomass, and Removal from Dewey and Clear Lakes on the Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Does Trapping and Removing Carp Payoff.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a nonnative invasive nuisance species to North America. Many authors have documented the detrimental affects of common carp invasions on waterfowl habitats (Chamberlain 1948; Robel 1961), game fish habitat (Cahn 1929), and t...

G. A. Wanner M. Lindvall M. A. Kaemingk M. P. Nenneman

2009-01-01

105

Identification and analysis of the jnk1 gene in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase superfamily. The allotetraploid crucian carp is a product of distant hybridization of female red crucian carp with male common carp. It is the first natural case of an allotetraploid with stable genetic characters, including fertility of both female and male animals. In this study, 2 jnk1 cDNAs (including jnk1a and jnk1b) have been cloned from the polyploid crucian carp system, consisting of the allotetraploid crucian carp, the triploid crucian carp, and their original parents (red crucian and common carp). We show that jnk1a and jnk1b represent 2 splice forms arising from the jnk1 gene. On the basis of the genetic structure of jnk1a gene in the polyploid crucian carp system, we demonstrated that the allotetraploid crucian carp is phylogenetically closer to its paternal parent (common carp) than to its maternal parent. We further show a similarity between the triploid crucian carp and its original female parent (red crucian carp). Comparisons of genetic structures indicated that the jnk1b genes of allotetraploid and triploid crucian carp are more similar to those of the original paternal parent rather than the original female parent (red crucian carp). RT-PCR analysis indicated that both the jnk1a and jnk1b genes are widely expressed in fish embryos and in the adult organs, displaying distinct features of embryonic-stage and organ specificity in the polyploid crucian carp system. PMID:24634111

Xiao, Y M; Jiang, M G; Luo, Z W; Zhou, Y H; Wen, S; Wang, M; Zhang, C; Liu, S J

2014-01-01

106

Grass Carp Stocking Rate Model (AMUR/STOCK).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The AMUR/STOCK model is a coupled plant growth and fish feeding and bioenergetics simulation model that evaluates the effectiveness of grass carp stocking rate strategies for controlling nuisance growth of aquatic plants under user-selected site condition...

R. M. Stewart W. A. Boyd

1999-01-01

107

PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

1982-06-01

108

Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

Stanley, Jon G.

1976-01-01

109

The endocrinology of growth in carp and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this review is on various aspects of the endocrine control of growth by the brain neuroendocrine-growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in carp and other cyprinids, with reference to other species, including mammals, if there are particular gaps in knowledge. The neuroendocrine regulation of GH secretion in goldfish and other carp is multifactorial, with a balance

R. E. Peter; T. A. Marchant

1995-01-01

110

Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of genetic variation and population structure of existing strains of both farmed and wild common carp Cyprinus carpio L. is absolutely necessary for any efficient fish management and\\/or conservation program. To assess genetic diversity in\\u000a common carp populations, a variety of molecular markers were analyzed. Of those, microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA were\\u000a most frequently used in the analysis of

Dimitry A. Chistiakov; Natalia V. Voronova

2009-01-01

111

Grass carp reovirus induces apoptosis and oxidative stress in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) kidney cell line.  

PubMed

Grass carp hemorrhage is an acute contagious disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The pathogenesis of GCRV and the relationship between GCRV and the host cells remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relations among apoptosis, intracellular oxidative stress and virus replication in GCRV infected-cells. The results showed that GCRV induced activation of caspase proteases as early as 12h, and reached maximum activities at 24h or 48h post-infection in a grass carp kidney cell line (CIK cells). Meanwhile, the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) also were increased in GCRV-infected CIK cells and showed a statistically significant difference from 24h to 96h post-infection. The infection of GCRV caused the destruction of entire monolayer and the death of host cells. Accompanied by the infection, a severe oxidative stress occurred, which led to extensive loss of antioxidants and formation of lipid peroxidation after 48h post-infection. These data suggested that the apoptosis which was triggered at an early stage (12-24h) in the viral infection cycle, might be independent of virus replication, while the oxidative stress induced by GCRV was mostly related to the virus replication. PMID:24680657

Jia, Rui; Cao, Li-Ping; Du, Jin-Liang; Liu, Ying-Juan; Wang, Jia-Hao; Jeney, Galina; Yin, Guo-Jun

2014-06-24

112

Hybridization between native barbless carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) and introduced common carp (C. carpio) in Xingyun Lake, China.  

PubMed

Hybridization with introduced fish species is an important threat to native fish species. Here we investigated hybridization between native barbless carp (Cyprinus pellegrini) and introduced common carp (C. carpio) in Xingyun Lake in the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau of China. A total of 203 individuals of Cyprinus from Xingyun Lake were studied by combination of morphological and genetic analyses. Most individuals were strictly intermediate between the two parental species in morphology, strongly suggesting that extensive hybridization has occurred. Bayesian model-based clustering of the genetic data suggests that there are two distinct genetic groups corresponding to barbless and common carp respectively. Many individuals in the two genetic groups showed intermediate morphology, suggesting that both groups actually contain massively introgressed genes. Only two individuals were identified as barbless carp both morphologically and genetically, hinting that this native species is at risk of genetic extinction in Xingyun Lake. PMID:22559965

Tang, Weixing; Chen, Yifeng

2012-05-01

113

Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp x common carp  

PubMed Central

Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp.

2014-01-01

114

Characterization of complete genome sequence of the spring viremia of carp virus isolated from common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The complete genome of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) strain A-1 isolated from cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in China was sequenced and characterized. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) derived clones were constructed\\u000a and the DNA was sequenced. It showed that the entire genome of SVCV A-1 consists of 11,100 nucleotide base pairs, the predicted\\u000a size of the viral

Y. Teng; H. Liu; J. Q. Lv; W. H. Fan; Q. Y. Zhang; Q. W. Qin

2007-01-01

115

The formation of tetraploid stocks of red crucian carp×common carp hybrids as an effect of interspecific hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

F3–F8 hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (?)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (?) were found to be allotetraploids by examining the numbers and karyotypes of chromosomes, the DNA content of red blood cells, and the mean nuclear erythrocyte volumes. The chromosome numbers of F3–F8 were 4n=200. The chromosome numbers of two types of triploids produced by mating

Shaojun Liu; Yun Liu; Gongjiang Zhou; Xuanjie Zhang; Chen Luo; Hao Feng; Xiaoxiao He; Guihua Zhu; Hui Yang

2001-01-01

116

Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.  

PubMed

Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

2013-12-01

117

Role of high zinc levels in the stress defense of common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the link between high zinc levels and the extreme stress tolerance of common carp. Fish under stress showed much\\u000a higher plasma cortisol levels than controls. Stress or cortisol injection induced large changes in zinc levels in the common\\u000a carp but not in grass carp, silver carp or tilapia. The effect of 5 days of anoxia and 4 subsequent days

Tzu-Yung Lin; Yen-Hua Chen; Chien-Lin Liu; Sen-Shyong Jeng

118

Cove culture of marble goby ( Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker) and carps in Tri An Reservoir of Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in the 5.24-ha Truong Dang Cove of Tri An Reservoir of Vietnam during June 2002–May 2003 to describe cove culture of marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata Bleeker) with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) stocked at 960, 470, 470, 470 and 170 fish\\/ha, respectively. After about

Vu Cam Luong; Yang Yi; Chang Kwei Lin

2005-01-01

119

Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hinck, J. E.; Schmitt, C. J.; Ellersieck, M. R.; Tillitt, D. E.

2008-01-01

120

Optimization of hydrogen-peroxide washing of common carp kamaboko using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum concentration and time for the hydrogen peroxide washing of common carp (Cyrinus carpio) mince to produce acceptable kamaboko. Two key characteristics that commercially acceptable common carp kamaboko should achieve are colour whiteness and a firm texture. Overall, common carp (CC) kamaboko whiteness increased but texture become weaker with the increasing

He Shan; Elisabeth Gorczyca; Stefan Kasapis; Andreas Lopata

2010-01-01

121

Genetic Diversity and Variation of Mitochondrial DNA in Native and Introduced Bighead Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is native to China but has been introduced to over 70 countries and is established in many large river systems. Genetic diversity and variation in introduced bighead carp have not previously been evaluated, and a systematic comparison among fish from different river systems was unavailable. In this study, 190 bighead carp specimens were sampled from

Si-Fa Li; Qin-Ling Yang; Jia-Wei Xu; Cheng-Hui Wang; Duane C. Chapman; Guoqing Lu

2010-01-01

122

CARP Is a Potential Tumor Suppressor in Gastric Carcinoma and a Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in CARP Gene Might Increase the Risk of Gastric Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background The caspase-associated recruitment domain-containing protein (CARP) is expressed in almost all tissues. Recently, the tumor-suppressive function of CARP was discovered and attracted increasing attention. This study aimed to investigate the role of CARP in the carcinogenesis of human gastric carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with normal gastric tissue, the downregulation of CARP expression was observed in gastric carcinoma tissue by cDNA array and tissue microarray assay. In vitro, the gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823) was stably transfected with pcDNA3.1B-CARP or plus CARP siRNA, and we used MTT, flow cytometry, cell migration on type I collagen, cell-matrix adhesion assay and western blot analysis to investigate the potential anti-tumor effects of CARP. The data showed that overexpressing CARP suppressed the malignancy of gastric carcinoma BGC-823 cell line, including significant increases in apoptosis, as well as obvious decreases in cell proliferation, migration, adhesion ability, and tumor growth. The tumor-suppressive effects of CARP were almost restored by siRNA-directed CARP silence. In addition, overexpression of CARP induced G1 arrest, decreased the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2, and increased the expressions of p27, p53 and p21. In vivo, the tumor-suppressive effect of CARP was also verified. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype of CARP (rs2297882) was located in the Kozak sequence of the CARP gene. The reporter gene assay showed that rs2297882 TT caused an obvious downregulation of activity of CARP gene promoter in BGC-823 cells. Furthermore, the association between rs2297882 and human gastric carcinoma susceptibility was analyzed in 352 cases and 889 controls. It displayed that the TT genotype of rs2297882 in the CARP gene was associated with an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions/Significance CARP is a potential tumor suppressor of gastric carcinoma and the rs2297882 C>T phenotype of CARP may serve as a predictor of gastric carcinoma.

Hu, Yu-chang; Gan, Lu; Shi, Yi; Yang, Han-shuo; Wei, Yu-quan

2014-01-01

123

Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short settling zone upstream of the Grafton Dam, whereas the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers both had extensive settling zones (>5 km) behind major dams. These longer settling zones are likely to capture more eggs than shorter settling reaches. All four rivers exhibited settling zones at their river mouths, with the Lake Erie tributaries having much larger settling zones extending more than 10 km up the tributaries. While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

2013-01-01

124

Do physicochemical variables regulate the distribution of zooplankton communities in reservoirs dominated by filter-feeding carp?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton communities in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Xin'anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang, China, were investigated monthly, between 2009 and 2010. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) dominated the pelagic fish community of this large, deep reservoir. Cladocerans were distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. Rotifers were mainly found in the upper reaches, while copepods tended to assemble in the lower reaches. The Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were used to identify the major physicochemical gradients influencing community variations. Zooplankton community distributions were influenced by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and silicon. Excess nutrients, in particular silicon, stimulated rotifer growth. Based on these findings, it is possible to use rotifer density as a bioindicator of eutrophic status in deep reservoir ecosystems.

Hu, Menghong; Yang, Lili; Liu, Qigen

2014-03-01

125

Developmental quantitative genetic analysis of body weight and morphological traits in red common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental genetic analysis was conducted for body weight, total length, standard length and body height in red common carp by a mixed genetic model with additive–dominance effects, based on complete diallel crosses made by Xingguo red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis), purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) and Oujiang color common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color). Unconditional

Cheng-hui Wang; Si-fa Li; Zhi-guo Liu; Song-ping Xiang; Jian Wang; Zeng-yun Pang; Jiang-ping Duan

2006-01-01

126

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.  

PubMed

Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581 bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun

2014-02-01

127

Metabolic disposition and excretion of quinocetone in rats, pigs, broilers, and carp.  

PubMed

Excretion, disposition, and metabolism of [(3)H]-quinocetone in rats, pigs, broilers, and carp following oral administration were investigated. After a single p.o. dose, total radioactivity was rapidly excreted, with ?94% in all species within 14days. Fecal excretion of radioactivity was 68% and 65% of the administered dose in rats and pigs, respectively, with the remainder excreted in the urine. Six hours after the last of seven daily oral administrations of (3)H-labeled QCT, radioactivity was found to be distributed throughout all tissues, with the majority of radioactivity cleared within 7days, and elimination was the slowest from the liver and kidney. QCT was extensively metabolized in all of the species, and the primary changes included N-O group reduction, carbonyl group reduction, double bond reduction, and hydroxylation. The major tissue metabolites of QCT were Q2, Q4, Q5, Q8, and Q9 in rats; Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q5 in pigs; Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q7 in broilers; and Q1, Q2 in carp. This confirmed the potential link between QCT metabolism through N-O group reduction and its organ toxicity. The results of the present study provide important data that could help understand the relationship between the toxicities and metabolic disposition of QCT. PMID:24727229

Li, Juan; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhaoying; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Wu, Qinghua; Yuan, Zonghui

2014-07-01

128

Detection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a pathogen that causes hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. It is the most serious infectious disease of carp and causes serious losses of fingerlings of grass carp and black carp. In this study, a recombinant VP4, one of the viral core proteins, was constructed with a histidine tag and expressed at a high level in E. coli, and the expressed protein was mainly found in the form of inclusion bodies. The expressed VP4 protein was recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody and goat anti-GCRV serum. Four monoclonal antibodies (16B7, 39E12, 13C3 and 14D1) against the recombinant VP4 protein were produced. These MAbs did not react with any of the tested viruses or fish cells lines in the ELISA tests except GCRV. In western blotting analysis, a protein band was observed when the recombinant VP4 protein of GCRV was used as an antigen, but a 68-kDa band was observed when natural capsid proteins of GCRV were used as antigens. Furthermore, a sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of GCRV. The detection limit of the test was 105 TCID50 of GCRV per mL. PMID:24122108

Hongli, Jing; Lifeng, Zhang; Zhenzhen, Fang; Lipu, Xu; Min, Zhang; Na, Wang; Yulin, Jiang; Xiangmei, Lin

2014-04-01

129

Immunological effects of paraquat on common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ) is a nonselective worldwide used herbicide and it has been demonstrated to be highly toxic to animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about PQ effect on the immune system and histopathology of fish. In the present study, we aimed to determine the lysozyme activities, content of IgM, and complement C3 content in the liver, kidney, and spleen of common carp exposed to 1.596 or 3.192 mg/L of PQ for 7 d. The results showed that lysozyme activity in the liver, kidney, or spleen of common carp was increased at the earlier stages of PQ-exposure (from 1 to 3 d) while decreased at the end of treatment. Moreover, PQ-exposure caused irregular change of IgM content while decreased C3 content. These results suggest that PQ-exposure may disturb the innate immunity of common carp and could result in dysfunction of the specific immunity in common carp. In addition, PQ-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damages in fish gill, fin, liver, spleen, kidney, and intestine, indicating that PQ has immunotoxicity on common carp. PMID:24486634

Ma, Junguo; Li, Yuanyuan; Niu, Daichun; Li, Yao; Li, Xiaoyu

2014-03-01

130

Abnormal cerebellar development and ataxia in CARP VIII morphant zebrafish.  

PubMed

Congenital ataxia and mental retardation are mainly caused by variations in the genes that affect brain development. Recent reports have shown that mutations in the CA8 gene are associated with mental retardation and ataxia in humans and ataxia in mice. The gene product, carbonic anhydrase-related protein VIII (CARP VIII), is predominantly present in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1, a calcium channel. In this study, we investigated the effects of the loss of function of CARP VIII during embryonic development in zebrafish using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides against the CA8 gene. Knockdown of CA8 in zebrafish larvae resulted in a curved body axis, pericardial edema and abnormal movement patterns. Histologic examination revealed gross morphologic defects in the cerebellar region and in the muscle. Electron microscopy studies showed increased neuronal cell death in developing larvae injected with CA8 antisense morpholinos. These data suggest a pivotal role for CARP VIII during embryonic development. Furthermore, suppression of CA8 expression leads to defects in motor and coordination functions, mimicking the ataxic human phenotype. This work reveals an evolutionarily conserved function of CARP VIII in brain development and introduces a novel zebrafish model in which to investigate the mechanisms of CARP VIII-related ataxia and mental retardation in humans. PMID:23087022

Aspatwar, Ashok; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Jokitalo, Eija; Parikka, Mataleena; Ortutay, Csaba; Harjula, Sanna-Kaisa E; Rämet, Mika; Vihinen, Mauno; Parkkila, Seppo

2013-02-01

131

Dynamics of carp growth and biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations  

SciTech Connect

When carp are reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations their growth is most intensive in July - 1st half of August and is dependent on the initial mass of the fish stocked. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers is directly correlated with the growth rate of the fish. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of carp yearlings reared in natural water bodies and in containers in warm water is higher than in the liver of carp of 1+ reared under similar conditions.

Evtushenko, N.Y.; Romanenko, V.D.

1980-01-01

132

C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection.  

PubMed

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a highly virulent and lethal disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental koi varieties. However, specific knowledge about immune mechanisms behind the infection process is very limited. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the CyHV-3 infection on the profile of 2 major components of the common carp immune acute phase response: the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the complement system. Common carp were infected with CyHV-3 by bath immersion. Fish were sampled before the infection and at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 336 h post-infection for serum and head kidney, liver, gill and spleen tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined from the serum, whereas CRP- and complement-related genes (crp1, crp2, c1rs, bf/c2, c3, masp2) expression profiles were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Both CRP levels and complement activity increased significantly up to 10- and 3-fold, respectively, in the serum of infected fish during the challenge. Analysis revealed distinct organ- and time-dependent expression profile patterns for all selected genes. These results suggest that CRP and complement behave as acute phase reactants to CyHV-3 infection in common carp with an organ- and time-dependent response. PMID:24991845

Pionnier, Nicolas; Adamek, Miko?aj; Miest, Joanna J; Harris, Sarah J; Matras, Marek; Rakus, Krzysztof L; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, Dave

2014-07-01

133

Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos  

SciTech Connect

Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

1981-03-01

134

Induced gynogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using irradiated sperm of allotetraploid hybrids.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) eggs were activated by UV-irradiated diploid sperm of allotetraploid hybrids derived from red crucian carp (?)?×?common carp (?) and then duplicated by cold shock in 4-6°C water for 10-12 min. Different cold shock initiation times resulted in two types of diploid gynogenetic grass carp: meiotic gynogenetic (meiG) and mitotic gynogenetic (mitG). Over a 5-year period, a total of 17,170 meiG and 1,080 mitG fry were produced and 6,862 meiG and 372 mitG grass carp survived. The gynogenetic fish were confirmed by morphological characteristics, chromosome examination, and microsatellite DNA analysis. The morphological traits of the gynogenetic grass carp were similar to those of wild diploid grass carp. Normal gynogenetic fish were identified as diploid with 48 chromosomes by chromosomal metaphases examination, while nonviable abnormal embryos were detected as haploid with 24 chromosomes. Microsatellite DNA analysis indicated that after one generation of gynogenesis, the genetic purity of meiG and mitG grass carp was significantly increased over that of wild grass carp. In addition, both meiG and mitG grass carp groups were 100% female, and 88% of these showed normal ovary development. Thus, the sex determination mechanism in female grass carp was homogamety. The ability to establish pure all-female groups of meiG and mitG grass carp should be a valuable contribution to both fish genetics and grass carp breeding. PMID:21279407

Zhang, Hong; Liu, ShaoJun; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Peng, LiangYue; You, CuiPing; Xiao, Jun; Zhou, Yi; Zhou, GongJian; Luo, KaiKun; Liu, Yun

2011-10-01

135

The formation of improved tetraploid population of red crucian carp x common carp hybrids by androgenesis.  

PubMed

Bisexual fertile diploid androgenetic individuals (A(0)) (2n=100) were formed by androgenesis. In this way, the diploid spermatozoa from male allotetraploid hybrids (AT) (4n=200) of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (female) x common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (male) were used to fertilize the UV-treated haploid eggs of goldfish (Carassius auratus), and living androgenetic diploid fish were developed. The A(0) became sexually mature at the age of 2 years, and they fertilized with each other to form their offspring (A(1)). In this study, we observed the chromosomal number, gonadal structure and appearance of A(1) fish. The results are as follows: (1) In A(1), there were 85% tetraploids (A(1)-4n), 10% triploids (A(1)-3n) and 5% diploids (A(1)-2n), suggesting that diploid A(0) could produce diploid gametes. It was concluded that the formation of diploid gametes generated from diploid A(0) was probably related to the mechanism of pre-meiotic endoreduplication. (2) Among A(1), only A(1)-4n possessed normal ovaries and testes. The mature males of A1-4n produced white semen. Under the electron microscope, the head of diploid sperm generated by A(1)-4n was bigger than that of haploid sperm generated by red crucian carp. In the testes of the A(1)-4n, there were many mature normal spermatozoa with a head bearing plasma membrane and a tail having the typical structure of "9+2" microtubules. Between the head and the tail, there were some mitochondria. The ovaries of A(1)-4n developed well and mainly contained II, III and IV-stage oocytes. The IV-stage oocytes were surrounded by inner and outer follicular cells. The micropyle was observed on the oolemma of follicular cells. There were abundant yolks and plenty of endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm of IV-stage oocytes. Because A(1)-2n and A(1)-3n were distant crossing diploid hybrids and triploid hybrids respectively, they possessed abnormal gonads, and no mature semen and eggs were observed. (3) Compared with allotetraploids, the A(1)-4n fish not only had advantages such as fast growth rate and strong resistibility but also showed some new good performances such as high ratio of body width to body length, smaller heads and shorter tails. These results indicated that androgenesis could produce bisexual fertile tetraploids and improve the shape of allotetraploid hybrids as well, which will be of great significance in both the cell genetics research and fish breeding. PMID:17901933

Duan, Wei; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chun; Sun, YuanDong; Liu, Yun

2007-12-01

136

Protective Roles of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx Isoforms against Grass Carp Reovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Myxovirus resistance (Mx) proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3) were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%), and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively) from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D) structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C) treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN-I gene.

Peng, Limin; Yang, Chunrong; Su, Jianguo

2012-01-01

137

Assessment of the state of the gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio in the Amur River Basin: heavy-metal and arsenic concentrations and histopathology of internal organs.  

PubMed

This study describes the concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic (As) and the basic histopathological changes in the internal organs of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio from five sites of the Amur River basin. Gibel carp from Sindinskaya Passage had the highest liver concentrations of zinc (Zn) (31.95 ± 13.443), copper (Cu) (12.52 ± 5.746), manganese (9.22 ± 8.121), and cadmium (0.37 ± 0.660 mg/kg wet weight [ww]) compared with fish captured from the Bol'shoi Ussuriiskii Island area and Kadi Lake; however, concentrations of nickel (0.22 ± 0.156 mg/kg ww) were not significantly different, and concentrations of lead (0.19 ± 0.121 mg/kg ww) were higher than those in fish from Kadi Lake. Mean concentrations of metals and As in muscles were lower than Russia's recommended limits for food products; however, concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Hg in individual fish were greater than the limit. Kidney disease was detected in 100% of sampled carp. Kidney disease was characterized by the formation of numerous granulomas in kidney tissues between the renal tubules. The degree of granulomatosis varied among sites. Granulomatous kidney disease in gibel carp is widespread in many reservoirs of the lower Amur River basin. The following histopathological changes were detected in liver: vacuolization of hepatocytes, hypertrophy of multiple hepatocytes, binuclearity, presence of numerous irregularly shaped nuclei in hepatocytes, karyopyknosis, diffuse necrosis of hepatocytes (in some cases focal), and edema. Necrotic changes in hepatocytes, which are important indices of the toxic effect of pollutants, were found in the majority of investigated carp from the lower Amur River basin. Some fish had simultaneous pathological alterations in multiple organs. PMID:22012303

Syasina, Iraida G; Khlopova, Anna V; Chukhlebova, Lyubov M

2012-04-01

138

Biological characteristics of an improved triploid crucian carp.  

PubMed

An improved triploid crucian carp (ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids (G1xAT, male symbol) with improved red crucian carp (IRCC, female symbol), which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis. The biological characteristics of ITCC, including the number and karyotype of chromosomes, gonadad and pituitary structures, phenotype, and growth rate are reported. ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t. In the breeding season, both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes. The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone (GTH) cells had not been released, providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC. Compared with triploid crucian carp (TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids, ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility, but also acquired improved morphological characteristics, including higher body, shorter tail and smaller head. PMID:19727591

Chen, Song; Wang, Jing; Liu, ShaoJun; Qin, QinBo; Xiao, Jun; Duan, Wei; Luo, KaiKun; Liu, JinHui; Liu, Yun

2009-08-01

139

Synaptic relationships in the plexiform layers of carp retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synaptic contacts made by carp retinal neurons were studied with electron microscopic techniques. Three kinds of contacts are described: (1) a conventional synapse in which an accumulation of agranular vesicles is found on the presynaptic side along with membrane densification of both pre- and postsynaptic elements; (2) a ribbon synapse in which a presynaptic ribbon surrounded by a halo

Paul Witkovsky; John E. Dowling

1969-01-01

140

Biology of sperm and artificial reproduction in carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, has been cultivated for several thousand years and is produced in large quantities, research on reproduction has been very limited. Traditionally, spawning occurred naturally in situ in rearing ponds. In slightly improved methods large breeding ponds stocked with brood fish were devoted to reproduction with fry collection in autumn, or in small spawning ponds

R. Billard; J. Cosson; G. Perchec; O. Linhart

1995-01-01

141

Food handling and mastication in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of food handling in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its structures associated with feeding are analyzed. The aim of this study is to explain the relation between the the architecture of the head and its functions in food processing and to determine the specializations for some food types and the consequent restrictions for others. Such

F. A. Sibbing

1984-01-01

142

Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio  

SciTech Connect

Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

1987-04-01

143

Immunization with viral antigens: viral diseases of carp and catfish.  

PubMed

The viral diseases of carp and catfish for which vaccines have been produced are spring viraemia of carp (SVC), grass carp haemorrhage disease (GCHD) and channel catfish virus disease (CCVD). Field trials of a commercially produced injectable vaccine conducted over several years have shown that carp can be protected against SVC. However the supporting data were predominantly qualitative rather than quantitative. Large-scale field trials of an experimental oral attenuated vaccine against SVC virus over a five year period were successful, and no reversion to virulence of the vaccine was recorded. Injectable inactivated and attenuated vaccines against GCHD have predominantly been tested under laboratory conditions, although a small number of field trials have been reported. In such trials of bath and injectable vaccines, survival rates of 50-90% were achieved. In China, commercially available vaccines are being used against GCHD. Only laboratory trials of vaccines against CCVD have been reported. Bath vaccination of eggs of fry with a subunit vaccine and bath immunisation of fingerlings with an attenuated virus vaccine have been successful. Problems with current approaches and areas for research are discussed. PMID:9270851

Dixon, P

1997-01-01

144

The LIM Protein Zyxin Binds CARP-1 and Promotes Apoptosis.  

PubMed

Zyxin is a dual-function LIM domain protein that regulates actin dynamics in response to mechanical stress and shuttles between focal adhesions and the cell nucleus. Here we show that zyxin contributes to UV-induced apoptosis. Exposure of wild-type fibroblasts to UV-C irradiation results in apoptotic cell death, whereas cells harboring a homozygous disruption of the zyxin gene display a statistically significant survival advantage. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which zyxin promotes apoptotic signaling, we expressed an affinity-tagged zyxin variant in zyxin-null cells and isolated zyxin-associated proteins from cell lysates under physiological conditions. A 130-kDa protein that was co-isolated with zyxin was identified by microsequence analysis as the Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulator Protein-1 (CARP-1). CARP-1 associates with the LIM region of zyxin. Zyxin lacking the CARP-1 binding region shows reduced proapoptotic activity in response to UV-C irradiation. We demonstrate that CARP-1 is a nuclear protein. Zyxin is modified by phosphorylation in cells exposed to UV-C irradiation, and nuclear accumulation of zyxin is induced by UV-C exposure. These findings highlight a novel mechanism for modulating the apoptotic response to UV irradiation. PMID:20852740

Hervy, Martial; Hoffman, Laura M; Jensen, Christopher C; Smith, Mark; Beckerle, Mary C

2010-05-01

145

Trypanosomiasis-Induced Th17-Like Immune Responses in Carp  

PubMed Central

Background In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-?2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite.

Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Bird, Steve; Chadzinska, Magdalena; Scheer, Marleen; Verburg-van Kemenade, B. M. Lidy; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

2010-01-01

146

Regulation of interleukin 1 beta RNA expression in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intron-exon organisation of the carp IL-1? gene consists of 2455bp and comprises seven exons. Three IL-1? RNA transcripts have been found in carp: (1) a fully spliced product; (2) exon 1–7 with introns 5 and 6; and (3) exon 1–7 with intron 5 only. The intron-containing products probably represent partially spliced transcripts. IL-1? mRNA expression in carp was semi-quantitatively

M. Y. Engelsma; R. J. M. Stet; H. Schipper; B. M. L. Verburg-van Kemenade

2001-01-01

147

Physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of carp and mammalian skin gelatin films.  

PubMed

Films of 0.11 to 0.13 mm thickness were prepared using gelatins from the skins of cultured freshwater carp species and mammalian gelatins viz., porcine and bovine skin gelatin. A comparative study was made on the physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of these films. The amino acid composition, gel strength, clarity, and gel setting point of the gelatins were also determined. Carp skin gelatins had a lower imino acid content (19.16% to 20.86%) than mammalian skin gelatins (22.91% to 23.7%). Grass carp gelatin had gel strength of 230.2 B that is comparable to the reported value for bovine skin gelatin (227.2 B). The bloom values of rohu and common carp skin gelatins were 188.6 B and 181.3 B, respectively, which were significantly lower than mammalian gelatins. Mammalian gels have significantly higher (P < 0.05) setting temperatures (23.7 to 24.2 °C) than carp skin gelatins. Tensile strength (TS) was lowest for films from common carp and rohu skin gelatin (490 and 497 kg/cm(2), respectively) and highest for porcine skin gelatin film. The degree of transparency (L*) was significantly higher for films from grass carp, bovine hide, and pork skin gelatin films. Carp skin gelatin films had significantly lower water vapor permeability (WVP) and oxygen permeability (OP) than mammalian skin gelatin films, which indicated that carp skin gelatin based films have superior barrier properties than mammalian skin gelatin films. PMID:21535597

Ninan, George; Joseph, Jose; Abubacker, Zynudheen

2010-01-01

148

Environmental Assessment for Listing Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) as Injurious Wildlife under the Lacey Act. (Revised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We considered two alternatives for the proposed action to list largescale silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys harmandi) as an injurious species under the Lacey Act: 1) no action; and 2) adding live largescale silver carp, gametes, viable eggs and hybrids. Two...

2007-01-01

149

Development of MHC class I and II B primers in common carp and its molecular characterization.  

PubMed

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has an important role in immune response and is known as the most polymorphic locus in vertebrates. We developed three pairs of polymerase chain reaction primers of the alpha-2 domain (exon 3) of MHC class I and the beta-2 (exon 3) and beta-3 domains (exon 4) of MHC class II B gene in the German mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). We analyzed the three loci in a population of 65 individuals that had suffered the serious disease of gill rot. Five to six variable nucleotide sites and two to six variable amino acid sites (71.43%) were detected in the exon sequence of the sampled populations, indicating that many of them corresponded to amino acids involved in antigen recognition. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were differentially found in some loci, which will be important for further study of disease resistance/susceptibility and population evolution. PMID:20524055

Jia, Zhiying; Chi, Xifeng; Li, Chitao; Shi, Lianyu

2010-08-01

150

Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

Applegate, Vernon C.

1961-01-01

151

A genetic linkage map of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) And mapping of a locus associated with cold tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map has been constructed for the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The segregation of 272 markers, including 105 gene markers, 110 microsatellites, and 57 RAPD markers was studied in a panel with 46 haploid embryos derived from a single hybrid female. The hybrid was produced by crossing a common carp (C. carpio L.) and a Boshi carp

Xiaowen Sun; Liqun Liang

2004-01-01

152

A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

Gideon Hulata

1995-01-01

153

Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.  

PubMed

Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

2012-12-01

154

Acute dysphagia after carp fish meal: a case report.  

PubMed

An 80-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with acute dysphagia symptoms of 8 hours' duration. The problem began after a carp fish meal. Prominent symptoms included inability to swallow, mild dyspnea, and cough. Laboratory evaluation and fiber-optic examination of the upper aerodigestive tract was normal except for accumulation of saliva in the hypopharynx. Examination with a flexible esophagoscope revealed a total blockage of the lumen of the lower esophagus due to impaction of carp fish roe (column-like formation). With careful maneuvers and water pressure we were able to relieve the obstruction. No other lesion was detectable and no further interventions were needed. Patient follow-up was uneventful. PMID:16369319

Protopappas, Andreas N; Chatziavramidis, Angelos M

2005-01-01

155

Survival of monosex grass carp in small ponds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Little information is available on the survival of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ponds &mdash especially on the survival of fry to large fingerling stage, during the time when the most mortality would be expected. Development of monosex (all female) grass carp at the Fish Farming Experimental Station by the technique of artificial gynogenesis (Stanley et al. 1975) enabled us to observe survival to the large fingersling stage under several stocking densities and pond conditions. These limited observations, made incidentally to other studies, may provide clues for the development of management techniques to reduce mortality. Monosex fry were used in these observations, but there is no reason to suppose that survival of bisexual fry would have been different.

Thomas, A. E.; Carter, R. R.

1977-01-01

156

Transfection of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) carp cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variables involved in the transfection of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells (a representative carp fish cell line) with the genes for ß-galactosidase from E. coli, for luciferases from firefly or renilla, for the G protein of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus or for green fluorescent protein under the cytomegalovirus, the SV40 or the T7 polymerase promoters have been studied. Fugene was

A. Lopez; M. Fernandez-Alonso; A. Rocha; A. Estepa; J. M. Coll

2001-01-01

157

Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

1995-01-01

158

Dietary ascorbic acid needs of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

As some controversy seem to exist regarding the dietary essentiality of ascorbic acid (AA) for larval cyprinids, a study was conducted to determine the dietary AA requirements with first-feeding larvae of common carp. Six semi-purified diets were formulated to contain graded levels (0, 10, 30, 90, 270, 810 mg kg?1) of AA supplied as ascorbyl polyphosphate. Triplicate groups of 250

M.-F Gouillou-Coustans; P Bergot; S. J Kaushik

1998-01-01

159

Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

2009-12-01

160

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Balance of Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Fed Elodea, Egeria densa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbivorous grass carp fed winter elodea exhibited a negative nitrogen balance in metabolism, suggesting that food having a higher protein content would be required for normal growth. About a third of the phosphorus contained in food was retained; hence, a combination of aquatic plants and grass carp might afford an effective biological method for removing phosphorus from water. Water

Jon G. Stanley

1974-01-01

161

Massive production of all-female diploids and triploids in the crucian carp.  

PubMed

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry. PMID:21547066

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2011-01-01

162

First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly

Ramón Lavado; Rémi Thibaut; Demetrio Raldúa; Rebeca Mart??n; Cinta Porte

2004-01-01

163

Polymorphism of transferrin in carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.): Genetic determination, isolation, and partial characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven transferrin variants (A, B, C, D, E, F, and G) have been found in carp sera (Cyprinus carpio L.). Genetic analysis involves five variants and agrees with the hypothesis of simple codominant autosomal inheritance at one transferrin (Tf) locus in spite of the fact that the carp is a tetraploid in relation to other species of the same family.

M. Valenta; A. Stratil; V. Slechtovfi; L. Kfilal; V. Šlechta

1976-01-01

164

Systemic priming of alloreactive cytotoxic cells in carp, following anal administration of allogeneic cell antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we confirmed that cellular immune responses, especially specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity, could be induced in systemic carp leucocytes, following anal administration of antigens. Effector cells isolated from systemic lymphoid tissues (head kidney, spleen and peripheral blood) of carp that were immunised anally with allogeneic cells (EPC or KG cell line) efficiently lysed immunogenic target cells. The lytic

Atsushi Sato; Tomonori Somamoto; Hiroyuki Yokooka; Nobuaki Okamoto

2005-01-01

165

Temperature acclimation in crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., morphometric analyses of muscle fibre ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp show a partial compensation in metabolic rate and activity following temperature acclimation. In the present study crucian carp, Carassius carassius, were acclimated for eight weeks to either 2. Cor 28. C. The effects of temperature acclimation on muscle fibre ultrastructure has been investigated. The fractional volume (%) of each fibre type occupied by mitochondria and myofibrils was determined using

I. A. Johnston; B. Maitland

1980-01-01

166

Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

2000-01-01

167

Spatial variability in the response of lower trophic levels after carp exclusion from a freshwater marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large common carp (Cyprinus carpio >30 cm) wereexcluded from a turbid, eutrophic coastal marsh of Lake Ontario with theconstruction of a fishway at the outlet. The marsh was sampledintensively for 2 seasons prior to (1993, 1994) and following (1997,1998) carp exclusion to study changes in water quality and shifts incommunity structure of phytoplankton and zooplankton. Samples werecollected from May to

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2001-01-01

168

Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp were excluded from Cootes Paradise Marsh (Lake Ontario) in 1997 in order to improve water clarity and promote submerged plant growth. On average, turbidity at open water and vegetated areas was reduced by 40 and 60 percent, respectively, following carp exclusion. However, responses by plants and other trophic levels have been both spatially and temporally variable due in part

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Tys Theÿsmeÿer; Tyler Smith; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2004-01-01

169

Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

Eugene K. Balon

1995-01-01

170

Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

2000-01-01

171

Genetic differences between the Chinese and European races of the common carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth rate of 12 groups of common carp was measured at five experimental environments. Three of the 12 tested groups were strains of the domesticated European race of the common carp, one group was a representative of the Big-Belly Chinese race, and the remaining eight groups were F1 crossbreds among the European strains and between the European and the Chinese

Rom Moav; G Hulata; G Wohlfarth

1975-01-01

172

Nutrient requirements, supply and utilization in the context of carp culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical diets for common carp are often formulated with little concern for the biological and environmental consequences of poor digestive or metabolic utilization of dietary ingredients. Considerable variability in the optimal protein levels (25–50%) in the diets of common carp has been reported. However, critical analysis of the available data shows little difference in the protein needs between this species

S. J. Kaushik

1995-01-01

173

Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

1999-01-01

174

The Lake Wingra Carp-Free Enclosure and its Effect on an Aquatic Macrophyte, Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various people and organizations have spent time and energy into trying to find out if the carp in Lake Wingra are having a negative impact on the other forms of life within the ecosystem. In order to try and answer this question an enclosure was created to remove the carp from a small section of the water. For our experiment

D. Patterson; Jessa Underwood

175

Neuronal Architecture of On and Off Pathways to Ganglion Cells in Carp Retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells of carp retina, stained intracellularly with Procion yellow, can be divided into types a and b, according to the destination of terminals and dendritic trees in the inner plexiform layer (sublamina a and b, respectively). Type a cells showed hyperpolarizing, or off, responses and type b cells depolarizing, or on, responses. Carp thus resembles cat

Edward V. Famiglietti Jr.; Akimichi Kaneko; Masao Tachibana

1977-01-01

176

QSAR study of the toxicity of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicities of benzoic acids to Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and carp were measured. The results showed that the toxicity to V. fischeri and Daphnia decreased in the order of bromo>chloro>fluoro?aminobenzoic acids. The toxicity of substituted benzoic acids to carp and Daphnia was much lower than that to V. fischeri. The results also showed that the toxicity of benzoic acids

Y. H. Zhao; G. D. Ji; M. T. D. Cronin; J. C. Dearden

1998-01-01

177

Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

2013-01-01

178

Predation on Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). We found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of the fish we examined. For all fish examined, common carp contained 118.2 beaks per fish or about 59 zebra

John K. Tucker; Frederick A. Cronin; Dirk W. Soergel; Charles H. Theiling

1996-01-01

179

Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp  

PubMed Central

In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.

Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

2011-01-01

180

Corticosteroid receptors involved in stress regulation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

In higher vertebrates, mineralo- (aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (cortisol/corticosterone) exert their multiple actions via specific transcription factors, glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Teleostean fishes lack aldosterone and mineral regulatory processes seem under dominant control by cortisol. Despite the absence of the classical mineralocorticoid aldosterone, teleostean fishes do have an MR with cortisol and possibly 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) (as alternative for aldosterone) as predominant ligands. We studied corticoid receptors in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Through homology cloning and bioinformatic analysis, we found duplicated GR genes and a single MR gene. The GR genes likely result from a major genomic duplication event in the teleostean lineage; we propose that the gene for a second MR was lost. Transactivation studies show that the carp GRs and MR have comparable affinity for cortisol; the MR has significantly higher sensitivity to DOC, and this favours a role for DOC as MR ligand in fish physiology. mRNA of the GRs and the MR is expressed in forebrain (in pallial areas homologous to mammalian hippocampus), corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) cells in the pre-optic nucleus (NPO) and pituitary pars distalis ACTH cells, three key neural/endocrine components of the stress axis. After exposure to prolonged and strong (not to mild acute) stressors, mRNA levels of both GRs and MR become down-regulated in the brain, but not in the NPO CRH cells or pituitary ACTH cells. Our data predicts a function in stress physiology for all CRs and suggest telencephalon as a first line cortisol target in stress. PMID:18505847

Stolte, Ellen H; de Mazon, Aurélia F; Leon-Koosterziel, Karen M; Jesiak, Maria; Bury, Nic R; Sturm, Armin; Savelkoul, Huub F J; van Kemenade, B M Lidy Verburg; Flik, Gert

2008-08-01

181

Development of a novel candidate subunit vaccine against Grass carp reovirus Guangdong strain (GCRV-GD108).  

PubMed

Grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain (GCRV-GD108) was recently isolated in Guangdong province, China. M6 gene of GCRV-GD108 was speculated encoding virus major outer capsid protein VP4. Blast analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of GCRV-GD108 VP4 was homologous to the structural protein VP4 of known Aquareoviruses (27.3-32.9%). Immunogenicity prediction by DNAStar software revealed there were multiple B cell epitopes on GCRV-GD108 VP4. Prokaryotic expression vector pET32a was used to express VP4 recombinant protein (rVP4) in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain. As expected, the molecular weight of recombinant VP4 was about 87 kDa showed by SDS-PAGE result. Neutralization assay demonstrated that the rabbit polyclonal antibody of rVP4 could prevent virus infection efficiently. After 14 days immunization with the rVP4, grass carps were challenged with GCRV-GD108, the results showed that different doses of rVP4 (1 ?g/g, 3 ?g/g and 5 ?g/g) all provided protection against virus infection (47-82%). The relative percent survival reached 82% in the group immunized with 3 ?g/g of rVP4. ELISA revealed rVP4 induced high antibody titer in immunized fish. IgM expression levels in head kidney of grass carp were detected by RT-PCR, and the results showed that IgM expressed at a significantly higher level in immunization groups than in blank control, indicating the rVP4 can induce strong immune response. In conclusion, rVP4 is a candidate vaccine against GCRV-GD108. PMID:23664915

Tian, Yuanyuan; Ye, Xing; Zhang, Lili; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Yueqiang

2013-08-01

182

Oral vaccination of BacFish-vp6 against grass carp reovirus evoking antibody response in grass carp.  

PubMed

To obtain a vaccine and evaluate its immune efficacy as an oral vaccine against Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), a donor vector pFastBac-FA-VP6-ph-VP6 containing two GCRV vp6 genes, one driven by the Megalobrama amblycephala ?-actin promoter and another one controlled by baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed to generate the recombinant baculovirus BacFish-vp6. From the hemolymph of 5th instar silkworm inoculated with BacFish-vp6, a 53 kDa recombinant VP6 protein could be detected. And the infected pupae collected at 120 h post-inoculation with BacFish-vp6 were used to make freeze-dried powder as an oral vaccine. When the grass carps were orally administrated with feed containing 1%, 5% and 10% of the freeze-dried powder, their specific antibody against VP6 could be detected. Further studies showed that vp6 has been transcripted in the grass carp kidney (CIK) cells infected with BacFish-vp6 and the different tissues of orally vaccinated fish. All the results suggested the powder of the silkworm pupae infected with BacFish-vp6 could possibly be used as an orally administered vaccine. PMID:23202374

Xue, Renyu; Liu, Lin; Cao, Guangli; Xu, Shiying; Li, Jinghui; Zou, Yong; Chen, Hui; Gong, Chengliang

2013-01-01

183

Formation and biological characterization of three new types of improved crucian carp.  

PubMed

The improved tetraploids (G(1)xAT) were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis and the high-body individuals accounted for 2% among G(1)xAT. After mating with each other, the high-body individuals produced three kinds of bisexual fertile diploid fishes: high-body red crucian carp, high-body fork-like-tails goldfish and gray common carp. The high-body red crucian carp mating with each other formed three types of improved crucian carp (ICC) including improved red crucian carp (IRCC), improved color crucian carp (ICCC) and improved gray crucian carp (IGCC). The phenotypes, chromosome numbers, gonadal structure and fertility of the three kinds of ICC and their offspring were observed. All the three kinds of ICC possessed some improved phenotypes such as higher body, smaller head and shorter tail. The ratios of the body height to body length of IRCC, ICCC and IGCC were 0.54, 0.51 and 0.54, respectively. All of them were obviously higher than that of red crucian carp 0.41 (P<0.01). Three kinds of ICC had the same chromosome number as red crucian carp with 100 chromosomes. All the ICC possessed normal gonads producing mature eggs or sperm, which was important for the production of an improved diploid population. Compared with red crucian carp, all the ICC had stronger fertility such as higher gametes production, higher fertilization rate and higher hatchery rate. Three types of improved diploid fish population were generated from the three kinds of ICC by self-crossing, respectively. The ICC can serve as ornamental fish and edible fish. They are also ideal parents to produce triploids by mating with tetraploids. The new ICC plays an important role in biological evolution and fish genetic breeding. PMID:18488175

Wang, Jing; Qin, QinBo; Chen, Song; Liu, ShaoJun; Duan, Wei; Liu, JinHui; Zhang, Chun; Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yun

2008-06-01

184

Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

Schrank, S. J.; Guy, C. S.

2002-01-01

185

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio female x Cyprinus carpio male) fed different carbohydrate diets.  

PubMed

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6±0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ?×Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7±0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each. The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g(?1) (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content to 10.1 and 1.5%, respectively. In black carp, the interactions between the carbohydrate type and level were found in oxygen consumption at 3 and 6 h and in ammonia excretion at 6 h after feeding. At 20% carbohydrate, no significant difference was observed between dextrin and glucose in oxygen consumption. However, at 40% carbohydrate, oxygen consumption in fish fed glucose was significantly higher than that in fish fed dextrin at 3 and 6 h after feeding. Within the dextrin diets, no significant differences in both oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were detected between the two carbohydrate levels. Within the glucose diets, however, fish fed 40% glucose showed significantly higher oxygen consumption than those fed 20% glucose at 3 and 6 h after feeding. Ammonia excretion in black carp fed 40% glucose was higher than that in black carp fed 40% dextrin at 6 h and also found higher than those in the other three treatments at 24 h after feeding. The postprandial oxygen consumption and the ammonia excretion in crucian carp fed 40% glucose were the highest, but no significant differences were observed. Our data indicate that the escalation of glucose to 40% in a fish diet results in high oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in black carp, suggesting that the efficiency of glucose as an energy source for this fish is compromised by the high metabolic expenditure after feeding. Crucian carp, on the other hand, have a better ability to cope with dietary carbohydrates. PMID:20390347

Cai, Chun Fang; Ye, Yuan Tu; Chen, Li Qiao; Qin, Jian Guang; Wang, Yong Ling

2010-12-01

186

A Set of Polymorphic Trinucleotide and Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Markers for Silver Crucian Carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ) and Cross-Amplification in Crucian Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch), as a gynogenetic fish, is a promising model for the study of the evolutionary genetics of vertebrates. We have developed\\u000a 59 polymorphic trinucleotide and tetranucleotide markers for the silver crucian carp through the biotin capture method and\\u000a radioactive-labeling hybridization. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 12 in the population, and the

X. H. Zheng; C. Y. Lu; Y. Y. Zhao; C. Lee; D. C. Cao; Y. M. Chang; L. Q. Liang; X. W. Sun

2010-01-01

187

The use of an in vitro microneutralization assay to evaluate the potential of recombinant VP5 protein as an antigen for vaccinating against Grass carp reovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative pathogen of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, one of the major diseases damaging grass carp Ctenopharyngon idellus breeding industry in China. Prevention and control of the disease is impeded largely due to the lack of research in economic subunit vaccine development. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of viral outer shell protein VP5 as subunit vaccine. Methods The vp5 gene was isolated from the viral genome through RT-PCR and genetically engineered to express the recombinant VP5 protein in E coli. The viral origin of the recombinant protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a monoclonal antibody against viral VP5 protein. Polyclonal antibody against the recombinant VP5 protein was prepared from mice. A microneutralization assay was developed to test its neutralizing ability against GCRV infection in cell culture. Results The GST-VP5 fusion protein (rVP5) was produced from E. Coli with expected molecular weight of 90 kDa. The protein was purified and employed to prepare anti-VP5 polyclonal antibody from mice. The anti-VP5 antibody was found to neutralize GCRV through in vitro microneutralization assay and viral progeny quantification analysis. Conclusions The present study showed that the viral VP5 protein was involved in viral infection and bacterially-expressed VP5 could be suitable for developing subunit vaccine for the control of GCRV infection.

2011-01-01

188

Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

Bonar, S. A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

2002-01-01

189

Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

Bain, Mark B.

1993-03-01

190

Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lh? was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lh? expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

2014-01-01

191

MH II-DAB gene expression in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes) after infection with the ciliate parasite, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis.  

PubMed

The grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes), is one of the most extensively aquacultured freshwater fish in China. However, because of the lack of effective control measures and the high-density culture environment, considerable economic losses are caused by infection of C. idella with the parasitic ciliate, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. The major histocompatibility (MH) DAB gene belongs to antigen-presented genes in the class II genomic region, which is associated with parasite resistance. To understand the relationship of the DAB gene with I. multifiliis infection in grass carp, the expression profiles of MH II-DAB were studied in tissues using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that expression of the MH II-DAB gene was up-regulated in head kidney after I. multifiliis infection, and the expression peak appeared earlier in the study (case) group than in the control group. The obvious up-regulation peak of MH II-DAB gene was found at days 2 and 4 in skin; at 12 h to day 4 in spleen; at 12 h and days 1 and 6 in gill; and at day 10 in blood, whereas the MH II-DAB gene was down-regulated in liver and intestines after I. multifiliis infection. These results have implications for better understanding C. idella resistance to I. multifiliis infection. PMID:24131264

Yu, H; Yan, Q G; Wang, Z B; Lu, Y J; Xu, M J; Li, H; Zhu, X Q

2014-01-01

192

Molecular cloning of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) T-bet and GATA-3, and their expression profiles with IFN-? in response to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection.  

PubMed

Both T-bet and GATA-3, Th1/Th2 lineage-specific transcription factors, play important roles in the development of T cells and Th1/Th2 differentiation. In this study, T-bet and GATA-3 genes were cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp T-bet contained 608 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence of grass carp GATA-3 contained 396 aa, which possessed two consensus zinc finger domains (C-X(2)-C-X(17)-C-X(2)-C). The YxKxHxxxRP motif, KRRLSA and LMEKs/n sequences were also conserved in this GATA-3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 group with their known counterparts with zebrafish T-bet and GATA-3 as the closest neighbor, respectively. RT-qPCR results showed that grass carp T-bet gene was highly expressed in head kidney, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and intestine, while GATA-3 gene was highly expressed in intestine, followed by spleen, and low expressed in gill, liver, kidney, and head kidney. Grass carp is one of the "four important domestic fish" in China and often infected by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). As yet, there is no evidence that T-bet and GATA-3 (Th1/Th2 subsets) are involved in anti-virus immune of teleost fish. In this study, by RT-qPCR, we analyzed the expression dynamics of grass carp T-bet and GATA-3 genes with IFN-? gene in response to GCRV infection for the first time. The expression dynamics showed that three genes might be crucially modulated by in vivo GCRV infection: (1) GCRV mainly induced a T-bet expression profile comparing to the GATA-3 expression, while the higher expression profiles of IFN-? correlated with the up-regulation of T-bet; (2) T-bet/IFN-? and GATA-3 expression changes suggest that in GCRV-infected grass carp, the common immune state of head kidney further heightens, whereas the common physiological state of intestine transforms to an anti-virus immune state. From this finding, we realize that GCRV mainly induces a Th1 response, and Th1 cell-mediated recognition mechanisms play very important roles in anti-virus cellular immune of grass carp. PMID:23108805

Wang, Lu; Shang, Na; Feng, Hong; Guo, Qionglin; Dai, Heping

2013-08-01

193

Identical sequences but different expression patterns of Hira gene in gynogenetic and gonochoristic crucian carps.  

PubMed

Hir/Hira (histone regulation) genes were first identified in yeast as negative regulators of histone gene expression. It has been confirmed that HIRA is a conserved family of proteins present in various animals and plants. In this paper, the cDNAs of the Hira homolog named CagHira and CaHira were isolated from gynogenetic gibel carp (gyno-carp) and gonochoristic color crucian carp (gono-carp) respectively. The full-length CagHira is 3,860 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 3,033 bp that encodes 1,011 amino acids, while the full-length CaHira is 3,748 bp in length and also has an ORF of 3,033 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences of both Hira homologs contain seven WD domains and show high identity with other HIRA family members. RT-PCR analyses revealed strong expression of Hira in the ovaries, whereas no expression was detected in the testes of either of the fishes. Hira transcription was not detected in the liver of gyno-carp, but a high level of Hira mRNA was observed in gono-carp. The temporal expression pattern showed that the Hira mRNA is consistently expressed during all embryonic development stages in gyno-carp. However, the abundance of CaHira mRNA significantly decreased (P < 0.05) shortly after fertilization and then increased again and remained stable from gastrula till hatching. The varying spatiotemporal expression patterns of Hira genes in gyno-carp and gono-carp may be associated with the differing reproductive modes used by these two closely related fishes. Our results suggest that Hira may play a role not only in the decondensation of sperm nucleus and the formation of pronucleus during fertilization, but also in gastrulation and the subsequent development of embryos. PMID:18649035

Du, X Z; Zhou, L; Zhao, H B; Wang, Y F; Gui, J F

2008-06-01

194

Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation. PMID:18998229

Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

2009-11-01

195

Presence of bound substrate in lactate dehydrogenase from carp liver.  

PubMed

While attempting to purify UDP-galactose 4-epimerase from carp liver extract at pH 8.0, it was observed that the preparation even after dialysis could reduce NAD to NADH, interfering epimerase assay. The NAD reduction activity and the epimerase were co-eluted in a series of chromatographic steps. Mass spectrometric analysis of semi-purified fraction revealed that carp liver lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) contained bound lactate which was converted to pyruvate in the presence of NAD. The enzyme-bound lactate and the association with epimerase stabilized LDH from trypsin digestion and thermal inactivation at 45 degrees C by factors of 2.7 and 4.2 respectively, as compared to substrate-free LDH. LDH and epimerase do not belong to any one pathway, but are the rate-limiting enzymes of two different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism. Typically, strongly associated enzymes work in combination, such as two enzymes of the same metabolic pathway. In that background, co-purification of LDH and epimerase as reloaded in this study was an unusual phenomenon. PMID:22803333

Banerjee, Nupur; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

2012-06-01

196

Development of the Weberian apparatus in Indian major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.).  

PubMed

1. The lateral processes of the first two vertebrae are developed from the ossification of the mesenchyme. 2. The centra of the second and third vertebrae are fused together forming a composite structure. 3. The "transverse processes" of the fourth vertebrae are homologous with the pleural ribs. 4. The ossa suspensoria are developed from the lateral and ventromesial processes from the basiventrals and form a kind of arch over the dorsal aorta. 5. The dorsal cartilaginous mass arching over the anterior vertebrae is formed by the basidorsals of the second, third, and fourth vertebrae. 6. The "perineural cartilage" serves to protect the spinal cord in the absence of the true neural arch of the first vertebra. 7. The claustrum is formed by the mesenchymatous rudiments which are intercalated structures. The claustrum rudiments ossify and get associated with some cartilaginous structures comparable to the supradorsals of the first vertebra. 8. The scaphium originates by the fusion of basidorsals of the first vertebra with the independent mesenchymatous tissue choncha stapedis. 9. The intercalarium is formed by the fusion of the basidorsals of the second vertebra and interossicular ligament. 10. The tripus is of complex origin and is formed by the basiventrals of the third vertebra, an independent mesenchymatous rudiment and a small ossification of the interossicular ligament. PMID:907185

Kulshrestha, S K

1977-01-01

197

Evidence of Grass Carp ('Ctenopharyngodon idella') Reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an exotic species which was imported into the United States in 1963 to control aquatic vegetation. Individuals escaped from ponds and subsequently spread into streams in the Mississippi river basin. We have been col...

P. T. Raibley D. Blodgett R. E. Sparks

1995-01-01

198

Effects of Salinity on Food Consumption and Growth of Grass Carp.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The herbivorous food habits combined with high rates of food consumption, fast growth and high palatability, and adaptability to environmental fluctuations make the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) an ideal fish for aquatic weed control and commercial...

R. V. Kilambi

1979-01-01

199

76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...injurious or potentially injurious to the health and welfare of human beings, to the interests of agriculture, forestry, or horticulture, or to the welfare and survival of the wildlife or wildlife resources of the United States. The Asian Carp Prevention...

2011-03-22

200

Bighead Carp ('Hypophthalmichthys nobilis') in the Mississippi River. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors report collections of the bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845), in the Mississippi River in Missouri and Illinois between 1991 and 1994. In all, the authors collected 48 specimens ranging from 18 to 790 mm total length. ...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin R. A. Hrabik M. D. Petersen D. P. Herzog

1997-01-01

201

Predictability of PCBs in carp harvested in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron  

SciTech Connect

Samples of carp flesh were analyzed for PCBs, dieldrin, and DDT using a gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni/sup 63/ electron capture detector. Of 211 carp obtained commercially from Saginaw Bay, none exceeded the current tolerance of 5 ppm PCBs in edible fillet. Prediction equations were calculated which accounted for 68-90 percent of PCB in many groups. The carp from 2 to 4 kg were less predictable as to their level of PCBs as were female carp or those caught in the fall. The percentage fat was an important component of these prediction equations. Length of fish correlated better for fish 4 to 5.5 kg. Correlations were highest for spring and summer catches and for males. Thus size alone could be a reasonably good predictor of PCBs caught during the spring and summer but is less so the rest of the year.

Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

1982-05-01

202

Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from lakshmikund pond, varanasi, India.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended. PMID:24771133

Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

2014-06-01

203

Effects of temperature change on cortisol release by common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Common carp Cyprinus carpio, stressed by fish handling practices, responded with a decrease in cortisol secretion when temperature was lowered from 20 to 14° C within 3·5?h compared to those kept at 20° C. PMID:24665879

Jaxion-Harm, J; Ladich, F

2014-04-01

204

[Comparative analysis of variability of three mitochondrial genes of cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in wild and domestic carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)].  

PubMed

For the first time, we studied the polymorphism of three mitochondrial genes of the cytochrome oxidase complex (cox1, cox2, and cox3) in natural populations of wild carp living in the Volga, Amur, and Don River Basins, as well as in European Hungarian carp and two pedigree lines of Ropsha carp of domestic breeding. The highest level of nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the studied samples was detected for the cox1 gene (pi = 0.61, h = 100%). Two lines of the Ropsha carp (pi = 0.61, h = 100%) and the Far East population of Amur wild carp from Shershikh strait (Am: pi = 0.20, h = 70%) were the most polymorphic for three genes. The second sample of Amur wild carp from the Amur River (Ac), as well as the samples of Volga and Don wild carp and Hungarian carp had lower values of variability. The presence of two main genealogical lines of the wild carp and carp was demonstrated based on the total sequence of three genes, as well as the corresponding amino acid sequences in the studied area. One of these lines (line I) is typical of the sample of Amur wild carp (Am) and three members of the Ropsha carp. Line II is developed by sequences of Volga, Don, and Amur wild carp (Ac), as well as European Hungarian carp and seven other members of the Ropsha carp. Three to four sublines, which differ in nucleotide and amino acid substitutions, were found within the lines. Possible reasons for the origin of genomic variability in wild carp, as well as in European and Russian breeds of carp, are discussed. PMID:23516901

Torgunakova, O A; Egorova, T A; Semenova, S K

2012-12-01

205

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed in Osteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

PubMed Central

Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10-12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 hr followed by Western blot analysis showed 2-3 fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203×, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S

2013-01-01

206

Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp  

PubMed Central

The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development.

Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

2012-01-01

207

A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

2010-01-01

208

Purification and Characterization of ? 1 Proteinase Inhibitor from Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

?1-Proteinase inhibitor was purified to homogeneity from carp serum with an increase in specific inhibitory activity of 17-fold\\u000a and a 3% recovery rate. The inhibitor was estimated to have molecular weight of 55,000 under reducing and nonreducing conditions,\\u000a indicating its composition of a single polypeptide. The inhibitor immunologically crossreacted faintly with carp muscular\\u000a serine proteinase inhibitor but had no crossreactivity

Futoshi Aranishi

1999-01-01

209

Genotoxicity of crude extracts of cyanobacteria from Taihu Lake on carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotoxicity of crude cyanobacteria extracts (CBE) from blooms in Taihu Lake, China toward common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was measured. The primary extracellular product was determined by HPLC to be Microcystin-LR (MC-LR, L for leucine and R\\u000a for arginine) with an average concentration of 2.4 × 102 ?g MC g?1 dry weight of cyanobacteria. Acute toxicity to carp, expressed as the 72-h LC50, was 53 mg, dw

Qin WuMei; Mei Li; Xiangyu Gao; John P. Giesy; Yibin Cui; Liuyan Yang; Zhiming Kong

2011-01-01

210

The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

1994-01-01

211

Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

2011-05-01

212

Body composition of transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

F1 transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene, pRSVrtGH1 cDNA were compared to non-transgenic full-siblings for body composition. Percent protein was higher (P < 0.05), for transgenic individuals than for controls (19.5 vs. 18.1). Percent fat was lower (P < 0.05) for transgenic common carp (3.3), than for non-transgenic controls, (3.8). Transgenic individuals had lower (P

N. Chatakondi; R. T. Lovell; P. L. Duncan; M. Hayat; T. T. Chen; D. A. Powers; J. D. Weete; K. Cummins; R. A. Dunham

1995-01-01

213

THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON MUSCLE VELOCITY AND SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE IN SWIMMING CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate how fish locomote at different muscle temperatures. Sarcomere length excursion and muscle shortening velocity, V, were determined from high-speed motion pictures of carp, Cyprinus carpio (11-14cm), swimming steadily at various sustained speeds at 10, 15 and 20°C. In the middle and posterior regions of the carp, sarcomeres of the lateral red

LAWRENCE C. ROME; ROEL P. FUNKE

1990-01-01

214

Stimulation of catalase activity in carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) ovarian follicles by gonadotropin in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in catalase activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) ovarian follicles at different developmental stages were investigated. The effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on catalase activity and estradiol secretion by carp ovarian follicles was studied to establish a developmental role of catalase in folliculogenesis in fish ovary. The follicular homogenates from large follicles showed higher (9.45  0.64 units\\/mg protein) catalase-specific activity than the

Rahul Behl

2006-01-01

215

Multimarker approach analysis in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three freshwater sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the response of a multimarker approach in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three Tunisian dam lakes selected according to different environmental and ecological characteristics. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed in carp liver and used as a phase II detoxification enzyme, hepatic metallothionein\\u000a content (MTs) was used as a metallic stress indicator,

Sofiene Tlili; Jamel Jebali; Mohamed Banni; Zohra Haouas; Ammar Mlayah; Ahmed Noureddine Helal; Hamadi Boussetta

2010-01-01

216

Rheological Characteristics and Microstructure of Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Surimi and Kamaboko Gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp is cheap and prolific in Australian waters and is regarded as an aquatic environmental pest. In order to add value\\u000a to this fish species, surimi and kamaboko was prepared from common carp and its rheological and microstructure characteristics\\u000a were compared with those produced from Alaska pollock and threadfin bream. Temperature sweep tests were run under 100-Pa stress\\u000a and

Ali Jafarpour; Elisabeth M. Gorczyca

2009-01-01

217

Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future.

2012-01-01

218

Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

1998-01-01

219

Genomic insight into the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) genome by sequencing analysis of BAC-end sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common carp is one of the most important aquaculture teleost fish in the world. Common carp and other closely related Cyprinidae\\u000a species provide over 30% aquaculture production in the world. However, common carp genomic resources are still relatively\\u000a underdeveloped. BAC end sequences (BES) are important resources for genome research on BAC-anchored genetic marker development,\\u000a linkage map and physical map integration,

Peng Xu; Jiongtang Li; Yan Li; Runzi Cui; Jintu Wang; Jian Wang; Yan Zhang; Zixia Zhao; Xiaowen Sun

2011-01-01

220

Complete Genome Sequence of a Reovirus Isolated from Grass Carp, Indicating Different Genotypes of GCRV in China  

PubMed Central

A widespread grass carp hemorrhagic disease (GCHD) caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has been known in China since 1983. A virulent reovirus strain, HZ08, was isolated from diseased grass carp in Zhejiang Province, China. We sequenced and analyzed the complete genome of strain HZ08 and compared it with published GCRV genome sequences, contributing to the evidence of several genotypes of GCRV in China.

Wang, Qing; Zeng, Weiwei; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yingying; Shi, Cunbin

2012-01-01

221

Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish.

Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

2012-01-01

222

Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper  

SciTech Connect

The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

1981-03-01

223

Spatial and interspecific patterns in persistent contaminant loads in bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River.  

PubMed

We measured concentrations of selected organohalogens, fluorinated compounds and mercury in whole, ground silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp from the Illinois River, Illinois, in 2010 and 2011 to characterize spatial and interspecific patterns of contaminant burdens. Silver carp, which had greater lipid content, tended to have greater concentrations of lipophilic compounds. Concentrations of organohalogens were generally greater in carp from the upper reaches of the river. The halogenated compounds were associated with length and lipid content in silver carp. Bighead carp had greater mercury concentrations than did silver carp; total mercury concentrations were negatively associated with lipid content of bighead carp. Perfluorinated compounds, comprised predominantly of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, did not vary by species or river reach. Chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls were of potential concern with regard to the use of these carp as animal feed additives. Our results indicated that, even though they occupy a lower trophic level than many similarly-sized fish, these carp may accumulate measureable concentrations of organic contaminants. PMID:23887862

Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Sass, Gregory G; Epifanio, John M

2013-09-01

224

A set of polymorphic trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and cross-amplification in crucian carp.  

PubMed

Silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch), as a gynogenetic fish, is a promising model for the study of the evolutionary genetics of vertebrates. We have developed 59 polymorphic trinucleotide and tetranucleotide markers for the silver crucian carp through the biotin capture method and radioactive-labeling hybridization. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 12 in the population, and the average proportion of heterozygotes (including tri- and diallelic) at polymorphic loci was 76.8%. In addition, these loci were successfully applied to a close relative, the crucian carp (Carassius auratus), by cross-amplification, as shown by the range of alleles (2-19), observed heterozygosity (0.1765-0.9706), expected heterozygosity (0.2392-0.9421), and polymorphism information content (0.2186-0.9236). PMID:20503069

Zheng, X H; Lu, C Y; Zhao, Y Y; Lee, C; Cao, D C; Chang, Y M; Liang, L Q; Sun, X W

2010-08-01

225

Brain growth patterns in four European cyprinid fish species (Cyprinidae, Teleostei): roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream (Abramis brama), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and sabre carp (Pelecus cultratus).  

PubMed

This study compares brain growth in 4 species of cyprinids, each distinctly different in adult brain morphology: roach have generalized brains; bream are characterized by well-developed visual, octavolateralis and gustatory brain regions; common carp show chemosensory (gustatory)-dominated brains, and sabre carp octavolateralis-dominated brains. The growth patterns of 16 regions relative to total brain volume were investigated by computer-aided quantitative histology to illustrate internal brain allometries. In all species the tectum opticum decreases in relative size during growth, whereas the corpus cerebelli increases. In bream and common carp, primary taste centers steadily increase in relative size during growth. In most if not all fish, the brain attains no definite final morphology. Lifelong, growth-related shifts in relative sizes of primary sensory regions may reflect lifelong shifting sensory capabilities. PMID:2379081

Brandstätter, R; Kotrschal, K

1990-01-01

226

Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants  

SciTech Connect

A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))

1990-04-01

227

Interaction of Carp Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor and Somatostatin on in vitro Release of Growth Hormone in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible antagonism between somatostatin (SS) and Carp growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) on growth hormone (GH) secretion was examined by radioimmunoassay in a dispersed rainbow trout pituitary cell culture system. SS (3 nM) significantly antagonized Carp GRF(l-29; 1 nM, 10 nM)-induced GH secretion. The slope of the dose-response curve for Carp GRF(1–29) with SS was statistically different from that of carp

Dasan Luo; Brian A. McKeown

1991-01-01

228

Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864

Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A

2012-09-01

229

Gut Microbiota Contributes to the Growth of Fast-Growing Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Gut microbiota has shown tight and coordinated connection with various functions of its host such as metabolism, immunity, energy utilization, and health maintenance. To gain insight into whether gut microbes affect the metabolism of fish, we employed fast-growing transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to study the connections between its large body feature and gut microbes. Metagenome-based fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing on bacterial 16S rRNA genes indicated that fish gut was dominated by Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, which displayed significant differences between transgenic fish and wild-type controls. Analyses to study the association of gut microbes with the fish metabolism discovered three major phyla having significant relationships with the host metabolic factors. Biochemical and histological analyses indicated transgenic fish had increased carbohydrate but decreased lipid metabolisms. Additionally, transgenic fish has a significantly lower Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio than that of wild-type controls, which is similar to mammals between obese and lean individuals. These findings suggest that gut microbiotas are associated with the growth of fast growing transgenic fish, and the relative abundance of Firmicutes over Bacteroidetes could be one of the factors contributing to its fast growth. Since the large body size of transgenic fish displays a proportional body growth, which is unlike obesity in human, the results together with the findings from others also suggest that the link between obesity and gut microbiota is likely more complex than a simple Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio change.

Xie, Shouqi; Hu, Wei; Yu, Yuhe; Hu, Zihua

2013-01-01

230

Histological and histochemical investigations of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus of a carp Cirrhinus mrigala.  

PubMed

The histological organization and histochemical aspects of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus of the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala are described. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus consists of a lower pharyngeal jaw and a chewing pad. Histochemical analysis reveals that the epithelium covering the lower pharyngeal jaw is mucogenic and is involved in the secretion of different classes of glycoproteins (GPs) including GPs with oxidizable vicinal diols, GPs with O-sulphate esters and GPs with sialic acid residues with and without O-acyl substitution. Characteristically, the epithelium at irregular intervals is differentiated into simple or branched tubular pharyngeal glands, which often extend deep into the sub-epithelial tissues. Copious mucus secretion from pharyngeal glands may be associated with transportation of chewed food particles toward the esophagus. Histochemistry and fluorescence microscopy show that the epithelium covering the chewing pad is keratinized. The keratinized surface of the chewing pad may be considered to serve as an occlusion surface for the lower pharyngeal jaw teeth forming an efficient pharyngeal mill for chewing food materials. PMID:24103525

Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

2014-04-01

231

Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: lapillus and asteriscus.  

PubMed

Otoliths are calcium carbonate biominerals in the inner ear of vertebrates; they play a role in balance, movement, and sound perception. Two types of otoliths in freshwater carp are investigated using nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus are higher than those of asteriscus both in nano- and micro-testing, which is attributed to the different crystal polymorphs. Both materials exhibit a certain degree of creep, which indicates some time dependence of the mechanical behavior and is attributed to the organic components. The nano-indentation hardnesses are higher than micro-hardnesses for both otoliths, a direct result of the scale dependence of strength; fewer flaws are encountered by the nano than by the microindenter. PMID:23498208

Ren, Dongni; Meyers, Marc André; Zhou, Bo; Feng, Qingling

2013-05-01

232

[Raman and FTIR characteristics of otolith of ornamental carp].  

PubMed

Otolith is a typical natural biomineral as functional deposit existing in teleost's ears, which is mainly composed of calcium carbonate and organic matter. There is a pair of lapillus, sagitta and asteriscus in fish's inner ear, respectively. The authors compare the asteriscus and lapillus in cultured ornamental carp using FTIR and Raman. The result shows that the mineral phase in lapillus is aragonite, while the mineral phase in asteriscus is vaterite. The pure aragonite and vaterite existing respectively in otolith are of importance as being used as sample to study aragonite/vaterite biomineralization mechanism. Compared with inorganic induced aragonite and vaterite using FTIR and Raman, the authors found that the spectra of aragonite in lapillus are between those of inorganic induced aragonite and other bio induced aragonite; while the spectra of vaterite in asteriscus are similar to those of other bio induced vaterite. It is possible that unstable vaterite was stabilized through the organic effects in biomineralization process. PMID:20038039

Gao, Yong-Hua; Li, Zhuo; Qiao, Li; Ren, Dong-Ni; Feng, Qing-Ling

2009-10-01

233

Predictions on the effect of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes in a Great Lakes wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to examine the relationship between common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes. Twelve 50-m 2 in situ experimental enclosures were installed in degraded Cootes Paradise Marsh during the carp spawning period in 1995. Enclosures were stocked with two or three carp of similar size, ranging from 13 to 59 cm and

Vanessa L. Lougheed; Barb Crosbie; Patricia Chow-Fraser

1998-01-01

234

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

2013-07-12

235

Relationship between Snail Population Density and Infection Status of Snails and Fish with Zoonotic Trematodes in Vietnamese Carp Nurseries  

PubMed Central

Background Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are a food safety and health concern in Vietnam. Humans and other final hosts acquire these parasites from eating raw or under-cooked fish with FZT metacercariae. Fish raised in ponds are exposed to cercariae shed by snail hosts that are common in fish farm ponds. Previous risk assessment on FZT transmission in the Red River Delta of Vietnam identified carp nursery ponds as major sites of transmission. In this study, we analyzed the association between snail population density and heterophyid trematode infection in snails with the rate of FZT transmission to juvenile fish raised in carp nurseries. Methodology/Principal Findings Snail population density and prevalence of trematode (Heterophyidae) infections were determined in 48 carp nurseries producing Rohu juveniles, (Labeo rohita) in the Red River Delta area. Fish samples were examined at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after the juvenile fish were introduced into the ponds. There was a significant positive correlation between prevalence of FZT metacercariae in juvenile fish and density of infected snails. Thus, the odds of infection in juvenile fish were 4.36 and 11.32 times higher for ponds with medium and high density of snails, respectively, compared to ponds where no infected snails were found. Further, the intensity of fish FZT infections increased with the density of infected snails. Interestingly, however, some ponds with no or few infected snails were collected also had high prevalence and intensity of FZT in juvenile fish. This may be due to immigration of cercariae into the pond from external water sources. Conclusions/Significance The total number and density of potential host snails and density of host snails infected with heterophyid trematodes in the aquaculture pond is a useful predictor for infections in juvenile fish, although infection levels in juvenile fish can occur despite low density or absence infected snails. This suggests that intervention programs to control FZT infection of fish should include not only intra-pond snail control, but also include water sources of allochthonous cercariae, i.e. canals supplying water to ponds as well as snail habitats outside the pond such as rice fields and surrounding ponds.

Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Murrell, K. Darwin; Phan Thi, Van; Nguyen Manh, Hung; Viet, Khue Nguyen; Dalsgaard, Anders

2012-01-01

236

Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes  

PubMed Central

Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes.

2012-01-01

237

Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2010-01-01

238

Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

1999-01-01

239

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g? 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g? 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g? 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?13C, ?15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp.

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.

2012-01-01

240

Genetic diversity and population structure inferred from the partially duplicated genome of domesticated carp, Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed Central

Genetic relationships among eight populations of domesticated carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), a species with a partially duplicated genome, were studied using 12 microsatellites and 505 AFLP bands. The populations included three aquacultured carp strains and five ornamental carp (koi) variants. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was used as an outgroup. AFLP-based gene diversity varied from 5% (grass carp) to 32% (koi) and reflected the reasonably well understood histories and breeding practices of the populations. A large fraction of the molecular variance was due to differences between aquacultured and ornamental carps. Further analyses based on microsatellite data, including cluster analysis and neighbor-joining trees, supported the genetic distinctiveness of aquacultured and ornamental carps, despite the recent divergence of the two groups. In contrast to what was observed for AFLP-based diversity, the frequency of heterozygotes based on microsatellites was comparable among all populations. This discrepancy can potentially be explained by duplication of some loci in Cyprinus carpio L., and a model that shows how duplication can increase heterozygosity estimates for microsatellites but not for AFLP loci is discussed. Our analyses in carp can help in understanding the consequences of genotyping duplicated loci and in interpreting discrepancies between dominant and co-dominant markers in species with recent genome duplication.

David, Lior; Rosenberg, Noah A; Lavi, Uri; Feldman, Marcus W; Hillel, Jossi

2007-01-01

241

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.  

PubMed

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

2013-01-01

242

Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g(- 1) dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g(- 1) dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g(- 1) dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?(13)C, ?(15)N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp. PMID:23564978

Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

2012-03-29

243

Asian Carp Marketing Summit held at Lewis and Clark Community College, Grafton, IL, September 20-21, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In fall 2010, Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant (IISG) organized an Asian Carp Marketing Summit (ACMS) to explore the idea of using commercial markets (and their concomitant harvesting) to control wild populations of Asian carp. To accomplish this, IISG and the ...

K. TePas M. Peterson P. Charlebois S. Parks

2010-01-01

244

CARP, a Myostatin-downregulated Gene in CFM Cells, Is a Novel Essential Positive Regulator of Myogenesis  

PubMed Central

Myostatin, a member of the TGF-? superfamily, has been shown to act as a negative regulator of myogenesis. Although its role in myogenesis has been clearly documented through genetic analysis, few gene cascades that respond to myostatin signaling and regulate myogenesis have been characterized, especially in avian species. In a previous study, we screened for such genes in chicken fetal myoblasts (CFMs) using the differential display PCR method and found that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was downregulated by myostatin and specifically expressed in chicken skeletal muscle. However, little is known about the potential functions of CARP in chicken skeletal myogenesis. In this study, the expression patterns of chicken CARP and the possible function of this gene in skeletal muscle growth were characterized. Our data showed that CARP was predominantly expressed in postnatal skeletal muscle, and its expression increased during myogenic differentiation in CFM cells. When CARP was overexpressed, CFM cell growth was enhanced by accelerating the cell cycle at the G1 to S phase transition and increasing cyclin D1 expression. CARP knockdown had the opposite effect: while myoblasts underwent differentiation, knockdown of CARP expression induced extensive cell death, suppressed the formation of myotubes, and markedly decreased the expression of differentiation-related genes such as myosin heavy chain (MHC), myoD, and caveolin-3. Our findings indicate that CARP may play a key role in the myostatin signaling cascade that governs chicken skeletal myogenesis through promoting proliferation and avoiding apoptosis during CFM cell differentiation.

Ma, Guoda; Wang, Haiyang; Gu, Xuefeng; Li, Wen; Zhang, Xingli; Cui, Lili; Li, You; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

2014-01-01

245

Effects of sodium alginate on the non-specific defence system of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carp which receive intraperitoneal injections of sodium alginate show a high survival rate after being challenged withEdwardsiella tarda. In order to elucidate the immunoenhancement by sodium alginate, its effects on the non-specific defence system of carp were investigated. Sodium alginate had little influence either on the activity of the alternative complement pathway or on the phagocytic and respiratory burst activities

KAZUHIRO FUJIKI; TOMOKI YANO

1997-01-01

246

Heritability estimates for growth-related traits using microsatellite parentage assignment in juvenile common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp is one of the leading species in world aquaculture, but selective breeding for growth rate has not been actively pursued in this species after unsuccessful selection experiments. We estimated heritability for growth-related traits at 8 weeks of age in Hungarian Synthetic Mirror carp at Vodnany (Czech Republic). Parentage assignment with eight microsatellite markers was used in a full

Marc Vandeputte; Martin Kocour; Stéphane Mauger; Mathilde Dupont-Nivet; Daphné De Guerry; Marek Rodina; David Gela; Dominique Vallod; Bernard Chevassus; Otomar Linhart

2004-01-01

247

CARPSIM: stochastic simulation modelling of wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) population dynamics, with applications to pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is an important pest fish species in Australasia and North America. Carp are widely implicated in freshwater aquatic resource degradation and both the resource management and broader communities are currently seeking effective control measures. We developed CARPSIM, a simple age-based model to simulate the effects of a range of management scenarios. The model simulates change

Paul Brown; Terence I Walker

2004-01-01

248

Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

2013-01-01

249

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

250

Comparative genomics in cyprinids: common carp ESTs help the annotation of the zebrafish genome  

PubMed Central

Background Automatic annotation of sequenced eukaryotic genomes integrates a combination of methodologies such as ab-initio methods and alignment of homologous genes and/or proteins. For example, annotation of the zebrafish genome within Ensembl relies heavily on available cDNA and protein sequences from two distantly related fish species and other vertebrates that have diverged several hundred million years ago. The scarcity of genomic information from other cyprinids provides the impetus to leverage EST collections to understand gene structures in this diverse teleost group. Results We have generated 6,050 ESTs from the differentiating testis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and clustered them with 9,303 non-gonadal ESTs from CarpBase as well as 1,317 ESTs and 652 common carp mRNAs from GenBank. Over 28% of the resulting 8,663 unique transcripts are exclusively testis-derived ESTs. Moreover, 974 of these transcripts did not match any sequence in the zebrafish or fathead minnow EST collection. A total of 1,843 unique common carp sequences could be stringently mapped to the zebrafish genome (version 5), of which 1,752 matched coding sequences of zebrafish genes with or without potential splice variants. We show that 91 common carp transcripts map to intergenic and intronic regions on the zebrafish genome assembly and regions annotated with non-teleost sequences. Interestingly, an additional 42 common carp transcripts indicate the potential presence of new splicing variants not found in zebrafish databases so far. The fact that common carp transcripts help the identification or confirmation of these coding regions in zebrafish exemplifies the usefulness of sequences from closely related species for the annotation of model genomes. We also demonstrate that 5' UTR sequences of common carp and zebrafish orthologs share a significant level of similarity based on preservation of motif arrangements for as many as 10 ab-initio motifs. Conclusion Our data show that there is sufficient homology between the transcribed sequences of common carp and zebrafish to warrant an even deeper cyprinid transcriptome comparison. On the other hand, the comparative analysis illustrates the value in utilizing partially sequenced transcriptomes to understand gene structure in this diverse teleost group. We highlight the need for integrated resources to leverage the wealth of fragmented genomic data.

Christoffels, Alan; Bartfai, Richard; Srinivasan, Hamsa; Komen, Hans; Orban, Laszlo

2006-01-01

251

Majors Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

2012-01-05

252

Effect of cadmium chloride on secretion of 17?-estradiol by the ovarian follicles of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a common environmental pollutant present in wastes associated with mining, smelting and electroplating. It is a major constituent of the tobacco smoke. Exposure of this heavy metal has been linked to wide range of detrimental effects on mammalian reproduction particularly on ovarian steroidogenesis. Low doses of Cd(2+) are reported to stimulate ovarian luteal progesterone synthesis whereas high doses inhibited it. Cd(2+) exposure is also reported to inhibit gonadal function in fish. In the present study the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) on the secretion of gonadotropin-induced 17?-estradiol was examined in female common carp Cyprinus carpio. Vitellogenic stage fish were exposed to physiological safe dose of CdCl(2) for 0, 24, 48 and 96 h and serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels were estimated. In the in vitro experiments, vitellogenic follicles were incubated with CdCl(2) and a dose- and time-dependent effects on steroid production were estimated induced by LH. Exposure of fish with CdCl(2) gradually attenuated serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels with increasing time and maximum inhibition was noticed after 96 h. Administration of CdCl(2) to the incubations significantly inhibited LH-induced release of 17?-estradiol in vitro. To clarify the mechanism of attenuated production of 17?-estradiol, in vitro effects of CdCl(2) on LH induced P450 aromatase activity (conversion of testosterone to 17?-estradiol) and cytochrome P450arom gene expression in carp ovarian follicles were evaluated. Results show that LH-stimulated P450 aromatase activity and P450arom gene expression in ovarian follicles were significantly inhibited by CdCl(2). The present study further demonstrated that LH-induced stimulation of ovarian steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) which activates aromatase enzyme, is strongly inhibited by cadmium chloride treatment. PMID:23146792

Das, Sumana; Mukherjee, Dilip

2013-01-15

253

Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on individual or populations of carp or other species. Future studies should shift to more intensive study of fewer sites, including reference and contaminated sites, in order to address these additional questions.

Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.

1997-01-01

254

Renal accumulation and effects of intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins in omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus).  

PubMed

An acute toxicological experiment was designed to characterize the sequence of renal ultrastructural changes with accumulated MCs in crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcystins (mainly MC-RR and -LR) at two doses, 50 and 200 ?g MC-LReq. kg?¹ body weight. Quantitative and qualitative determinations of MCs in the kidney were conducted by HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. MC-RR content in kidney of crucian carp showed a time dose-dependent increase within 48 h post-injection, followed by a sharp decline afterward, while no MC-LR in kidney was detectable throughout the experiment. Ultrastructural changes in the kidney of crucian carp progressed with increasing accumulated MCs and exposure times within 48 h post-injection, whereas renal ultrastructural recovery of crucian carp in the 50 ?g MC-LReq. kg?¹ dose group was evident at 168 h post-injection. Our ultrastructural observation suggests that the membranous structure is the main action site of MCs in the kidney, among which mitochondria damage in the tubules is clearly an early, and presumably a critically important effect of MCs. The increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR) in both dose groups further revealed severe impairment occurred in the kidney of crucian carp. PMID:23608020

Li, Li; Xie, Ping; Lei, Hehua; Zhang, Xuezhen

2013-08-01

255

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor VII gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Coagulation factor VII has been studied in several species but, to date, not in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a commercially important freshwater fish found in China. In this study, the full-length cDNA of grass carp coagulation factor VII (GcCFVII) was cloned using a RACE-Ready cDNA Kit, grass carp were challenged with a hemorrhagic virus, and temporal expression profiles of GcCFVII in the thymus, gills, liver, spleen, and head kidney were examined at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 138 h using fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed the 1480 bp GcCFVII to contain three conservative motifs: Gla, EGF-CA, and Tryp-SPc, similar to other species. Phylogenetic analysis showed the evolution of GcCFVII gene to be consistent with the evolution of the species. After viral challenge, GcCFVII expression in five tissues of grass carp showed different patterns of fluctuation. These results provide a solid basis for further investigation of GcCFVII and its relationship with grass carp hemorrhage. PMID:23727283

Liu, Qiaolin; Xu, Baohong; Xiao, Tiaoyi; Su, Jianming; Zhong, Lei

2013-08-01

256

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

2014-01-01

257

Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption.

Bohm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

2014-01-01

258

Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents.  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp. PMID:22740170

Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Lu, Guoqing; Zhao, Jinliang; Chapman, Duane C; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

2012-06-01

259

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Oujiang color carp, Cyprinus carpio var. color (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp was determined to be 16,581 bp in length accurately using the next generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics tools. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp shows typical circular molecule structure of vertebrate's mitochondrial genome, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.89% A, 27.53% C, 15.76% G, and 24.82% T with A/T bias of 56.71%. The complete mitochondrial genome of Oujiang color carp provides the basis for genetic breeding and conservation studies. PMID:22920435

Wang, Baosen; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Sun, Jinsheng; Wang, Chenghui; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2013-02-01

260

Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

SciTech Connect

Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

1986-10-01

261

Major Andre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

1976-01-01

262

First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

2013-01-01

263

Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).  

PubMed

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV. PMID:23542603

Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

2013-06-01

264

Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids.

Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

2012-01-01

265

Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.  

PubMed

Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D

2012-12-01

266

Intrachain diffusion in a protein loop fragment from carp parvalbumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During protein folding a polypeptide chain has to form specific intrachain interactions starting from an ensemble of unfolded conformation. Thus, intrachain diffusion in unfolded polypeptide chains can be regarded as an elementary step in protein folding, which should determine the dynamics of the early stages in the folding process. We have previously applied exothermic triplet-triplet energy transfer from xanthone to naphthalene to determine rate constants for intrachain end-to-end contact formation in unstructured homo-polypeptide chains. Here we show that the method can be applied to determine absolute rate constants for intrachain diffusion in natural loop sequences, if they are free of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine. We measured the rate of loop formation in an 18 amino acid polypeptide chain corresponding to a natural loop sequence from carp muscle ?-parvalbumin (residues 85-102). Contact formation shows single exponential kinetics with a time constant ( ?=1/ k) of 53 ± 3 ns at 22.5 °C in water. Comparison with the results on homo-polypeptide chains shows that this value agrees well with rates obtained earlier for a polyserine chain of the same length.

Krieger, Florian; Fierz, Beat; Axthelm, Fabian; Joder, Karin; Meyer, Dominique; Kiefhaber, Thomas

2004-12-01

267

Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur. PMID:21118271

Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

2011-01-01

268

Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

2014-01-01

269

Temperature effect on antibody production and immunological memory, in carp (Cyprinus carpio) immunized against bovine serum albumin (BSA)  

PubMed Central

A group of carp were immunized with bovine serum albumin. The fish, kept at low temperature (12°) after initially being kept at high temperature (25°) for a short period following the first antigen stimulation, showed a rising titre of antibody. In contrast no circulating antibody was found in carp kept at 12°. This rising titre occurred whether they were transferred to low temperature before or after appearance of first circulating antibodies. The anamnestic response which occurred in carp kept at high temperature may also take place, under certain conditions, at low temperature.

Avtalion, R. R.

1969-01-01

270

A 15 nucleotide deletion mutation in coding region of the RIG-I lowers grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) resistance to grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

RIG-I (Retinoic acid-inducible gene I) is a pivotal receptor that detects numerous RNA and DNA viruses and plays crucial roles in the induction of type I interferons. In the present study, a deletion mutation in CiRIG-I (Ctenopharyngodon idella RIG-I) coding region was detected, its association with resistance/susceptibility to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) was examined, and possible mechanism was analyzed. A 15-bp deletion mutation was found, and the mutation results in a deletion of five amino acids. To investigate the genotypes and alleles, the relevant PCR products were electrophoresed on 2.5% agarose gel. Three genotypes and two alleles were discovered. The general allele was named as A and the deletion mutation allele was named as B. The deletion mutation cancels a predicted phosphorylation site and changes the secondary structure and the probability of peroxisomal targeting signal 1 in CiRIG-I. To explore the correlation between these genotypes and the resistance of grass carp to GCRV, a challenge experiment was carried out. The cumulative mortality in genotype AA (40.70%) and AB (52.73%) was significantly lower than that in genotype BB (71.43%) (P = 0.032). The result demonstrated that genotype AA and AB were resistant to GCRV, while genotype BB was susceptible. The 15-bp deletion mutation lowers the resistance of grass carp to GCRV. This result might provide a potential genetic marker for further investigation of selective breeding of resistant grass carp to GCRV. PMID:22626563

Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo; Wang, Lan; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Xiaohui

2012-08-01

271

Identification and expression analysis of genes involved in early ovary development in diploid gynogenetic hybrids of red crucian carp x common carp.  

PubMed

Diploid eggs of allotetraploid hybrids (red crucian carp female symbol x common carp male symbol), when activated by UV-irradiated sperm of scatter scale carp, can develop into diploid progenies without chromosome duplication treatment. Diploid progenies produce diploid eggs, which develop into diploid population by the same way. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying the production of diploid eggs by the diploid fish, we constructed a forward suppression subtractive hybridization complementary DNA (cDNA) library. The cDNAs from the ovary in proliferation phase were employed as the "tester," and those in growth phase were used as the "driver." Seventy-three cDNA clones that are specifically expressed in proliferation phase were detected by dot-blot hybridization. Sequencing analyses revealed that several of these cDNAs have high homologies to the known sequences in the NCBI database. Their encoded proteins include the protein preventing mitosis catastrophe (PMC), the signal recognition particle 9, the ATP-binding cassette transporter, the glucanase-xylanase fusion protein, and others. These genes were confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The expression profile of the PMC gene at different time points was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the expression of this suppression subtractive hybridization-identified gene changed during the time course, corresponding with the cellular phenomenon in the ovary development. Our studies provide insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the ovary development of diploid gynogenetic fish. PMID:19609611

Liu, Dong; Liu, Shaojun; You, Cuiping; Chen, Lin; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Liangguo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yun

2010-04-01

272

Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

2013-01-01

273

Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance in a Chronic Bacterial Infection of Koi Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty bacterial isolates were obtained from 20 common carp Cyprinus carpio of the strain known as koi during a 2-month disease outbreak. Thirteen were identified as Aeromonas hydrophila, 11 as A. sobria, 2 as A. caviae, 2 as Shewanella putrifaciens, and 1 each as Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas spp. Each isolate was tested for resistance to 13 antimicrobial compounds using

P. W. Taylor

2003-01-01

274

Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes.

Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

2012-01-01

275

Does Age (Really) Matter? A Response to Manning, Carroll, and Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

,Direct correspondence to Lee Epstein, Edward Mallinckrodt Distinguished University Professor of Political Science and Professor of Law, Washington University, Campus Box 1063, St. Louis, MO 63130 hepstein@artsci. wustl. edui. Andrew D. Martin is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Washington University in St. Louis. We thank Robert Carp, Kenneth Manning, and Bruce Carroll for supplying us with their data. We

Lee Epstein; Andrew D. Martin

2004-01-01

276

Cloning, characterization and expression of the LECT2 gene in grass carp.  

PubMed

An expressed sequence tag of grass carp leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) gene was screened from an established intestinal cDNA library. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends gave rise to a full-length LECT2 cDNA (gcLECT2) with a complete open-reading frame of 474 bp, encoding 158 amino acids about 17.9 kDa. Homology search and sequence alignment showed that this deduced protein sequence shared a high identity with LECT2 from other vertebrates. Western blotting indicated immunological cross-reactivity occurs between grass carp and human LECT2 protein. This gcLECT2 genomic sequence is 1,868 bp in size, which consists of five exons and four introns. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that gcLECT2 gene is ubiquitously expressed in different tissues of healthy grass carp including brain, gut, liver, spleen, kidney, muscle and heart, while the expression levels were significantly increased in liver and spleen followed by Aeromonas salmonicida infection. 992 bp 5'-flanking region sequence was cloned and analyzed, where one CAAT box and one GC island were found. Our results showed that the LECT2 is suggested to be most possibly involved in the grass carp's immune response. PMID:23129417

Yuan, Tian; Li, Chuang; Gu, Ji-Rui; Fu, Yue-Jun; Xu, Heng

2013-08-01

277

Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on cytochrome P450 in common carp liver.  

PubMed

Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used in agriculture, have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. We investigated the activities of the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD), total cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A mRNA level and level of tissue ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, alone or in combination, and a 20-d recovery. In the present study, juvenile common carp was exposed to ATR (at concentrations of 4.28, 42.8 and 428 ?g L(-1)), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 ?g L(-1)), and ATR/CPF mixture (at concentrations of 1.13, 11.3 and 113 ?g L(-1)). A general increasing trend for the activity of the biotransformation enzymes (EROD and PROD), CYP and CYP1A mRNA level was observed in the liver of common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF mixture. In addition, ATR, CPF, and their metabolites demonstrated a high accumulation in the liver. These results demonstrated that the CYP system in fish could be used as a biomarkers in evaluating the impact of ATR and CPF exposure on the common carp. PMID:24530164

Xing, Houjuan; Zhang, Ziwei; Yao, Haidong; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liangliang; Xu, Shiwen; Li, Shu

2014-06-01

278

EFFECTS OF VAGAL SENSORY INPUT ON THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electrical stimulation of an epibranchial vagal ganglion, which innervates the gill region, had a marked influence on the respiratory rhythm of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Vagal input could initiate ventilation in fish displaying intermittent respiration. In fish breathing steadily, vagal stimuli could reset the respiratory rhythm by modifying the existing breathing cycle. An increase of stimulus intensity evoked a

B. L. ROBERTS

1991-01-01

279

Selective breeding for stress response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the thesis was to explore the genetic background of stress response in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and produce homozygous and heterozygous isogenic strains with divergent stress responses. As stressor a rapid temperature decrease (= cold shock) was used. As a preparatory step, a number of experiments were carried out to 1) investigate the validity of

M. Tanck

2000-01-01

280

Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium Held at Gainesville, Florida on March 7-9,1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A symposium was held in Gainesville on March 7-9, 1994, to discuss the effects of stocking grass carp for aquatic plant control. The purpose of the workshop was to provide information related to the concern for habitat protection and the suitability of us...

1994-01-01

281

Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

1974-01-01

282

Rulemaking to List Black Carp Under Lacey Act. Economic Analysis.(Rebvised 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service published a final rule to add live black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) to the list of injurious wildlife under the Lacey Act. An injurious wildlife listing will prohibit the importation and interstate transport of all bl...

2007-01-01

283

POTENTIAL OF CARP TO BIOACTIVATE BENZO[A]PYRENE TO METABOLITES THAT BIND TO DNA  

EPA Science Inventory

We have investigated the formation of DNA adducts in starved, fed, and 5,6-benzoflavone-pretreated carp following i.p. administration of benzo(a)pyrene. 32p-postlabeling analysis of the liver DNAs showed the presence of one predominant (>92%) adduct in all three groups. ochromato...

284

Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore  

SciTech Connect

The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

Prasad, M.S.

1987-08-01

285

BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

286

Comparison of three plant substrates for enhancing carp growth through bacterial biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three plant substrates, sugarcane bagasse, paddy straw and dried Eichhornea, were compared for enhancing fish growth through bacterial biofilm development. The substrates were suspended in water supplemented with cowdung and urea. For comparison, control cisterns applied with only cowdung and urea were maintained. The cisterns were stocked with common carp (Cyprirrus carpio) and rohu (Labeo rohita) fingerlings at 10?000 ha?1.

M. R Ramesh; K. M Shankar; C. V Mohan; T. J Varghese

1999-01-01

287

Predation on Zebra Mussels ('Dreissena polymorpha') by Common Carp ('Cyprinus carpio'). Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors examined the gut contents of 31 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected at Mississippi River Mile 217 in August 1995 for evidence of predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). They found between 1 and 407 zebra mussel beaks in 83.9% of...

J. K. Tucker F. A. Cronin D. W. Soergel C. H. Theiling

1997-01-01

288

MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)  

EPA Science Inventory

Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

289

Artificial Diets for Common Carp: Effect of the Addition of Enzyme Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment on feeding the larvae of carp (Cyprinus carpio) with an artificial diet is described, and 3 previous years of study are briefly summarized. When extracts offish digestive enzymes from hepatopancreas and intestine were added to the diet processed by freeze-drying, growth and survival of the larvae were better than in our previous experiments, but not as good as

Henryka Dabrowska; Czeslaw Grudniewski; Konrad Dabrowski

1979-01-01

290

Chronic toxicity of nonylphenol and ethinylestradiol: haematological and histopathological effects in juvenile Common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent ecotoxicological research, there is an increasing concern about alkylphenolic industrial chemicals, such as nonylphenol (NP), because of their estrogenic properties. Data on the general fish toxicity of these wide spread aquatic pollutants are scarce. In order to evaluate sublethal toxic effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, juvenile Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to NP concentrations ranging

J. Schwaiger; O. H Spieser; C. Bauer; H. Ferling; U. Mallow; W. Kalbfus; R. D. Negele

2000-01-01

291

Biology and host response to Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection in common carp.  

PubMed

Viruses from the family Alloherpesviridae form an aquatic clade of herpesviruses infecting fish and amphibia. Diseases caused by these herpesviruses are of increasing importance because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, and the difficulties in diagnosing latently infected carriers. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) induces a severe disease and mortality in common carp and thus greatly affects carp aquaculture and trade. This review summarises advancements in the understanding of the infection process and the current knowledge on immune responses of carp to CyHV-3. A focus is laid on host genetics and immunity responsible for resistance/survival from the disease and on the viral mechanisms accountable for evasion of carp immune responses. As current knowledge of immune responses to CyHV-3 is still limited, perspectives for future studies are outlined. Analysing CyHV-3 fish-host interactions will be useful and thought-provoking for a basic understanding of fish immune responses. PMID:23981329

Adamek, Miko?aj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hikima, Jun-ichi; Jung, Tae-Sung; Aoki, Takashi

2014-04-01

292

Genetic analysis of two common carp broodstocks by RAPD and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The whole broodstock of two Hungarian common carp farms—80 and 196 individuals—was analyzed by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and microsatellite analysis. Ten polymorphic RAPD markers and four microsatellites were selected to genotype both of the stocks. As expected, microsatellite analysis revealed more detailed information on genetic diversities than RAPD assay. Results obtained with both types of DNA

Richárd Bártfai; Sándor Egedi; Gen Hua Yue; Balázs Kovács; Béla Urbányi; Gizella Tamás; László Horváth; László Orbán

2003-01-01

293

Estimation of essential fatty acid requirements of common carp larvae using semi?purified artificial diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two trials were conducted with duplicate groups of (first feeding) carp larvae fed artificial dry diets based on casein and dextrin over 21 or 25 days. One control diet based on yeast was also tested. Survival, growth and fatty acid profiles of larvae were studied.In trial 1, (n?3) fatty acid requirement was estimated using diets supplemented or not with methyl

G. Corraze; P. Bergot; S. J. Kaushik

1996-01-01

294

First feeding of common carp larvae on diets with high levels of protein hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 21 day feeding trial was carried out at 24 °C aiming to evaluate the effect of diets containing high levels of protein hydrolysates on growth, survival and body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., larvae since first feeding. Eight semipurified diets based on a fish protein hydrolysate (CPSP) with or without additional nitrogen sources, such as casein, casein

A. P. Carvalho; A.-M. Escaffre; A. Oliva Teles; P. Bergot

1997-01-01

295

Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

2001-01-01

296

Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

Penne, C. R.; Pierce, C. L.

2008-01-01

297

The toxic effects of pyrethroid deltamethrin on the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) embryos and larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide contaminating aquatic ecosystems as a pollutant, was investigated in the present study for toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp, Cyprinus carpio as a model. The control and five test experiments were repeated five times. The water temperature in the experimental units was kept at 24±1°C. The number of dead embryos significantly increased

Kenan Köprücü; Rahmi Ayd?n

2004-01-01

298

Changes in Lipid Composition of Cooked Minced Carp '(Cyprinus carpio)' during Frozen Storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Minced carp tissue was cooked by baking and deep-fat frying and stored at -18C for periods up to 8 weeks. Phospholipid (PL) levels decreased whereas free fatty acids (FFA) increased during frozen storage of all samples. Samples treated with antioxidants g...

J. Mai J. E. Kinsella

1979-01-01

299

Changes of intestinal mucus glycoproteins after peroral application of Aeromonas hydrophila to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucus forms a biofilm that protects the underlying epithelium. Interactions between this mucus layer and bacteria are important in most infectious diseases. Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, is often isolated during disease outbreaks in fish. This study investigates biochemical properties of intestinal mucus glycoproteins of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in response to peroral application of

Verena Schroers; Maria van der Marel; Henner Neuhaus; Dieter Steinhagen

2009-01-01

300

Evaluation of the toxicological effects of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we evaluated the toxicological effects of a scarcely documented environmental pollutant, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), on selected biochemical endpoints in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Juvenile organisms were exposed to PFOS through a single intraperitoneal injection (liver concentrations ranging from 16 to 864 ng\\/g after 5 days of exposure) and after 1 and 5 days effects

P. T Hoff; W Van Dongen; E. L Esmans; R Blust; W. M De Coen

2003-01-01

301

COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP  

EPA Science Inventory

Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

302

Effect of Different Feed Ingredients on the Growth of Caged Common Carp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know the effect of four different fish feed, nine months old common carp about 47 g size were stocked at the stocking density of 12 fish m -3 in the cages and cultured in Lake Phewa for 175 days. Four different feed ingredients used were fish meal + soybean + oil cake + rice bran + wheat flour, fish

Ash K Rai; Jaya D Bista

303

Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the first i.p. injection (condition 1); another group received two i.p. injections with a 24h of interval between each one and was killed 48h after the first injection (condition 2) and a third group received one i.p. injection and was killed 48h latter (condition 3). Results showed that LA was effective in promoting an increase in GSTs gene transcription in liver only in the condition 2. A second experiment was done, where carp pre-treated with LA (condition 2) were gavaged twice with a 24h interval with 50?g MC/kg. Ninety-six hours after experiment beginning, carp were killed, and organs were dissected. Results of GST activity in liver and brain suggest that LA can be a useful chemoprotection agent against MC induced toxicity, stimulating detoxification through the increment of GST activity (brain) or through reversion of GST inhibition (liver). PMID:21586338

Amado, Lílian L; Garcia, Márcia L; Pereira, Talita C B; Yunes, João S; Bogo, Maurício R; Monserrat, José M

2011-09-01

304

Rod-Cone Interaction in Carp Retina: An Analysis of Electroretinographic B-Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes in electroretinographic b-waves in the presence of background lights of increasing intensity were examined in isolated, superfused carp retinas. Within a certain range of ambient illumination b-waves elicited by red (695 nm) test flashes against d...

X. Yang L. Xu

1992-01-01

305

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

2002-01-01

306

Centromere Localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through Half-Tetrad Analysis in Diploid Gynogenetic Families  

PubMed Central

Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N?=?48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species.

Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

2013-01-01

307

Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian

2013-05-01

308

Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver\\u000a carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles\\/locus) and heterozygosity\\u000a (average 54.7%)

T. L. King; M. S. Eackles; D. C. Chapman

2011-01-01

309

Seasonal Changes in Glycogen Content and Na-K-ATPase Activity in the Brain of the Crucian Carp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal article ''''Seasonal changes in glycogen content and Na-K-ATPase activity in the brain of the crucian carp'''', by Vesa Paajanen and Matti Vornanen, found in the APS Journal of Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology.

Vesa Paajanen (University of Joensuu Biology); PhD Matti Vornanen (University of Joensuu Biology)

2006-11-01

310

Effects of konjac glucomannan on physicochemical properties of myofibrillar protein and surimi gels from grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryoprotective effect of konjac glucomannan (KGM) on myofibrillar protein from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during frozen storage at ?18°C and the influence of five levels of KGM (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2%) on texture properties, water-holding capacity, and whiteness of grass carp surimi gels were investigated. KGM as a novel cryoprotectant could significantly mitigate the decrease in salt

Guangquan Xiong; Wei Cheng; Lixiu Ye; Xin Du; Ming Zhou; Ruotai Lin; Shengrong Geng; Mingli Chen; Harold Corke; Yi-Zhong Cai

2009-01-01

311

Physiological responses of over-wintering common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) to disturbance by Eurasian otter ( Lutra lutra )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a tame animal, the impact of otter (Lutra lutra) disturbance on over-wintering carp (Cyprinus carpio) was monitored in two experiments, 133 and 140 days, respectively, over two consecutive winters (November–April). The level\\u000a of stress in over-wintering carp exposed to various intensities of disturbance by otters was quantified using biological indicators\\u000a of stress (cortisol, cortisone, indices of nitrogen, carbohydrate, lipid and

Lukáš Poledník; Ji?í ?ehulka; Andreas Kranz; Kate?ina Poledníková; Václav Hlavá?; Hana Kazihnitková

2008-01-01

312

Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Waters and Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibition in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal\\u000a Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of\\u000a the irrigation system. Results indicated that

S. J. Gruber; M. D. Munn

1998-01-01

313

Analysis of Genome Survey Sequences and SSR Marker Development for Siamese Mud Carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Using 454 Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Siamese mud carp (Henichorynchus siamensis) is a freshwater teleost of high economic importance in the Mekong River Basin. However, genetic data relevant for delineating wild stocks for management purposes currently are limited for this species. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing to generate a partial genome survey sequence (GSS) dataset to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from H. siamensis genomic DNA. Data generated included a total of 65,954 sequence reads with average length of 264 nucleotides, of which 2.79% contain SSR motifs. Based on GSS-BLASTx results, 10.5% of contigs and 8.1% singletons possessed significant similarity (E value < 10?5) with the majority matching well to reported fish sequences. KEGG analysis identified several metabolic pathways that provide insights into specific potential roles and functions of sequences involved in molecular processes in H. siamensis. Top protein domains detected included reverse transcriptase and the top putative functional transcript identified was an ORF2-encoded protein. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven sequences containing SSR motifs were identified, of which 422 qualified for primer design and eight polymorphic loci have been tested with average observed and expected heterozygosity estimated at 0.75 and 0.83, respectively. Regardless of their relative levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, microsatellite loci developed here are suitable for further population genetic studies in H. siamensis and may also be applicable to other related taxa.

Iranawati, Feni; Jung, Hyungtaek; Chand, Vincent; Hurwood, David A.; Mather, Peter B.

2012-01-01

314

Analysis of Genome Survey Sequences and SSR Marker Development for Siamese Mud Carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Using 454 Pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Siamese mud carp (Henichorynchus siamensis) is a freshwater teleost of high economic importance in the Mekong River Basin. However, genetic data relevant for delineating wild stocks for management purposes currently are limited for this species. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing to generate a partial genome survey sequence (GSS) dataset to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from H. siamensis genomic DNA. Data generated included a total of 65,954 sequence reads with average length of 264 nucleotides, of which 2.79% contain SSR motifs. Based on GSS-BLASTx results, 10.5% of contigs and 8.1% singletons possessed significant similarity (E value < 10(-5)) with the majority matching well to reported fish sequences. KEGG analysis identified several metabolic pathways that provide insights into specific potential roles and functions of sequences involved in molecular processes in H. siamensis. Top protein domains detected included reverse transcriptase and the top putative functional transcript identified was an ORF2-encoded protein. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven sequences containing SSR motifs were identified, of which 422 qualified for primer design and eight polymorphic loci have been tested with average observed and expected heterozygosity estimated at 0.75 and 0.83, respectively. Regardless of their relative levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, microsatellite loci developed here are suitable for further population genetic studies in H. siamensis and may also be applicable to other related taxa. PMID:23109823

Iranawati, Feni; Jung, Hyungtaek; Chand, Vincent; Hurwood, David A; Mather, Peter B

2012-01-01

315

Experiments on the Effects of the Herbivorous Fish, Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) on Aquatic Vascular Plants, Algae, Zooplankton and Phytoplankton and the Importance of Water Temperature on the Success of Weed Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Cladophora sp. as a food for grass carp; The effects on Elodea sp. of cutting it in early spring and then stocking with grass carp; The effect of different spring temperatures on grass carp feeding on Elodea sp.; Zooplankton and phytoplankton po...

M. C. Fowler

1984-01-01

316

Genomic organization, promoter activity of grass carp MDA5 and the association of its polymorphisms with susceptibility/resistance to grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

MDA5 (melanoma-differentiation-associated gene 5), a member of the RLR (retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor) family, plays a pivotal role in innate immunity against viral infection. In the present study, the organization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) MDA5 (CiMDA5) gene sequence was elucidated and promoter activity of its 5'-flanking region was detected. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated to explore their association with susceptibility/resistance to grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The CiMDA5 genomic sequence is composed of 10,906 bp, containing seven exons and six introns, which is distinct from its counterparts with numbers of exons. The 5'-flanking region of CiMDA5 gene, containing several putative transcription factor binding sites, was amplified using genome walking technique, exhibiting promoter activity. Six SNPs were discovered in the complete sequence of CiMDA5. Five of them locate in introns and one in 5'-flanking region. The genotype and allele distribution were examined by PCR-RFLP in susceptible and resistant fish. The results indicate that genotypes at the -713 C/G and 3338 A/C loci were significantly associated with the resistance to GCRV (P<0.05). Furthermore, at -713 C/G site, no CC genotype individual was found; the mortality in GG genotype group was 42.65%, which was significantly lower than that in CG genotype group (73.91%) (P<0.05). The mortality in CC (33.33%) genotype at 3338 A/C locus was significantly lower than that in AA and AC genotype (61.54%, 45.95% respectively) (P<0.05). The data demonstrate that -713 G and 3338 C carrier are resistant to GCRV. These results provide potential markers for further investigation of selective breeding of resistant grass carp to GCRV. PMID:22361281

Wang, Lan; Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Wan, Quanyuan; Peng, Limin

2012-04-01

317

Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

318

The polymorphism and haplotype of TLR3 gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and their associations with susceptibility/resistance to grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have emerged as crucial sensors of invading microbes through recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The polymorphisms in TLRs are closely associated with the resistance to pathogen infections. TLR3 involved in the recognition of double stranded RNA in humans, mice, pigs and fishes. In present study, the nucleotide sequence polymorphisms of TLR3 gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (CiTLR3) were investigated to explore their association with susceptibility/resistance to grass carp reovirus (GCRV). Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and an ins/del mutation were detected in the complete sequence of CiTLR3. Ten of them were sited in the non-coding region. The two SNPs in exon were synonymous mutation. The ins/del mutation was coincidental at the start codon. To investigate the association between the polymorphism and the susceptibility/resistance to GCRV, we selected eight SNPs in the non-coding region and analyzed the genotype and allele distribution in susceptible and resistant groups with PCR-RFLP. The statistical results indicated that only -764 G/T was significantly associated with the resistance of grass carp to GCRV both in genotype (P = 0.040) and allele (P = 0.025). Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed -543 A/G, -488 G/T, 4116 G/T and 4731 C/T were linkage disequilibrium, and haplotype analysis revealed that haplotype GTTT frequency in susceptible group was significantly higher than that in the resistant group (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 0.996-4.043, P = 0.049). To further confirm the correlation, an additional infection experiment was carried out. The mortality in the -764 GG genotype individuals was significantly lower than GT genotype (OR = 0.208, 95% CI 0.067-0.643, P = 0.011) and TT genotype (OR = 0.183, 95% CI 0.052-0.648, P = 0.015). All the results indicated that haplotype GTTT and genotype -764 TT and -764 GT individuals were susceptible to GCRV while -764 GG was resistant, which could be the optional markers for selective breeding for the GCRV-resistant grass carp in future. PMID:20869445

Heng, Jianfu; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Teng; Dong, Jie; Chen, Lijun

2011-01-01

319

Genomic structure of grass carp Mx2 and the association of its polymorphisms with susceptibility/resistance to grass carp reovirus.  

PubMed

Mx (myxovirus-resistant) proteins are induced by interferon and inhibit viral replication in many vertebrates. In the present study, the organization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Mx2 (CiMx2) gene sequence was elucidated and its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated to explore their association with susceptibility/resistance to grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The CiMx2 genomic sequence is composed of 8108 bp, containing 12 exons and 11 introns. Exon size ranges from 29 to 648 bp, and intron size varies from 89 to 1925 bp. Five SNPs were discovered in the complete sequence of CiMx2 genomic sequence and four of them were found to be located in introns. The 7 C/T locus is a non-synonymous mutation. The genotype and allele distribution were examined by PCR-RFLP in susceptible and resistant fish. The results indicate that genotypes at the 1191 C/A and 1205 G/A loci are significantly associated with the resistance of grass carp to GCRV (P<0.05). To further verify the correlation, an additional infection experiment was carried out. The mortality in CC genotype individuals (0%) at 1191 C/A locus was significantly lower than that in AA (61.11%) and AC (71.17%) genotypes (P<0.05). At 1205 G/A site, no AA genotype individual was found; the mortality in AG genotype group was 53.06%, which was significantly lower than that in GG genotype group (90.48%) (P<0.05). The results demonstrate that genotype 1191 AC, 1191 AA and 1205 GG individuals are susceptible to GCRV, while 1191 CC and 1205 AG are resistant. The 7 C/T and 528 C/T loci are in high linkage disequilibrium, however, no significant association was found between the haplotype and resistance to GCRV (P>0.05). These results provide potential markers for further investigation of selective breeding of resistant grass carp to GCRV. PMID:21967867

Wang, Lan; Su, Jianguo; Peng, Limin; Heng, Jianfu; Chen, Lijun

2011-10-01

320

Plasma biochemical responses of the omnivorous crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to crude cyanobacterial extracts.  

PubMed

Healthy crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were treated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of crude cyanobacterial extracts at two doses, 50 and 200 microg MC-LR equiv kg(-1) BW. High mortality (100%) was observed within 60 h post injection in the high-dose group. In the treated fish, activities of four plasma enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), all showed substantial increases, with both dose and time-dependent effects. These increases of enzyme activity indicate severe impairment occurred in the liver of crucian carp over time. Plasma concentrations of energy-related biomolecules including glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), and total protein (TP) showed marked changes in the high-dose group, possibly a nutritional imbalance correlated with the liver injury caused by intraperitoneal exposure to crude cyanobacterial extracts. PMID:18958589

Zhang, Xuezhen; Xie, Ping; Wang, Weimin; Li, Dapeng; Shi, Zechao

2008-12-01

321

Bioavailability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from contaminated Wisconsin River sediment to carp  

SciTech Connect

The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in depuration of 32-34% TCDD. These values compare to field data where sediments ranged from 30-200 pg/g and 1.5 kg carp (70 pg/g) depurated 55% in 325 days. Analysis of sediment, laboratory-exposed fish, and Wisconsin River fish for other PCDDs and PCDFs showed residues of 2,3,7 and 8-substituted congeners selectively enriched.

Kuehl, D.W.; Cook, P.M.; Batterman, A.R.; Lothenbach, D.; Butterworth, B.C.

1987-01-01

322

Identification of 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene metabolites in carp: part 1. in vivo experiment  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism of diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) in fish was studied from an ecotoxicological viewpoint to clarify the environmental fate of DIPN, a solvent of carbonless paper which is widely used as a substitute for PCB. This study identified the following metabolites in carp by in vivo experiment; 2-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl) ethyl-6-isopropylnaphthalene, 2-(1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-6-isopropylnaphthalene, 2,6-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl) ethyl-naphthalene, 2-(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl) ethyl-6-isopropylnaphthalene and ..cap alpha..-(2-(6-isopropylnaphthyl)) propionic acid. Identification was based on UV, IR, MS, and NMR analyses. The metabolism of 2, 6-DIPN in carp was concluded mainly through oxidation of the isopropyl chain.

Kojima, H.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, T.

1982-01-01

323

Detrimental effects of metronidazole on selected innate immunological indicators in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The widely used antibiotic metronidazole (MTZ) was investigated for its toxic effects on the innate immunity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were exposed to MTZ at nominal concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 2.5 mg L(-1) in water for 30 days, followed by a 5-days of cleanout period, after which certain innate immunity parameters were measured. The results showed that under the tested concentrations, MTZ-exposed fish exhibited decline in several humoral and cellular parameters, including complement activity, lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity, total serum protein levels, total WBC count, and the respiratory burst activity of kidney leukocytes. Except for total serum proteins, all of these parameters showed a significant difference in the 2.5 mg L(-1) MTZ group compared to control group (p < 0.05). The results clearly support the contention that MTZ suppresses the innate immunity of common carp. PMID:24326676

Han, Junyan; Zhang, Lizhu; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong

2014-02-01

324

Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market  

PubMed Central

While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential.

Hart, Vlastimil; Kusta, Tomas; Nemec, Pavel; Blahova, Veronika; Jezek, Milos; Novakova, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cerveny, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimir; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stipek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

2012-01-01

325

Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

1990-12-01

326

[Effect of grass carp introduction of the extinction of Ottelia acuminata in Dianchi Lake].  

PubMed

Ottelia acuminata was a dominant macrophyte in Dianchi Lake prior up through the 1970s, when it was thought to have gone extinct in 1976. Various theories have been proposed as to its extinction, with a particular focus on pollution-driven factors. By comparing the historical records on pollution and fish yields of Dianchi Lake from the 1950s to early 2000, we found that the extinction of O. acuminata from Dianchi Lake occurred earlier than the documented spread of pollution. The surveyed data also demonstrate that the extinction of O. acuminata was likely caused primarily by the massive introduction of grass carp, from1958 to 1973. Future reclamation of lake bays and pollution may yield some impact on the restoration of the O. acuminata population even after the decline of grass carp population. PMID:24415697

Yang, Jun-Xing; Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Xiao-Yong

2013-12-01

327

Effects of bifenthrin on some haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bifenthrin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The 96-h LC50 value of Talstar EC 10 (active substance 100 g l(-1) bifenthrin) was found to be 57.5 microg l(-1). Examination of haematological and biochemical profiles and histological tissue examination was performed on common carp after 96 h of exposure to Talstar EC 10 (57.5 microg l(-1)). The experimental group showed significantly higher (P < 0.01) values of plasma glucose, ammonia, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase as well as the relative and absolute monocyte count, compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed teleangioectasiae of secondary gill lamellae and degeneration of hepatocytes. The bifenthrin-based Talstar EC 10 pesticide preparation was classified as a substance strongly toxic for fish. PMID:18766454

Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Machova, J

2009-11-01

328

Toxicity of phthalate esters exposure to carp (Cyprinus carpio) and antioxidant response by biomarker.  

PubMed

To study the toxic effects of phthalate esters on the aquatic creatures, carps were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) of six different concentrations for 96 h-LC50 measurements. It shows that the 96 h-LC50 is 16.30 and 37.95 mg L(-1), thus the safe concentration (1/10LC(50)) is 1.63 mg L(-1). The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in liver to carp exposure for single or combinations of DBP and DEHP. The quantity of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) was also measured in the same way. XOD, CAT and MDA had shown an evident change while exposure time and concentration increased, combined exposure can aggravate this change. They might be used as early warning indicators and monitors, and have potentials in the ecological risk assessment. PMID:24468924

Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Ying; Qi, Mingliang

2014-05-01

329

Magnetic alignment in carps: evidence from the Czech christmas fish market.  

PubMed

While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; N?mec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; Cervený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Stípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

2012-01-01

330

Molecular characterization of hepcidin gene in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its expression pattern responding to bacterial challenge.  

PubMed

Hepcidin is a cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide (AMP), which plays an important role in host innate immune system and iron regulation. A great many of hepcidin genes have been identified from vertebrates, including various fish species. Here we report the cloning and identification of a hepcidin cDNA from the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The full-length cDNA of the common carp hepcidin was 647 bp, which contained an ORF of 276 bp encoding a prepropeptide of 91 amino acid residues. The predicted preprohepcidin consisted of three domains: a signal peptide of 24 amino acids, a prodomain of 42 amino acids and a mature peptide of 25 amino acids, which containd eight cysteine residues at the identical conserved position. The genomic organization of common carp hepcidin was identified, which contained three exons and two introns, similarly to corresponding genes in mammals and other fish species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that hepcidins were conserved in different species, and common carp hepcidin was type 1 hepcidin according to the phylogenetic tree, which had the highest identity with mud loach and zebrafish. Real-time PCR assay showed that the hepcidin gene was mostly expressed in liver, and expressed in all the other tested tissues of common carp in different levels. When challenged with pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio anguillarum, the expression level of common carp hepcidin was quickly up-regulated in liver, spleen, head kidney and hindgut, implying that hepcidin may be an important component of the innate immune system of common carp and involved in mucosal immune response against invading pathogens. PMID:23851290

Li, Hua; Zhang, Fumiao; Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Yaoyao; Yuan, Jinduo; Yang, Guiwen; An, Liguo

2013-09-01

331

Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

2013-01-01

332

Diclofenac-induced oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill and blood of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).  

PubMed

Due to its analgesic properties, diclofenac (DCF) is one of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). While residue from this pharmaceutical agent has been found in diverse water bodies in various countries, there is not enough information of its potential toxicity on aquatic organisms, particularly in species which are economically valuable due to their high consumption by humans, such as the common carp Cyprinus carpio. This study aimed to evaluate potential DCF-induced oxidative stress in brain, liver, gill and blood of C. carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96h (96-h LC50) was determined and used to establish the concentration equivalent to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). Carp specimens were exposed to this concentration for different exposure times (12, 24, 48, 72 and 96h) and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF and 4-hydroxy DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Results show a statistically significant LPX increase (P<0.05) in liver and gill mainly as well as significant changes in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes evaluated in these organs, with respect to controls (P<0.05). The DCF concentrations decreased in water system and increased in the carp. The DCF biotransformation to 4-hydroxy DCF was observed to 12h. The pharmaceutical agent DCF is concluded to induce oxidative stress on the common carp C. carpio, with the highest incidence of oxidative damage occurring in liver and gill. Furthermore, the biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:23474065

Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Colín-Cruz, Arturo; Neri-Cruz, Nadia; García-Medina, Sandra

2013-06-01

333

Isolation and characterization of ten tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from GATA-enriched library of rock carp (Procypris rabaudi). The loci were tested in 25 individuals from four populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 6. Polymorphism\\u000a information content (PIC) ranged from 0.460 to 0.788. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.375 to 0.739 and\\u000a from 0.531 to 0.833, respectively. These

Shuang Wang; Xiuyue Zhang; Qin Liu; Jiali Dong; Zhaobin Song

2010-01-01

334

Isolation and characterization of ten tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from GATA-enriched library of rock carp (Procypris rabaudi). The loci were tested in 25 individuals from four populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 6. Polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.460 to 0.788. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.375 to 0.739 and from 0.531 to 0.833, respectively. These

Shuang Wang; Xiuyue Zhang; Qin Liu; Jiali Dong; Zhaobin Song

2009-01-01

335

Parental genetic effects evaluation of growth-related traits of red common carp in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocal differences have been observed widely for given traits in fish breeding programs, but maternal and paternal effects\\u000a and heritable extranuclear genetic effects have often been omitted in the evaluation of genetic variance. In this study, we\\u000a have applied a mixed genetic model to conduct a complete diallel cross using three varieties of red common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), namely,

Cheng-Hui Wang; Jun Wang; Song-Ping Xiang; Yao-Ping Lv; Jian Wang; Xiao-Zhen He

2009-01-01

336

Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Carp, Snail, Aphid, Comb Jelly, Chocolate Vine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the big head carp, the giant African snail, the balsam wooly aphid, the comb jelly and the chocolate vine. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

2013-06-17

337

CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth  

PubMed Central

Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-?B signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs.

Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.

2013-01-01

338

Cortisol effects on the testicular androgen synthesizing capacity in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous studies on the effect of stress on pubertal development in carp have shown that repeated temperature changes\\u000a caused an increase in cortisol levels and a retardation of the first waves of spermatogenesis. Identical effects, accompanied\\u000a by a decrease in 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) plasma levels and the gonadosomatic index (GSI) were induced by cortisol administration\\u000a via cortisol containing food pellets.

D. Consten; E. D. Keuning; M. Terlou; J. G. D. Lambert; H. J. Th. Goos

2001-01-01

339

Toxic Effects of Cobalt Chloride on Hematological Factors of Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigate the toxic effects of cobalt chloride on some hematological factors of the carp Cyprinus carpio, such as white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular\\u000a hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. At first, LC50 of cobalt in C. carpio was measured during 96 h after exposure. Also, physicochemical parameters

S. S. Saeedi Saravi; S. Karami; B. Karami; M. Shokrzadeh

2009-01-01

340

THE BIOMECHANICS OF FAST-STARTS DURING ONTOGENY IN THE COMMON CARP CYPRINUS CARPIO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp Cyprinus carpio L. were reared a constant temperature of 20 °C from the larval (7 mm total length) to the juvenile (80 mm) stage. Body morphology and white muscle mass distribution were measured. Fast-start escape responses were recorded using high-speed cinematography from which the velocities, accelerations and hydrodynamic power requirements were estimated. All three measures of fast-start performance

JAMES M. WAKELING; KIRSTY M. KEMP; IAN A. JOHNSTON

341

Cloning and expression of two proopiomelanocortin mRNAs in the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor for a number of biologically active peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) and ?-endorphin. It is well known that these peptides are involved in the stress response in fish as well as in mammals. We have cloned two different carp POMC cDNAs called, POMC-I and POMC-II. The nucleotide sequences of 955 bp

R. J Arends; H Vermeer; G. J. M Martens; J. A. M Leunissen; S. E Wendelaar Bonga; G Flik

1998-01-01

342

Hematological and biochemical parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, following herbal treatment for Aeromonas hydrophila infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common carp, Cyprinus carpio was injected 108 cfu\\/ml with a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila. After inoculation, the disease signs began on the 7th day as a haemorrhagic spot at the site of injection and the lesion subsequently progressed in size. After this period, the mortality of infected group was 10±5% daily; hence, they were dip treated

R Harikrishnan; M Nisha Rani; C Balasundaram

2003-01-01

343

Evaluation of the effects induced by dietary diphenyl diselenide on common carp Cyprinus carpio.  

PubMed

Several diets employed in aquaculture are enriched with selenium (Se), as it is a fundamental element to aquatic vertebrates. Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)?], which is a synthetic organoselenium compound, has been considered a potential antioxidant agent in different experimental models. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary diphenyl diselenide at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/kg for 60 days and to determine its optimal supplemental level for carp, Cyprinus carpio. Neither growth retardation nor hepatoxicity was induced by the inclusion of diphenyl diselenide at concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mg/kg. In addition, the inclusion of 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide stimulated the weight and length of the carp. The supplementation with 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide did not produce oxidative damage in the tissues, verified by peroxidation lipid and protein carbonyl assays. However, at 5.0 mg/kg, it caused an increase of the lipid peroxidation in the liver, brain, and muscle, and inhibited the cerebral acetylcholinesterase activity. An increase of the hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and non-protein thiols content in all tissues and ascorbic acid in the liver, gills, and brain was verified in carp fed with the diet containing 3.0 mg/kg of diphenyl diselenide. This diet had advantageous effects for the fish used in experiments. Therefore, this compound could be considered a beneficial dietary supplement for carp nutrition. PMID:23877622

Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Santi, Adriana; Dias, Glaecir; Pedron, Fábio Araújo; Neto, João Radünz; Salman, Syed Mahammad; Barbosa, Nilda Berenice Vargas; Loro, Vania Lucia

2014-02-01

344

Deltamethrin Multifactorial Activity toward Carp Larva Mobility Related to Calcium, Humic Acids, and pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin was assesssed by the “escaping capability” of carp larvae out of a trap. Mobility was tested after 1, 4, and 12 hr exposure to eight deltamethrin concentrations in standard water and after 24 hr exposure to seven deltamethrin concentrations in 18 media derived from the combinations of pH levels of 6.9, 7.8, 9.0, calcium

François Ghillebaert; Didier Prodorutti; Catherine Chaillou; Pierre Roubaud

1996-01-01

345

Clones of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. New perspectives in fish research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of well defined inbred lines is an important problem associated with scientific research on fish. Inbred lines can be produced by conventional full-sib mating, but at least 10-15 generations are needed to produce homozygous inbred lines. Using common carp, which reach maturity at 1.5 years, this would last some 15-30 years. Nowadays experimental fishes are usually obtained from

J. Komen

1990-01-01

346

Analyses of impact of metal ion contamination on carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) gill cell suspensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in fish population because of water contamination is problem. As a result of direct exposure in water, it has\\u000a been readily accepted that the gills are the main site of water contamination and toxicity (e.g., metal ions). In the present\\u000a study, we investigated metal ion contamination on the functional capacity of carp gill cells with antioxidant interactions\\u000a in

M. Arabi

2004-01-01

347

REGULATORY EFFECT OF DOPAMINE ON SPATIAL PROPERTIES OF HORIZONTAL CELLS IN CARP RETINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of light-induced response (L-, RG-, and YRB-type S-potentials) recorded from isolated retinas of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were identified by their spectral response and later by morphological localization of the recording sites marked with an intracellular Lucifer Yellow (LY). Horizontal cells in a given layer, generating one of the above response types, are electrically coupled via gap junctions,

TSUNENOBU TERANISHI; KOROKU NEGISHI; SATORU KATO

348

Pesticide-contaminated feeds in integrated grass carp aquaculture: toxicology and bioaccumulation.  

PubMed

Effects of dissolved pesticides on fish are widely described, but little is known about effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds taken up orally by fish. In integrated farms, pesticides used on crops may affect grass carp that feed on plants from these fields. In northern Vietnam, grass carp suffer seasonal mass mortalities which may be caused by pesticide-contaminated plants. To test effects of pesticide-contaminated feeds on health and bioaccumulation in grass carp, a net-cage trial was conducted with 5 differently contaminated grasses. Grass was spiked with 2 levels of trichlorfon/fenitrothion and fenobucarb. Unspiked grass was used as a control. Fish were fed at a daily rate of 20% of body mass for 10 d. The concentrations of fenitrothion and fenobucarb in pond water increased over time. Effects on fish mortality were not found. Fenobucarb in feed showed the strongest effects on fish by lowering feed uptake, deforming the liver, increasing blood glucose and reducing cholinesterase activity in blood serum, depending on feed uptake. Fenobucarb showed increased levels in flesh in all treatments, suggesting bio-concentration. Trichlorfon and fenitrothion did not significantly affect feed uptake but showed concentration-dependent reduction of cholinesterase activity and liver changes. Fenitrothion showed bioaccumulation in flesh which was dependant on feed uptake, whereas trichlorfon was only detected in very low concentrations in all treatments. Pesticide levels were all detected below the maximum residue levels in food. The pesticide-contaminated feeds tested did not cause mortality in grass carp but were associated with negative physiological responses and may increase susceptibility to diseases. PMID:24553419

Pucher, J; Gut, T; Mayrhofer, R; El-Matbouli, M; Viet, P H; Ngoc, N T; Lamers, M; Streck, T; Focken, U

2014-02-19

349

Preparation and thermal stability of collagen from scales of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) scales (GCS) was swollen in water and treated with microwave for 2 min, followed by decalcifying with 8% aqueous citric\\u000a acid solution. The collagen of GCS was then prepared by limited pepsin digestion with a yield of 25.64% on dry weight basis.\\u000a SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and amino acid composition analysis indicated that the pepsin-solubilized collagen from GCS was

Chun-mei Li; Zhao-hui Zhong; Qiong-hong Wan; Honglei Zhao; Hai-feng Gu; Shan-bai Xiong

2008-01-01

350

Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin

2003-01-01

351

A linkage map of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important fish for aquaculture, but genomics of this species is still in its infancy. In this study, a linkage map of common carp based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (SSR) markers has been generated using gynogenetic haploids. Of 926 markers genotyped, 151 (149 AFLPs, two SSRs) were distorted and eliminated from the linkage analyses. A total of 699 AFLP and 20 microsatellite (SSR) markers were assigned to the map, which comprised 64 linkage groups and covered 5506.9 cM Kosambi, with an average interval distance of 7.66 cM Kosambi. The normality tests on interval map distances showed a non-normal marker distribution. Visual inspection of the map distance distribution histogram showed a cluster of interval map distances on the left side of the chart, which suggested the occurrence of AFLP marker clusters. On the other hand, the lack of an obvious cluster on the right side showed that there were a few big gaps which need more markers to bridge. The correlation analysis showed a highly significant relatedness between the length of linkage group and the number of markers, indicating that the AFLP markers in this map were randomly distributed among different linkage groups. This study is helpful for research into the common carp genome and for further studies of genetics and marker-assisted breeding in this species. PMID:19917040

Cheng, L; Liu, L; Yu, X; Wang, D; Tong, J

2010-04-01

352

Estimation of essential fatty acid requirements of common carp larvae using semi-purified artificial diets.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted with duplicate groups of (first feeding) carp larvae fed artificial dry diets based on casein and dextrin over 21 or 25 days. One control diet based on yeast was also tested. Survival, growth and fatty acid profiles of larvae were studied. In trial 1, (n-3) fatty acid requirement was estimated using diets supplemented or not with methyl linolenate or cod liver oil. After 21 days, the best survival and growth were observed in larvae fed the unsupplemented diet [(n-3) fatty acid level: 0.05%]. Survival and growth were not improved by higher levels of (n-3) fatty acids. In trial 2, (n-6) fatty acid requirement was estimated using diets with graded levels of methyl linolenate or peanut oil. After 25 days, the best survival and growth were obtained with diets supplemented with 0.25% methyl linolenate (total (n-6) fatty acid level: 1%) or with 1.25% peanut oil (total (n-6) fatty acid level: 0.89%). Survival and growth were not improved by higher levels of (n-6) fatty acids. Fatty acid composition of carp reflected that of the diets and also showed that carp larvae are capable of elongating and desaturating linolenic acid and linoleic acid in longer chain fatty acids. PMID:8766972

Radunz-Neto, J; Corraze, G; Bergot, P; Kaushik, S J

1996-01-01

353

Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

2012-09-01

354

Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls to carp.  

PubMed

The relative bioavailability of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 138, 153, and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB-contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the sediment-dosed diets and oil-dosed diets at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n?=?90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish?×?6 treatments?×?3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 d). Next, 1 fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 d), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. The PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil groups, concentrations of PCBs 138, 153, and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment-bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet. PMID:24677303

Gaillard, Juliette; Banas, Damien; Thomas, Marielle; Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril

2014-06-01

355

Hydroxylated PAHs alter the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in subcellular fractions of carp gonads.  

PubMed

Four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene) and their hydroxylated metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxychrysene) were investigated for their ability to alter the synthesis of steroids by testes and ovaries of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Parental compounds had no significant effect on C17,20-lyase (CYP17), CYP11? and 11?-HSD catalyzed activities, all of them involved in the synthesis of active androgens in carp testes. Conversely, hydroxylated metabolites significantly inhibited C17,20-lyase and CYP11? activities; the strongest inhibitor was 9-hydroxyphenanthrene with IC50s of 10.8 and 31.3 ?M for CYP17 and CYP11?, respectively. As for the biosynthesis of estrogens, only 9-hydroxyphenanthrene had a significant inhibitory effect on ovarian CYP19 activity (IC50: 4.3 ?M). The study highlights the potential of hydroxylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particularly 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, to disrupt the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in carp gonads. PMID:23376527

Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta

2013-03-01

356

The reserpine effects on the gonadotrophic cells of the male common carp Cyprinus carpio (Osteichtyes: Cyprinidae).  

PubMed

The secretion of gonadotropins (GtH) in goldfish and carp, is stimulated by GtH-releasing hormone (GnRH) and is inhibited by dopamine. Studies with antidopaminergics have demonstrated to be effective in order to stimulate the spermiation and the ovulation in different species of teleosts. The reserpine, a drug that deplets the dopamine, has shown to stimulate the spermiation in the common carp. We report here, the effects of reserpine on the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of the common carp. Eight injections of reserpine alone, at doses of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/ml/kg of body weight and at intervals of 48 hours, caused an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells. The dose 0.5 mg/ml/kg, presented an increase in the number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 382% and 123%, respectively, above the control group. The dose 1.0 mg/ml/kg, showed an enhanced number and volume of gonadotrophic cells of 704% and 152%, respectively. With the dose 1.5 mg/ml/kg increase in number (171%) and volume (106%) of gonadotrophic cells was lower. The gonads of the experimental groups had an abundance of advanced states of spermatogenesis. Our results show that eight intraperitoneal injections of reserpine were responsible for an increase in gonadodrophic cell, number and volume. PMID:17357409

González-Segura, Lilian; Cárdenas-Reygadas, Rodolfo

2004-03-01

357

Characterization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) IL-17D: molecular cloning, functional implication and signal transduction.  

PubMed

Although the roles of IL-17 family members during inflammation have been extensively studied in mammals, their knowledge in lower vertebrates is limited. In particular, the biological activities of fish IL-17 and their functional roles are largely unknown. In this study, we cloned grass carp IL-17D (gcIL-17D) and found that its putative protein possessed the conserved features of IL-17 family members. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gcIL-17D was preferentially expressed in the mucosal tissues, including skin, gill and intestine. Subsequently, the involvement of gcIL-17D in inflammatory response was demonstrated by examining the expression profiles of gcIL-17D in head kidney and head kidney leukocytes following in vivo bacterial infection and in vitro LPS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, recombinant gcIL-17D (rgcIL-17D) was prepared in grass carp kidney cells and was able to promote the gene expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-? and CXCL-8) in grass carp primary head kidney cells, revealing gcIL-17D can function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, rgcIL-17D appeared to activate NF-?B signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of I?B? and up-regulated CXCL-8 mRNA expression possibly through NF-?B pathway. Our data shed new light on the functional role of teleost IL-17D in inflammatory response. PMID:24120974

Du, Linyong; Qin, Lei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Wei, He; Zhou, Hong

2014-02-01

358

Quality and biochemical properties of artificially hibernated crucian carp for waterless preservation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to explore the artificial hibernation of crucian carp for waterless preservation and to characterize the quality and biochemical properties during and after the hibernation. Anesthetized crucian carp using eugenol were stored at 8 °C with 90 % oxygen and 95-100 % relative humidity for 38 h and then transferred to fresh water to recover. Liquid loss and cooking loss had no significant changes (p > 0.05). The total volatile basic nitrogen content and 2-thiobarbituric acid value in hibernated fish were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than fresh and recovered groups. Serum cortisol, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities significantly increased (p < 0.05) during hibernation, while glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) had no significant change (p > 0.05). Both ACP and AKP activities decreased upon the fish recovered, but only the ACP activity returned to normal. However, there were increased serum glucose concentration, GOT and GPT activities in recovered fish. On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that the artificially hibernated life of crucian carp was 38 h by the combination of anaesthetizing and low temperature. The muscle quality would not be influenced, and most of the stress responses would disappear after hibernated fish recovered. PMID:22688451

Mi, Hongbo; Qian, Chunlu; Mao, Linchun

2012-12-01

359

Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

2007-01-01

360

Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies have verified the protective role of fish lipids in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of fish lipids on health boost remain undefined. Large amounts of by-products, such as fish brain which contains high level of lipids, are produced with silver carp processing. Fish brain is rich in bioactive lipids which are overwhelmingly effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacological activities of silver carp brain lipids against diseases by inhibiting platelet-activating factor (PAF), suppressing bacterial growth and scavenging free radicals. Methods Total lipids (TL) were extracted from silver carp brain and separated into polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL). The capabilities of the lipid fractions in aggregating washed rabbit platelet or in inhibiting PAF-induced platelet aggregation were tested. Their antibacterial and antiradical activities were studied as well. Results The lipid fractions exhibited strong inhibitory activities, and the activity of TL was mainly attributed to NL. TL exhibited antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, while NL managed to fight against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. PL excelled TL and NL in simultaneously suppressing the growths of Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi besides those of S. aureus and E. coli. The scavenging effect of PL on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was considerably higher than those of TL and NL. Conclusion The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health.

2013-01-01

361

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of adenylosuccinate lyase gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) is a bifunctional enzyme acting in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. In the present study, we have constructed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) intestinal cDNA library that has over 2.3 × 10(5) primary clones. An expressed sequence tag (EST) of grass carp adenylosuccinate lyase (gcADSL) gene was screened from this library. Both 5'-RACE and 3'-RACE were carried out in order to obtain the complete cDNA sequence, which contains a 1,446 bp open reading frame encoding 482 amino acids about 54.552 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology with its vertebrate counterparts, which shares 94% similarity with zebrafish, 81% with African clawed frog as well as chicken, 77% with human and 76% with mouse. This gcADSL genomic sequence, consisted of 13 exons and 12 introns, is 8,557 bp in size. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the highest expression level of gcADSL was detected in muscle and the lowest in gill. In western blotting analysis, His(6)-tagged gcADSL protein expressed in Escherichia coli could be recognized not only by an anti-His(6)-tag monoclonal antibody but also by an anti-human ADSL polyclonal antibody, indicating immunological crossreactivity occurs between grass carp and human ADSL protein. 1,082 bp 5'-flanking region sequence was cloned and analyzed. PMID:20857210

Yuan, Tian; Gu, Ji-Rui; Gu, Wen-Bo; Wu, Jiang; Ge, Shao-Rong; Xu, Heng

2011-03-01

362

Participation of cathepsin L in modori phenomenon in carp (Cyprinus carpio) surimi gel.  

PubMed

Cathepsin L (Cat L) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) dorsal muscles was purified and its molecular weight determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was 36 kDa. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and 5.5, respectively. The results of the effects of specific substrates, activators and inhibitors on the enzymatic activity showed that Cat L belongs to the family of cysteine proteinases containing thiol. Compared to the control, the gel strength of surimi with the addition of purified Cat L decreased significantly by 24.33% while that of surimi with both purified Cat L and inhibitors increased by 13.7% and 21.6%, respectively, suggesting the participation of Cat L in the modori phenomenon occurring in carp surimi. Both the SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern and microstructure figure revealed that Cat L could hydrolyse the main protein in carp surimi and was one of the enzymes involved in the modori phenomenon. PMID:23442651

Hu, Yaqin; Ji, Rong; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Jinjie; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

2012-10-15

363

Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.  

PubMed

This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 ?g/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids. PMID:22422543

Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

2014-04-01

364

Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

2014-01-01

365

Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  

PubMed Central

The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L?1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250??g?L?1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15??g?L?1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50??g?L?1 died soon after hatching; at 25??g?L?1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5??g?L?1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes.

Richterova, Zuzana; Machova, Jana; Stara, Alzbeta; Tumova, Jitka; Velisek, Josef; Sevcikova, Marie; Svobodova, Zdenka

2014-01-01

366

Effects of dietary histidine on antioxidant capacity in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).  

PubMed

In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary histidine could improve antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1,200 juvenile Jian carp were fed graded levels of histidine at 2.3 (unsupplemented control), 4.4, 6.3, 8.6, 10.8 and 12.7 g/kg diet for 60 days. Results showed that the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) in serum and all tissues apparently decreased with increasing histidine levels up to an optimal level and increased thereafter. Anti-superoxide anion (ASA) capacity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in serum and all tissues, anti-hydroxyl radical (a-HR) capacity, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in serum, muscle and intestine, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in serum and intestine, as well as glutathione reductase (GR) activity in serum, muscle and hepatopancreas were improved by dietary histidine. Fish fed diet with 8.6 g/kg histidine had lower serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity than that fed with control diet, whereas pattern of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity was opposite. The present results suggested that histidine could improve antioxidant capacity and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:23053605

Feng, Lin; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Gangfu; Jiang, Weidan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

2013-06-01

367

Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

2001-01-01

368

A simple von Bertalanffy model for density-dependent growth in extensive aquaculture, with an application to common carp ( Cyprinus carpio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model for density-dependent growth is described, and applied to the analysis of carp growth in extensive aquaculture. The model is based on a von Bertalanffy growth function, with the asymptotic length a linear declining function of population biomass. The model provides a good description of carp growth both in mixed-age populations and in single cohorts, and the model

Kai Lorenzen

1996-01-01

369

Adrenalin and Noradrenalin in the Organs of the Carp Normally and with Functional Stresses (Adrenalin I Noradrenalin V Organakh Karpa Cyprinus Carpio V Norme I Pri Funktsionalnykh Nagruzkakh).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The predominant catecholamine in the organs of the carp is noradrenalin. The greatest amount of noradrenalin and adrenalin is contained in the pronephros of the carp. Asphyxiation for 1 hour causes decrease in the amount of adrenalin in the pronephros and...

E. M. Stabrovskii

1970-01-01

370

The Effect of Low Concentrations of Phenol on Antibody Formation in Carp, 'Cyprinus carpio' L (Vliyanie Malykh Kontsentratsii Fenola na Antiteloobrazovanie u Karpov 'Cyprinus carpio' L).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of investigations of the effect of low concentrations of phenol on antibody formation in carp in a chronic experiment show that in holding carp in a 12.5 mg/l phenol solution the formation of immunoglobulins decreases and the amount of total p...

G. D. Goncharov V. R. Mikryakov

1971-01-01

371

The impact of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and the Osprey Pandion haliaetus on Estonian Common Carp Cyprinus carpio production: How large is the economic loss?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protected bird species have been suspected to be a cause of a significant economic loss at Estonian fish farms, but its extent has remained unexplored. We counted the number of White-tailed Eagles and Ospreys, and the quantity of fish they take, and analysed the economic loss in five carp farms in 2001-2004. Each of Estonian four larger carp farms was

Joosep Tuvia; Ülo Välia

372

Characterization of MMP-9 gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): an Aeromonas hydrophila-inducible factor in grass carp immune system.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) belongs to a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases and is associated with vital inflammatory processes. Here, we isolated and characterized MMP-9 cDNA from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (designated as CiMMP-9). The cDNA was 2880 bp long and encoded a putative protein of 675 amino acids, with a predicted molecular mass of 75.816 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 5.25. CiMMP-9 contained all three classical MMP-9 family signatures. The mRNA of CiMMP-9 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues of untreated grass carp, with the highest expression levels in the blood, trunk kidney, head kidney and spleen. CiMMP9 transcript was present in unfertilized eggs, which suggests that CiMMP9 transcription is maternally inherited. Fluorescent real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the expression of the CiMMP-9 gene in C. idella after being challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. A clear time-dependent expression pattern of CiMMP-9 was found after the bacterial challenge, and mRNA expression reached a maximum level at 7 days post challenge. This indicates that MMP-9 is inducible and is involved in immune responses, thus suggesting that CiMMP-9 plays an important role in A. hydrophila-related diseases and in early embryonic development stages in C. idella. PMID:23791859

Xu, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Yu-Bang; Fu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Feng; Guo, Shi-Zhao; Li, Jia-Le

2013-09-01

373

Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R. B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J. F.

2008-01-01

374

Indispensable amino acid concentrations decrease in tissues of stomachless fish, common carp in response to free amino acid- or peptide-based diets.  

PubMed

The premise that free amino acid or dipeptide based diets will resolve the nutritional inadequacy of formulated feeds for larval and juvenile fish and improve utilization of nitrogen in comparison to protein-based diets was tested in stomachless fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae. We examined the postprandial whole body free amino acid (FAA) pool in fish that were offered a FAA mixture based diet for the duration of 2 or 4 weeks. We found that the total amount and all indispensable amino acids concentrations in the whole body decreased after a meal. We then fed juvenile carp with dietary amino acids provided in the FAA, dipeptide (PP), or protein (live feed organisms; brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii, AS) forms. Histidine concentrations in the whole fish body increased in all dietary groups after feeding whereas all other indispensable amino acids decreased in FAA and PP groups in comparison to the AS group. Taurine appears to be the major osmotic pressure balancing free amino acid in larval freshwater fish which may indicate a conditional requirement. We present the first evidence in larval fish that in response to synthetic FAA and PP diets, the whole body indispensable free AA concentrations decreased after feeding. This study shows that amino acids given entirely as FAA or PP cannot sustain stomachless larval fish growth, and may result in depletion of body indispensable AA and most of dispensable AA. The understanding of these responses will determine necessary changes in diet formulations that prevent accelerated excretion of amino acids without protein synthesis. PMID:16733614

Zhang, Y; Dabrowski, K; Hliwa, P; Gomulka, P

2006-09-01

375

Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, Sunnie G.; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

2013-01-01

376

Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Pati?o, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

2007-01-01

377

Characterization and expression pattern of a novel ?-defensin in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): implications for its role in mucosal immunity.  

PubMed

?-defensins are a group of cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptides that play antibacterial and antiviral roles in immune systems of vertebrates. Here, we report the cloning and identification of a ?-defensin 3 cDNA sequence from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this ?-defensin 3 belonged to the BD-2 group of fish. Real-time PCR showed that the ?-defensin 3 mRNA was expressed in all the tissues of normal common carp that we examined and was highly expressed in the spleen and gills. When challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, the expression level of common carp ?-defensin 3 mRNA was quickly upregulated in various tissues. Our results indicate that the ?-defensin 3 showed markedly high constitutive expression in the gills, and significantly upregulated expression in the hindgut of the common carp after infection, suggesting it plays an important role in the innate and mucosal immunity of common carp. PMID:25036829

Li, Hua; Guo, Hongyan; Shan, Shijuan; Qi, Chenchen; An, Liguo; Yang, Guiwen

2014-03-01

378

Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-03-01

379

The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids  

PubMed Central

Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics.

Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

2014-01-01

380

Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

Gruber, S. J.; Munn, M. D.

1998-01-01

381

Complete genomic sequence of a reovirus isolated from grass carp in China.  

PubMed

A reovirus was isolated from sick grass carp in Guangdong, China in 2009, and tentatively named 'grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain' (GCRV-GD108). This reovirus was propagated in grass carp snout fibroblast cell line PSF with no obvious cytopathic effects. Its genome was 24,703bp in length with a 50% G+C content and 11 dsRNA segments encoding 11 proteins instead of 12 proteins. It has been classified as an Aquareovirus (AQRV). Sequence comparisons showed that it possessed only 7 homologous proteins to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) (with 17.6-45.8% identities), but 9 homologous proteins to mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) (with 15-46% identities). GCRV-GD108 lacked homology to VP7, NS4&NS5 and NS3 of GCRV, while it had sigma1 and sigma NS homology to MRV. VP2 of GCRV-GD108 shared high amino acid sequence identity (44-47%) with AQRVs, whereas VP5 did not exhibit much identity (24-25%) to AQRVs. Conserved terminal sequences, 5'-GUAAUUU and UUCAUC-3', were found in all of the 11 genomic segments of GCRV-GD108 at the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) of the segments. The 5' NCRs of GCRV-GD108 was similar to GCRV, but differed from other species of AQRV or Orthoreoviruses (ORV). Phylogenetic analysis of coat proteins belonging to Reoviridae, VP1-VP6, showed that GCRV-GD108 clustered with AQRVs and grouped with ORVs, suggesting that GCRV-GD108 belonged to the genus Aquareovirus but was distinctive from any known species of AQRV. Morphological and pathological analyses, and genetic characterization of GCRV-GD108 suggested that it may be a new species of AQRV and it was more closely related with ORVs than other AQRVs. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of diseased grass carp samples collected from different regions of China indicated that these viruses displayed high similarities to each other (95.3-99.4%). They also shared high sequence similarities to GCRV-GD108 (96.7-99.4%), indicating that GCRV-GD108 is representative of the prevalence strain in southern China. PMID:22044618

Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-yuan; Deng, Guo-cheng; Chi, Yan-yan; Jiang, Xiao-yan

2012-01-01

382

IFN-?-activated lymphocytes boost nitric oxide production in grass carp monocytes/macrophages.  

PubMed

It is well known that IFN-? is a prime activator of nitric oxide (NO) production by monocytes/macrophages in mammals and fish. In parallel, whether IFN-?-activated lymphocytes are associated with NO production remains unclear. In this study, grass carp monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes from head kidney were isolated and effects of recombinant grass carp IFN-? (rgcIFN-?) on NO releases by these two cell populations were determined. Results showed that rgcIFN-? time- and dose-dependently increased NO production by monocytes/macrophages but not lymphocytes, which are consistent with the findings in mammals. Interestingly, rgcIFN-? displayed a greater stimulation on NO production in the co-cultures of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes when compared with that in the culture of monocytes/macrophages alone. Furthermore, the media harvested from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes were effective in boosting NO release in monocytes/macrophages. These data suggest that secretions from rgcIFN-?-treated lymphocytes may be involved in the NO release by monocytes/macrophages. To address this hypothesis, effect of rgcIFN-? on the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in grass carp lymphocytes was examined, showing that it consistently stimulated the mRNA expression of grass carp TNF-? and IL-1? but not IFN-?. Furthermore, treatment of rgcIFN-? combined with recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced a NO production by monocytes/macrophages, which was significantly higher than those induced by either cytokine alone. It provides the evidence that the cytokines secreted by the activated lymphocytes may facilitate the NO production by monocytes/macrophages. Taken together, our findings point out a new mechanism for the involvement of IFN-?-activated lymphocytes in the NO production by monocytes/macrophages in fish. This knowledge not only strengthens the role of IFN-? in immune system but also provides the evidence for the existence of a close relationship between lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages in fish. PMID:24056277

Yang, Kun; Zhang, Shengnan; Chen, Danyan; Zhang, Anying; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong

2013-11-01

383

Two new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting an Indian major carp in Ropar and Kanjali wetlands (Punjab).  

PubMed

In India, more than 104 species of Myxobolus are recorded infecting freshwater and marine fishes. During our study on the myxozoan parasites of fishes of Punjab wetlands, India, two new myxosporean species, Myxobolus ropari sp. nov. and Myxobolus kanjali sp. nov. were recorded from mucous membrane around gill lamellae and scales of Cirrhina mrigala (Ham.), respectively. Spores of the first species, M. ropari sp. nov. measure 12.58 × 4.5 ?m in size, elongately pyriform, slender in shape with a pointed anterior end and a rounded posterior end. Polar capsules are two, equal, elongately pyriform, measuring 4.96 × 1.50 ?m in size, placed posteriorly from the tip of the spore running parallel to each other. Spores of the second species, M. kanjali sp. nov. measure 9.5 × 7.7 ?m in size, spherical in shape with rounded anterior and posterior extremities. Polar capsules are two, equal, broadly pyriform with a blunt anterior and a rounded posterior end measuring 4.8 × 1.8 ?m in size. A prominent tubular structure originate from the anterior end of one of the polar capsule and extend backward beyond the margin of the spore body and run upwards to join the posterior end of the other polar capsule. PMID:22654311

Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

2011-06-01

384

The sympathetic neuro-melanophore transmission in a fresh-water Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).  

PubMed

Adrenaline was effective in aggregating the melanosomes both in innervated as well as denervated melanophores. Isotonic KCl could induce pigment aggregation only in innervated melanophores. Adrenaline- and K+-induced pigment aggregation response in these melanophores was blocked by phentolamine: propranolol failed to do so. It is suggested that the chromatic nerves in the fish, Labeo rohita are adrenergic and via post-synaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, control the melanosome aggregation. PMID:2550366

Patil, S; Jain, A K

1989-01-01

385

Computational analysis of transcriptome of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) for functional annotation  

PubMed Central

A total of 1671 ESTs of Labeo rohita were retrieved from dbEST database and analysed for functional annotation using various computational approaches. The result indicated 1387 non-redundant (184 contigs and 1203 singletons) putative transcripts with an average length of 542 bp. These 1387 transcript sequences were matched with Refseq_RNA, UniGene and Swiss-Prot on high threshold cut-off for functional annotation along with help of gene ontology and SSRs markers. We developed extensive Perl programming based modules for processing all alignment files, comparing and extracting common hits from all files on a threshold, evaluating statistics for alignment results and assigning gene ontology terms. In this study, 92 putative transcripts predicted as orthologous genes and among those, 44 putative transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms. The annotated orthologous gene of our result associated with some very important proteins of L. rohita involved in biotic and abiotic stresses and glucose metabolism of spermatogenic cells etc. The unidentified transcripts, if found important in expression profiling can be vital resource after re-sequencing. The predicted genes can further be used for enhancing productivity and controlling disease of L. rohita.

Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Rashid, Iliyas; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Singh, Shri Prakash; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar

2012-01-01

386

Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration. PMID:23456946

Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

2013-08-01

387

The immunomodulatory effects of tuftsin on the non-specific immune system of Indian Major carp, Labeo rohita  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if injections of different dosages of tuftsin would enhance the immune response and disease resistance against the infections due to the opportunistic pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Hence, four different dosages of tuftsin in PBS suspension at the rate of 0, 5, 10, 15mgkg?1 body weight of

C. K. Misra; B. K. Das; S. C. Mukherjee; P. K. Meher

2006-01-01

388

Validation of reference genes of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus for the normalization of quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Expression of four reference genes of grass carp, including beta-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S rRNA (18S) and elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1alpha), was studied in tissues of normal individuals and bacteria-infected individuals. EF1alpha had the most stable expressions followed by 18S rRNA then GAPDH; ACTB had the least stability. After being infected with bacteria, the grass carp showed minimal changes in expression levels of EF1alpha in the liver and head kidney, while ACTB had the most stable expressions in spleen but the least stable in liver. EF1alpha is thus the optimal reference gene in quantitative real-time PCR analysis to quantitate the expression levels of target genes in tissues of grass carp. PMID:20361234

Ye, Xing; Zhang, Lili; Dong, Haiyan; Tian, Yuanyuan; Lao, Haihua; Bai, Junjie; Yu, Lingyun

2010-08-01

389

Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments. The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming. We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp (carassius auratus). A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well. With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force. Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

Chen, Ming; Jia, Lai-Bing; Yin, Xie-Zhen

2011-08-01

390

Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

2009-01-01

391

Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.  

PubMed

In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

2014-07-01

392

Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio  

PubMed Central

Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp.

Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

2013-01-01

393

Efficacy of some anticoccidial drugs for treating coccidial enteritis of the common carp caused by Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).  

PubMed

In this study, nine anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry were tested for efficacy for the prevention and treatment of Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To establish experimental infection with G. carpelli, paratenic host oligochaetes of the genera Tubifex and Limnodrilus were infected with oocysts, and laboratory-cultured parasite-free common carp fingerlings were infected by feeding to them oligochaetes containing sporozoites. The anticoccidial drugs (amprolium, narasin, maduramicin, salinomycin Na, lasalocid Na, diclazuril, robenidine HCl, monensin Na and toltrazuril), mixed in the food of the fish in a dose of 200 mg/kg, were fed for 12 days. Common carp fingerlings fed diclazuril, lasalocid, robenidine HCl or maduramicin and killed on day 14 after exposure were free from infection, while other groups treated with amprolium, toltrazuril, monensin Na, narasin or salinomycin Na harboured oocysts in the mucus and epithelium of the gut. PMID:17385557

Molnár, K; Ostoros, Györgyi

2007-03-01

394

Using ecological niche models to predict the abundance and impact of invasive species: application to the common carp.  

PubMed

In order to efficiently manage nonindigenous species (NIS), predictive tools are needed to prioritize locations where they are likely to become established and where their impacts will be most severe. While predicting the impact of a NIS has generally proved challenging, forecasting its abundance patterns across potential recipient locations should serve as a useful surrogate method of estimating the relative severity of the impacts to be expected. Yet such approaches have rarely been applied in invasion biology. We used long-term monitoring data for lakes within the state of Minnesota and artificial neural networks to model both the occurrence as well as the abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the ability of the resulting models to (1) interpolate to new sites within our main study region, (2) extrapolate to lakes in the neighboring state of South Dakota, and (3) assessed the relative contribution of each variable to model predictions. Our models correctly identified over 83% of sites where carp are either present or absent and explained 73% of the variation in carp abundance for validation lakes in Minnesota (i.e., lakes not used to build the model). When extrapolated to South Dakota, our models correctly classified carp occurrence in 79% of lakes and explained 32% of the variation in carp abundance. Variables related to climate and water quality were found to be the most important predictors of carp distribution. These results demonstrate that ecological niche-based modeling techniques can be used to forecast both the occurrence and abundance patterns of invasive species at a regional scale. Models also yielded sensible predictions when extrapolated to neighboring regions. Such predictions, when combined, should provide more useful estimates of the overall risk posed by NIS on potential recipient systems. PMID:21516898

Kulhanek, Stefanie A; Leung, Brian; Ricciardi, Anthony

2011-01-01

395

26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

2012-09-07

396

Development of 10 tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for population studies in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Ten tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and characterized from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to estimate genetic potential. These markers were tested in the samples from two closely related carp populations (Cyprinus carpio var. xingguonensis and Cyprinus carpio var. wananensis). The number of the alleles ranged from three to nine, and observed and expected hererozygosities varied from 0.207 to 1.000 and from 0.499 to 0.900 in each population, respectively. No evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found, indicating that these markers will be useful for population studies. PMID:21586045

Hou, Ning; Li, Da-Yu; Li, Yong; Lu, Cui-Yun; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

2008-11-01

397

Characterisation of the genomes of four putative vesiculoviruses: tench rhabdovirus, grass carp rhabdovirus, perch rhabdovirus and eel rhabdovirus European X.  

PubMed

The complete coding sequences were determined for four putative vesiculoviruses isolated from fish. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the five main proteins assigned tench rhabdovirus and grass carp rhabdovirus together with spring viraemia of carp and pike fry rhabdovirus to a lineage that was distinct from the mammalian vesiculoviruses. Perch rhabdovirus, eel virus European X, lake trout rhabdovirus 903/87 and sea trout virus were placed in a second lineage that was also distinct from the recognised genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Establishment of two new rhabdovirus genera, "Perhabdovirus" and "Sprivivirus", is discussed. PMID:23719670

Stone, David M; Kerr, Rose C; Hughes, Margaret; Radford, Alan D; Darby, Alistair C

2013-11-01

398

Effects of pimozide and LHRH-Aa on carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) oocyte maturation and ovulation in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of pimozide (Pim) and [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) LHRH] (LRH-Aa) on common carp oocytes maturation and ovulationin vivo under laboratory and commercial fisheries farm conditions were investigated.Although injections of Pim and LRH-Aa at the doses of 10 mg and 50 µg\\/kg body weight respectively, did not increase mGtH levels (66.7–155.8 mg\\/ml) as much as injections of carp pituitary extract (chh) (382.1

K. Bieniarz; P. Epler; W. Popek; R. Billard; M. Soko?owska

1986-01-01

399

Gene expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in carp somatotrophs differentially regulated by local action of gonadotropin and dopamine D1 receptor activation.  

PubMed

In grass carp, luteinizing hormone (LH) can act locally within the pituitary to regulate growth hormone expression. To test if LH receptor (LHR) expression in the carp pituitary can also serve as a target of modulation for LH actions, grass carp LHR was cloned and characterized by functional expression. In carp pituitary cells, LHR mRNA (lhr) level could be reduced by LH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but up-regulated by dopamine treatment. Dopamine-induced lhr expression occurred mainly in carp somatotrophs via the cAMP/PKA pathway coupled to pituitary D1 receptors. This stimulatory effect could be blocked by LHR activation by hCG, presumably through phosphodiesterase III activation. These findings provide evidence that lhr expression in the carp pituitary is under the differential control of LH and dopamine via modification of cAMP-dependent signaling mechanisms, which may play a role in regulating somatotroph responsiveness to the paracrine action of LH in carp species. PMID:23603402

Sun, Caiyun; He, Mulan; Ko, Wendy K W; Wong, Anderson O L

2013-07-15

400

Carp, a Cardiac Ankyrin-Repeated Protein, and Its New Homologue, Arpp, Are Differentially Expressed in Heart, Skeletal Muscle, and Rhabdomyosarcomas  

PubMed Central

Arpp, a protein containing an ankyrin repeat domain, PEST sequence, and proline-rich region, is a novel ankyrin-repeated protein highly homologous to Carp, which is proposed to be the putative genetic marker for cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we comparatively analyzed expression of Arpp and Carp protein in skeletal and cardiac muscles and rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs). In adult skeletal muscle, Arpp was preferentially expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of type I fibers, whereas Carp was barely detectable in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, in adult cardiac muscle, interestingly, Arpp was expressed in ventricles mostly, whereas Carp was expressed throughout the atrium and ventricle. Furthermore, although Carp was identified in fetal heart at 11 developmental weeks, Arpp was very low or undetectable in these fetal hearts. These results suggest that Arpp and Carp are differentially expressed and function in both skeletal and cardiac muscle of fetus and adult. We found that Arpp expression was induced during the differentiation of C2C12 cells in vitro, suggesting that Arpp-expression may be associated with the differentiation stage during myogenesis. Both Arpp and Carp were found to be expressed in all of the RMS cases studied. Because the expression patterns of Arpp in RMS were different from those of muscle actin or desmin, Arpp may be detectable in RMS cases that do not express other existing RMS markers.

Ishiguro, Naoko; Baba, Takeshi; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Takeuchi, Kengo; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Araki, Nobuhito; Okada, Eikichi; Takahashi, Satsuki; Saito, Masahiro; Watanabe, Mari; Nakada, Chisato; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Kenzo; Ito, Kinji; Fukayama, Masashi; Mori, Shigeo; Ito, Hisao; Moriyama, Masatsugu

2002-01-01

401

Mechanisms involved in apoptosis of carp leukocytes upon in vitro and in vivo immunostimulation.  

PubMed

During inflammation leukocyte activity must be carefully regulated, as high concentrations and/or prolonged action of pro-inflammatory mediators e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be detrimental not only for pathogens but also for host tissues. Programmed cell death - apoptosis is a most effective regulatory mechanism for down regulation of leukocyte activity, but little is known about this process in fish. We aimed to reveal the mechanisms of initiation and regulation of apoptosis in carp neutrophilic granulocytes and macrophages. During zymosan-induced peritonitis in carp, activated inflammatory neutrophilic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages died by apoptosis. This correlated with a strong production of ROS, but pretreatment of the fish with NADPH oxidase inhibitor only slightly decreased late apoptosis. Interestingly in vitro incubation with zymosan or phorbol ester, but not lipopolisaccharide and poli I:C induced apoptosis of head kidney neutrophilic granulocytes. This coincided with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, in zymosan-stimulated neutrophilic granulocytes NADPH oxidase inhibitor not only reduced the production of ROS but also apoptosis. A similar effect was not observed in cells stimulated with phorbol ester, where DPI reduced ROS production, but not apoptosis. In PMA-stimulated neutrophilic granulocytes both the respiratory burst and apoptosis were reduced by protein kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, a short neutrophil stimulation either with PMA or with zymosan did induce caspase-independent apoptosis. These results show that in carp, apoptosis is an important regulatory process during in vitro and in vivo immunostimulation. In neutrophils, protein kinase, but not NADPH oxidase, is involved in PMA-induced apoptosis while apoptosis induced by zymosan is ROS-dependent. PMID:24925760

Kepka, M; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Homa, J; Chadzinska, M

2014-08-01

402

Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane  

SciTech Connect

Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

Devirgiliis, Chiara [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Gaetani, Sancia [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Apreda, Marianna [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Bellovino, Diana [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

2005-07-01

403

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.  

PubMed

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of innate immunity. In this study, a long-form PGRP, designated as gcPGRP6, was identified from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcPGRP6 is composed of 464 residues with a conserved PGRP domain at the C-terminus. The gcPGRP6 gene consists of four exons and three introns, spacing approximately 2.7 kb of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcPGRP6 is clustered closely with zebrafish PGLYRP6, and formed a long-type PGRP subfamily together with PGLYRP2 members identified in teleosts and mammals. Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that gcPGRP6 is constitutively expressed in organs/tissues examined, and its expression was significantly induced in liver and intestine of grass carp in response to PGN stimulation and in CIK cells treated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and peptidoglycan (PGN). Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting analyses revealed that gcPGRP6 is effectively secreted to the exterior of CIK cells. The over-expression of gcPGRP6 in CIK cells leads to the activation of NF-?B and the inhibition of intracellular bacterial growth. Moreover, cell lysates from CIK cells transfected with pTurbo-gcPGRP6-GFP plasmid display the binding activity towards Lys-type PGN from Staphylococcus aureus and DAP-type PGN from Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokine IL-2 and intracellular PGN receptor NOD2 had a significantly increased expression in CIK cells overexpressed with gcPGRP6. It is demonstrated that the PGRP6 in grass carp has a role in binding PGN, in inhibiting the growth of intracellular bacteria, and in activating NF-?B, as well as in regulating innate immune genes. PMID:24099967

Li, Jun Hua; Yu, Zhang Long; Xue, Na Na; Zou, Peng Fei; Hu, Jing Yu; Nie, P; Chang, Ming Xian

2014-02-01

404

Molecular characterization, expression analysis, and biological effects of interleukin-8 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.  

PubMed

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a CXC chemokine that plays key regulatory roles in the immune and inflammatory responses implicated in many human diseases. In this study, we identified and characterized an IL-8 homologue from the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. A sequence alignment of the full-length cDNA and genomic DNA showed that the exon/intron organization of grass carp IL-8 (gcIL-8) is identical to those of other known CXC chemokine genes. A multiple alignment analysis showed that gcIL-8 is an ELR(-)CXC chemokine, and its deduced amino acid sequence shares 81% and 36% identity with common carp IL-8s L1 (GenBank ID: ABE47600) and L2 (GenBank ID: AB470924), respectively, suggesting that it belongs to the lineage 1 group of fish IL-8 proteins. On a phylogenetic tree, gcIL-8 clustered with other teleost IL-8 proteins to form a fish-specific clade, clearly distinct from those of bird, mammal, and amphibian proteins. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that gcIL-8 is differentially expressed in various tissues under normal conditions and that the expression of gcIL-8 mRNA in immune-related tissues is clearly upregulated by Aeromonas hydrophila infection. To explore the biological effects of gcIL-8, we produced a recombinant protein, rgcIL-8, in a prokaryotic expression system. Purified rgcIL-8 was confirmed to be chemoattractive for head kidney neutrophils and mononuclear leukocytes in vitro. Our histopathological study also revealed that rgcIL-8 exerts proinflammatory effects by inducing neutrophil infiltration and erythrocyte extravasation. Overall, these results suggest that IL-8 is crucially involved in the inflammatory responses of fish. PMID:23994423

Wang, Ting-Ting; Song, Xue-Hong; Bao, Guang-Ming; Zhao, Li-Xiang; Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Jie

2013-11-01

405

Determination of reference microRNAs for relative quantification in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).  

PubMed

Relative quantification is the strategy of choice for processing real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) data in microRNA (miRNA) expression studies. Normalization of relative quantification data is performed by comparison to reference genes. In teleost species, such as grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the determination of reference miRNAs and the optimal numbers of these that should be used has not been widely studied. In the present study, the stability of seven miRNAs (miR-126-3p, miR-101a, miR-451, miR-22a, miR-146, miR-142a-5p and miR-192) was investigated by RT-qPCR in different tissues and in different development stages of grass carp. Stability values were calculated with geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and Delta CT algorithms. The results showed that tissue type is an important variability factor for miRNA expression stability. All seven miRNAs had good stability values and, therefore, could be used as reference miRNAs. When all tissues and developmental stages were considered, miR-101a was the most stable miRNA. When each tissue type was considered separately, the most stable miRNAs were 126-3p in blood and liver, 101a in the gills, 192 in the kidney, 451 in the intestine and 22a in the brain, head kidney, spleen, heart, muscle, skin and fin. 126-3p was the most stable reference miRNA gene during developmental stages 1-5, while 22a was the most stable during developmental stages 6-18. Overall, this study provides valuable information about the reference miRNAs that can be used to perform appropriate normalizations when undertaking relative quantification in RT-qPCR studies of grass carp. PMID:24368222

Xu, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Yu-Bang; Fu, Jian-Jun; Lu, Li-Qun; Li, Jia-Le

2014-02-01

406

Immunology-related perturbations induced by copper and chitosan in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).  

PubMed

Copper is used in treatment mixtures to control fungal diseases in vineyards. Its concentrations are relatively high in some aquatic ecosystems, and the main problem observed in this study was the antioxidant stress induced by this heavy metal. Copper toxicologic effects in aquatic organisms have prompted the demand for alternative use of low-toxicity molecules in culture treatments. Chitosan is a polymer with antifungal property similar to copper and may be an interesting biopesticide. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the potential toxicity of chitosan for aquatic animal health, either alone or in conjunction with copper. In this study, carp were exposed to two sublethal chitosan concentrations (75 and 150 mg/L) or to two sublethal copper concentrations (0.1 and 0.25 mg/L) or to a mixture of chitosan plus copper (75 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively). The results of the present study show that exposure to copper at environmentally realistic levels or to chitosan at sublethal concentrations may significantly stimulate various aspects of immune functions in carp such as nonspecific cellular immunity, represented by total immunoglobulin level, ceruloplasmin activity, and oxidative activity of phagocytes. This acute-phase inflammatory response induced separately by the two treatments was not observed, especially on phagocyte oxidative activity, when carp were exposed to the copper-chitosan mixture. This fact could be explained by a possible chelation of copper by chitosan decreasing the biodisponibility of the two products for immune cells. Thus, the immunotoxicologic impact of copper and chitosan on fish immune response would be less pronounced with the combined treatments than with separate treatments in an aquatic environment. PMID:15386131

Dautremepuits, C; Betoulle, S; Paris-Palacios, S; Vernet, G

2004-10-01

407

Synthetic Pyrethroid effect on blood plasma biomarker enzymes and histological changes in Catla catla  

PubMed Central

Alpha-cypermethrin is an isoform of cypermethrin; it is an active pyrethroid used extensively to control a wide range of pests in agriculture and animal breeding. In this study four groups of six fish were examined. The first group served as a control in fresh water alone, with no pyrethroid. The second, third and fourth groups were exposed to alpha-cypermethrin for 4, 8 and 96 h respectively. At the end of the each exposure period, the fish were sacrificed, and the required muscle tissues were collected for histological examination. The blood was drawn with heparinized needles and processed for serum enzymatic studies. Serum enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), amylase, acid phosphatase (ACP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were measured at 4, 8 and 96 h. AST enzyme activity was significantly increased at 4 h, whereas ALT and amylase enzyme activities were significantly reduced at all the time points. ACP enzyme activity was significantly reduced at 4 and 8 h, whereas GGT enzyme activity was significantly increased at all the time points. Hepatocyte cytoplasmic vacuolisation and degeneration, rupture of blood vessels, and necrosis was found at all time points. Congestion of blood vessels, bulging, distortion of filaments, erosion and disintegration of blood corpuscles and hyperplasia of epithelium were found in treated gills at 4, 8 and 96 h. Breakdown of muscle fibres, vacuolation and accumulation of lipids and melanin in white muscle were observed in treated fish muscle at 4, 8 and 96 h.

Muthuviveganandavel, Veerappan; Hwang, Inho; Anita, Vanattayen; Malarani, Pattabiraman S; Selvam, Chandrasekar; Hemalatha, Moorthy; Pandurangan, Muthuraman

2013-01-01

408

Aerobic Bacterial Flora of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Cultured in Earthen Ponds in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative estimation of bacterial flora present in pond water, sediments, gills, and intestine of healthy common carp Cyprinus carpio cultured in Saudi Arabia were performed and identified to species level where possible. Mean total viable bacterial counts in pond water ranged from 1.2?±?2.9?×?10 to 2.5?±?3.5?×?10 cfu\\/mL; in sediments, 9.3?±?2.1?×?10 to 2.7?±?3.5?×?10 cfu\\/g; in gills filaments, 4.3?±?2.9?×?10 to 1.6?±?3.9?×?10

Ahmed H. Al-Harbi; M. Naim Uddin

2008-01-01

409

The toxicity of copper to crucian carp (Carassius carassius) in soft water.  

PubMed

Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) were exposed to a Cu rich medium (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 microS/cm, 2.91 mg Ca(2+)/l, approximately 300 microg Cu(2+)/l). Untreated department water (pH 6.6, conductivity 25 microS/cm, 2.91 mg Ca(2+)/l) acted as control. Mortality in crucian carp was first observed after 13 days of exposure to the Cu rich medium. There were, however, significant changes in haematocrit, plasma chloride, plasma sodium and water content in muscle in fish exposed to the Cu rich medium after two days. After 14 days of exposure to copper, haematocrit increased to 52+/-2% (control: between 37 and 40%), plasma chloride decreased to 45+/-5 mmol/l (control: 99-106 mmol/l), plasma sodium decreased to 81+/-6 mmol/l (control: 116-137 mmol/l), and water content in muscle increased to 83.0+/-0.3% (control: 78.7-79.9%). No apparent changes in blood ethanol, and minor changes in plasma lactate were observed in copper exposed fish. Analyses of the gills revealed an increasing concentration of copper on the gills from fish exposed to Cu rich water. After 14 days, the concentration of copper accumulated in the gill was 12.8+/-4.1 microg Cu/g wet weight (control: 0.91-1.19 microg Cu/g wet weight). A reduction of the respiratory area in fish exposed to copper was observed, in terms of both lamellar and filamental fusion. The normoxic O(2) uptake did not change, but the critical oxygen tension was elevated to 6.12+/-1.04 mg O(2)/l after a 6 day exposure to copper (control: 1.03+/-0.05 mg O(2)/l). This study shows that crucian carp has a higher tolerance to copper compared to other freshwater fish species. Our results suggest that this tolerance is based on the ability of crucian carp to avoid becoming hypoxic as well as an extreme tolerance to severe loss of plasma ions. PMID:17628637

Schjolden, Joachim; Sørensen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Göran E; Poléo, Antonio B S

2007-10-01

410

Preparation and Alignment of Highly Vibrationally Excited Molecules by CARP - Chirped Adiabatic Raman Passage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3-D time-dependent Schroedinger equation simulations of Raman excitation of Cl2 molecule are used to demonstrate the feasibility of efficient high vibrational excitation (v > 20) using short (ps) chirped frequency laser pulses at intensities below the ionization threshold (I = 2*10**13 W/cm2). Considerable laser alignment of higly excited vibrational level is obtained as a result of many successive CARP transitions. A novel scheme of dissociating nonaligned molecules (large Mj states) is shown to lead to predicable and controllable post-pulse alignment recurrences, thus offering a new tool for the study of dynamics and reactivity of highly aligned excited nonpolar molecules. We report preliminary experiments.

Légaré, François; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Bandrauk, André D.

2001-05-01

411

Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.

1987-03-01

412

Determination of the big head carp myofibrillar (Aristichthys nobilis) adenosine triphosphatase activity by ion chromatography.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of myofibrils of big head carp by using ion chromatography was introduced. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and orthophosphate (Pi) were separated completely. Recoveries for ATP, ADP and Pi were 98+/-5%, 97+/-4% and 98+/-5%, respectively. Pi liberated from ATP during reaction was monitored by ion chromatography using the suggested method. This method was applicable to the determination of myofibrils ATPase activity for quick quality evaluation of surimi. PMID:16701679

Gao, Rui-chang; Xue, Chang-hu; Yuan, Li; Li, Zhao-jie; Xue, Yong; Cui, Fengxia; Sun, Yan

2006-06-23

413

Gill remodeling in crucian carp during sustained exercise and the effect on subsequent swimming performance.  

PubMed

Gill remodeling can be extensive in crucian carp, where up to a 7.5-fold increase in gill surface area has been observed during exposure to hypoxia through a reduction in the interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) and increased lamellar protrusion that has been hypothesized to be signaled by the need to maximize oxygen uptake under a given condition. Sustained aerobic exercise may have the greatest influence on oxygen demand in fish; however, its effect on gill remodeling in crucian carp has not been investigated. The specific objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether sustained aerobic exercise induces gill remodeling in the crucian carp, (ii) whether gill remodeling following sustained exercise affects the maximum critical swimming speed (U(crit)) and maximal oxygen consumption rate ([Formula: see text]), and (iii) whether gill remodeling following sustained exercise is associated with trade-offs related to ionoregulation. We measured [Formula: see text] in crucian carp at each step during an initial U(crit) test (U(crit1)), forced them to swim at 70% of U(crit) for 40 h, and then conducted a second U(crit) test (U(crit2)). From rest to U(crit1) (7-8 h), we observed a significant increase in protruding lamella height and area of the gills and a reduction in ILCM height and volume, likely associated with partial shedding of the ILCM, indicating that gill remodeling during exercise is rapid. Further changes were observed between U(crit1) and U(crit2), with statistically significant increases in protruding lamellar height, basal length and area, and a statistically significant reduction in protruding lamellar thickness and ILCM height and volume. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between U(crit1) and U(crit2) values, nor in maximal [Formula: see text] measured at U(crit1) and U(crit2). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in plasma osmolarity, [Na(+)], or [Cl(-)] in fish at rest, following U(crit1) or U(crit2). Thus, while these data support the hypothesis that the need to maximize oxygen uptake is an important signal for gill remodeling, which can occur quite rapidly (within 7 h at 15°C), the physiological implications of remodeling during exercise are less clear. PMID:22030846

Brauner, C J; Matey, V; Zhang, W; Richards, J G; Dhillon, R; Cao, Z-D; Wang, Y; Fu, S-J

2011-01-01

414

Uptake and transport of intact macromolecules in the intestinal epithelium of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and the possible immunological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two protein antigens, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ferritin, have been administered to the digestive tract of carp. Electron-microscopical observations reveal considerable absorption of both antigens in the second segment of the gut (from 70 to 95% of the total length) and also, although to a lesser extent, in the first segment (from 0 to 70% of the total length). Even

J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; M. H. Helfrich; A. Dekker; J. J. Taverne-Thiele

1985-01-01

415

Behavioral response of carp, Cyprinus carpio , and black bullhead, Ictalurus melas , from Italy to gas supersaturated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nine chambered circular apparatus (rosette) was used to test the ability of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and black bullhead (Ictalurus melas) from Italy, to detect and avoid lethal concentrations of gas supersaturated water. These species are important food fish and are being considered for mass culture in warm water discharges in Italy. Neither species immediately avoided gas supersaturated water. Although

Robert H. Gray; Thomas L. Page; Marco G. Saroglia

1983-01-01

416

IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF TERT-ALKLYPHENOLS IN CARP FROM THE TRENTON CHANNEL OF THE DETROIT RIVER, MI  

EPA Science Inventory

Whole carp from the Detroit River were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. even tertiary alkyl phenols (tert-pentylphenols, tert-butyl-tert-pentylphenols, a di-tert-pentylphenol and a tri-tert-pentylphenol) and eight chlorinated derivatives of these compounds were ...

417