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Sample records for major carp catla

  1. Influence of altered photoperiods on serum melatonin and its receptors (MT1 and MT2) in the brain, retina, and ovary in carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mahammed; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2012-03-01

    Daily variation in melatonin receptor (MT1 and MT2) density in three specific tissues-brain, retina, and ovary-and its temporal relationship with serum melatonin were evaluated for the first time in a freshwater teleost, the carp Catla catla, under natural as well as altered photoperiods in different reproductive phases of the annual cycle. Cosinor analysis was used to determine rhythmic features of the serum melatonin and receptors (MT1 and MT2) in different tissues. In each photoperiodic group, irrespective of season, the daily minimum serum melatonin level was noted at midday. However, the daily peak value of melatonin varied in relation to both photo-schedules and reproductive phases. Under natural photoperiods (NPs; duration varied with seasons) and short photoperiods (SPs; light [L]:dark [D] 8:16), it occurred in the late dark phase during the preparatory phase, and at midnight in the remaining parts of the annual cycle. On the other hand, in each reproductive phase, compared to corresponding NP carp, the daily melatonin peak under long photoperiods (LPs; L:D 16:8) exhibited a phase delay of ?2-3?h (occurring during the late dark phase). The melatonin levels at each sampling point were highest during the postspawning phase and lowest during the spawning phase, irrespective of the photoperiodic history of the fish. In each tissue, Western blot analysis revealed a band at ?37?kDa and a band at ?36?kDa corresponding to the molecular weights of native MT1 and MT2 receptor proteins, respectively, with the band intensity of MT1 always being higher than that of a 36-kDa protein. The content of both melatonin receptor proteins varied significantly according to the studied tissue (being highest in the retina, intermediate in the brain, and lowest in the ovary), time in the daily cycle (peak at midnight and fall at midday), and reproductive phase in the annual cycle (highest in the spawning phase and lowest in the postspawning phase). Remarkably, no significant effects of altered photoperiod were detected on any rhythm parameters of either MT1 or MT2 in any of the studied tissues. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest a role of photoperiod in determining daily and seasonal profiles of serum melatonin, but not its receptor proteins, on the ovary or on any nongonad tissues in carp. PMID:22324556

  2. Effects of starvation, re-feeding and timing of food supply on daily rhythm features of gut melatonin in carp (Catla catla).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Influences of starvation, re-feeding and time of food supply on daily rhythm features of melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) and its key regulator AANAT (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase) protein in the gut tissues were separately evaluated in carp Catla catla. The first experiment was aimed at demonstration of duration dependent effects of starvation and re-feeding after starvation on the daily profiles and rhythm features of gut melatonin and AANAT. Accordingly, juvenile carp were randomly distributed in three groups, which were (a) provided with balanced diet daily at a fixed time, that is, 10:00 clock hour or zeitgeber time (ZT) 4 (control), or (b) starved (for 2-, 4-, 6- or 8 days), or (c) initially starved for 8 days and then re-fed (for 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, 12- or 16 days) daily with the same food and at the time (ZT4) used for control fish. The carp in each group were sampled for collection of gut tissues at six different time points at a regular interval of 4?h in a daily cycle. In another experiment, the influences of timing of food supply were separately examined in four fish groups, which were provided with a fixed amount of food once daily either at 06:00 or 12:00 or 18:00 or 24:00 clock hour corresponding to ZT0 or ZT6 or ZT12 or ZT18, respectively, for 7 days before sampling at 12 different time points with a regular interval of 2?h in a 24-h cycle. The study revealed a gradual increase in the mesor and amplitude values of melatonin and AANAT in gut with the progress of starvation till their values reached maximum at day-6 and remained steady thereafter. In contrast, re-feeding of 8-day starved fish resulted in a sharp decrease in their mesor and amplitude values after 2 days and then followed by a steady-state increase till re-attainment of their values close to control fish at the end of 16 days. The acrophase of these gut variables in each control, starved and re-fed fish was noted mostly at midday or ZT6. However, the results of another experiment demonstrated that a shift of food supply time led to a shift in their acrophase. The amount of residual food in the gut lumen in each, but not starved, fish by showing a significant positive correlation independently with the gut levels of melatonin and AANAT also indicated possible role of food as the synchronizer for their daily rhythms. Collectively, it appears reasonable to argue that daily profiles of gut melatonin and AANAT are strongly influenced by the availability of food, while their daily rhythm features seem to be dependent mostly on the time of food supply in carp. PMID:26513010

  3. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

  4. Inactivated Probiotic Bacteria Stimulate Cellular Immune Responses of Catla, Catla catla (Hamilton) In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kamilya, Dibyendu; Baruah, Arunjyoti; Sangma, Timothy; Chowdhury, Supratim; Pal, Prasenjit

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the in vitro immunostimulatory effects of inactivated form of two potential probiotics, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FPTB16 and B. subtilis FPTB13 in catla (Catla catla). Catla head kidney leukocytes (HK) were incubated with the bacteria alive or inactivated with heat shock (2 h at 60 °C), UV light (for 2.5 h) and formalin (1.0 %, v/v) treatment (for 24 h at 4 °C) at different concentrations (10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) cells ml(-1)). After incubation, different cellular immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, nitric oxide production, leukocyte peroxidase content and proliferative response were analyzed. The inactivated probiotic preparations stimulated all the cellular immune parameters of catla HK leukocytes in vitro. Among the different inactivated preparations, heat-treated form exhibited the best result. The lowest dose (10(7) cells ml(-1)) of both the strains showed the maximum stimulation. The results collectively suggest the efficacy of inactivated preparations to be used as immunostimulant in aquaculture. PMID:25736432

  5. Dietary Bacillus subtilis FPTB13 and chitin, single or combined, modulate systemic and cutaneous mucosal immunity and resistance of catla, Catla catla (Hamilton) against edwardsiellosis.

    PubMed

    Sangma, Timothy; Kamilya, Dibyendu

    2015-12-01

    Effects of dietary administration of Bacillus subtilis FPTB13 and chitin, single or combined, on the systemic immunity, mucosal immunity and resistance of catla (Catla catla) against Edwardsiella tarda infection were investigated. The probiotic attributes of B. subtilis was tested by conducting antagonism study, safety in catla, in vitro immunomodulation and dietary immunomodulation. Results of these studies indicated the probiotic potential of the strain. From the preliminary dietary immunomodulation study, a dose of 10(9)B. subtilis cellsg(-1) was selected for inclusion into diets for subsequent experiments. Experimental diets were prepared by adding B. subtilis (10(9)cellsg(-1)), chitin (2%) and their combination to the basal diet. Different systemic and mucosal immunological parameters viz. oxygen radical production, myeloperoxidase content, lysozyme activity, total protein content and alkaline phosphatase activity showed significant enhancement (p<0.05) after 2 weeks of feeding with the combined diet. B. subtilis and chitin alone also significantly elevated most of the immune responses. All the diets significantly increased the resistance of catla against E. tarda challenge. The highest post-challenge survival was observed in combined group (i.e. 63.33%). In conclusion, B. subtilis and chitin, alone or combined, had a health ameliorating effect in catla. The results also collectively suggest the usefulness of applying a combined probiotic and immunostimulant supplemented diet to achieve greater benefits. PMID:26616655

  6. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS AGENCY: Coast Guard...Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS as required by 33 U...89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS. Full compliance...

  7. Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

  8. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370??g?g?1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148

  9. Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Labeo rohita and Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Tapasa Kumar; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Nagar, Nidhi; Patel, Amiya Kumar; Seshadri, Sriram

    2015-06-01

    We report the evaluation of probiotic properties of potent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the gut of freshwater fishes, Labeo rohita and Catla catla, for eventually developing probiotic strains for the prevention of bacterial infections in aquaculture and food preservation. Five different LAB strains were isolated and characterized for their probiotic properties. Based on physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates from Labeo rohita and two from Catla catla were identified as putative probiotics and were denoted as LR11, LR14 and LR16 and CC3 and CC4, respectively. Isolates CC3 and CC4 were acid (pH 2.5) and bile salt (0.3 % oxygall) tolerant and exhibited strong antibacterial activities against all pathogens including Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, all LAB isolates were susceptible to tested antibiotics, except CC3 and CC4 which were vancomycin resistant. Furthermore, the isolates CC3 and CC4 showed significantly higher in vitro cell surface properties, i.e., hydrophobicity, auto- and co-aggregation. Biochemical tests, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequence analysis established that LR11, LR14, LR16, CC3 and CC4 are Enterococcus avium TSU11, Enterococcus pseudoavium TSU14, Enterococcus raffinosus TSU16, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4, respectively. Studies revealed that, Lactobacillus gasseri TSU3 and Lactobacillus animalis TSU4 are ideal probiotic candidates for its use in aquaculture and require further exploratory in vivo evaluation and safety studies. PMID:25634754

  11. Silver Carp Larva

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  12. Silver Carp Larvae

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  13. Simulation study of natural UV-B radiation on Catla catla and its impact on physiology, oxidative stress, Hsp 70 and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Moirangthem Kameshwor; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Chakrabarti, Rina

    2015-08-01

    UV-B radiation is a potential stressor to the aquacultural species. Catla catla, catla larvae (1.08±0.065g) were exposed to different doses of UV-B radiation, 0 (control), 504, 1008, 1512 and 2016mJ/cm(2) at a mean radiant energy of 80?W/cm(2) for 21days. The dose of UV-B radiation was selected on the basis of the field study conducted in Lake Naini, Delhi, India (Latitude: 28°41'26?N and Longitude: 77°12?37?E). Significantly (P<0.05) lower survival, average weight and specific growth rate were found in UV-B irradiated larvae compared to the control one. Food conversion ratio was 1.5-4-fold higher in UV-B treated larvae compared to the control one. The carbonyl protein (CP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher in UV-B irradiated larvae compared to the control group. Among the treated larvae, CP and SOD were significantly (P <0.05) higher in larvae exposed at 1512mJ/cm(2) UV-B. A correlation was found between the CP and SOD (R(2)=0.834). Highest TBARS level was found in 2016mJ/cm(2) UV-B exposed catla. Nitric oxide synthase level was significantly (P <0.05) lower in UV-B exposed larvae compared to the control one. A 3-fold increased Hsp 70 level was recorded in UV-B irradiated catla compared to the control larvae. Comet assay analysis indicated that UV-B irradiation enhanced DNA fragmentation. Tail extent moment and the olive tail moment were significantly (P <0.05) higher in 2016mJ/cm(2) UV-B exposed catla compared to others. The tail length was significantly (P <0.05) higher in 1512 and 2016mJ/cm(2) UV-B exposed larvae compared to the other doses. The present study suggests that the catla is a useful species for the biomonitoring of stress in the aquatic environment. PMID:26065818

  14. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  15. Silver and Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

  16. Silver Carp Egg

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  17. Juvenile Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

  18. Juvenile Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

  19. High-jumping Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  20. CARPs are ubiquitin ligases that promote MDM2-independent p53 and phospho-p53ser20 degradation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wensheng; Rozan, Laura M; McDonald, E Robert; Navaraj, Arunasalam; Liu, Jue Judy; Matthew, Elizabeth M; Wang, Wenge; Dicker, David T; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2007-02-01

    Caspase 8/10-associated RING proteins (CARPs) are a recently described family of protein ubiquitin ligases that interact with and negatively regulate death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Because CARPs are overexpressed in cancer and their silencing reduces cell viability and sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents, we investigated their relationship to p53 tumor suppressor signaling. p53 is a major determinant of chemosensitivity, and its levels are increased following DNA damage through N-terminal phosphorylation and inhibition of degradation. Although p53 is well known to be negatively regulated by several ubiquitin ligases including MDM2, none are known to target phosphorylated p53 for degradation. CARPs physically interact with and ubiquitinate p53, targeting it for degradation in the absence of MDM2. Serine 20-phosphorylated p53 is also ubiquitinated by CARPs. CARP silencing stimulates p53 expression and promotes downstream effects, including transcriptional activation and tumor suppression. PMID:17121812

  1. HABITAT SELECTION AND MOVEMENT OF BIGHEAD CARP AND SILVER CARP IN THE LOWER ILLINOIS RIVER

    E-print Network

    nuisance in recent years in the Illinois River, a tributary of the Mississippi River, potentially competingHABITAT SELECTION AND MOVEMENT OF BIGHEAD CARP AND SILVER CARP IN THE LOWER ILLINOIS RIVER by Kelly AND SILVER CARP IN THE LOWER ILLINOIS RIVER By Kelly Lynn DeGrandchamp A Thesis Submitted in Partial

  2. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  3. Subchronic toxicity study of GH transgenic carp.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ling; Liu, Yu-Mei; Jia, Xu-Dong; Li, Ning; Zhang, Wen-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    A subchronic toxicity study of GH (growth hormone) transgenic carp was carried out with 60 SD rats aged 4 weeks, weight 115?125 g. Ten male and 10 female rats were allotted into each group. Animals of the three groups (transgenic carp group (GH-TC), parental carp group (PC) and control group) were fed soy- and alfalfa-free diet (SAFD) with 10% GH transgenic carp powder, 10% parental carp powder or 10% common carp powder for 90 consecutive days, respectively. In the end of study, animals were killed by exsanguination via the carotid artery under diethyl ether anesthesia, then weights of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, thymus, brain, ovaries and uterus/testis were measured. Pathological examination of organs was determined. Endocrine hormones of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid hormone (T4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 17?-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) levels were detected by specific ELISA kit. Parameters of blood routine and blood biochemical were measured. The weights of the body and organs of the rats, food intake, blood routine, blood biochemical test and serum hormones showed no significant differences among the GH transgenic carp-treated, parental carp-treated and control groups (P>0.05). Thus, it was concluded that at the dose level of this study, GH transgenic carp showed no subchronic toxicity and endocrine disruption to SD rats. PMID:22889892

  4. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  5. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  6. Reproductive condition and occurrence of intersex in bighead carp and silver carp in the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Papoulias, D.M.; Chapman, D.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive biology of the exotic bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the Missouri River. In order to fill this gap in understanding, herein is described the reproductive condition of these Asian carps. Evidence is presented which indicates that bighead and silver carp in the Missouri River have a protracted spawning period that extends from early spring through fall and some individual bighead and silver carp are spawning multiple times during a reproductive season. Although bighead and silver carps are successfully maturing and spawning in the Missouri River some reproductive abnormalities such as intersex, atresia, and sterility were observed. Knowledge of the reproductive activity of these invasive carps may be useful to resource managers tasked with their control. Furthermore, the reproductive abnormalities observed should be considered when evaluating the environmental condition of the Missouri River relative to supporting a healthy fish fauna. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  8. 85Wells et al.--Control of macrophytes by grass carp Control of macrophytes by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    85Wells et al.--Control of macrophytes by grass carp Control of macrophytes by grass carp for the high plant biomass that accumulates at the end of summer, the effect of stocking diploid grass carp (including the emergents), seven were exotic. Two months after grass carp were released to Churchill East

  9. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:25917970

  10. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  11. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  12. LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

    E-print Network

    LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER by Heather Ann Calkins B.S., University of Missouri IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER MAJOR PROFESSOR: Dr. James Garvey Since their introduction to the United States in the 1970s

  13. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  14. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  15. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  16. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  17. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  18. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  19. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

  20. Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

  1. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish’s utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  2. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  3. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  4. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  7. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  8. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  9. Grass carp status in the United States: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Barry A.

    1983-03-01

    Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) were introduced into the United States in 1963 as potential biological control agents for nuisance aquatic weeds. Since that time an oftentimes bitter controversy has raged over its effects on sportfishing, and its possible natural reproduction and naturalization in North America. This review considers the history, ecology, and present status of grass carp in the United States in light of the voluminous scientific research conducted since its importation. Particular attention is given to the role of grass carp in the fisheries management plans of Arkansas. Recent development of a sterile, triploid grass carp hybrid may lead to widespread use of grass carp to control nuisance aquatic weeds in culturally eutrophicated waters of the United States.

  10. Evaluation of environmental contaminants and elements in bigheaded carps of the Missouri River at Easley, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; Chapman, Duane C.; May, Thomas W.; Meadows, John C.; Walther, Michael J.; Echols, Kathy R.; Deters, Joseph E.; Dierenfeld, S, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the history, biology, and status of Asian carps, and reviews current research on control measures. Explores the factors influencing recruitment and spread of Asian carps, considers current research on habitat requirements of bigheaded carps, analyzes data on diet overlap and potential competition between bigheaded carps and native fishes, and examines the use of pheromones as controls for Asian carps.

  11. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  12. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  13. Arsenic impacted the development, thyroid hormone and gene transcription of thyroid hormone receptors in bighead carp larvae (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Tang, Ming-Hu; Sun, Li; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-13

    Arsenic (As) contamination in aquatic environment adversely impacts aquatic organisms. The present study assessed the toxicity of different As species and concentrations on bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) at early life stage, a major fish in Yangtze River, China. We measured the changes in embryo and larvae survival rate, larvae aberration, concentrations of thyroid hormone thyroxine, and transcription levels of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in fish larvae after exposing to arsenite (AsIII) or arsenate (AsV) at 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, or 150?gL(-1) for 78h. As concentrations ?150?gL(-1) had limited effect on embryo survival rate (6-8% inhibition), but larvae survival rate decreased to 53-57% and larvae aberration rate increased to 20-24% after As exposure. Moreover, thyroxine levels elevated by 23% and 50% at 100?gL(-1) AsIII and 150?gL(-1) AsV. Besides, AsIII and AsV decreased the transcriptional levels of TR? by 72 and 53%, and TR? by 91 and 81% at 150?gL(-1) As. Our data showed that AsIII and AsV had limited effect on carp embryo survival, but they were both toxic to carp larvae, with AsIII showing more effect than AsV. As concentrations <150?gL(-1) adversely influenced the development of bighead carp larvae and disturbed their thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26513566

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) Plays a Critical Role in the Softening of Common Carp Muscle during Chilled Storage by Degradation of Type I and V Collagens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Wang, Cheng; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Weng, Ling; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2015-12-30

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proposed to play important roles in the degradation of collagens, thus causing the post-mortem softening of fish muscle, although the specific mechanism remains largely unresolved. Previously, we reported the existence of gelatinase-like proteinases in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle. The primary structures of these proteinases, however, have never been investigated. In the present study, two MMPs with molecular masses of 66 and 65 kDa were purified to homogeneity from common carp muscle by ammonium sulfate fractionation and a series of column chromatographies. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) analysis indicated that they are completely identical to MMP-2 from common carp. During chilled storage of common carp at 4 °C, the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 increased to 212% in 12 h while the texture profile increased over the first 2 h and gradually decreased. On the other hand, type V collagen was purified to homogeneity and a specific polyclonal antibody against this protein was prepared. Both type I and V collagens were effectively hydrolyzed by MMP-2 at 30 °C and even at 4 °C. Furthermore, injection of metalloproteinase proteinase inhibitor EDTA into the blood vessel of live common carp suppressed post-mortem tenderization significantly. All of these results confirmed that MMP-2 is a major proteinase responsible for the degradation of collagens, resulting in the softening of fish muscle during chilled storage. PMID:26653826

  15. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  16. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  17. Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus)?×?common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

  18. An evaluation of low-density introductions of triploid grass carp in vegetated small sportfishing impoundments 

    E-print Network

    Blackwell, Brian Gene

    1993-01-01

    Low-density stockings of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella were evaluated to determine their ability to control nuisance submersed vegetation in small sportfishing impoundments. Triploid grass carp were stocked into four small...

  19. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 2733 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Thomas J.

    J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 27­33 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenci- ennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass

  1. The immune system of cyprinid fish. Kinetics and temperature dependence of antibody-producing cells in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed Central

    Rijkers, G T; Frederix-Wolters, E M; van Muiswinkel, W B

    1980-01-01

    After immunization of carp with sheep red blood cells, the spleen accounts for only 5% of the total number of plaque-forming cells (PFC). In addition, thymus, peripheral blood and heart contained low numbers of PFC (< 0.5, 1 and 0.5%, respectively). Pronephros and mesonephros were the major antibody-forming organs (53 and 40% of total PFC, respectively). The temperature dependence of the antibody-forming cell response in spleen, pronephros and mesonephros as studied in animals kept at 12-24 degrees. Lowering temperatures induced a delay in the peak of the primary response but had no effect on the magnitude of the response. The temperature-peak day relationship indicated that there are steps in the primary immune response of carp differing in temperature sensitivity. The anamnestic character of the secondary response was clearly demonstrated at 24 and 20 degrees but lost at 18 degrees. PMID:7000695

  2. Transcriptome profiling analysis of naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) provides insights into the immune-related genes in highland fish.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chao; Zhang, Cunfang; Zhang, Renyi; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The naked carp, Gymnocypris przewalskii, is one of the dominant aquaculture fish species in Qinghai Province, China. Its wild stocks have severely suffered from overfishing, and the farming species are vulnerable to various pathogens infections. Here we report the first immune-related tissues transcriptome of a wild naked carp using a deep sequencing approach. A total of 158,087 unigenes are generated, 2687 gill-specific gene and 3215 kidney-specific genes are identified, respectively. Gene ontology analysis shows that 51,671 unigenes are involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Further analysis shows that numerous consensus sequences are homologous to known immune-related genes. Pathways mapping annotate 56,270 unigenes and identify a large number of immune-related pathways. In addition, we focus on the immune-related genes and gene family in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway involved in innate immunity, including toll-like receptors (TLRs), interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factors (TNFs). Eventually, we identify 5 TLRs, 4 IRFs, 3 ILs and 2 TNFs with a completed coding sequence though mining the transcriptome data. Phylogeny analysis shows these genes of naked carp are mostly close to zebrafish. Protein domain and selection pressure analyses together show that all these genes are highly conserved in gene sequence and protein domain structure with other species, and purifying selection underwent in these genes, implied functionally important features are conserved in the genes above. Intriguingly, we detect positive selection signals in naked carp TLR4, and significant divergence occurred among tested species TLR4, suggested that naked carp TLR4 function may be affected. Finally, we identify 23,867 simple sequence repeat (SSR) marks in this transcriptome. Taken together, this study not only contributes a large number of candidate genes in naked carp immunity, and also helps improve current understanding of immunogenetics basis and evolutionary history of immune related genes and gene family in highland fish species. PMID:26117731

  3. Isolation and characterization of glycophorin from carp red blood cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4. PMID:24521498

  6. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  7. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  8. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as candidate recombinant subunit vaccine carrier for immunization of grass carp against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Song, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the most pathogenic aquareovirus, can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in fingerling and yearling grass carp. Vaccination by injection is by far the most effective method of combating disease. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible to vaccinate large numbers of the fish. Thus, an efficient and economic strategy for the prevention of GCRV infection becomes urgent. Here, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carrier were used to manufacture SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine with chemical modification. Different developmental stages of grass carps were immunized by VP7/SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine against GCRV by intramuscular injection and bath immunization. The results indicate that better immune responses of grass carp immunized with the SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine were induced in comparison with VP7 subunit vaccine alone. Immunization doses/concentrations are significantly reduced (about 5-8 times) to prevent GCRV infection in different developmental stages of grass carp with injection or bath treatment when SWCNTs carrier was used. A good immune protective effect (relative percentage survival greater than 95%) is observed in smaller size fish (0.2 g) with SWCNTs-VP7 bath immunization. In addition, serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, immune-related genes and antibody levels were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with vaccine. This study suggested that functionalized SWCNTs was the promising carrier for recombinant subunit vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by bath approach. PMID:25240976

  9. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  10. Co-occurring bighead and silver carps show similar food preference but different isotopic niche overlap in different

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    Co-occurring bighead and silver carps show similar food preference but different isotopic niche 2014 # Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014 Abstract Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and occupying a higher trophic position and silver carp feeding more on phytoplankton. Food particles smaller

  11. Identification and characterization of MAVS from black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Jujun; Lv, Ying; Qu, Yixiao; Chi, Mengdie; Li, Jun; Feng, Hao

    2015-04-01

    MAVS (mitochondria antiviral signaling protein) plays an important role in the host cellular innate immune response against microbial pathogens. In this study, MAVS has been cloned and characterized from black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp MAVS (bcMAVS) consists of 2352 nucleotides and the predicted bcMAVS protein contains 579 amino acids. Structural analysis showed that bcMAVS is composed of functional domains including an N-terminal CARD, a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal TM domain, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. bcMAVS is constitutively transcribed in all the selected tissues including gill, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin and spleen; bcMAVS mRNA level in intestine, liver, muscle increased but decreased in spleen right after GCRV or SVCV infection. Multiple bands of bcMAVS were detected in western blot when it was expressed in tissue culture, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. Immunofluorescence assay determined that bcMAVS is a mitochondria protein and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that bcMAVS could induce zebrafish IFN and EPC IFN expression in tissue culture. Data generated in this manuscript has built a solid foundation for further elucidating the function of bcMAVS in the innate immune system of black carp. PMID:25655327

  12. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  13. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  14. Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebra¢sh, ectothermic vertebrates J on their potential roles in thermogenesis. Here we report the amino acid sequences of two new UCPs from ectothermic% identical to mammalian UCP1s. Carp and zebrafish are ectotherms ^ they do not raise their body temperatures

  15. Massive Production of All-female Diploids and Triploids in the Crucian Carp

    PubMed Central

    Luo, KaiKun; Xiao, Jun; Liu, ShaoJun; Wang, Jing; He, WeiGuo; Hu, Jie; Qin, QinBo; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Liu, Yun

    2011-01-01

    In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry. PMID:21547066

  16. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42). In a final rule of July 10, 2007 (72 FR 37459), the Service added silver and..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public...

  17. The effects of cooking on residues of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscles.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Posyniak, Andrzej; Zmudzki, Jan

    2007-03-14

    The effects of various cooking methods (boiling, baking and microwaving) on residues of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG), in incurred carp muscles were investigated. Moreover, the stability of MG and LMG standard solutions under boiling in water and in oil was examined. The MG and LMG residues in cooked meat were determined by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detectors. The results showed that in muscles cooked by boiling or baking MG concentration was reduced by 54% in 15 min while LMG was stable in these conditions. By microwave cooking MG residues were reduced by 61% after 1 min. Microwaving was the only method of cooking when a loss of LMG was observed (40% in 1 min). Both MG and LMG standard solutions were stable in boiling water at 100 degrees C. In cooking oil, MG was reduced by 49% after 10 min and less than 3% of the original MG remains after 90 min at 150 degrees C. No losses of LMG were observed over a time period of 120 min in cooking oil at 150 degrees C. Upon increasing the temperature to 210 degrees C and holding for 120 min, MG was rapidly reduced by 97% after 10 min. LMG under the same conditions was reduced by 18% after 10 min. No further loses of MG and LMG were observed after 120 min. The findings of this investigation show that the high temperature does not guarantee a full breakdown of residue of MG and LMG which may occur in carp muscles. PMID:17386743

  18. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p < 0.05). In fin and skin, size dependence was evident in winter, but not in summer, while in other tissues (ventricle, atrium, intestine, liver, muscle, and spleen), no size dependence was found. The liver was much bigger in small than large fish ( p < 0.001), and there was a prominent enlargement of the liver in winter irrespective of fish size. As a consequence, the whole body glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  20. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  1. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  2. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  3. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-11-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 â?? × 22 â?? grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  4. MSU has been designated as one of only 96 research institutions in the nation with "very high research activity" by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. BPJ-2014-CARP

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    is the Asian carp. In July 2012, a U.S.-Canadian Asian Carp Risk Assessment concluded that should Asian carp: Non-chemical or GMO solution Can be deployed to target a specific species Proven effective

  5. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  6. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). The FCR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly lower than the control (p < 0.05). Carps on B2, B3, and B4 diets showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of triglyceride than the control. B4-fed carps showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol than the control. However there was no remarkable difference (p > 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1? in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1? levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the content of MHC among the five groups. In conclusion, antimicrobial peptide can reduce triglyceride levels in serum, enrich oxidation resistance, and improve immunity of the common carp. It showed that appropriate concentration of antibacterial peptide as supplements in diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. PMID:26386195

  7. Age estimation of a large bighead carp from Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Nealis, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    On April 23, 2011, a 1356-mm total length (TL), 39.8 kg bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) was brought to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. This specimen is the largest bighead carp recorded from Oklahoma, and it is near the maximum size reported from the United States. This specimen was estimated to be nine years old based on estimates from three different structures (pectoral fin ray, branchiostegal ray, and otolith). The age, together with past Oklahoma records of the species, indicates that there has been multiple introductions or undocumented reproduction of bighead carp in the Grand Lake basin.

  8. [Evaluation of 4 vermifuges against Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in carp].

    PubMed

    Flores-Crespo, J; Flores-Crespo, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F; Vera-Montenegro, Y

    1994-01-01

    With the aim to evaluate the efficacy of four vermicides, praziquantel, mebendazole, nitroscanate and triclorfon in the control of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in carps, one hundred and sixty, two year-old carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) with an average weight of 120 g and a mean parasitic burden of 115.5 parasites/fish were used. Five groups of 30 fish each were randomly formed. Each group was then subdivided in three groups, each of 10 individuals/pond. The three subgroups of group A received 30, 50 and 70 mg/Kg of praziquantel, respectively. Groups B and C received 2.2, 4.4, and 6.8 mg/Kg of mebendazole suspension and mebendazole solution respectively; groups D and E received 10, 30, 50 mg/Kg; and 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 mg/Kg of nitroscanate and trichlorfon respectively. Group F of 10 fish remained as non-treated control. Praziquantel showed 100% of efficacy for all doses, therefore it was excluded from the statistical analysis. The subgroups B, C, D and E compared with the non-treated control were statistically significant (P < 0.01); showing in all treatments an additive effect, the higher the dose the better efficacy, except trichlorfon which showed a different tendency, having no explanation on that matter. PMID:7709095

  9. Characterization of retinoic acid neuromodulation in the carp retina.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Petra; Tieding, Silke; Schneider, Ilka; Mey, Jörg; Weiler, Reto

    2004-10-15

    Visual sensation in vertebrates starts with the isomerization of 11-cis retinaldehyde into all-trans retinaldehyde. Aldehyde dehydrogenases, present in the pigment epithelium and some retinal cells, convert all-trans retinaldehyde into all-trans retinoic acid (at-RA). Evidence in the retina and the hippocampus has accumulated, showing that at-RA, besides being a morphogenetic factor, also acts as a neuromodulator. In mature retina, at-RA affects visual processing by acting on gap junctional conductances and the synaptic transfer between photoreceptors and horizontal cells. We present evidence supporting a neuromodulatory role of at-RA in the carp retina. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurements and an RA bioassay indicate a light dependency of at-RA formation, which can explain the observed effects of at-RA on spinule formation at horizontal cell dendrites in this retina. Furthermore, inhibiting endogenous metabolism and catabolism of at-RA affects formation and persistence of spinules in a way, supporting a direct involvement of at-RA in this light-dependent mechanism of synaptic plasticity. The action of at-RA, however, seems independent of the dopaminergic system, known for its light-signaling role in the retina, because at-RA effects on spinule formation persisted in retina depleted of dopaminergic neurons or in the presence of haloperidol. Together, these data indicate that at-RA acts effectively as a direct neuromodulator in carp retina, transmitting information about ambient light conditions to the neuronal retina. PMID:15378613

  10. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332??g?kg?1, medium: 621??g?kg?1, and high: 797??g?kg?1 feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  11. Spinal deformity in triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes).

    PubMed

    Grimmett, S G; Chalmers, H J; Wolf, J C; Bowser, P R

    2011-03-01

    From mid-2004 to mid-2005, several grass carp, Ctenophayngodon idella (Valenciennes), showing evidence of spinal deformity were presented to the Aquatic Animal Health Program, Cornell University. The carp were from three separate locations in New York State. The first case involved several fish from a natural body of water in the Catskill Mountain region of south-eastern New York State. The second was a single affected individual from a private pond in the Fingerlakes region of Central New York State. The third was a single individual from the Cold Springs Harbor Fish Hatchery, Cold Springs Harbor, Long Island. All fish were at least 7 years of age. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans revealed the deformities to be of bony origin. The spinal deformities were characterized by variable amounts of kyphosis, scoliosis and rotation. While it is not possible to determine the specific cause(s) of the lesions, we consider a genetic component as a likely contributor to the observed pathology. PMID:21306588

  12. Antioxidant activity and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg).

    PubMed

    Chalamaiah, M; Jyothirmayi, T; Diwan, Prakash V; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-09-01

    Previously, we have reported the composition, molecular mass distribution and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of common carp roe protein hydrolysates. In the current study, antioxidative activity and functional properties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) roe (egg) protein hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin, trypsin and Alcalase, were evaluated. The three hydrolysates showed excellent antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner in various in vitro models such as 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6)-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+)) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) chelating ability. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly increased protein solubility of the hydrolysates to above 62 % over a wide pH range (2-12). Carp roe hydrolysates exhibited good foaming and emulsification properties. The results suggest that bioactive carp roe protein hydrolysates (CRPHs) with good functional properties could be useful in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. PMID:26344996

  13. [Helminth infections in the ponder carp farms in the Ararat plain].

    PubMed

    Oganesian, R L

    2004-01-01

    Helminthosis infections in pond carp farms of the Ararat plain have been studied: species composition of helminthes is recovered; main helmithoses are revealed; helminthological situation is estimated. PMID:15069883

  14. Diets of Three Sunfishes in Lake Conroe, TX Before and After Grass Carp Introduction. 

    E-print Network

    Sifuentes, Matthew L.

    2010-07-14

    Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) is an invasive aquatic plant that grows quickly across shallow freshwater habitats. It is a problem for recreational users of lakes and landowners. Grass carp (Ctenopharynogodon idella) is an effective biological...

  15. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 16 [Docket No. FWS-R3-FHC-2010-0094...Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final...

  16. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed in Osteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D; Das, Varsha; Jamal, Shazia; Levi, Edi; Rishi, Arun K; Datta, Nabanita S

    2013-01-01

    Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10-12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 hr followed by Western blot analysis showed 2-3 fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203×, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action. PMID:23764399

  17. Difference in the gain in the phototransduction cascade between rods and cones in carp.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Naoto; Kawamura, Satoru

    2014-10-29

    In the vertebrate retina, there are two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Rods are highly light-sensitive and cones are less light-sensitive. One of the possible mechanisms accounting for the lower light-sensitivity in cones would be lower signal amplification, i.e., lower gain in the phototransduction cascade in cones. In this study, we compared the difference in the gain between rods and cones electrophysiologically in carp. The initial rising phases of the light responses were analyzed to determine an index of the gain, G, a parameter that can be used to compare the gain among cells of varying outer segment volumes. G (in fL · sec(-2)) was 91.2 ± 14.8 (n = 5) in carp rods and 25.3 ± 3.2 (n = 4) in carp red cones, so that the gain in carp red cones is ?1/4 of that in carp rods. G was also determined in bullfrog rods and was 81.0 ± 17.2 (n = 3) which was very similar to that in carp rods. The difference in the gain between rods and cones in carp determined in this study (?1/4 in cones compared with rods) is consistent with that we recently determined biochemically (?1/5 in cones compared with rods). Together with the result obtained in bullfrog rods in this study and the results obtained by others, we concluded that the gain in the cascade is several-fold lower in cones than in rods in carp and probably in other animal species also. PMID:25355220

  18. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent. PMID:18850294

  19. Stress-induced adaptation of neutrophilic granulocyte activity in K and R3 carp lines.

    PubMed

    Pijanowski, L; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Irnazarow, I; Chadzinska, M

    2015-12-01

    Both in mammals and fish, stress induces remarkable changes in the immune response. We focused on stress-induced changes in the activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in the R3 and K lines of common carp, which showed differential stress responses. Our study clearly demonstrates that a prolonged restraint stress differentially affects the activity of K and R3 carp neutrophils. In the K line, stress decreased the respiratory burst, while in the R3 line it reduced the release of extracellular DNA. Surprisingly, the stress-induced changes in ROS production and NET formation did not correlate with changes in gene expression of the inflammatory mediators and GR receptors. In neutrophilic granulocytes from K carp, gene expression of the stress-sensitive cortisol GR1 receptor was significantly higher than in neutrophils from R3 fish, which will make these cells more sensitive to high levels of cortisol. Moreover, upon stress, neutrophilic granulocytes of K carp up-regulated gene expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 while this was not observed in neutrophilic granulocytes of R3 carp. Therefore, we can hypothesize that, in contrast to R3 neutrophils, the more cortisol sensitive neutrophils from K carp respond to stress with up-regulation of IL-10 and consequently reduction of ROS production. Most probably the ROS-independent NET formation in K carp is not regulated by this anti-inflammatory cytokine. These data may indicate a predominantly ROS-independent formation of NETs by carp neutrophilic granulocytes. Moreover, they underline the important role of IL-10 in stress-induced immunoregulation. PMID:26505123

  20. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) based on microsatellites and SNPs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs). The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project. PMID:20181260

  1. Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems

    E-print Network

    Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2006-07-25

    of alien species to better understand their capacity to become established at broad scales. We used this modeling approach to produce spatially explicit predictions of the invasive potential of common carp and Nile tilapia in the Americas. Model predictions... regarding species’ geographic potential on landscapes be- yond their native ones (Peterson and Robins 2003; Iguchi et al. 2004; Peterson et al. 2004). Herein, we present an analysis of the invasive potential of carp and tilapia in the New World, based...

  2. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  3. Histological and histochemical investigations of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus of a carp Cirrhinus mrigala.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Swati; Mittal, Ajay Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The histological organization and histochemical aspects of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus of the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala are described. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus consists of a lower pharyngeal jaw and a chewing pad. Histochemical analysis reveals that the epithelium covering the lower pharyngeal jaw is mucogenic and is involved in the secretion of different classes of glycoproteins (GPs) including GPs with oxidizable vicinal diols, GPs with O-sulphate esters and GPs with sialic acid residues with and without O-acyl substitution. Characteristically, the epithelium at irregular intervals is differentiated into simple or branched tubular pharyngeal glands, which often extend deep into the sub-epithelial tissues. Copious mucus secretion from pharyngeal glands may be associated with transportation of chewed food particles toward the esophagus. Histochemistry and fluorescence microscopy show that the epithelium covering the chewing pad is keratinized. The keratinized surface of the chewing pad may be considered to serve as an occlusion surface for the lower pharyngeal jaw teeth forming an efficient pharyngeal mill for chewing food materials. PMID:24103525

  4. Optimization of gelatin extraction from silver carp skin.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Regenstein, J M

    2009-10-01

    Fish skins are a by-product of the fish processing industry that can be successfully processed into gelatin. This study was designed to optimize the extraction process to obtain the highest yield, gel strength, and viscosity for gelatin production from silver carp skin. A fractional factorial design (2 levels, resolution III, 2(9-5)) was chosen to screen 9 parameters to determine the most significant ones. Those found to be significant were optimized to determine the maximum value for 3 dependent variables mentioned above. The hydroxyproline content and hydroxyproline/protein ratio of the skin were 1.7% and 6.5%, respectively. The protein content of the skin was 26%. The hydroxyproline content of the gelatin for the sample giving the highest hydroxyproline/protein ratio was 10.9%. This sample was arbitrarily called pure gelatin and the purity of the remaining samples was between 71.8% and 97%. The highest protein and gelatin recovery was 78.1% and 98.8% of the total available, respectively. The latter, gelatin recovery, is proposed to be used instead of protein yield. Four variables were determined as significant in screening and these variables were studied by a central composite rotatable design (4-factor and 5-level with 6 central points) to model the system and response surface methodology was used for optimization. The optimum extraction conditions were 50 degrees C for the extraction temperature, 0.1 N HCl for the acid concentration, 45 min for the acid pretreatment time, and finally 4 : 1 (v/w) for the water/skin ratio. The predicted responses for these extraction conditions were 630 g gel strength, 6.3 cP viscosity, and 80.8% gelatin recovery. The data suggest that silver carp skin gelatin is similar to those of fish gelatins currently being exploited commercially. PMID:19799664

  5. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha; Levi, Edi; Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 ; Rishi, Arun K.; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201; VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 ; Datta, Nabanita S.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

  6. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  7. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  8. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  9. A Tale of Four “Carp”: Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

    2009-01-01

    Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation. PMID:19421314

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1? receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1? receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1? activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1? receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-?B and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1? activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  11. Quantification of eDNA shedding rates from invasive bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers can more easily mitigate the effects of invasive species if action takes place before a population becomes established. Such early detection requires sensitive survey tools that can detect low numbers of individuals. Due to their high sensitivity, environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys hold promise as an early detection method for aquatic invasive species. Quantification of eDNA amounts may also provide data on species abundance and timing of an organism’s presence, allowing managers to successfully combat the spread of ecologically damaging species. To better understand the link between eDNA and an organism’s presence, it is crucial to know how eDNA is shed into the environment. Our study used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and controlled laboratory experiments to measure the amount of eDNA that two species of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) shed into the water. We first measured how much eDNA a single fish sheds and the variability of these measurements. Then, in a series of manipulative lab experiments, we studied how temperature, biomass (grams of fish), and diet affect the shedding rate of eDNA by these fish. We found that eDNA amounts exhibit a positive relationship with fish biomass, and that feeding could increase the amount of eDNA shed by ten-fold, whereas water temperature did not have an effect. Our results demonstrate that quantification of eDNA may be useful for predicting carp density, as well as densities of other rare or invasive species.

  12. LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND DISPERSAL POTENTIAL

    E-print Network

    LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND DISPERSAL POTENTIAL by Adam M. Lohmeyer A Thesis University Carbondale. TITLE: LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX

  13. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  14. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    E-print Network

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  15. [An investigation of metazoan parasites of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in Lake Eber, Afyon, Turkey.].

    PubMed

    Oztürk, M O?uz

    2005-01-01

    In this study, metazoan parasites of the following fish species were investigated in Lake Eber (Afyon) from July 2002-2003. At the end of this research, 2 species of Monogenea (Gyrodactylus elegans, Dactylogyrus extensus) were found on the gills and fins of the fishes; 1 species of Digenea (Posthodiplostomum cuticola), on skin and fins; 1 species of Cestoda (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the intestines; and 1 species of Arthropoda (Argulus foliaceus), the skin, gills and fins of fish. The distribution of these parasites in various fish species are given below: The distribution of these parasites are as follows: 3456 Gyrodactylus elegans in 51 specimens of common carp (67.1% prevalence, 67.75+/-162.52 parasite/fish); 2980 Dactylogyrus extensus (73.6%, 53.21+/-52.95) in 56 specimens of common carp; 55 Posthodiplostomum cuticola (18.4%, 3.93+/-5.42) in 14 specimens of common carp; 1240 Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (43.4%, 37.55+/-53.98) in 33 specimens of common carp and 6 Argulus foliaceus (6.5%, 1.20+/-0.44); in 5 specimens of common carp. PMID:17160824

  16. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fink, Inge R; Ribeiro, Carla M S; Forlenza, Maria; Taverne-Thiele, Anja; Rombout, Jan H W M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-06-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30-40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like receptors, clearly pointing at immune functions of carp thrombocytes. Few studies have described the role of fish thrombocytes during infection. Carp are natural host to two different but related protozoan parasites, Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii, which reside in the blood and tissue fluids. We used the two parasites to undertake controlled studies on the role of fish thrombocytes during these infections. In vivo, but only during infection with T. borreli, thrombocytes were massively depleted from the blood and spleen leading to severe thrombocytopenia. Ex vivo, addition of nitric oxide induced a clear and rapid apoptosis of thrombocytes from healthy carp, supporting a role for nitric oxide-mediated control of immune-relevant thrombocytes during infection with T. borreli. The potential advantage for parasites to selectively deplete the host of thrombocytes via nitric oxide-induced apoptosis is discussed. PMID:25681740

  17. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, ?-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  18. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of IKK? gene from black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yixiao; Zhou, Man; Peng, Linzhi; Li, Jun; Yan, Jun; Yang, Peilin; Feng, Hao

    2015-11-01

    IKK? is an I?B kinase functioning in NF-?B signal pathway in the innate immune system of higher vertebrates. To exploit the function of IKK? of black carp (bcIKK?) in its antiviral innate immunity, the IKK? gene has been cloned from the RNA isolated from the spleen of black carp. The full-length cDNA of bcIKK? is 2537 bp, which encodes the peptide of 723 amino acids. bcIKK? contains a S-Tkc domain, a PKc domain and a UBL-TBK1-like domain and bcIKK? shares the highest amino acid sequence similarity with that of grass carp. bcIKK? was constitutively transcribed in the selected tissues of black carp including gill, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin and spleen; and the mRNA level of bcIKK? in these tissues varied right after SVCV or GCRV infection. bcIKK? had been well expressed in HEK293T cells and western blot assay determined that this fish kinase was around 80 KDa. The immunofluorescence assay of both NH3T3 cells and EPC cells demonstrated that bcIKK? was located in the cytosolic part of the cell. Report assay result showed that overexpression of bcIKK? in EPC cells activated the expression of both zebrafish IFN and EPC IFN. All our data suggest that bcIKK? is a novel fish kinase functioning in the innate antiviral immune response of black carp. PMID:26332502

  20. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  1. Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.

    1997-01-01

    A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on individual or populations of carp or other species. Future studies should shift to more intensive study of fewer sites, including reference and contaminated sites, in order to address these additional questions.

  2. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts. PMID:26091762

  3. Nitrogen removal and water microbiota in grass carp culture following supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4.

    PubMed

    Liang, Quan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lee, Khui Hung; Wang, Yibing; Yu, Kan; Shen, Wenying; Fu, Luoqin; Shu, Miaoan; Li, Weifen

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. The selected strain Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 significantly decreased nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended, whereas increased ammonia level. Pyrosequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in grass carp culture water. Compared with the control group, the number of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were increased, while Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased in treatment group. At the genus level, some genera, such as Bacillus, Prosthecobacter, Enterococcus, etc., appear only in the treatment, while many other genera exist only in the control group; Lactobacillus, Luteolibacter, Phenylobacterium, etc. were increased in treatment group compared to those in control group. As above, the results suggested that supplementation with B. licheniformis BSK-4 could remove some nitrogen and cause alterations of the microbial composition in grass carp water. PMID:26385546

  4. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    SciTech Connect

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  5. Major depression

    MedlinePLUS

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Ferri FF. Major depression. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015.

  6. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17?-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20?-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  7. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  8. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  9. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  10. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  11. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  12. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  13. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  14. Ultraviolet photoreception in carp: microspectrophotometry and behaviorally determined action spectra.

    PubMed

    Hawryshyn, C W; Harosi, F I

    1991-01-01

    This study demonstrates correlations between u.v. sensitivity and microspectrophotometric absorption spectra determined sequentially for the same group of individuals. We used the heart-rate conditioning technique to measure spectral sensitivity of carp, a species known to have u.v.-sensitive photoreceptors. Mean spectral sensitivity (n = 3) determined with a spectrally-broad background (450 nm long pass filter) revealed a small but consistent u.v. peak (lambda max of 380 nm) in addition to the other long wavelength peaks. An intense blue-green background (490 nm) produced a more prominent u.v. peak (lambda max of 400 nm) when a 450 nm longpass filter was added to the background. Microspectrophotometric measurements of u.v.-sensitive photoreceptors from one individual, which belonged to the group used in the spectral sensitivity experiments, revealed an average lambda max of 377.5 nm (SD +/- 4.5 nm, n = 5 cells). Bleaching and dichroic measurements of these receptors ensured that we were examining typical vertebrate visual pigments and not stable photoproducts. The mean spectral sensitivity points were compared with the u.v. and blue-sensitive visual pigment absorption spectra. A linear subtractive model and ocular media absorption were used in this comparison for the various photic conditions used in the heart-rate conditioning experiments. The model successfully described the sensitivity of the test fish in two cases but in a third case there was some discrepancy. The model generated curve was broader than the spectral sensitivity of the u.v.-sensitive cone mechanism on the shortwave side even though the ocular media corrections had been accounted for. PMID:1843761

  15. Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    BUL867 Grass Carp: A Fish for Biological Management of Hydrilla and Other Aquatic Weeds in Florida1 visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl. edu. 2. David L. Sutton, professor (aquatic weeds), retired; Vernon V. Vandiver Jr., associate professor (aquatic weeds specialist), retired; and Jeffrey E

  16. Detection of Carp Interstitial Nephritis and Gill Necrosis Virus in Fish Droppings

    PubMed Central

    Dishon, Arnon; Perelberg, Ayana; Bishara-Shieban, Janette; Ilouze, Maya; Davidovich, Maya; Werker, Shlomit; Kotler, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    Carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus (CNGV) is an unclassified large DNA virus that morphologically resembles members of the Herpesviridae but contains a large (ca. ?280-kbp) linear double-stranded DNA. This virus has also been named koi herpesvirus, koi herpes-like virus, and cyprinid herpesvirus 3. CNGV is the cause of a lethal disease that afflicts common carp and koi. By using immunohistochemistry, molecular analysis, and electron microscopy we previously demonstrated that this virus is present mainly in the intestine and kidney of infected fish. Based on these observations, we postulated that viruses and/or viral components may appear in droppings of infected carp. Here we report that (i) by using PCR we demonstrated that fish droppings contain viral DNA, (ii) fish droppings contain viral antigens which are useful for CNGV diagnosis, and (iii) fish droppings contain active virus which can infect cultured common carp brain cells and induce the disease in naïve fish following inoculation. Thus, our findings show that CNGV can be identified by using droppings without taking biopsies or killing fish and that infectious CNGV is present in the stools of sick fish. The possibility that fish droppings preserve viable CNGV during the nonpermissive seasons is discussed. PMID:16269770

  17. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ?8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  18. DULLEPIN OF THE mrrm STATES FISH COMMISSION. 203 Od.--CARP IN PRANOE.*

    E-print Network

    spring and under the rays of a warming sun. At spamning time the flesh is soft and flabby. The young carp avery long life. Those that we call salmoncarp haw 2 porn tho Nolaitcur do In Pieoiot&urc, &c., Paris

  19. Seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of common carp in Clear Lake, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Pierce, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed and frequently considered a nuisance species outside its native range. Common carp are abundant in Clear Lake, Iowa, where their presence is both a symptom of degradation and an impediment to improving water quality and the sport fishery. We used radiotelemetry to quantify seasonal distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection of adult and subadult common carp in Clear Lake during 2005-2006 in an effort to guide future control strategies. Over a 22-month period, we recorded 1,951 locations of 54 adults and 60 subadults implanted with radio transmitters. Adults demonstrated a clear tendency to aggregate in an offshore area during the late fall and winter and in shallow, vegetated areas before and during spring spawning. Late-fall and winter aggregations were estimated to include a larger percentage of the tracked adults than spring aggregations. Subadults aggregated in shallow, vegetated areas during the spring and early summer. Our study, when considered in combination with previous research, suggests repeatable patterns of distribution, aggregation, and habitat selection that should facilitate common carp reduction programs in Clear Lake and similar systems. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  20. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  1. Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a , Marc André nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus

  2. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  3. BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

  4. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  5. A comparative study on the physical, chemical and functional properties of carp skin and mammalian gelatins.

    PubMed

    Ninan, George; Joseph, Jose; Aliyamveettil, Zynudheen Abubacker

    2014-09-01

    Carp species forms the bulk of the aquaculture production in India and studies have shown that the filleting waste of these species, particularly skin can be a good source of gelatin. This study is a comparison of the gelatins from these unexploited sources with that of mammalian gelatins to get a better understanding of their physicochemical and functional properties with respect to mammalian gelatins. The study showed that mammalian gelatins had significantly superior physical properties viz., higher viscosity, melting & setting temperature and faster setting time. The odour scores were significantly higher (P?carp skin gelatins were significantly lower than mammalian gelatins. Among the carp skin gelatins, grass carp skin gelatin was found to have better compatibility with gelatin from bovine and porcine skins. PMID:25190867

  6. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, Patrick R.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study provide insights about transport, suspension, and dispersion of silver carp eggs. The knowledge gained from this study is useful to characterize the critical hydrodynamic conditions of the flow at which surrogates for silver carp water-hardened eggs settle out of suspension, and provides insight into how eggs may interact with riverbed sediments and morphology.

  7. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; E?imovi?, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging. PMID:25463866

  8. Centromere localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through half-tetrad analysis in diploid gynogenetic families.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2013-01-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N?=?48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

  9. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and tumor necrosis factor -? (TNF-?) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15 mg L(-1) of glyphosate for 168 h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77 mg L(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-?, IL-1?, and TNF-? in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-? content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1? content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-? mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp. PMID:25747155

  10. Differential metallothionein induction patterns in fed and starved carp (Cyprinus carpio) during waterborne copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Shodja; Kunwar, Prabesh S; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2008-10-01

    Starved and fed carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to sublethal waterborne copper exposure (1 microM) for 28 d in softened Antwerp, Belgium, city tap water. Copper accumulation in liver and gill tissues was determined, and changes in branchial Na+/K+-adenosine 5'-triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and metallothionein (MT) induction in gill and liver tissues were investigated following 28-d copper exposure. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity in exposed fish, both starved and fed, was at its lowest values after 3 d of exposure, after which it slowly recovered to preexposure values. No significant differences in branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity were found between starved and fed fish. Copper accumulation in the liver and gills of the exposed starved carp was significantly higher than that in the exposed fed carp. The highest MT induction was found in liver tissues. Different patterns of MT induction were observed in the starved and fed carp during copper exposure. Before exposure, MT concentrations in the livers of the starved fish were significantly higher than those in the fed ones. Copper exposure significantly increased MT concentration in the liver of the fed fish, but no changes occurred in the starved fish. In contrast, copper exposure increased MT concentrations in the gills of the starved fish during the first week of exposure, whereas only a slight increase in MT concentration in the gills of the fed fish was observed. When taking into account the role of feeding status in MT induction, hepatic MT was a more relevant indicator for long-term monitoring of copper pollution in carp, but gill MT provided useful information regarding short-term copper toxicity. PMID:18444695

  11. The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  12. The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming

    2013-10-01

    The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

  13. Identification and determination of tert-alkylphenols in carp from the Trenton Channel of the Detroit River, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, H; Carter, D S; Hites, R A

    1989-07-01

    Whole carp from the Detroit River were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. Seven tertiary alkyl phenols (tert-pentylphenols, tert-butyl-tert-pentylphenols, a di-tert-pentylphenol and a tri-tert-pentylphenol) and eight chlorinated derivatives of these compounds were identified from their mass spectra and confirmed with synthesized authentic standards. 2,4-Di-tert-pentylphenol was the most abundant of these compounds; in one fish sample, its concentration was about 140 ppm. The same alkyl phenols were also found in technical-grade 2,4-di-tert-pentylphenol, which is manufactured at a chemical plant located near the Detroit River. Comparison of the alkyl phenol levels in carp with those in nearby sediments showed that many of these compounds are taken up by carp and that carp can be used to roughly track local sediment contamination. PMID:2775903

  14. De novo assembly and characterization of the spleen transcriptome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Liu, Zhonghu; Gao, Chunsheng; Yan, Fengbin; Liu, Bianzhi; Feng, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquacultured species of the family Cyprinidae, and breeding this species for disease resistance is becoming more and more important. However, at the genome or transcriptome levels, study of the immunogenetics of disease resistance in the common carp is lacking. In this study, 60,316,906 and 75,200,328 paired-end clean reads were obtained from two cDNA libraries of the common carp spleen by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Totally, 130,293 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 1400.57 bp. Approximately 105,612 (81.06%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology with matches in the Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, COG, GO, or KEGG databases, and they were found to represent 46,747 non-redundant genes. Comparative analysis showed that 59.82% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins. Gene expression comparison revealed that 10,432 and 6889 annotated unigenes were, respectively, up- and down-regulated with at least twofold changes between two developmental stages of the common carp spleen. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed to classify all unigenes into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. In addition, 46,847 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 35,618 unigenes, and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) sites were identified in the spleen transcriptome of common carp. This study has characterized the spleen transcriptome of the common carp for the first time, providing a valuable resource for a better understanding of the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. This knowledge will also facilitate future functional studies on common carp immunogenetics that may eventually be applied in breeding programs. PMID:25804493

  15. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ?16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  16. Ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in hepatopancreas and skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Luo, Zhi; Mai, Kang-Sen; Liu, Cai-Xia; Zheng, Jia-Lang

    2015-12-01

    The ontogeny and kinetics of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) were investigated in hepatopancreas and muscle throughout four developmental stages (newly hatched larvae, 1-month-old juvenile, 3-month-old, and 6-month-old, respectively) of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. In hepatopancreas, the maximal velocity (V max) significantly increased from hatching to 1-month-old grass carp and then gradually declined at 6-month-old grass carp. In muscle, CPT I activity was the highest at 1-month-old grass carp, nearly twofold higher than that at hatching (P < 0.05). The Michaelis constant (K m) value was also the highest for 1-month-old in both tested tissues. Carnitine concentrations (FC, AC and TC) were the lowest for 3-month-old grass carp and remained relatively constant in both tissues from fish under the other developmental stages. The FC concentration in hepatopancreas and muscle at four developmental stages were less than the respective K m, indicating that grass carp required supplemental carnitine in their food to ensure that CPT I activity was not constrained by carnitine availability. PMID:26170093

  17. Characterization of two genes encoding leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Chang, M X; Nie, P; Xie, H X; Sun, B J; Gao, Q

    2005-01-01

    The cDNAs and genes of two different types of leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were cloned. Homology search revealed that the two genes, designated as GC-GARP and GC-LRG, have 37% and 32% deduced amino-acid sequence similarities with human glycoprotein A repetitions predominant precursor (GARP) and leucine-rich alpha2-glycoprotein (LRG), respectively. The cDNAs of GC-GARP and GC-LRG encoded 664 and 339 amino acid residues, respectively. GC-GARP and GC-LRG contain many distinct structural and/or functional motifs of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) subfamily, such as multiple conserved 11-residue segments with the consensus sequence LxxLxLxxN/CxL (x can be any amino acid). The genes GC-GARP and GC-LRG consist of two exons, with 4,782 bp and 2,119 bp in total length, respectively. The first exon of each gene contains a small 5'-untranslated region and partial open reading frame. The putative promoter region of GC-GARP was found to contain transcription factor binding sites for GATA-1, IRF4, Oct-1, IRF-7, IRF-1, AP1, GATA-box and NFAT, and the promoter region of GC-LRG for MYC-MAX, MEIS1, ISRE, IK3, HOXA9 and C/EBP alpha. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GC-GARP and mammalian GARPs were clustered into one branch, while GC-LRG and mammalian LRGs were in another branch. The GC-GARP gene was only detected in head kidney, and GC-LRG in the liver, spleen and heart in the copepod (Sinergasilus major)-infected grass carp, indicating the induction of gene expression by the parasite infection. The results obtained in the present study provide insight into the structure of fish LRR genes, and further study should be carried out to understand the importance of LRR proteins in host-pathogen interactions. PMID:15578176

  18. In Vivo and in Vitro Isomer-Specific Biotransformation of Perfluorooctane Sulfonamide in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Qiang, Liwen; Pan, Xiaoyu; Fang, Shuhong; Han, Yuwei; Zhu, Lingyan

    2015-12-01

    Biotransformation of PFOS-precursors (PreFOS) may contribute significantly to the level of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in the environment. Perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) is one of the major intermediates of higher molecular weight PreFOS. Its further degradation to PFOS could be isomer specific and thereby explain unexpected high percentages of branched (Br-) PFOS isomers observed in wildlife. In this study, isomeric degradation of PFOSA was concomitantly investigated by in vivo and in vitro tests using common carp as an animal model. In the in vivo tests branched isomers of PFOSA and PFOS were eliminated faster than the corresponding linear (n-) isomers, leading to enrichment of n-PFOSA in the fish. In contrast, Br-PFOS was enriched in the fish, suggesting that Br-PFOSA isomers were preferentially metabolized to Br-PFOS over n-PFOSA. This was confirmed by the in vitro test. The exception was 1m-PFOSA, which could be the most difficult to be metabolized due to its ?-branched structure, resulting in the deficiency of 1m-PFOS in the fish. The in vitro tests indicated that the metabolism mainly took place in the fish liver instead of its kidney, and it was mainly a Phase I reaction. The results may help to explain the special PFOS isomer profile observed in wildlife. PMID:26053759

  19. Ice-age endurance: the effects of cryopreservation on proteins of sperm of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Hulak, M; Koubek, P; Sulc, M; Dzyuba, B; Boryshpolets, S; Rodina, M; Gela, D; Manaskova-Postlerova, P; Peknicova, J; Linhart, O

    2010-08-01

    Damage to spermatozoa during cryopreservation is regarded as a major obstacle to the expansion of sperm storage technology. The authors used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to explore whether the protein profile of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa is affected by cryopreservation. Fourteen protein spots were significantly altered following cryopreservation. Eleven of these were identified: three as specific membrane proteins (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein alpha, cofilin 2, and annexin A4) involved in membrane trafficking, organization, and cell movement; six as cytoplasmic enzymes (S-Adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, Si:dkey-180p18.9 protein, lactate dehydrogenase B, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, transaldolase 1, and esterase D/formylglutathione hydrolase) involved in cell metabolism, oxidoreductase activity, and signal transduction; and two as transferrin variant C and F. Based on these findings, the authors hypothesize that transferrin in cryopreserved sperm may protect spermatozoa against oxidative damage during the freeze-thaw process. Cryopreservation caused changes in spermatozoa protein profiles that may lead to decreased spermatozoa velocity, motility, and fertilization success, and to subsequent ova hatching rate. PMID:20570330

  20. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

  1. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  2. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of triploid pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-03-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of triploid pengze crucian carp was 16,580?bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is A 31.53%, T 26.23%, G 16.15%, C 26.09%, with an A?+?T bias of 57.76%. The complete mtDNA sequence of the geographic triploid pengze crucian carp was reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25231717

  3. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the metabolome of the freshwater carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Pal, Sandipan; Koyama, Jiro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of waterborne chlorpyrifos with concentrations of 1 and 100 µg/L for L and H-groups, respectively, on metabolome profiles of carp plasma using (1)H-NMR. Principal component analysis suggests that chlorpyrifos exposure firstly affected in L and H-groups on day 2 or 4, and followed a second effect in both exposure groups on day 14. Levels of metabolites related to the energy production in the body, such as glucose, glycerol, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lactate, alanine, 3-D-hydroxybutyrates and acetoacetate, significantly changed by exposures of chlorpyrifos. Those results suggest that energy production was severely affected in carp. The exposure could also be highly elevated ammonia levels especially in H-group due to severe convulsion in muscle caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. PMID:23997021

  4. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  5. Allograft inflammatory factor-1 in grass carp (Ctenopharynogodon idella): Expression and response to cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanying; Li, Ruiwen; Lin, Yaqiu

    2015-11-01

    Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1 (AIF-1) is an inflammation responsive protein that is mainly produced by immunocytes. As a pro-inflammatory cytokine, AIF-1 is a key moderator in host immune defense reaction. However, the inflammatory properties of AIF-1 in freshwater fish still hasn't been clearly elucidated. In the present study, AIF-1 was identified from grass carp (Ctenopharynogodon idella). It's transcript was found in all examined tissues including brain, spleen, kidney, liver, heart, while a relative low level in red muscle, gill, thymus, white muscle, intestine and fin. Furthermore, AIF-1 transcription and expression level decreased in spleen and didn't change a lot in kidney with cadmium induction, respectively. The result indicated that grass carp AIF-1 might be involved in cadmium-induced stress. PMID:26334790

  6. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 ?m versus 16.72 to 47.36 ?m, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  7. Integrated assessment of biomarker response in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to clomazone.

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment. PMID:25779373

  8. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction of gene expression during their six-month overwintering period. PMID:26098567

  9. [Mutation rate and pattern of microsatellites in gynogenetic silver crucian carp (Carassius autatus gibeblio)].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Lu, Cui-Yun; Cao, Ding-Chen; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

    2008-04-01

    The natural gynogenetic triploid silver crucian carp (Carassius autatus gibeblio Bloch) provides a good system for studying evolutional genetics of the unisexual and polyploidy vertebrate. Microsatellites are abundant across genomes and show high levels of polymorphism and mutational rate, so they have been widely used for studying evolutional biology. In this study, the mutation rate and pattern at 33 microsatellite loci of silver crucian carp were investigated. As a result, it was found that the only one of 22 offspring had 18 mutant alleles at 15 microsatellite loci. The overall mutation rate of the 33 loci was 1.16x10(-2)/locus/generation (95% confidence interval 6.87x10(-3) and 1.83x10(-2)). The mutation rate in the gynogenetic triploid silver crucian carp was obviously higher than other fish, which was closely related to the transitional phase of parthenogenesis and gamogenesis in the natural gynogenetic fish. The repeat numbers had more than 10 times at 13 loci of the mutant alleles, and there was no obviously different in the mutant rate between the 11 compound microsatellite loci (1.31x10(-2) )and the 21 perfect microsatellite loci(1.00x10(-2)) (P = 0.67). The mutant rate had affinity with repeat numbers instead of repeat types and GC content in flanking sequences of microsatellite. The mutation pattern of silver crucian carp was very complexional, as well as some loci did not follow the Stepwise Mutation Model. PMID:18424420

  10. CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-?B signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs. PMID:23826121

  11. A tale of four “carp:” Invasion potential and ecological niche modeling

    E-print Network

    DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

    2009-05-06

    Channa argus in Maryland; [6]). Robust methods for anticipating the geographic potential of possible invaders on a continental scale would allow decision-makers and managers to make informed decisions and take effective actions towards excluding harmful..., Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas [30]; evidence of reproduction has been recorded from the Mississippi River drainage of all of these states except Texas [47]. Grass carp have already adversely affected U.S. ecosystems in several areas...

  12. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    PubMed

    Liang, LiQun; Chang, YuMei; He, XuLing; Tang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, "protein localization" and "protein transport" were the most highly represented biological processes. "Circadian rhythm," "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," "endocytosis," "insulin signaling pathway," and "lysosome" were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction of gene expression during their six-month overwintering period. PMID:26098567

  13. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  14. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Grou, Cláudia P O; Bergsma, Jorrit; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rombout, Jan H W M

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis (or posterior blood islet), head kidney and trunk kidney. In addition, the hematopoietic tissue around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis transformed into that of the trunk kidney, which is the first description of the ontogeny of the trunk kidney hematopoietic tissue in teleosts. The mAb's used in this study reacted with carp myeloid surface molecules that are already transcribed and processed from the first appearance of myeloid cells, and thus serve a significant role in unraveling ontogenetic processes of teleost immunology. Finally, this study associated the first appearance of myeloid cells with an immune response on the molecular level: 2 days post fertilization embryos responded to LPS injection with upregulation of interleukin 1-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and serum amyloid A, and down-regulation of complement factor 3 and alpha2-macroglobulin, implying a functional embryonic innate defense system. PMID:16406121

  15. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (?1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp ?1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp ?1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  16. Metatranscriptomic discovery of plant biomass-degrading capacity from grass carp intestinal microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Ren, Yi; Peng, Chun; Hao, Yaotong; Xiong, Fan; Wang, Guitang; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Angert, Esther R

    2015-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of fish, the ecology and metabolic capacity of fish microbiomes are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the metatranscriptome of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, a freshwater herbivorous fish species. Our results confirmed previous work describing the bacterial composition of the microbiota at the phylum level as being dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. Comparative transcriptomes of the microbiomes of fish fed with different experimental diets indicated that the bacterial transcriptomes are influenced by host diet. Although hydrolases and cellulosome-based systems predicted to be involved in degradation of the main chain of cellulose, xylan, mannan and pectin were identified, transcripts with glycoside hydrolase modules targeting the side chains of noncellulosic polysaccharides were more abundant. Predominant 'COG' (Clusters of Orthologous Group) categories in the intestinal microbiome included those for energy production and conversion, as well as carbohydrate and amino acid transport and metabolism. These results suggest that the grass carp intestinal microbiome functions in carbohydrate turnover and fermentation, which likely provides energy for both host and microbiota. Grass carp intestinal microbiome thus reflects its evolutionary adaption for harvesting nutrients for an herbivore with a high-throughput nutritional strategy that is not dominated by cellulose digestion but rather the degradation of intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:26362922

  17. Composition, Diversity, and Origin of the Bacterial Community in Grass Carp Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R.; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  18. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  19. IFNa of black carp is an antiviral cytokine modified with N-linked glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhilin; Chen, Song; Liu, Jiachen; Xiao, Jun; Yan, Jun; Feng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in the antiviral immune response in teleost fish. In this study, one type I interferon (bcIFNa) of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of bcIFNa gene consists of 783 nucleotides and the predicted bcIFNa protein contains 185 amino acids. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that bcIFNa mRNA transcription level in all the selected tissues of black carp was greatly increased at 33 h post spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. The protein of bcIFNa could be detected in both the whole cell lysate and the supernatant media of HEK293T cells transfected with plasmids expressing bcIFNa through immunoblot assay. EPC cells showed greatly increased antiviral ability when the cells were treated with the bcIFNa-containing conditioned media for 24 h before SVCV infection. Mass spectrum assay and glycosidase digestion analysis determined that bcIFNa is modified with N-linked glycosylation, which occurs on the Asn (N) of 38 site of this cytokine. The un-glycosylated mutant bcIFNa-N38Q could be secreted out of the cell and showed the similar antiviral ability against SVCV as that of wild type bcIFNa, which suggested that N-linked glycosylation does not contribute directly to the antiviral property of this fish cytokine. PMID:26208754

  20. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

  1. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-09-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg(-1), medium dose: 621 µg kg(-1) and high dose: 797 µg kg(-1) final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and ?-zearalenol (?-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  2. Effects of the terbuthylazine metabolite terbuthylazine-desethyl on common carp embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Koutnik, Dalibor; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of terbuthylazine-desethyl to embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was assessed. Based on mortality, the lethal concentration of terbuthylazine-desethyl was estimated to be 31days LC50=441.6?g/L. Carp exposed to terbuthylazine-desethyl at 1800?g/L exhibited lower weight and length at 7days of exposure compared to the control group. By day 20, carp exposed to 900?g/L terbuthylazine-desethyl showed lower weight and length compared to control group. Terbuthylazine-desethyl in concentrations (180, 900, and 1800?g/L) caused delay in ontogenetic development. Total superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in all exposed groups. Exposure to 180 and 900?g/L terbuthylazine-desethyl was associated with alteration of the caudal kidney tubular system including peritubular dilatation detachment of epithelial cells from the basal lamina, and focal autolytic disintegration of the tubular epithelia. Chronic terbuthylazine-desethyl exposure affected survival, growth, ontogenetic development, and the antioxidant system and caused pathological changes to the caudal kidney. PMID:26363394

  3. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  4. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg?1, medium dose: 621 µg kg?1 and high dose: 797 µg kg?1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and ?-zearalenol (?-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  5. Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Ma?gorzata; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The presence of specific peptides with antioxidant properties released during carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysis by human/porcine digestive enzymes, respectively, was examined. Based on the results of the in silico data analysis, antioxidant peptides were selected for subsequent identification in the digests/hydrolysates. Carp proteins were more resistant to hydrolysis by porcine enzymes than by human digestive juices. The sarcoplasmic proteins were hydrolyzed faster than the myofibrillar ones by both human/porcine enzymes. The in vitro myofibrillar protein hydrolysate showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging activity (?232.3 TEAC, ?M Trolox/g), whereas the ex vivo hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (?88?M/g) and reducing power. Five antioxidant peptides were identified in carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates: FIKK, HL, IY, PW, VY. The peptide HL from myofibrillar proteins was identified only in the ex vivo hydrolysate, whereas the peptide PW from sarcoplasmic proteins was identified only in the in vitro hydrolysate. PMID:26471617

  6. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  7. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Protective properties of sesamin against fluoride-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio) via JNK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Xie, Lingtian; Wang, Jundong; Feng, Cuiping; Song, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Sesamin, a major lignan derived from sesame seeds, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. However, its protective effects against fluoride-induced injury in kidney of fish have not been clarified. Previously we found that fluoride exposure caused damage and apoptosis in the kidneys of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio. In this study, the effects of sesamin on renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in fluoride-exposed fish were determined. The results showed that sesamin alleviated significantly fluoride-induced renal damage and apoptosis of carp in a dose-dependent manner, indicated by the histopathological examination and ultrastructural observation. Moreover, treatment with sesamin also inhibited significantly fluoride-induced remarkable enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress, such as the increase of lipid peroxidation level and the depletion of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level in kidney. To explore the underlying mechanisms of sesamin action, we found that activities of caspase-3 were notably inhibited by treatment with sesamin in the kidney of fluoride-exposed fish. Sesamin decreased the levels of p-JNK protein in kidney, which in turn inactivated pro-apoptotic signaling events by restoring the balance between mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bax proteins and by decreasing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in kidney of fluoride-exposed fish. JNK was also involved in the mitochondrial extrinsic apoptotic pathways of sesamin effects against fluoride-induced renal injury by regulating the levels of p-c-Jun, necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and Bak proteins. These findings indicated that sesamin could protect kidney against fluoride-induced apoptosis by the oxidative stress downstream-mediated change in the inactivation of JNK signaling pathway. Taken together, sesamin plays an important role in maintaining renal health and preventing kidney from toxic damage induced by fluoride. PMID:26340122

  9. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  10. Physiological responses to mercury in feral carp populations inhabiting the low Ebro River (NE Spain), a historically contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Anna; Quirós, Laia; Casado, Marta; Faria, Melissa; Carrasco, Luís; Benejam, Lluís; Benito, Josep; Díez, Sergi; Raldúa, Demetrio; Barata, Carlos; Bayona, Josep M; Piña, Benjamin

    2009-06-28

    The low Ebro River course (Northeast Spain) is historically affected by mercury pollution due to a chlor-alkali plant operating at the town of Flix for more than a century. River sediments analysed during the last 10 years showed high mercury levels in the river section starting just downstream the factory and spanning some 90km, down to the river delta. The possible environmental impact was studied by a combination of field and laboratory studies. Mercury concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle of feral carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled downstream Flix were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from carps sampled upstream Flix. Elevated levels of mercury in these samples associated with significant increases on the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and on mRNA expression of two metallothionein genes, MT1 and MT2, in kidney and, partially, in scales, but not in liver. Conversely, no biochemical evidence for oxidative stress or DNA damage was found in these tissues. Non-contaminated carps subjected to intraperitoneal mercury injection resulted in a 20-fold increase of MT1 and MT2 mRNA levels in carp kidney, with minimal changes in liver levels. Our data suggests the coordinate increase of metallothionein mRNA in kidney and of GSH in liver constitutes an excellent marker of exposure to sub-toxic mercury levels in carps. This study also demonstrates that apparently healthy fish populations may exceed the mercury contamination acceptable for human consumption. PMID:19482362

  11. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  12. The transcriptomes of the crucian carp complex (Carassius auratus) provide insights into the distinction between unisexual triploids and sexual diploids.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

  13. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

  14. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ?6-desaturase and Elovl5 segments and their associations with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) growth traits.

    PubMed

    Ren, H Ren; Yu, J; Xu, P; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are crucial for the nutritional health, physiology, and reproduction of vertebrates. The ?6-desaturase and Elovl5 elongase genes produce essential enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HUFAs. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of genes functionally related to the growth traits of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) can provide useful information for common carp molecular breeding. In this study, we isolated two ?6 Fad genes and two Elovl5 genes from the common carp. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed, and the genotypes of three SNPs (?6Fad-a intron 10_C73T, ?6Fad-b intron 10_A56G, and Elovl5-a intron 5_C64A) in 712 individuals (383 females and 329 males) were detected. Correlation analysis between the genotypes and weight gain revealed that intron 10_C73T of ?6Fad-a, intron 10_A56G of ?6Fad-b, and intron 5_ C64A of Elovl5-a were significantly associated with common carp weight gain. Weight gain increased with the enrichment of molecular SNP markers, consistent with the characteristics of quantitative traits. Our results indicate that ?6Fad and Elovl5 elongase genes could be candidate genes for the molecular breeding of the common carp. This study provides useful information for the improvement of this species. PMID:26505436

  16. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

  17. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

  18. Selective synaptic distribution of AMPA and kainate receptor subunits in the outer plexiform layer of the carp retina.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K; Janssen-Bienhold, U; Weiler, R

    2001-07-01

    The subunit composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs) is extremely diverse and responsible for the diversity of postsynaptic responses to the release of glutamate, which is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina. To understand the functional consequences of this diversity, it is necessary to reveal the synaptic localization and subunit composition of GluRs. We have used immuno light and electron microscopy to localize AMPA and kainate (GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4, GluR5-7) subunits in identified carp retinal neurons contributing to the outer plexiform layer. GluR1 could not be detected within the outer plexiform layer. Rod and cone horizontal cells all express only GluR2/3 at the tips of their invaginating dendrites. These receptors are also inserted into the membrane of spinules, light-dependent protrusions of the horizontal cell dendrites, flanking the synaptic ribbon of the cone synapse. Bipolar cells express GluR2/3, GluR4, and GluR5-7 at their terminal dendrites invaginating cone pedicles and rod spherules. Colocalization data suggest that each subunit is expressed by a distinct bipolar cell type. The majority of bipolar cells expressing these receptors seem to be of the functional OFF-type; however, in a few instances, GluR2/3 could also be detected on dendrites of bipolar cells that, based on their localization within the cone synaptic complex, appeared to be of the functional ON-type. The spatial arrangement of the different subunits within the cavity of the cone pedicle appeared not to be random: GluR2/3 was found predominantly at the apex of the cavity, GluR4 at its base and GluR5-7 dispersed between the two. PMID:11406824

  19. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  20. Efficacy of some anticoccidial drugs for treating coccidial enteritis of the common carp caused by Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Molnár, K; Ostoros, Györgyi

    2007-03-01

    In this study, nine anticoccidial drugs commonly used in poultry were tested for efficacy for the prevention and treatment of Goussia carpelli (Apicomplexa) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). To establish experimental infection with G. carpelli, paratenic host oligochaetes of the genera Tubifex and Limnodrilus were infected with oocysts, and laboratory-cultured parasite-free common carp fingerlings were infected by feeding to them oligochaetes containing sporozoites. The anticoccidial drugs (amprolium, narasin, maduramicin, salinomycin Na, lasalocid Na, diclazuril, robenidine HCl, monensin Na and toltrazuril), mixed in the food of the fish in a dose of 200 mg/kg, were fed for 12 days. Common carp fingerlings fed diclazuril, lasalocid, robenidine HCl or maduramicin and killed on day 14 after exposure were free from infection, while other groups treated with amprolium, toltrazuril, monensin Na, narasin or salinomycin Na harboured oocysts in the mucus and epithelium of the gut. PMID:17385557

  1. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  2. Efficacy of allicin in decreasing lead (Pb) accumulation in selected tissues of lead-exposed common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Shahsavani, Davar; Baghshani, Hasan; Alishahi, Elias

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of allicin, the main biologically active component of garlic clove extracts, on lead levels in different common carp tissues including liver, kidney, brain, bone, and blood following experimental lead poisoning. Fish were divided randomly into five groups depending on the combination of lead acetate and allicin treatments. Lead acetate exposure (7.0 mgL(-1), 10 days) caused a significant increase in mean Pb concentrations in all examined tissues in comparison to control unexposed fish (p?carp. The promising ameliorative effects of allicin on tissue lead levels of common carp make it a good candidate for therapeutic intervention of lead poisoning. However, more studies are required to elucidate the pharmacokinetic effects of allicin and also molecular basis of the ameliorative properties of allicin in lead poisoning. PMID:20711682

  3. Postmortem changes in actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation and endogenous enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Deng, Shaoying; Xu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang

    2016-04-15

    The changes of actomyosin, proteolytic activities and myofibril fragmentation during the postmortem aging of grass carp were studied. The study revealed dramatically increased actomyosin dissociation within 6h of storage postmortem in grass carp, and it was associated with the drop of pH from 6.9 to 6.7, while liberated actin remained almost unchanged after 6h postmortem. The myofibril fragmentation also increased significantly with the storage time in 6h, and a highly positive correlation (P<0.01) existed between MFI and cathepsin B, D, H activities. The study indicated both actomyosin dissociation and cathepsin B, D, H played a role in postmortem tenderization and textural changes in grass carp. PMID:26616958

  4. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M

    1991-04-01

    The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

  5. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E.; Chen, Billy; Koch, Stephen R.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  6. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, Franz; Weismann, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this laboratory study was to provide better knowledge about the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (causative agent: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliate bacteria) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following questions were investigated: (1) the effectiveness of different chemicals (formalin, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Perotan, Virkon, Aquahumin, Baycox, and Ivomec) and at different concentrations and durations of application, (2) the number of treatments and the time intervals between treatments that were necessary to remove the parasite, and (3) how treatment effectiveness differed between the two species. The most effective treatment was a 37% stock solution of formalin at 110 microL/L of bath water for 1 h in rainbow trout and for 2 h in common carp. Aquahumin (150 microL/L for 2 h) was effective in slightly or moderately infected rainbow trout and at low water temperatures, but it was not effective for common carp. All other tested chemicals were ineffective. With formalin and Aquahumin, five treatments were necessary to remove I. multifiliis infestation. At 10 +/- 1 degrees C, the parasites were eradicated when the treatment was performed at 48-h intervals. At 18 +/- 1 degrees C the infestation was eliminated when treatment was performed at 24-h intervals but not at 48-h intervals. At 25 +/- 1 degrees C, treatment at 24-h intervals was ineffective; however, shorter intervals between treatments might improve treatment efficacy at this temperature. In contrast, the number of treatment repetitions played a minor role, and parasites were eliminated with five treatments in all experiments when the type of chemical and treatment interval were optimal. PMID:18201060

  7. Cloning, characterization and expression analysis of coagulation factor II gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, B H; Chen, K J; Yao, Y B; Liu, Q L; Xiao, T Y; Su, J M; Peng, H Z

    2015-01-01

    Here, we characterized the structure and function of the coagulation factor II (FII) gene in grass carp and determined its role in coagulation mechanisms. The FII gene EST was obtained using a constructed splenic transcriptome database; the full-length FII gene sequence was obtained by 3' and 5' RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of FII was cloned and the full-length gene was found to be 1718 bp, with an ORF of 1572 bp; the gene contained a 25 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 108 bp 3'-UTR. The ORF encoded 524 amino acids, including 74 alkaline amino acids (arginine and lysine) and 69 acidic amino acids (aspartic acid and glutamic acid). The theoretical pI was 6.22. The calculated instability index (II) was 39.81, indicating that FII was a stable protein; the half-life period was predicted to be approximately 30 h. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that grass carp FII showed most similarity (71%) to FII of Takifugu rubripes, followed by Oplegnathus fasciatus (48% similarity) and Larimichthys crocea (47% similarity). A real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that under normal circumstances, FII was most highly expressed in the liver, followed by the gill, spleen, thymus, and head-kidney (P < 0.001). After injection of the grass carp reovirus 873 (GCRV873), the pattern of FII expression was significantly altered (P < 0.001); gene expression was high after injection, suggesting a response involving the initiation of the coagulation system and defense of the body in combination with the platelet and complement system. PMID:26535692

  8. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana . E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

    2005-07-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

  9. Syrtis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A prominent dark, triangular albedo feature (dark by contrast with its surroundings) on the Martian equator, centered approximately at 10 °N, 70 °E. It takes its name from the historical name for the larger of two quicksands off the North African coast. Syrtis Major is prominent in telescopic views of the planet, and was in fact the first feature of Mars ever to be recorded, in a sketch made by C...

  10. Characterization of interleukin-1? as a proinflammatory cytokine in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Bo, Yun-Xuan; Song, Xue-Hong; Wu, Kang; Hu, Bo; Sun, Bing-Yao; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Fu, Jian-Gui

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a well-characterized cytokine that plays key roles in cellular responses to infection, inflammation, and immunological challenges in mammals. In this study, we identified and analyzed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) ortholog of IL-1? (gcIL-1?), examined its expression patterns in various tissues in both healthy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated specimens, and evaluated its proinflammatory activities. The gcIL-1? gene consists of seven exons and six introns. The full-length cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 813 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a characteristic IL-1 signature but lacks the typical IL-1? converting enzyme cleavage site that is conserved in mammals. In the phylogenetic tree, IL-1?s from grass carp and other members of the Cyprinidae family clustered into a single group. Expression pattern analysis revealed that gcIL-1? is constitutively expressed in all 11 tissues examined, and LPS stimulation leads to significant up-regulation in muscle, liver, intestine, skin, trunk kidney, head kidney, and gill. Recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) was generated prokaryotically as a fusion protein of Trx-rgcIL-1?. An anti-rgcIL-1? polyclonal antibody (rgcIL-1? pAb) was raised in mice against the purified Trx-rgcIL-1?. Western blot analysis confirmed that rgcIL-1? pAb reacted specifically with gcIL-1? in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that intestinal mRNA expression levels of endogenous IL-1?, IL-1R2, and TNF-? were significantly up-regulated following Trx-rgcIL-1? exposure. The inhibitory activities of rgcIL-1? pAb against the inflammatory response were confirmed in a model of Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal inflammation. Our immunohistochemical study revealed that the degree and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltration are fully consistent with the observed mRNA expression patterns of these key inflammatory genes. Taken together, these data suggest that gcIL-1? plays a critical role in the proinflammatory response in the grass carp intestine. PMID:26235982

  11. Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.

    1987-03-01

    We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

  12. Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) disturbs osmotic balance in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)--A potential cause of mortality.

    PubMed

    Negenborn, J; van der Marel, M C; Ganter, M; Steinhagen, D

    2015-06-12

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) causes a fatal disease in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its ornamental koi varieties which seriously affects production and trade of this fish species globally. Up to now, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. Affected individuals develop most prominent lesions in gills, skin and kidney, in tissues which are involved in the osmotic regulation of freshwater teleosts. Therefore, here serum and urine electrolyte levels were examined during the course of an experimental infection of carp with CyHV-3. In infected carp an interstitial nephritis with a progressive deterioration of nephric tubules developed, which was paralleled by elevated electrolyte losses, mainly Na(+) in the urine. The urine/plasma ratio for Na(+) increased from 0.03 in uninfected carp to 0.43-0.83 in carp under CyHV-3 infection, while concentration of divalent ions were not significantly changed. These electrolyte losses could not be compensated since plasma osmolality and Na(+) concentration dropped significantly in CyHV-3 infected carp. This was most probably caused by the progressive deterioration of the branchial epithelium, which in teleosts plays a prominent role in osmoregulation, and which was seen concomitantly with decreasing electrolyte levels in the serum of carp under CyHV-3 infection. Immediately after infection with CyHV-3, by day 2 post exposure, affected carp showed severe anaemia and prominent leucocytosis indicating the development of an acute inflammation, which could intensify the observed hydro-mineral imbalances. The data presented here show that an infection with CyHV-3 induces an acute inflammation and a severe dysfunction of osmoregulation in affected carp or koi, which may lead to death in particular in the case of acute disease progression. PMID:25888311

  13. Investigation of long-term stress induced by several stressors by determination of the concentration of different blood plasma components in a model of Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio BLOCH, 1783) and Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758).

    PubMed

    Hegyi, A; Béres, T; Váradi, L; Lefler, K K; Tóth, B; Urbányi, B

    2006-09-01

    Several compounds (carbohydrates, proteins, hormones, etc.) were used in fish to quantify the level of stress. Our investigations focused on two parameters of the blood plasma: plasma glucose and serum/plasma fructosamine (SeFa) that has not been tested on fish as yet. Experiments were conducted on two fish species. The concentrations of these components were investigated on Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) and on Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio BLOCH, 1783) from the Gödöllö-Isaszeg pond system by creating conditions different from ideal. Stress effects caused a fluctuating tendency in blood plasma glucose levels each week for both Common carp and Prussian carp, thus, there was no steady growth. However, SeFa concentrations exactly followed stress effects, moreover, it tolerated short-term negative effects (handling of fish, blood sampling) and did not cause alterations at individuals blood samplings. This experimental method can offer assistance to farmers in the daily routine (e.g. in fish transport) and in the technology of propagation. PMID:17048694

  14. Cadmium Induces Liver Cell Apoptosis through Caspase-3A Activation in Purse Red Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

  15. New type of pathogenicity of Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 infecting the skin of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yanhua; Gu, Zemao; Guo, Qingxiang; Wu, Zizhen; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Thelohanellus kitauei Egusa & Nakajima, 1981 is a common parasite infecting the intestine of common carp Cyprinus carpio L., resulting in mass mortality or loss of economic value of cultured carp. In the present study, T. kitauei infecting host skin was detected. The morphological, molecular and histological data of this parasite in the new organ record are presented. Morphological analysis showed the current specimen morphologically similar to T. kitauei from the intestine. Despite the spore length and polar capsule length of the current specimen larger than those of T. kitauei from the intestine, ranges of dimensions overlap, which is more suggestive of intraspecific variation than distinct species. BLAST search revealed that the present small subunit ribosomal DNA gene sequence is identical to those of T. kitauei. Histologically, most of spores distributed in the stratum spongiosum of dermis, and some spores in the strata compactum of host skin were also observed. Above all, both morphology and molecular analysis indicated that the current species from the skin of common carp is conspecific with T. kitauei from the intestine of carp and organ habitats transfer of T. kitauei from host intestine to skin may have occurred. PMID:26537837

  16. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  17. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  18. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF TERT-ALKLYPHENOLS IN CARP FROM THE TRENTON CHANNEL OF THE DETROIT RIVER, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole carp from the Detroit River were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. even tertiary alkyl phenols (tert-pentylphenols, tert-butyl-tert-pentylphenols, a di-tert-pentylphenol and a tri-tert-pentylphenol) and eight chlorinated derivatives of these compounds were ...

  20. Size-and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    midge larvae and large chironomids). Roach (Rutilus rutilus) and carp dominated in abundance the non-littoral zone of the lake and showed resource partitioning, with roach being a more efficient zooplanktivore salmoides) and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) in the littoral zone and roach (Rutilus rutilus

  1. Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS

    E-print Network

    , South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007, USA Abstract.--Otoliths (asteriscus) have, extraction and processing of common carp otoliths are time consuming and require sacrifice of fish. Therefore, we analyzed age estimation precision of four alternative structures relative to otolith age for 139

  2. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  3. Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

  4. Cynatratoside-C efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and toxicity tests on grass carp and mammal blood cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Liang, Jing-Han; Lin, De-Jie

    2015-11-17

    Infection by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite, results in high fish mortality and causes severe economic losses in aquaculture. To find new, efficient anti-I. multifiliis agents, cynatratoside-C was isolated from Cynanchum atratum by bioassay-guided fractionation in a previous study. The present study investigated the anti-theront activity, determined the toxicity of cynatratoside-C to grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus and mammalian blood cells, and evaluated the protection of cynatratoside-C against I. multifiliis theront infection in grass carp. Results showed that all theronts were killed by 0.25 mg l-1 of cynatratoside-C in 186.7 ± 5.8 min. Cynatratoside-C at 0.25 mg l-1 was effective in treating infected grass carp and protecting naive fish from I. multifiliis infestation. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of cynatratoside-C to grass carp and 4 h median effective concentration (EC50) of cynatratoside-C to theront were 46.8 and 0.088 mg l-1, respectively. In addition, the hemolysis assay demonstrated that cynatratoside-C had no cytotoxicity to rabbit red blood cells. Therefore, cynatratoside-C could be a safe and effective potential parasiticide for controlling I. multifiliis. PMID:26575152

  5. ISOMER DEPENDENT BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...

  6. Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).

    PubMed

    Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

    2013-08-01

    A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration. PMID:23456946

  7. Response of the chromatophores in relation to the healing of skin wounds in an Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Rai, A K; Srivastava, N; Nigam, A K; Kumari, U; Mittal, S; Mittal, A K

    2012-06-01

    Chromatophores show significant changes during healing of skin wounds in Labeo rohita (Common Name--Rohu). Wound area can be divided into regions I, II and III. After infliction of wound, skin colour becomes significantly dark by 2h that is gradually restored by 2d. In regions II and III at 5 min, epidermal melanophores appear with beaded dendrites. In these regions at 2h and in region I at 6h, epidermal melanophores appear small, rounded or irregular shaped having dendritic processes with aggregated melanosomes. Subsequently, melanophores appear having elongated dendrites with dispersed or aggregated melanosomes. At 24h, clusters of pigmented bodies appear in regions I and II. These bodies increase up to 2d, and then diminish gradually and disappear by 8d. Changes in dermal melanophores in region II at 5 min indicate the onset of degeneration. Degenerating melanophores increase up to 12h, then gradually decline, and disappear by 4d. Simultaneously, stellate melanophore reappear, gradually increase and appear like control by 8d. Dermal melanophores in region III at different intervals appear stellate. In region I stellate dermal melanophores appear at 4d. Stellate melanophores in all regions show different distribution of dispersed or aggregated melanosomes. With the appearance of dermal melanophores, highly refractive, crystalline structures, possibly the refractive platelets of the iridophores, are visualized around them. At subsequent intervals, these are frequently observed. This study provides interesting insights in injury induced changes in chromatophores in fish. The findings could be considered useful in perception of intriguing features in the development of pigment research in future. PMID:22321648

  8. Nanobeads-based rapid magnetic solid phase extraction of trace amounts of leuco-malachite green in Chinese major carps.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jianwen; Wei, Hua; Lai, Weihua; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Xu, Hengyi; Xiong, Yonghua

    2012-08-15

    A proof-of-concept for the use of oleic acid coated magnetic nanobeads (OA-MNBs) for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace amounts of leuco-malachite green (LMG) from fish samples was developed. The OA-MNBs were prepared by covalently conjugating oleic acid on amino-modified magnetic polystyrene beads. The OA-MNBs were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta-potential analyzer. The optimized parameters for MSPE with OA-MNBs of LMG from fish muscle involved a combination of pH 10.0 in 10% acetonitrile, 1.5 M sodium chloride as an adsorption solution, and an extraction procedure involving 6 mg OA-MNBs in 18 mL LMG adsorption solution. This was optimized for 0.5 g fish muscles with an incubation period of 10 min using 200 ?L acetonitrile for elution. Using the optimized parameters, the performance of MSPE with OA-MNBs was evaluated by analyzing LMG-spiked fish extracts with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The results indicated that recoveries of LMG (from 0.1 to 2 ng/g) ranged from 71.2%-112.6% with relative standard deviations as low as 0.6%. Out of 57 field fish samples, eight LMG positive samples were confirmed using MSPE with OA-MNBs. Compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction methods, the results showed that MSPE with OA-MNBs had a higher sensitivity for samples with low LMG concentration. Furthermore, the MSPE with OA-MNB took only 40 min to perform without the need for time consuming sample-pretreatment process. Therefore, MSPE with OA-MNBs holds promise for rapid, sensitive, and cost effective screening for LMG in fish samples. PMID:22841089

  9. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

  10. Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hao; Hu, Wei; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

  11. Structural and biochemical characterization of a new type of lectin isolated from carp eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo; Campagnoli, Monica; Sala, Alberto; Visai, Livia; Amoresano, Angela; Pucci, Piero; Casbarra, Annarita; Cauci, Marco; Perduca, Massimiliano; Monaco, Hugo L

    2003-01-01

    A previously unidentified glycoprotein present in the eggs of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) was isolated and structurally characterized. The protein binds to a Sepharose 4B matrix and can be eluted with 0.4 M N -acetylglucosamine. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 26686.3 Da. On the basis of gel-filtration chromatography, the protein appears to be present in solution as a monomer. The sequence of its 238 amino acids, the position of its four disulphide bridges and the composition of its single N-linked carbohydrate chain were determined. The lectin shows a very low agglutinating activity for human A-type erythrocytes and interacts with both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These latter interactions are inhibited by N -acetylglucosamine. A database search shows that its amino acid sequence is similar to that of the members of an invertebrate lectin family that includes tachylectin-1. Tachylectin-1 is present in the amoebocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, and plays a role in the innate defence system of this species. Homologous genes are also present in other fish, having 85% identity with a gene expressed in the oocytes of the crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ) and 78% identity with a gene in the cDNA library of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). PMID:12956625

  12. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  13. MicroRNA-induced negative regulation of TLR-5 in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Yu-Bang; Fu, Jian-Jun; Yu, Hong-Yan; Huang, Wen-Ji; Lu, Li-Qun; Li, Jia-Le

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. However, the role of miRNAs in antibacterial defence in fish has not been fully determined. Here, we identified that nine miRNAs are differentially expressed in kidney between susceptible and resistant grass carp strains. Analysis of spatial and temporal miRNA expression patterns suggests that cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p are potential regulators of anti-bacterial activity. Overexpressing of cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p results in a visible change in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells immune effector activity. Bioinformatics analysis and overexpressing assay shows that cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p directly regulate tlr5 expression. cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p overexpressing leads to a significant decrease in tlr5 expression in CIK, thereby repressing its downstream genes, such as il-1?, il-8 and tnf-?. These findings provide a novel insight into the determination of anti-bacterial compounds in grass carp. PMID:26727169

  14. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on the phagocytic cells of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Adaszek, ?ukasz

    2015-11-01

    Cylindrospermopsin is a cyanotoxin with cytotoxic activity. It is released into water during and after cyanobacterial water blooms and thus poses a threat to the health of fish. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. In this study, we assessed the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the basic functions of phagocytic cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), including phagocytosis, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, and the structure of microfilaments and selected cytokine expression. Phagocytic cells, isolated from fish head kidneys, were exposed to the toxin at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 1?µg?ml(-1) , for up to 24?h. Cytotoxicity, detected by lactate dehydrogenase release, was observed at the highest studied concentration. A decrease in phagocytic activity and changes in actin cytoskeletal structures were observed after the cell exposure to the toxin at 0.5 and 1?µg?ml(-1) . Moreover, at all tested concentrations, cylindrospermopsin increased the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It also evidently influenced the expression of genes of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? and tumour necrosis factor-? and, to a minor extent, anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor-?, but had no effects on interleukin-10. The results indicated that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin is able to modify basic features of carp phagocytic cells, which might result in adverse consequences for fish health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25639895

  15. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of grass carp ?{sub 2}-microglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weihong; Chu, Fuliang; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Jianhua; Qi, Jianxun; Jiang, Fan; Xia, Chun; Gao, Feng

    2008-03-01

    Grass carp ?{sub 2}-microglobulin was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 2K as precipitant. The crystals obtained belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. ?{sub 2}-Microglobulin (?{sub 2}m) is an essential subunit of MHC I molecules; it stabilizes the structure of MHC I and plays a pivotal role in coreceptor recognition. To date, structures of ?{sub 2}m have been solved for three different mammals: human, mouse and cattle. In order to illuminate the molecular evolutionary origin of ?2m, an understanding of its structure in lower vertebrates becomes important. Here, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ?{sub 2}m (Ctid-?{sub 2}m) was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. The crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 38.72, b = 40.65, c = 71.12 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 2.56 Å Da{sup ?1} and 52.07%, respectively, for one molecule per asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using monomeric human ?{sub 2}m as a model.

  16. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

  17. The in vitro interference of synthetic progestogens with carp steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Pujol, Sílvia; Aceña, Jaume; Perez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià; Porte, Cinta

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic progestogens represent a class of pharmaceuticals widely used in oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapies. They reach the aquatic environment through wastewater effluents; however, environmental concentrations and effects on non-target organisms are poorly known. Given the important role of progestogens regulating fish spawning processes, this study aimed at assessing the in vitro interference of four currently used progestogens-drospirenone (DRO), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethindrone (NOR) and cyproterone acetate (CPA) - with key enzymatic activities involved in the synthesis of active steroids in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The enzymatic pathways investigated were (a) CYP17 (C17,20-lyase) and CYP11? involved in the synthesis of androgens, (b) CYP19 that catalyses the aromatization of androgens to estrogens, and (c) 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) responsible for the synthesis of maturation-inducing hormones. All tested progestogens significantly inhibited the synthesis of androgens: DRO (IC50: 3.8 ?M) was the strongest inhibitor of CYP17 followed by CPA (IC50s: 183 ?M). Moreover, NOR (IC50: 0.4 ?M), DRO (IC50: 1.8 ?M) and CPA (IC50s: 87 ?M) inhibited CYP11?. An inhibition by NOR of ovarian CYP19 activity, and by DRO and CPA of 20?-HSD was also observed, but at rather high concentrations (500 ?M). Overall, this study highlights the potential of synthetic progestogens, and particularly DRO and NOR, to interfere with the biosynthesis of androgens in carp gonads. PMID:25087002

  18. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Št?pánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škori?, Miša; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820??g/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160??g/L). The concentrations 520 and 820??g/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160??g/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520??g/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

  19. [The genetic diversity of diploid and triploid crucian carp from six populations in Heilongjiang River System].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Ying; Shi, Lian-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2008-11-01

    Twelve microsatellite markers from silver crucian carp were used to investigate the genetic structuring of the diploid and triploid crucian carp from six natural populations in Heilongjiang River System. In the six populations, the number of average allele (A) is from 5.8 to 6.8, the number of effective allele (Ne) is from 2.8 to 4.6, the expected heterozygosity value (He) is from 0.5592 to 0.6962 and the average PIC value is from 0.5962 to 0.648, which indicated that the genetic diversity of the populations investigated is rich. According to genetic deviation index (d), deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found in these populations and all of them showed heterozygosity excess. Kruskal-Wallis test indicated that there was no significant variance in different ploid level and populations. No extra alleles that present with the increase of ploid level were found. The coefficient of gene differentiation between populations(GST)was 0.0398 which indicated low values of genetic differentiation between these populations. Genetic distance was calculated and cluster analysis was also carried out. The results showed that distance between polyploid and diploid in same water was the nearest. Among populations, Songhua River and Ussuri River were the nearest, Xinhuangpao Lake and Moon Bay Lake were nearer, and Shuangfeng reservoir has the largest genetic distance with others. PMID:19073556

  20. Identification and characterization of IKK? gene from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Man; Peng, Lingzhi; Sun, Wenzheng; Yang, Peilin; Yan, Jun; Feng, Hao

    2015-11-01

    IKK? is an IKK-related kinase implicated in antiviral immune response in higher vertebrates. To elucidate the function of IKK? in teleost fish, grass carp IKK? (gcIKK?) has been cloned and characterized in this paper. The full-length cDNA of gcIKK? is composed of 2529 nucleotides and encodes a polypeptide of 723 amino acids. The mRNA transcription of gcIKK? was constitutively detected in all the selected tissues and the gcIKK? mRNA level increased at 36 h after GCRV infection. Western blot data of both HEK293T cells and EPC cells demonstrated that gcIKK? was around 80 KDa; and immunofluorescence staining data of both NIH3T3 cells and EPC cells determined gcIKK? was a cytosolic protein. The mRNA level of gcIKK? in CIK cells was increased more than 150 times right after poly(I:C) treatment and PMA treatment triggered gcIKK? mRNA transcription in CIK cells more than 100 times. Over-expression of gcIKK? in EPC cells activated the promoter activity of both zebrafish IFN and fathead minnow IFN. gcIKK? mRNA transcription level in CIK cells was increased from 48 h post GCRV infection with different MOIs. All the data support the idea that gcIKK? is a novel teleost I?B kinase recruited in the IFN-mediated antiviral immunity of grass carp. PMID:26370541

  1. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  2. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    PubMed

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  3. Purification and molecular cloning of a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, CARP-1, from the edible clam Meretrix lamarckii

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Enomoto, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Totsuka, Yukari; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    The cabbage butterflies Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae have unique enzymes, named pierisin-1 and -2, respectively, that catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of guanine residues of DNA, which has been linked with induction of apoptosis and mutation in mammalian cell lines. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation activity targeting DNA in six kinds of edible clam. Similar to our observations with pierisin-1 and -2, crude extracts from the clams Meretrix lamarckii, Ruditapes philippinarum, and Corbicula japonica incubated with calf thymus DNA and ?-NAD resulted in production of N2-(ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2?-deoxyguanosine. The DNA ADP-ribosylating protein in the hard clam M. lamarckii, designated as CARP-1, was purified by column chromatography, and its cDNA was cloned. The cDNA encodes a 182-aa protein with a calculated molecular mass of 20,332. The protein synthesized in vitro from the cDNA in a reticulocyte lysate exhibited the same ADP-ribosylating activity as that of purified CARP-1. Neither the nucleotide nor the deduced amino acid sequence of CARP-1 showed homology with pierisin-1 or -2. However, a glutamic acid residue (E128) at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosyltransferases, was found in CARP-1, and replacement of aspartic acid for this glutamic acid resulted in loss of almost all ADP-ribosylating activity. CARP-1 in the culture medium showed no cytotoxicity against HeLa and TMK-1 cells; however, introduction of this protein by electroporation induced apoptosis in these cells. The finding of clam ADP-ribosylating protein targeting guanine residues in DNA could offer new insights into the biological significance of ADP-ribosylation of DNA. PMID:16945908

  4. Studies of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Crucian Carp—An Oxygen Dependent Enzyme in an Anoxia Tolerant Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Tomter, Ane B.; Bergan, Jonas; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Barra, Anne-Laure; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Kolberg, Matthias; Ellefsen, Stian

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O2) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp. PMID:22916159

  5. Improved Methods for Capture, Extraction, and Quantitative Assay of Environmental DNA from Asian Bigheaded Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Cameron R.; Miller, Derryl J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  6. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

  7. BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSI~N. 297 The hog-like character of carp in plowing up the bottoin and banks

    E-print Network

    sniolcod out 011 their holm with anlphur and saltpotor. Itliorl filled thorn up with onrth."--C. W. S. thoBULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSI~N. 297 The hog-like character of carp in plowing up by perforatin'g the banks and dams and thus letting off the `i\\atcr,but also by actually and devouring tile carp

  8. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2 % of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5 % body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2 % of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp. PMID:26150295

  9. DNA Methylation Analysis of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Tao, Min; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids. PMID:23457564

  10. Kinetics of lymphocyte subpopulations in allogeneic grafted scales of ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta; Toda, Hideaki; Imabayashi, Nozomi; Nishino, Tatsuyuki; Uzumaki, Kosuke; Hatanaka, Chihiro; Yabu, Takeshi; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2015-09-01

    In mammals the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity including T cells. Recently, considerable studies reveal the existence of helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets in fish. Here we investigate the kinetics of CD4(+) and CD8?(+) T cells along with sIgM(+) cells and phagocytic cells in an allogeneic scale graft model using ginbuna crucian carp for understanding the mechanisms of cell-mediated immune response. The results showed that CD4(+) T cells first infiltrated into allogeneic scales followed by CD8?(+) and sIgM(+) cells, and finally phagocytic cells appeared in the graft. Furthermore, most of the CD8?(+) T cells appeared on the border of the allografted scales at the time of rejection. These results suggest that T cells play crucial roles and work together with other cell types for completion of allograft rejection. PMID:25917429

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the sea carp, Cyprinus acutidorsalis (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Jintao; Yao, Donglin; Liang, Rishen; Zou, Jixing

    2015-10-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of sea carp Cyprinus acutidorsalis was determined in this study. The genome was 16,579?bp in length. As in other vertebrates, it consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 1 non-coding control region. The overall base composition was estimated to be A, 31.9%; T, 24.8%; C, 27.6% and G, 15.7% with AT bias of 56.7%. The genomic composition, organization, and gene order of C. acutidorsalis was similar to most of vertebrates. This result may provide the basis for the study of genetic structure as well as resource conservation and protection of C. acutidorsalis. PMID:24117186

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Predatory carp Chanodichthys erythropterus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Li, Bo; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhao, Guanghong

    2016-03-01

    Predatory carp Chanodichthys erythropterus is a small-sized economic cyprinid fish distributed in East Asia. We sequenced its complete mitochondrial genome by PCR-based method. The mitochondrial DNA is packaged in a compact 16,629 base pair (bp) circular molecule with A?+?T content of 56.1%. It contains 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the non-coding control region (D-loop). All PCGs are initiated by ATG codons, except for COI, which uses GTG as its start codon. Of the 13 PCGs, 12 stop with TAA and TAG, while Cyt b uses incomplete termination codon T. All tRNAs possess the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which lacks the ''DHU'' stem. PMID:25010069

  13. Heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of actomyosin and myosin from yellowcheek carp during setting.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuqin; Liu, Ru; Rong, Jianhua; Xiong, Shanbai

    2014-04-15

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of Ca²?-ATPase, changes in turbidity and rheological properties of actomyosin and myosin from yellowcheek carp during setting at different temperatures were investigated. Actomyosin and myosin setting at 40-45 °C exhibited greater extent and more rapid Ca²?-ATPase inactivation compared to at 25-30 °C. Formation of protein aggregates and three-dimensional network structures of actomyosin and myosin at 25-30 °C was far less than those at 40-45 °C. Thermal stability of actomyosin was higher than that of myosin as revealed by its higher activation energy for the inactivation of Ca²?-ATPase. Actomyosin and myosin also exhibited different dynamic rheological properties, especially when the setting temperatures were 40 and 45 °C. PMID:24295702

  14. Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kei; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Naomi; Hashizume, Naoki; Murakami, Hidekazu; Ishibashi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hirofumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Go

    2014-08-30

    Uptake and biological effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) were analyzed using common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed to clobetasol propionate (CP) or clobetasone butyrate (CB) individually or in mixture at 1 ?g L(-1) for 21 days. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of CB was calculated as 100, and BCF of CP was less than 16. No effects were found in fish erythrocyte and leukocyte numbers and serum glucose levels after exposure to the selected GCs. On the other hand, serum concentrations of free amino acids significantly increased in GC-exposed groups. Thus, exposures to synthetic GCs at relatively low concentrations seemed to cause enhancement of protein degradation and subsequent increase of serum free amino acids without a corresponding increase in serum glucose levels, an effect which might be related to partial induction of gluconeogenesis by GC. PMID:24492153

  15. Estrogenic effects in crucian carp (Carassius carassius) exposed to treated sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Diniz, M S; Peres, I; Magalhães-Antoine, I; Falla, J; Pihan, J C

    2005-11-01

    To assess the estrogenicity of a municipal sewage treatment plant, sexually mature crucian carp of both sexes were exposed for 28 days to domestic treated sewage effluent running with a constant flow of water, with tap water and with different concentrations of the sewage effluent (25%, 50% and 100%). Vitellogenin (VTG), gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and histological abnormalities were used to assess the estrogenic potency of the effluent. Results show a significant (P<0.05) increase in VTG levels in all exposed male fish. A significant (P<0.05) reduction in the GSI was only observed in fish exposed to 100% effluent. Morphological changes were detected by histological evaluation, revealing severe effects on the testes. Spermatogenesis was progressively reduced to total inhibition in fish exposed to 100% effluent. One of the most pronounced effects detected was the presence of oocytes in male gonads, observed in 20% of males exposed to 100% sewage effluent. PMID:16216638

  16. Water quality monitoring using abnormal tail-beat frequency of crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gang; Feng, Min; Cheng, Zhenbo; Zhao, Meirong; Mao, Jiafa; Mirowski, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Fish are rapidly becoming favored as convenient sentinels for behavioral assays of toxic chemical exposure. Tail-beat frequency (TBF) of fish is highly correlated with swimming speed, which has been used to detect toxicants. Here we examined the effect on TBF of exposure to two chemicals, and evaluated the ability of this novel behavioral parameter to accurately monitor water quality. To further refine our approach, the Wall-hitting rate (WHR) was used to characterize behavioral avoidance after exposure. Overall, exposure to test chemicals at different levels induced significant increase in both behavioral parameters of the red crucian carp during 1-h exposure periods. Furthermore, the TBF achieved better performance as an indicator when it was calculated in cases where the fish hit the tank wall. Collectively, this study demonstrates the capacity of the TBF of fish to assess water quality in a reliable manner. PMID:25450932

  17. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species. PMID:25240282

  18. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  19. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

  20. Potential Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Development in the Mekong River Basin on the Migration of Siamese Mud Carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) Elucidated by Otolith Microchemistry

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409–0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

  1. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  2. Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 ?m) and large (150-200 ?m) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

  3. Dephosphorylation during Bleach and Regeneration of Visual Pigment in Carp Rod and Cone Membranes.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Hiromi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-10-01

    On absorption of light by vertebrate visual pigment, the chromophore, 11-cis retinal, is isomerized to all-trans retinal to activate the phototransduction cascade, which leads to a hyperpolarizing light response. Activated pigment is inactivated by phosphorylation on the protein moiety, opsin. Isomerized all-trans retinal is ultimately released from opsin, and the pigment is regenerated by binding to 11-cis retinal. In this pigment regeneration cycle, the phosphates incorporated should be removed in order that the pigment regains the capability of activating the phototransduction cascade. However, it is not clear yet how pigment dephosphorylation takes place in the regeneration cycle. First in this study, we tried to estimate the dephosphorylation activity in living carp rods and cones and found that the activity, which is present mainly in the cytoplasm in both rods and cones, is three times higher in cones than in rods. Second, we examined at which stage the dephosphorylation takes place; before or after the release of all-trans retinal, during pigment regeneration, or after pigment regeneration. For this purpose we prepared three types of phosphorylated substrates in purified carp rod and cone membranes: phosphorylated bleaching intermediate, phosphorylated opsin, and phosphorylated and regenerated pigment. We also examined the effect of pigment regeneration on the dephosphorylation. The results showed that the dephosphorylation does not show substrate preference in the regeneration cycle and suggested that the dephosphorylation takes place constantly. The results also suggest that, under bright light, some of the regenerated visual pigment remains phosphorylated to reduce the light sensitivity in cones. PMID:26286749

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus), an Important Aquaculture and Hypoxia-Tolerant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaolin; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Peng; Lu, Guoqing; Wachholtz, Michael; Sun, Xiaowen; Chen, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO) category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ?50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species. PMID:23630630

  5. Melanocortin receptor 1 and black pigmentation in the Japanese ornamental carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Koi)

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Ido; Kaddar, Ethan; Velan, Ariel; David, Lior

    2013-01-01

    Colors and their patterns are fascinating phenotypes with great importance for fitness under natural conditions. For this reason and because pigmentation is associated with diseases, much research was devoted to study the genetics of pigmentation in animals. Considerable contribution to our understanding of color phenotypes was made by studies in domesticated animals that exhibit dazzling variation in color traits. Koi strains, the ornamental variants of the common carp, are a striking example for color variability that was selected by man during a very short period on an evolutionary timescale. Among several pigmentation genes, genetic variation in Melanocrtin receptor 1 was repeatedly associated with dark pigmentation phenotypes in numerous animals. In this study, we cloned Melanocrtin receptor 1 from the common carp. We found that alleles of the gene were not associated with the development of black color in Koi. However, the mRNA expression levels of the gene were higher during dark pigmentation development in larvae and in dark pigmented tissues of adult fish, suggesting that variation in the regulation of the gene is associated with black color in Koi. These regulatory differences are reflected in both the timing of the dark-pigmentation development and the different mode of inheritance of the two black patterns associated with them. Identifying the genetic basis of color and color patterns in Koi will promote the production of this valuable ornamental fish. Furthermore, given the rich variety of colors and patterns, Koi serves as a good model to unravel pigmentation genes and their phenotypic effects and by that to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of colors also in natural populations. PMID:23355846

  6. A mathematical model of the carp heart ventricle during the cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Kochová, Petra; Cimrman, Robert; Štengl, Milan; Oš?ádal, Bohuslav; Tonar, Zbyn?k

    2015-05-21

    The poikilothermic heart has been suggested as a model for studying some of the mechanisms of early postnatal mammalian heart adaptations. We assessed morphological parameters of the carp heart (Cyprinus carpio L.) with diastolic dimensions: heart radius (5.73mm), thickness of the compact (0.50mm) and spongy myocardium (4.34mm), in two conditions (systole, diastole): volume fraction of the compact myocardium (20.7% systole, 19.6% diastole), spongy myocardium (58.9% systole, 62.8% diastole), trabeculae (37.8% systole, 28.6% diastole), and cavities (41.5% systole, 51.9% diastole) within the ventricle; volume fraction of the trabeculae (64.1% systole, 45.5% diastole) and sinuses (35.9% systole, 54.5% diastole) within the spongy myocardium; ratio between the volume of compact and spongy myocardium (0.35 systole, 0.31 diastole); ratio between compact myocardium and trabeculae (0.55 systole, 0.69 diastole); and surface density of the trabeculae (0.095?m(-1) systole, 0.147?m(-1) diastole). We created a mathematical model of the carp heart based on actual morphometric data to simulate how the compact/spongy myocardium ratio, the permeability of the spongy myocardium, and sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium influence stroke volume, stroke work, ejection fraction and p-V diagram. Increasing permeability led to increasing and then decreasing stroke volume and work, and increasing ejection fraction. An increased amount of spongy myocardium led to an increased stroke volume, work, and ejection fraction. Varying sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium showed that an increased sinus volume fraction led to an increased stroke volume and work, and a decreased ejection fraction. PMID:25797310

  7. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ö?retmen, F; ?nanan, B E

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to test the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp spermatozoa. BHT is widely used in the cryopreservation of the spermatozoa of different animal species and successfully sustains the characteristics of spermatozoa during freezing and thawing, but it has not previously been used with fish. After sampling, common carp spermatozoa were diluted with an extender composed of modified Kurokura's extender, 10% DMSO, and 10% egg yolk containing 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. The post-thaw spermatozoa characteristics (i.e., progressive motility percentage (%), duration of progressive motility (s), fertilization rate (%), and eyed-eggs rate (%)) were evaluated and compared with those of the control group. There were significant increases in the percentage of progressive motility and the duration of progressive motility at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.001mM BHT (P<0.05). The duration of post-thawed spermatozoa progressive motility at 0.001mM BHT was significantly greater than that of the other groups (39.6±0.4s, P<0.05), and the fertilization rates and eyed-eggs rates were also higher following the 0.1 and 1mM BHT treatments. BHT at concentrations of more than 1mM caused sperm immobility during the preparatory stages of the sperm freezing. We concluded that 0.001-0.1mM BHT can be beneficial for the cryopreservation of common spermatozoa. PMID:25459081

  8. Identification and characterization of the TLR18 gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Ji; Shen, Yubang; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Mo-Yan; Li, Jia-le

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the innate immune system. Although TLR18 is an important member of this family of receptors in fish, the role of the tlr18 gene in responses to pathogen infection is still unclear. In this study, we identified and characterized the grass carp tlr18 gene (gctlr18) to further clarify the function of TLR18 in teleost fish. Gctlr18 spans over 3600 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 852 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that gctlr18 encodes structures typical of the TLR family, including a signal peptide, seven leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane region, and a (Toll-interleukin-1 receptor) TIR domain. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gctlr18 was constitutively expressed in all investigated tissues, with abundant expression in spleen, gill, heart, intestine, kidney and fin and low expression in skin, liver and brain. Following grass carp reovirus-challenge and Aeromonas hydrophila inoculation, gctlr18 transcripts were upregulated significantly in immune-relevant tissues. Stimulation of Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells with purified flagellin from Salmo typhimurium, lipopolysaccharide and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stimulation in vitro resulted in significantly increased gctlr18 expression, reaching a peak followed by restoration of normal levels. Overexpression of gctlr18 reduced A. hydrophila invasion by 83.4%. In CIK cells, gctlr18 induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including il-8, inf-1 and tnf-?. Our results indicate that gctlr18 plays a key role in innate immune responses in teleost fish. PMID:26439414

  9. Evaluation of probiotic bacteria against aeromonads syndrome in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in simple axenic larviculture.

    PubMed

    Suantika, G; Aditiawati, P; Astuti, D I; Sjarmidi, A; Lim, N; Khotimah, Z F

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of probiotics, Bacillus firmus and B. coagulans against Aeromonas hydrophila in axenic common carp larviculture was conducted. The highest egg hatching rate was obtained from the axenic system + probiotic bacteria (AP) (98.33%), followed by axenic system (A) (96.67%); axenic system + probiotic + A. hydrophila (AC) (93.33%); non-axenic system (NA) (93.33%); and axenic system + A. hydrophila (AH) (83.33%). 100% survival rate (SR) was obtained from all treatments, except AH (90%). The highest weight (0.013g) was obtained from the A treatment, followed by AC (0.0127g), AP (0.0123g), AH (0.012g), and NA (0.005g). In conclusion, the axenic system can be used to improve common carp larviculture, and further use of B. coagulans and B. firmus was able to control Aeromonads syndrome during the larviculture stage. PMID:25141734

  10. Effect of delayed icing on biogenic amines formation and bacterial contribution of iced common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Hamzeh, Ali; Moslemi, Mehran; Lashkan, Aria Babakhani; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesús

    2013-01-01

    The variation of six biogenic amines (BAs) and total viable count (TVC) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored in ice with 0, 4 and 8 h delay before icing was evaluated in a period of 4 days. Delayed icing led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in TVC throughout the period of storage and showed a good correlation with BAs content. The obtained data showed that putrescine and cadaverine were predominant in all samples and it was indicated that they could be proper indicators to determine the carp quality. Spermidine and spermine increased slightly toward the end of storage and the levels of dangerous BAs (histamine and tyramine) were under the limit over the period. As a result, it is indicated that delaying time affects on formation of BAs and the effect in samples with 8 h delay was significantly (p < 0.05) more than those with 0 and 4 h delay. PMID:24352007

  11. Effects of acute exposure to metribuzin on some hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Velisek, J; Svobodova, Z; Piackova, V; Sudova, E

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate acute toxic effects of the preparation Sencor 70 WG (metribuzin 70% W/V) on hematological, biochemical indices and histology of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In carp exposed for 96 h to Sencor 70 WG in the concentration of 250.2 mg/L, showed significantly lower (p<0.01) values of plasma total proteins, albumins, total globulins, triacylglycerols, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate, inorganic phosphate, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean erythrocyte volume, the leucocrite value, lymphocyte, and significantly higher (p<0.01) values of glucose, ammonia, calcium, monocytes, neutrophile granulocytes, developmental forms myeloid sequence and basophiles compared to the control group. Histopathological examination revealed hyaline degeneration of the epithelial cells of renal tubules of the caudal kidney. This alteration of kidney resulted in hypoproteinemia, followed by generation of transudate in body cavity. PMID:19159050

  12. The Activity of Neutral ?-Glucosidase and Selected Biochemical Parameters in the Annual Cycle of Breeding Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Koto?ska-Feiga, Julia; Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemys?aw; Nowacki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate seasonal changes in the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral ?-glucosidase, the level of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein in the annual breeding cycle of the carp. The study was conducted on fish from a fish farm in Lower Silesia (Poland). Blood serum was collected from the heart in: June, September and December of two consecutive years. The results of the study show that the hydrolytic and transferase activity of neutral ?-glucosidase, as well as the results of basic biochemical parameters are highest in summer, when the fish seek and intake food intensively. The lowest values were observed in spring, when carp have the lowest metabolism after the wintering period. PMID:26559406

  13. Developmental expression of steroidogenic factor-1, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b from common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Hu, Wei; Hao, Jun; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2010-07-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b play pivotal roles in vertebrate steroidogenesis and reproduction. In this study, a SF-1 cDNA (EU022463) was cloned from common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The transcript contains a 1509 base pair (bp) open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 503 amino acid sequence. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated that carp SF-1 is highly homologous with those of other vertebrates. Tissue specific expressions of SF-1, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b mRNA were analyzed in 10-month-old carp. SF-1 was abundant in the hypothalamus, pituitary, gonad, spleen and liver (females only). Cyp19a1b was preferentially expressed in the brain of both sexes but also was present at much lower levels in testis, ovary and kidney (females only). Although cyp19a1a expression was preferentially expressed in ovaries, it was also present at much lower levels in brain, testis, kidney and spleen (males only). Northern blot analysis revealed that testes and brains of both sexes expressed a transcript of about 2.8 kb in size. The expression pattern of SF-1, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b in carp gonads suggested their involvement in sexual development. In 3-month-old carp, SF-1 and cyp19a1b were expressed highly in testes but were at much lower levels in ovaries, while the opposite pattern was observed with cyp19a1a expression. In 10-month-old carp, SF-1 expression was much higher in testes than in ovaries, while the opposite pattern was observed with cyp19a1a expression. These developmental expression patterns in carp gonads suggest important roles of SF-1 and cyp19a1b in testis development and of cyp19a1a in ovary development. PMID:20338172

  14. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  15. Two follistatin-like 1 homologs are differentially expressed in adult tissues and during embryogenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Wen; Li, Fu-Gui; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) peptides play important roles in inhibiting myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Here, we characterized and examined the expression patterns of fstl1a and -b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). These genes encode 314 aa and 310 aa peptides, respectively, sharing a sequence identity of 83%. Except for the existence of the follistatin-N-terminal (FOLN) and Kazal-type 2 serine protease inhibitor (Kazal 2) domains, grass carp Fstl1a and -b do not share amino acid sequence similarity with Fst1 and -b. Both fstl1a and -b mRNAs were widely expressed in adult tissues. During embryogenesis, grass carp fstl1a and -b mRNA was detected in the presomitic mesoderm and somites at 12h post fertilization (hpf). At 24hpf, fstl1a mRNA was expressed in the hindbrain, somites, notochord and tailbud, while fstl1b mRNA was only detected in the tailbud. At 36hpf, fstl1a mRNA was detected in the hindbrain and notochord, and fstl1b was also expressed in the notochord. Furthermore, fstl1a and -b were downregulated in brain and liver tissue following injection with 10 or 50?g hGH, while fstl1b was significantly up-regulated in muscle tissue after 10?g hGH treatment. Both fstl1a and -b were significantly up-regulated at 2, 4 or 6days of nutrient restriction, and fstl1a was still highly expressed in the liver and muscle after 3days of refeeding, as was fstl1b in the brain and muscle. The expression of these genes returned to near control levels following 6days of refeeding. Our findings suggest that the two fstls play important but divergent roles in embryonic development and tissue growth regulation in grass carp. PMID:26439673

  16. Diagnostic SNPs reveal widespread introgressive hybridization between introduced bighead and silver carp in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Lamer, James T; Ruebush, Blake C; Arbieva, Zarema H; McClelland, Michael A; Epifanio, John M; Sass, Greg G

    2015-08-01

    Hybridization among conspecifics in native and introduced habitats has important implications for biological invasions in new ecosystems. Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are genetically isolated and occur in sympatry within their native range. Following their introduction to North America, however, introgressant hybrids have been reported throughout their expanded range within the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The extent of introgression, both spatially and generationally, is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined mixed-species populations from across the MRB to characterize the extent of interspecific gene flow. We assayed 2798 individuals from nine locations with a suite of species-diagnostic SNPs (57 nuclear and one mitochondrial). Forty-four per cent (n = 1244) of individuals displayed hybrid genotypes. Moreover, the composition of hybrid genotypes varied among locations and represented complex hybrid swarms with multiple generations of gene flow. Introgressive hybrids were identified from all locations, were bidirectional and followed a bimodal distribution consisting primarily of parental or parental-like genotypes and phenotypes. All described hybrid categories were present among individuals from 1999 to 2008, with parents and later-generation backcrosses representing the largest proportion of individuals among years. Our mitochondrial SNP (COII), tested on a subset of 730 individuals, revealed a silver carp maternal bias in 13 of 21 (62%) F1 hybrids, in all silver carp backcrosses, and maintained throughout many of the bighead carp backcrosses. The application of this suite of diagnostic markers and the spatial coverage permits a deeper examination of the complexity in hybrid swarms between two invasive, introduced species. PMID:26096550

  17. Reduced inflammatory response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed with ?-glucan supplements.

    PubMed

    Falco, Alberto; Frost, Patrick; Miest, Joanna; Pionnier, Nicolas; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Hoole, David

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the action of ?-glucans as feed additives on the gene expression profile of some inflammatory-related cytokines from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during the early stages of a non-lethal bacterial infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. ?-glucan (MacroGard(®)), was administered daily to carp (6 mg per kg body weight) in the form of supplemented commercial food pellets for 14 days prior to infection. Control and treated fish were then intraperitoneally injected with PBS or 4×10(8) bacteria per fish and were sampled at time 0 and 6h, 12h, 1 day, 3 days and 5 days post-injection. Head kidney and gut were collected and the gene expression patterns for tnf?1, tnf?2, il1?, il6 and il10 were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Results obtained showed that treatment with ?-glucans generally down-regulated the expression of all measured genes when compared to their corresponding controls. After injection, highest changes in the gene expression levels were obtained at 6h; particularly, in head kidney there was higher up-regulation of tnfa1 and tnfa2 in infected fish fed ?-glucans in comparison to control feed; however, in gut there was a significant down-regulation of tnf?1, tnf?2, il1? and il6 in infected fish fed ?-glucans. Analysis of carp specific antibodies against A. salmonicida 30 days after injection revealed their levels were reduced in the infected ?-glucan group. In conclusion, a diet supplemented with ?-glucan (MacroGard(®)) reduced the gene expression levels of some inflammation-related cytokines in common carp. Such a response appears to be dependent of organ studied and therefore the immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potential dangerous response in gut, whilst enhancing the inflammatory response in head kidney when exposed to A. salmonicida. PMID:22406448

  18. Name: Major: Minor: ____________________

    E-print Network

    Ashline, George

    Name: Major: Major: Minor: ____________________ Advisor: Advisor: Minor: I. MAJOR COURSES (list all: ______________ Current Overall GPA: (2.9 required) Advisor's Signature:___________________________________________________ Date:_____________________________ 2nd Major Advisor's Signature

  19. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

  20. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  1. Antilisterial Peptides Released by Enzymatic Hydrolysis from Grass Carp Proteins and Activity on Controlling L. monocytogenes Inoculated in Surimi Noodle.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianhui; Niu, Liya

    2015-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to prepare the antilisterial peptides by enzymatic (pepsin, trypsin, protamex, neutrase, flavourzyme, papain, alcalase, and acid protease) hydrolysis of grass carp proteins with various degree of hydrolysis. The second objective was to evaluate the antilisterial activity of grass carp proteins hydrolysates (GCPH) at differnet levels in the surimi noodle samples with or without boiling treatment inoculated with 10(4) CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes for storage at 4 and 25 °C up to 20 d. These results revealed that GCPH, obtained by treatment with the neutrase hydrolysates at degree of hydrolysis of 19% (NSH19), showed the highest antilisterial activity reaching up to 64.8% inhibition of bacterial growth. The antilisterial activity of NSH19 in the raw surimi noodle was stronger than that of the boiled group, and the samples treated by NSH19 at 10 g/100 g level had no-detectable numbers of L. monocytogenes for both raw and boiled noodle samples within 20 d of storage at 4 and 25 °C. The results of this study indicated that antilisterial peptides generated via neutrase from grass carp proteins can efficiently inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes in surimi noodle, which was useful as natural preservatives for storage and distribution of meat based products. PMID:26467537

  2. Carp Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a metal-tooling project for his fourth-graders. Giving the students a specific subject with specific features and textures enabled him to guide them step-by-step in the metal-tooling process. This project would be a great practice project for even high-school students before doing other relief work. After…

  3. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382

  4. Routine turning maneuvers of koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi: effects of turning rate on kinematics and hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanhao; Yang, Yan; Zeng, Lijiang

    2007-12-01

    Spontaneous swimming behaviors of koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi were recorded using a video tracking system. Routine single-beat turns were selected from the recorded image sequences for kinematic and hydrodynamic analysis. As with C-starts, the turns can be divided into two stages (stage 1 and stage 2), based on kinematics. Stage 1 involves a bend to one side forming a C-shaped curve in the body, while stage 2 corresponds to the return flip of the body and tail. The turning angle in stage 1 accounts for the greatest portion of the total turning angle and the mean turning rate in stage 1 reflects the intensity of turn. The effects of the turning rate in stage 1 on both kinematics and hydrodynamics were examined. The duration of stage 1 remained relatively stable over a nearly tenfold change in turning rate. Consequently, the turning angle is dominated by the turning rate in stage 1. The turning radius is not related to the swimming speed. Moreover, except in very fast turns, the turning radius is also not affected by the turning rate. The angle between the side jet and the carp's initial orientation of a turn does not change substantially with the turning rate, and it is always close to 90 degrees (94.2+/-3.1 degrees , N=41), so the orientation of the side jet in the forthcoming turn can be predicted. The angle between the jet and the line joining the center of mass of the carp and the trailing edge of the tail (mean value in stage 1) is also always close to 90 degrees (95.3+/-1.3 degrees , N=41). It is helpful for the carp to maximize the torque so as to improve the turning efficiency. In stage 1, the impulsive moment obtained from the beat of the body and tail and the mean angular momentum of the carp show an agreement in magnitude. Two types of flow patterns in the wake of routine single-beat turns are revealed. The difference between the two types of wakes is in whether or not a vortex ring and a thrust jet are generated in stage 2. The recoil speed of the tail, the bending amplitude of the turn, and the angle of attack of the tail are three probable factors influencing the flow patterns in stage 2. PMID:18055627

  5. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  6. Changes in the microbial communities of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Qian; Li, Dongping; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    The dominant microbiota of air-packaged (AP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) common carp fillets during storage were systematically identified. Culture-dependent methods were used for microbial enumeration and 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Different packaging conditions affected the growth of microbiota and the shelf life of carp. Shelf-life of AP and VP fillets was 8 and 12 days, respectively. Vacuum packaging delayed the increase of biogenic amines levels compared to air packaging, especially for cadaverine and tyramine levels. In the present study, a total of 13 different genera comprised the microbial communities of fresh carp fillets and Acinetobacter dominated the indigenous flora of carp. However, variability in bacterial community composition was observed in these two packaging conditions. Pseudomonas were the only microbiota found in the spoiled AP carp, whereas Carnobacterium followed by Aeromonas were found mainly in VP samples. Other genera Shewanella, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were also found in low numbers at the end of the VP fillets' shelf life. Additional microbial enumeration observed the highest Pseudomonas counts (8.77 log CFU/g on day 8) in AP samples and a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria (7.74 log CFU/g on day 12) in VP samples. PMID:26338135

  7. Effect of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin on cryosurvival and fertility of cryopreserved carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Yavas, Ilker; Bozkurt, Yusuf; Aksoy, Melih

    2015-04-01

    Addition of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) to the diluents of mammalian semen increased stability and rigidity of phospholipid hydrocarbon chains of plasma membrane during sperm cryopreservation process. CLC has been tested successfully as cryoprotectant in various livestock sperm cryopreservation protocols but its efficacy for cryopreserving of fish sperm has not previously been tested. In the present study, different cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin concentrations were evaluated for the cryopreservation of carp (Cyprinus carpio) sperm. Sexually mature fish were induced to spermiation and ovulation with Ovopel. The extenders were prepared by using 300 mM glucose and 10% DMSO supplemented with different concentrations of CLC (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0mg per 120×10(6) spermatozoa) and without CLC (control). The pooled semen was diluted separately at a ratio of 1:3 (v/v) by using CLC extenders. Diluted semen placed into 0.25 ml straws were equilibrated at 4°C for 15 min and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Fertilization was conducted using a ratio of 1×10(5) spermatozoa/egg. Fresh sperm with no treatment showed the greatest sperm motility, duration of motility, viability, and fertilization results compared to the other tested cryopreserved and control groups (p<0.05). Supplementation of 1.5 mg CLC to the extender showed the best cryoprotective effect for sperm motility, duration of motility, and viability against freezing damage in comparison to extenders containing 2.5 mg, 3.0 mg CLC, and control group (p<0.05). Cryopreserved sperm containing 1.5 mg CLC provided greater result in term of fertilization success when compared to other extenders containing 0.5, 2.5, and 3.0 mg CLC or control (p<0.05). The amount of CLC effected post-thaw sperm quality and fertility as a dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that treatment of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin for carp sperm cryopreservation significantly improves cell cryosurvival and fertilization. PMID:25661710

  8. Three-dimensional structure and ligand-binding site of carp fishelectin (FEL).

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Stefano; Faggion, Beniamino; Carrizo, Maria E; Destefanis, Laura; Gonzalez, Maria C; Perduca, Massimiliano; Bovi, Michele; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2015-05-01

    Carp FEL (fishelectin or fish-egg lectin) is a 238-amino-acid lectin that can be purified from fish eggs by exploiting its selective binding to Sepharose followed by elution with N-acetylglucosamine. Its amino-acid sequence and other biochemical properties have previously been reported. The glycoprotein has four disulfide bridges and the structure of the oligosaccharides linked to Asn27 has been described. Here, the three-dimensional structures of apo carp FEL (cFEL) and of its complex with N-acetylglucosamine determined by X-ray crystallography at resolutions of 1.35 and 1.70 Å, respectively, are reported. The molecule folds as a six-bladed ?-propeller and internal short consensus amino-acid sequences have been identified in all of the blades. A calcium atom binds at the bottom of the funnel-shaped tunnel located in the centre of the propeller. Two ligand-binding sites, ? and ?, are present in each of the two protomers in the dimer. The first site, ?, is closer to the N-terminus of the chain and is located in the crevice between the second and the third blades, while the second site, ?, is located between the fourth and the fifth blades. The amino acids that participate in the contacts have been identified, as well as the conserved water molecules in all of the sites. Both sites can bind the two anomers, ? and ?, of N-acetylglucosamine, as is clearly recognizable in the electron-density maps. The lectin presents sequence homology to members of the tachylectin family, which are known to have a function in the innate immune system of arthropods, and homologous genes are present in the genomes of other fish and amphibians. This structure is the first of a protein of this group and, given the degree of homology with other members of the family, it is expected that it will be useful to experimentally determine other crystal structures using the coordinates of cFEL as a search probe in molecular replacement. PMID:25945578

  9. [Composition of leucocytes of the head kidney of the crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) as affected by invasion of cestode Digramma interrupta (Cestoda; Pseudophyllidea)].

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, I A; Pronin, N M; Dugarov, Zh N

    2011-01-01

    The composition of leucocytes of the head kidney is studied in the crucian carps (Carassius auratus) either contaminated or uncontaminated with Digramma interrupta. The composition of leucocytes in the pronephros of the crucian carp from Lake Baikal basin has a lymphoid character. Compared to the crucian carp from the European part of Russia, in the fish from Baikal the granulocytopoetic processes are more pronounced. This is proved by the high content of young forms of granulocytes. In the fish infected with digramma, the immune suppression of proliferation of blasts and young forms of eosinophils was revealed. On the other hand, the inflammatory and humoral specific immune reactions are enhanced. Partial suppression of the immune response of C. auratus to invasion by D. interrupta facilitates development of the parasite. PMID:22292296

  10. Dexamethasone action on caudal fin regeneration of carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Ochandio, B S; Bechara, I J; Parise-Maltempi, P P

    2015-05-01

    Studies have demonstrated that the prolonged use of corticoids can delay the healing process, affecting re-epithelialization, neovascularization and collagen synthesis. As the fins of teleost fish contain a large amount of collagen, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid steroid widely used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases) during the regeneration process in the caudal fin of specimens of carp (Cyprinus carpio). For such, two glass aquaria were used - one for a group of fish treated with dexamethasone (Henrifarma) in a 20 mg/L concentration and the other for the control group. The caudal fins were amputated transversally and fish remained in their respective aquaria until regeneration occurred. Samples of regenerating fins were collected on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 after amputation. The fins in the control group regenerated normally and grew within the expected in time course. The fins in the group treated with dexamethasone were significantly smaller in comparison to the control group at every evaluation time. Thus, it was possible to verify that, at this concentration of dexamethasone, the regeneration of the caudal fins was delayed, but not completely inhibited. The results show that the caudal fin is a good model for histological studies on regeneration and the action of drug toxicity, but it's also of great importance the interaction with further studies for a better knowledge and understanding of all the changes in all the phases. PMID:26132030

  11. Identification of promoter within the first intron of Plzf gene expressed in carp spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf), a transcriptional repressor, is involved in survival and maintenance of pluripotent stem cells including embryonic and spermatogonial stem cells in mammals. Its cDNA was characterized and expression in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu (Labeo rohita), a farmed carp, was documented. In teleost, the information on its promoter activity is lacking. Here, we have isolated, sequenced and performed the first characterization of regulatory elements for Plzf being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial stem cells of rohu. About 3.2 kb of 5'-flanking region, relative to ATG start codon, derived by genome walking was sequenced. The 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) analysis not only mapped the transcriptional start site but also detected non-coding exons. Interestingly, computational analysis detected several putative regulatory elements including TATA-box positioned in the first intron. Luciferase reporter assay was performed for serially deleted constructs to measure their promoter activities. The region containing putative TATA- and CAAT-boxes including GC-rich motif, positioned within first intron, was identified as a potential promoter; but its full promoter activity was dependent on upstream region containing a putative Evi-1-like element. Moreover, our findings also identified a region acting as transcriptional repressor. These findings could be used as roadmap for future understandings of its regulated expression during male germ cell development in fish species. PMID:24990695

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of actinosporeans infecting oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi from Chinese carp ponds.

    PubMed

    Xi, Bing-Wen; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Xie, Jun; Pan, Liang-Kun; Yang, Ya-Lin; Ge, Xian-Ping

    2015-06-01

    We surveyed the actinosporean stages of fish myxosporeans at fish farms in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2011 to 2014. During the surveys, we identified 7 actinosporean types from 4 collective groups: echinactinomyxon (1 type), triactinomyxon (1 type), aurantiactinomyxon (1 type), and neoactinomyxum (4 types), released by the oligochaete Branchiura sowerbyi. The morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of these types are described here. Based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis, the actinosporean of echinactinomyxon type CZ with 4 branches at the end of the caudal processes was identified as Myxobolus wulii, and the neoactinomyxum type JD was identified as Thelohanellus wangi Yuan, Xi, Wang, Xie, Zhang, 2015 (JX458816), a recently nominated species from the gills of allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio. In addition, actinosporeans of aurantiactinomyxon type JD, neoactinomyxum type CZ-1, neoactinomyxum type CZ-2, and neoactinomyxum type CZ-3 showed high genetic similarity to T. wuhanensis (96.3-96.5%), T. nikolskii (98.0-99.1%), T. wuhanensis (97.8-98.9%), and T. hovorkai (98.7-98.9%), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these actinosporeans were robustly clustered in the Thelohanellus spp. clade. PMID:26036829

  13. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  14. Gene Expression Variations of Red-White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Min; Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Zhu, Bai-Han; Xu, Gui-Cai; Sun, Ming-Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer's vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red-white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology. PMID:26370964

  15. Coping strategies in a strongly schooling fish, the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, F A; Andrew, G; Mackenzie, S; Morera, D; Coyle, S M; Pilarczyk, M; Kadri, S

    2010-05-01

    Individual common carp Cyprinus carpio were screened repeatedly for risk taking (rate of exploration of a novel, potentially dangerous environment) and for competitive ability (success in gaining access to a spatially restricted food source). Marked differences in behaviour were evident, and significant consistency in individual responses across trials was found for both risk taking and competitive ability. In addition, there was a significant positive relationship between individual performance in these two contexts, with fish that explored more quickly in the novel environment tending to be among the first to gain access to restricted food. In two follow-up studies, resting metabolic rate, blood lactate and glucose and the expression of the cortisol receptor gene in the head kidney and brain were compared in fish from the two extremes of the risk-taking spectrum. Mass-specific metabolic rate was significantly higher in risk-taking than in risk-avoiding fish, while plasma lactate and glucose concentrations and expression of the cortisol receptor gene were lower. It was concluded that a behavioural syndrome based on boldness and aggression exists in C. carpio, as it does in many other animals, and that this is associated with differences in metabolic and stress physiology (down to the genomic level) similar to those described in animals with different coping strategies. PMID:20557617

  16. Gene Expression Variations of Red—White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Min; Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Zhu, Bai-Han; Xu, Gui-Cai; Sun, Ming-Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer’s vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red—white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology. PMID:26370964

  17. Chemical interactions and gel properties of black carp actomyosin affected by MTGase and their relationships.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Huang, Qilin; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-04-01

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to evaluate and correlate chemical interactions (-NH2 content, S-S bonds, four non-covalent interactions) with gel properties (dynamic rheological properties and cooking loss (CL)) of black carp actomyosin affected by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) at suwari and kamaboko stages. The G' and CL were significantly enhanced by MTGase and their values in kamaboko gels were higher than those in suwari gels at the same MTGase concentration. The ?-carboxyamide and amino cross-links, catalyzed by MTGase, were constructed at suwari stage and contributed to the network formation, while disulfide bonds were formed not only in suwari gels but also in kamaboko gels, further enhancing the gel network. PLSR analysis revealed that 86.6-90.3% of the variation of G' and 91.8-94.4% of the variation of CL were best explained by chemical interactions. G' mainly depended on covalent cross-links and gave positive correlation. CL was positively correlated with covalent cross-links, but negatively related to non-covalent bonds, indicating that covalent bonds promoted water extrusion, whereas non-covalent bonds were beneficial for water-holding. PMID:26593605

  18. Biological uptake and depuration of sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongxia; Liu, Sisi; Chen, Jingwen; Jiang, Jingqiu; Xie, Qing; Quan, Xie

    2015-02-01

    Sulfonamides, a class of the most commonly used antibiotics, are being increasingly released into the aquatic environment and have recently caused considerable concerns. However, knowledge on their fate and ecotoxicological effects upon aquatic organisms is not understood yet. This work investigated mainly the bioconcentration kinetics (uptake/depuration) of sulfadiazine (SDZ) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by exposure in different concentrations under semi-static conditions for 48 d. The uptake rate (k1), growth-corrected depuration rate (k 2g), and biological half-lives (t1/2) of two sulfonamides in liver and muscle were determined and they were 0.135-9.84 L kg(-1)d(-1), 0.0361-0.838 d(-1), 8.3-19.2d, respectively. With exposure concentrations increasing, the uptake rates in liver and muscle decreased obviously but the depuration rates were not closely related with the exposure concentrations. SDZ exhibited higher uptake but lower excretion rates in almost all the liver and muscle than SMZ, resulting in both higher BCFs and half-lives for SDZ. The growth-corrected bioconcentration factors (BCF kg) were measured to be 1.65-165.73 L kg(-1)ww and their averages were in good consistency with the values predicted by previous models within one log unit. The work presented here was the first to model bioconcentration of SMZ and SDZ from water by laboratory-exposed fish. PMID:25462302

  19. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  20. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 ?g/L and 7.5 ?g/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  1. Local and systemic adaptive immune responses toward viral infection via gills in ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Somamoto, Tomonori; Miura, Yuhei; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Nakao, Miki

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies on fish immunity highlighted the significance of gills as mucosal immune tissues. To understand potential of gills as vaccination sites for inducing adaptive systemic immunity, we investigated virus-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses following a "per-gill infection method", which directly exposes virus only to gills. The viral load in crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV)-infected gills decreased after peaking at a particular time point. Furthermore, the viral titers in the gills following the secondary infection were lower than that after the primary infection, indicating that local adaptive immunity helped the elimination of virus. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that IFN-? in gills and perforin in kidney were increased after the gill infection. CD8(+) cells in kidney leukocytes increased after the secondary infection, whereas IgM(+) cells decreased. These results suggest that IFN-? and CTL contribute in controlling CHNV-replication in gills and kidney. Gill infection could induce specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and secretion of CHNV-specific IgM in serum, indicating that local priming of the gill site can generate adaptive systemic immunity. Thus, the gills could be prospective antigen-sensitization sites for mucosal vaccination. PMID:25936589

  2. Complex responses to Si quantum dots accumulation in carp liver tissue: Beyond oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Sima, Cornelia; Staicu, Andrea Cristina; Zarnescu, Otilia; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-09-01

    The use of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications is limited due to their inherent toxicity caused by the heavy metal core of the particles. Consequently, silicon-based QDs are expected to display diminished toxicity. We investigated the in vivo effects induced by Si/SiO2 QDs intraperitoneally injected in crucian carp liver. The QDs contained a crystalline Si core encased in a SiO2 shell, with a size between 2.75 and 11.25nm and possess intrinsic fluorescence (Ex 325nm/Em ?690nm). Tissue fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed the presence of QDs in the liver for at least 2weeks after injection. Although protein and lipid oxidative stress markers showed the onset of oxidative stress, the hepatic tissue exhibited significant antioxidant adaptations (increase of antioxidant enzymes, recovery of glutathione levels), sustained by the activation of Hsp30 and Hsp70 chaperoning proteins. The increased activity of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) support the idea that Si/SiO2 QDs have a potential to induce inflammatory response, a scenario also indicated by the profile of Hsp60 and Hsp90 heat shock proteins. MMPs profile and the recovery of oxidative stress markers suggested a tissue remodelation phase after 3weeks from QDs administration. PMID:26079203

  3. Special Divisional Majors 1 Special Divisional Majors

    E-print Network

    Post, David M.

    prevail. Some majors combine two disciplines (e.g., music and English, religious studies and anthropology Major," without specifying the student's field of concentration. Before applying for a Special

  4. Genetic analysis of invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in the Mississippi River Basin: evidence for multiple introductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) have been present in USA aquaculture facilities since the 1980s and wild Black Carp have been found in the Mississippi River Basin since the early 1990s. This study characterizes the genetic diversity and relatedness of the Basin’s Black Carp and clarifies the introduction history. Analyses focused on three mitochondrial markers (control region, cytochrome-b, and 16S) and seven nuclear microsatellite markers (nDNA), using aquaculture and wild-caught samples collected in the upper and lower Mississippi Basin. Of the three mitochondrial haplotypes, two were shared between the aquaculture and wild populations, while a third was only present in upper Mississippi wild-caught specimens. Due to the presence of diploid and triploid fish, microsatellite markers were scored as pseudodominant and revealed low polymorphism (NA = 4.6, NA Ave = 1.5). Nuclear Bayesian clustering analyses identified two genetically distinct groups and four subclusters, each primarily composed of a unique haplotype. Samples from three aquaculture farms were assigned to group 1, while a fourth farm included samples from both groups 1 and 2. Wild-caught fish from the upper Basin were predominantly group 1, whereas wild samples from the lower Mississippi were assigned to both genetic groups. The presence of divergent haplotypes and distinct nDNA groups, along with geographic distribution patterns, indicate that wild populations in the basin likely resulted from multiple introductions. Genetic similarities between wild and captive populations support claims that aquaculture is the introduction source, but a shortage of samples and a history of repeated transfers among facilities obscure the precise pathway.

  5. ?-Alanine does not act through branched-chain amino acid catabolism in carp, a species with low muscular carnosine storage.

    PubMed

    Geda, F; Declercq, A; Decostere, A; Lauwaerts, A; Wuyts, B; Derave, W; Janssens, G P J

    2015-02-01

    This study was executed to investigate the effect of dietary ?-alanine (BA) on amino acid (AA) metabolism and voluntary feed intake in carp (Cyprinus carpio) at mildly elevated temperature to exert AA catabolism. Twenty-four fish in 12 aquaria were randomly assigned to either a control diet or the same diet with 500 mg BA/kg. A 14-day period at an ideal temperature (23 °C) was followed by 15 days at chronic mildly elevated temperature (27 °C). After the 15 days, all fish were euthanised for muscle analysis on histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD), whole blood on free AA and carnitine esters. The carnosine and anserine analysis indicated that all analyses were below the detection limit of 5 µmol/L, confirming that carp belongs to a species that does not store HCD. The increases in free AA concentrations due to BA supplementation failed to reach the level of significance. The effects of dietary BA on selected whole blood carnitine esters and their ratios were also not significant. The supplementation of BA tended to increase body weight gain (P = 0.081) and feed intake (P = 0.092). The lack of differences in the selected nutrient metabolites in combination with tendencies of improved growth performance warrants further investigation to unravel the mechanism of BA affecting feed intake. This first trial on the effect of BA supplementation on AA catabolism showed that its metabolic effect in carp at chronic mildly elevated temperature was very limited. Further studies need to evaluate which conditions are able to exert an effect of BA on AA metabolism. PMID:25549626

  6. Scale surface microstructure and scale size in the tooth-carp genus Aphanius (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from endorheic basins in Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Zeinab; Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of species within the tooth-carp Aphanius Nardo, 1827 (Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei) has been recorded from the endorheic drainage systems of Iran, and several isolated populations in these systems may deserve species status. Descriptions of these species and populations have been based mainly on morphological and molecular data; however, the characters related to the fish scales have not up to now been intensively studied and employed for the identification of the species belonging to this genus. The objective of this study is to test as to whether (i) scale surface morphology, (ii) scale surface microstructure, and (iii) scale size can be used to discriminate species and/or populations and, (iv) to discuss the possible causes of the observed differences. To achieve these objectives, scales of three species of the genus Aphanius from endorheic basins in SW Iran, viz. A. sophiae (nine populations from the Kor River Basin), A. farsicus (four populations from the Maharlu Lake Basin) and A. pluristriatus (a single population from the Mond River Basin) have been studied using SEM images, scale measurements, and uni- and multivariate statistics. It is opined that scale surface morphology and microstructure cannot help in distinguishing the species, but can be employed to discriminate certain populations of A. sophiae (those from Safashahr, Kharameh, Tashk, Gol). In addition, scale size and J-indices, respectively, represent a valuable tool for species separation, which corroborates earlier studies for the use of these indices in taxonomy. Major driving forces of the differentiation within A. sophiae probably include habitat fragmentation resulting from the geological history and local adaptations. Thus the differentiation results from a balance between both genetic and environmental effects. PMID:26131487

  7. Acute exposure to the biopesticide azadirachtin affects parameters in the gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara D; Leitemperger, Jossiele W; Flores-Lopes, Fábio; Menezes, Charlene C; Loebens, Luisa; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Rizzetti, Tiele M; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania L

    2016-02-01

    The biopesticide, azadirachtin (Aza) is less hazardous to the environment, but may cause several toxic effects in aquatic organisms. The Cyprinus carpio (n=12, for all concentrations) after 10days of acclimation under controlled conditions, were exposed at 20, 40, and 60?L/L of Aza during 96h. After this period, fish were anesthetized and euthanized then mucus layer and gills collected. In this study, the effects of exposure to different Aza concentrations were analysed through a set of biomarkers: Na(+)/K(+-)ATPase, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-protein thiols (NPSH), ascorbic acid (AsA) and histological parameters and, yet, protein and glucose concentration in the surface area of mucous layer. Na(+)K(+-)ATPase was inhibited at 40 and 60?L/L compared to control. TBARS decreased at 40?L/L compared to control. PC, SOD and GST increased at 60?L/L in comparison to control. CAT increased at 20 and 60?L/L, and GPx increased in all Aza concentrations compared to control. NPSH decreased and AsA increased in all concentrations in comparison to control. Histological analyses demonstrated an increase in the intensity of the damage with increasing Aza concentration. Alterations in histological examination were elevation and hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the secondary filament, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the mucous and chlorate cells and lamellar aneurism. Glucose and protein concentrations in mucus layer increased at 60?L/L compared to control. In general, we suggest that 60?L/L Aza concentration affected several parameters causing disruptions carp metabolism. PMID:26689640

  8. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, Loredana; Petrache, Sorina Nicoleta; Serban, Andreea Iren; Staicu, Andrea Cristina; Sima, Cornelia; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Z?rnescu, Otilia; Dinu, Diana; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2013-05-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner.

  9. Two new species of shovel-jaw carp Onychostoma (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huy Duc; Pham, Hung Manh; Tran, Ngan Trong

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of large shovel-jaw carps in the genus Onychostoma are described from the upper Krong No and middle Dong Nai drainages of the Langbiang Plateau in southern Vietnam. These new species are known from streams in montane mixed pine and evergreen forests between 140 and 1112 m. Their populations are isolated in the headwaters of the upper Sre Pok River of the Mekong basin and in the middle of the Dong Nai basin. Both species are differentiated from their congeners by a combination of the following characters: transverse mouth opening width greater than head width, 14-17 predorsal scales, caudal-peduncle length 3.9-4.2 times in SL, no barbels in adults and juveniles, a strong serrated last simple ray of the dorsal fin, and small eye diameter (20.3-21.5% HL). Onychostoma krongnoensis sp. nov. is differentiated from Onychostoma dongnaiensis sp. nov. by body depth (4.0 vs. 3.2 times in SL), predorsal scale number (14-17 vs. 14-15), dorsal-fin length (4.5 vs. 4.2 times in SL), caudal-peduncle length (3.9 vs. 4.2 times in SL), colour in life (dark vs. bright), and by mitochondrial DNA (0.2% sequence divergence). Molecular evidence indicates that both species are members of Onychostoma and are distinct from all congeners sampled (uncorrected sequence divergences at the 16S rRNA gene of >2.0% for all Onychostoma for which homologous 16S rRNA sequences are available). PMID:26249380

  10. Effect of carp pituitary extract and luteinizing hormone releasing analog hormone on reproductive indices and spawning of 3-year-old channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of carp pituitary extract (CPE) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRHa) treatments to induce spawning in young-adult channel catfish undergoing first oogenesis just prior to the spawning season was evaluated in four commercial strains of channel catfish. Prior to injection of ...

  11. 276 BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 84.-FlVE REOEIPTS WOK C O O S I N G CARP.

    E-print Network

    the carp, but cook it nuti1 done, in strong salt water, with vinegar, spices, pepper, and parsley roots-spoonftlls of herb vinegar, one-fourth of a pint of sour cream, and some horseradish (one-fovth of a commou. sized salt water, with vinegar, spices, pepper, and onions. Serve with melted butter and El hard-boiled egg

  12. Reproductive Responses of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Cages to Influent of the Las Vegas Wash in Lake Mead, Nevada, from late Winter to early Spring

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the potential for contaminants in Las Vegas Wash (LW) influent to produce effects indicative of endocrine disruption in vivo, adult male and female common carp were exposed in cages for 42-48 d at four sites and two reference locations in Lake Mead.

  13. COMPARISON OF CARP PITUITARY EXTRACT, CATFISH PITUITARY EXTRACT, OR LHRHA FOR INDUCED SPAWNING OF CHANNEL CATFISH FEMALES TO PRODUCE CHANNEL CATFISH X BLUE CATFISH HYBRID FRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish x blue catfish hybrids have improved growth, disease resistance, and meat yield compared to channel catfish. However, production of hybrid fry requires hormone induced spawning of female channel catfish. Objectives of this study were to compare efficacy of carp pituitary extract, c...

  14. Cloning, molecular characterization, and expression analysis of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) gene from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Leng, Xiang-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jia-Le; Gao, Jian-Zhong; Li, Xiao-Qin; Gan, Tian; Wei, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT?) binds to Janus kinase 2 (JAK?) to initiate the JAK?/STAT? signal transduction pathway, which plays an important role in cancer cell proliferation, immune regulation, reproduction, lipid metabolism, and other physiological processes of the organism. In this study, the cDNA sequence of the STAT? gene from grass carp was cloned using RACE (rapid-amplification of cDNA ends). Twelve characteristics of the STAT? gene and its encoded protein sequence were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatics methods; these features included the general physical and chemical properties, the hydrophobicity, the secondary structure and the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to detect grass carp STAT? expression pattern in different tissues. The results showed that the full-length STAT? gene from grass carp is 2739-bp long and contains a 216-bp 5'UTR, a 300-bp 3'UTR, and a 2223-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 740-amino acid peptide. The deduced protein exhibited 99%?94% homology to the STAT? protein of zebra?sh (Danio rerio), medaka (Oryzias latipes), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), white-spotted char (Salvelinus leucomaenis), mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and green pufferfish (Tetraodon ?uviatilis). The deduced grass carp STAT? protein contains a protein interaction domain, an alpha domain, a DNA binding domain, and an SH2 domain. The STAT? protein of grass carp is a hydrophilic and non-secretory protein, and its molecular mass and isoeletronic point were found to be 98,5412.1 Da and 6.39, respectively. The structural elements of STAT? included ?-helixes, ?-sheets, and loops. The grass carp STAT? is expressed in all of the six tissues tested, which were the liver, spleen, gill, muscle, heart, and brain. The highest expression level was found in the liver (P < 0.05), whereas a significantly lower expression level was found in the spleen, gills, brain, and muscle (P < 0.05), and the lowest expression level was found in the heart (P < 0.05). This study provides a basis for further structural and functional exploration of the STAT? from grass carp, including its deduced protein and its signal transduction function. PMID:24055509

  15. Biochemical responses over time in common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during fed supplementation with ?-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Enamorado, Alain D; Martins, Atila C; Flores, Juliana A; Tesser, Marcelo Borges; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G; Monserrat, José Maria

    2015-10-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of lipoic acid (LA) supplementation (439.84±6.71 mg LA/kg feed) on antioxidants responses throughout the time in intestine, liver and muscle of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio. Two experimental groups were fed during four weeks with a diet with or without LA. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in these organs. Also, a technique to measure protein disulfide bonds and sulfhydryl groups was optimized for intestine samples. GST activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine after two weeks of supplementation. GSH content was also significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine, liver and muscle of fish fed with LA after two and three weeks, respectively. Total capacity antioxidant against peroxyl radicals was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the muscle of animals fed with LA after the fourth week. Concentration of disulfide bonds was higher in the intestine of fish fed with LA but this group also showed higher concentration of sulfhydryl groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation with LA is a safe strategy to induce antioxidant responses and improves the antioxidant status in different organs of common carp. Two week of supplementation are required to induce antioxidant responses in intestine and liver and three week for muscle. PMID:26037328

  16. The interference of nitro- and polycyclic musks with endogenous and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in carp: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Sabine; Martin-Skilton, Rebeca; Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta

    2009-12-15

    Synthetic musks are widely used as perfuming agents in products, such as cosmetics, detergents, and soaps. The increased detection of these substances in the aquatic environment and their high bioconcentration potential raises concerns about potential effects on aquatic species. This work aimed at assessing the interactions of the most widely used musks: nitromusks (musk xylene, musk ketone) and polycyclic musks (celestolide, galaxolide, and tonalide) with fish enzymatic systems involved in both xenobiotic and endogenous metabolism. Therefore, CYP catalyzed pathways were investigated in carp liver microsomes (CYP1A, CYP3A), ovarian microsomes (CYP19) and testicular mitochondria (CYP17 and CYP11beta) using standard substrates. Phase II activities (UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases) were determined in carp liver microsomes and cytosol, respectively. Polycyclic musks (galaxolide and tonalide) were stronger inhibitors of CYP3A- (IC(50): 68-74 microM), CYP17- (IC(50): 213-225 microM), CYP11beta- and CYP19-catalyzed activities than nitromusks, while the latter showed higher ability to interfere with CYP1A (IC(50): 35-37 microM). The sulfation of estradiol was also significantly inhibited by tonalide and galoxolide (IC(50): 140-294 microM). Overall, polycyclic musks showed the highest potential to interfere with those activities involved in the synthesis and metabolism of steroids while nitromusks mainly interfered with xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A-catalyzed reactions). The obtained data suggest that CYP isoforms are potentially sensitive targets of synthetic musk substances in fish. PMID:19928757

  17. Assessing joint toxicity of four organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using acetylcholinesterase activity as an endpoint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong

    2015-07-01

    Mixtures of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) pesticides are commonly detected in freshwater ecosystems. These pesticides inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and have potential to interfere with behaviors that may be essential for the survival of species. Although the effects of individual anticholinesterase insecticides on aquatic species have been studied for decades, the neurotoxicity of mixtures is still poorly understood. In the present study, brain AChE inhibition in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to a series of concentrations of the organophosphates (malathion and triazophos) as well as the carbamates (fenobucarb and carbosulfan) was measured. In equitoxic mixtures, the observed AChE activity inhibition of the malathion plus triazophos, and triazophos plus carbosulfan mixtures, was synergism. In equivalent concentration mixtures, the combination of malathion plus fenobucarb mixture conformed to synergism, while the observed AChE activity inhibition of the remaining pairings was less than additive. Single pesticide risk assessments are likely to underestimate the impacts of these insecticides on carps in aquatic environment where mixtures occur. Moreover, mixtures of pesticides that have been commonly reported in aquatic ecosystems may pose a more important challenge than previously anticipated. PMID:26071811

  18. Transcriptome analysis provides insights into the regulatory function of alternative splicing in antiviral immunity in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the transcriptomic response to infection is an effective approach to understanding the immune mechanisms. Herein we challenged grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and sequenced four cDNA libraries obtained from head-kidney and spleen by using Illumina Miseq. As a result, we gained a total of 21.52?Gb clean data with 107.96 million reads, and de novo assembled 55,199 unigenes with an average length of 1,470?bp. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals that 217 unigenes are differentially expressed (fold-change of at least 4) between resistant and susceptible fish in both head-kidney and spleen, and of which 36 unigenes were validated by RT-qPCR experiment. The expression profile of immune-related genes demonstrates that the immune response of spleen is more intense than that of head-kidney. Remarkably, 11,811 unigenes contain multiple transcripts, of which 322 unigenes possess notably differentially expressed transcripts between the four transcriptomic datasets. Furthermore, the splicing transcripts of IL-12p40 and IL-1R1 are firstly found to play diverse roles in the antiviral response of fishes. This study provides a complete transcriptome dataset of C. idella, which is valuable for the studies of immune complexity and, moreover, throws light on the regulatory role of AS in antiviral immunity. PMID:26248502

  19. In vitro generation of viral-antigen dependent cytotoxic T-cells from ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii

    SciTech Connect

    Somamoto, Tomonori; Okamoto, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Ototake, Mitsuru; Nakao, Miki

    2009-06-20

    Little is known about antigen-specific T-cell responses to viruses in teleosts due to a lack of a suitable experimental system using inbred or clonal animals. In the present study we have successfully induced an in vitro generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) from isogeneic ginbuna crucian carp. Responder cells (primarily lymphocytes) from crucian carp haematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV)-infected fish were capable of proliferating after stimulation in vitro with CHNV-infected syngeneic stimulator cells (primarily lymphocytes and macrophages). The effector cells collected 8 and 12 days after the in vitro stimulation efficiently lysed CHNV-infected syngeneic cells, but not CHNV-infected allogeneic cells or different virus (EVA)-infected syngeneic cells. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis showed that some effector cells binding to a CHNV-infected target were TCRbeta or CD8alpha positive. These results provide evidence that the teleost effector cells generated in vitro correspond to virus-specific CTL and they recognize virus-infected target cells in a similar manner of mammalian counterparts.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of gelatin from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) scales by ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zong-Cai; Huang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Sha, Xiao-Mei; Shi, Yan; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Man, Ze-Zhou; Li, De-Jun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, gelatin was extracted from bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) scales by water bath (WB) and ultrasound bath (UB) at 60 °C for 1 h, 3 h and 5 h, named WB1, WB3, WB5, UB1, UB3 and UB5, respectively. The physicochemical properties of gelatin were investigated. The result indicated that gelatin extracted from bighead carp scales had a high protein content (84.15?~?91.85 %) with moisture (7.11?~?13.65 %), low ash content (0.31?~?0.97 %). All extracted gelatin contained ?-and ?-chains as the predominant components. Gelatin extracted by UB obtained much higher yield (30.94-46.67 %) than that of WB (19.15-36.39 %). More voids and less sheets of gelatin structure were observed, when the gelatin was extracted by UB for longer time. Gelatin of UB-assisted extraction normally exhibited lower gel strength and melting points than that of WB, which may be resulted from the protein degradation reflected by the FTIR spectra and higher free amino group content. However, there was no significant difference between WB1 and UB1. Therefore, the ultrasound assisted extraction in a short time was a promising method to enhance the yield and obtain gelatin with high quality. PMID:25829597

  1. Structural characterization and antitumor and mitogenic activity of a lectin from the gill of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Yao, Dongrui; Pan, Saikun; Zhou, Mingqian

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the gross structure, secondary structure, and antitumor and mitogenic activity of GANL, a lectin from the gill of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). We used infrared spectroscopy, ?-elimination, and circular dichroism spectroscopy to determine the structure of GANL. We measured antiproliferation activity against six human tumor cell lines and mitogenic activity against murine splenocytes using the MTT assay. Based on infrared spectroscopy and ?-elimination, we conclude that GANL is a glycoprotein. The protein and carbohydrate moieties are joined by O-glycosidic linkage. A circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis revealed that the secondary structure of GANL consists of ?-helices (34.8 %), ?-sheets (12.1 %), ?-turns (24.5 %), and unordered structures (33.0 %). GANL exerted potent antitumor activity against the HeLa cell line (IC(50) = 11.86 ?g/mL) and a mitogenic effect on murine splenocytes in the MTT assay. GANL, a lectin that is isolated from the gills of bighead carp, is a glycoprotein with potent antitumor and mitogenic activity. PMID:22714932

  2. Using Structured Expert Judgment to Assess Invasive Species Prevention: Asian Carp and the Mississippi—Great Lakes Hydrologic Connection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Recently, authors have theorized that invasive species prevention is more cost-effective than control in protecting ecosystem services. However, quantification of the effectiveness of prevention is rare because experiments at field scales are expensive or infeasible. We therefore used structured expert judgment to quantify the efficacy of 17 proposed strategies to prevent Asian carp invasion of the Laurentian Great Lakes via the hydrologic connection between the Mississippi and Great Lakes watersheds. Performance-weighted expert estimates indicated that hydrologic separation would prevent 99% (95,100; median, 5th and 95th percentiles) of Asian carp access, while electric and acoustic-bubble-strobe barriers would prevent 92% (85,95) and 92% (75,95), respectively. For all other strategies, estimated effectiveness was lower, with greater uncertainty. When potential invasions by other taxa are considered, the effectiveness of hydrologic separation increases relative to strategies that are effective primarily for fishes. These results could help guide invasive species management in many waterways globally. PMID:24467555

  3. Cloning and characterization of two subunits of calcineurin cDNA in naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) from Lake Qinghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fulei; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Zhaoxi; Kong, Yawei; Shi, Yuan; Shi, Jianquan; Qi, Delin; Qi, Hongfang; Liang, Jian; Zhang, Rongqing; Li, Changzhong

    2014-01-01

    The naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii), a native teleost, plays an important role in maintenance of the ecological balance in the system of Lake Qinghai (altitude, 3.2 km) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. Calcineurin (CN) is the only member of the serine/threonine phosphatase family that can be activated by both Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM) and involved in many important physiological processes such as salt tolerance/adaption. In this report, cDNAs of CN catalytic subunit paralogue isoforms: GpCA? (GenBank accession no.JQ407043), GpCA? (GenBank accession no. JQ407043), and CN regulatory subunit (GpCB) (GenBank accession no. JQ410473), were isolated from Gymnocypris przewalskii and their expression patterns in embryos developmentwere characterized. Gene expression profile demonstrated that GpCA and GpCB mRNA was distributed ubiquitously in all embryonic stages and showed decline until final stage of development. Immunohistologicalanalysis revealed CN localization in different tissues including kidney, heart, brain, spermary, and gill. Collectively, these results provide molecular basis and clues to further understand the role of CN during embryos development and its function in tissues for the adaptation mechanism of naked carp. PMID:25308739

  4. Oxidative burst and nitric oxide responses in carp macrophages induced by zymosan, MacroGard(®) and selective dectin-1 agonists suggest recognition by multiple pattern recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Pietretti, D; Vera-Jimenez, N I; Hoole, D; Wiegertjes, G F

    2013-09-01

    ?-Glucans are glucose polymers that are found in the cell walls of plants, bacteria, certain fungi, mushrooms and the cell wall of baker's yeast. In mammals, myeloid cells express several receptors capable of recognizing ?-glucans, with the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 in conjunction with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), considered key receptors for recognition of ?-glucan. In our studies to determine the possible involvement of these receptors on carp macrophages a range of sources of ?-glucans were utilized including particulate ?-glucan preparations of baker's yeast such as zymosan, which is composed of insoluble ?-glucan and mannan, and MacroGard(®), a ?-glucan-based feed ingredient for farmed animals including several fish species. Both preparations were confirmed TLR2 ligands by measuring activation of HEK293 cells transfected with human TLR2 and CD14, co-transfected with a secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene. In addition, dectin-1-specific ligands in mammals i.e. zymosan treated to deplete the TLR-stimulating properties and curdlan, were monitored for their effects on carp macrophages by measuring reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals production, as well as cytokine gene expression by real-time PCR. Results clearly show the ability of carp macrophages to strongly react to particulate ?-glucans with an increase in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals and an increase in cytokine gene expression, in particular il-1?, il-6 and il-11. We identified carp il-6, that was previously unknown. In addition, carp macrophages are less, but not unresponsive to selective dectin-1 agonists, suggesting recognition of ?-glucans by multiple pattern recognition receptors that could include TLR but also non-TLR receptors. Candidate receptors for recognition of ?-glucans are discussed. PMID:23831551

  5. Ca(2+) and caspases are involved in hydroxyl radical-induced apoptosis in erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Li, HuaTao; Feng, Lin; Jiang, WeiDan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, YongAn; Wu, Pei; Zhou, XiaoQiu

    2015-10-01

    There are young erythrocytes and mature erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of fish. The present study explored the apoptosis in hydroxyl radical ((·)OH)-induced young and mature erythrocytes of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Carp erythrocytes from the peripheral blood were separated into the young fraction, the intermediate fraction and the mature fraction using fixed-angle centrifugation. The erythrocytes in three age fractions were treated with the caspase inhibitors (zVAD-fmk) in physiological carp saline (PCS) or Ca(2+)-free PCS in the presence of 40 ?M FeSO4/20 ?M H2O2. The results showed that the (·)OH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and DNA fragmentation are caspase dependent in carp erythrocytes. Furthermore, the ROS generation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in the more young fraction are more dependent on the caspase activity. This suggested that the caspases are involved in the (·)OH-induced apoptosis in the young erythrocytes of fish. Results also indicated that Ca(2+) is involved in (·)OH-induced calpain activation, PS exposure and DNA fragmentation in carp erythrocytes. Moreover, the calpain activation, DNA fragmentation and PS exposure in the more mature fraction are more dependent on the levels of Ca(2+). This revealed that (·)OH-induced apoptosis is Ca(2+) dependent in the mature erythrocytes of fish. Taken together, there might be two apoptosis pathways in fish erythrocytes: one is the caspase-dependent apoptosis in the young erythrocytes and the other is the Ca(2+)-involved apoptosis in the mature erythrocytes. PMID:26080678

  6. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  7. RDH13L, an enzyme responsible for the aldehyde-alcohol redox coupling reaction (AL-OL coupling reaction) to supply 11-cis retinal in the carp cone retinoid cycle.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinya; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-01-30

    Cone photoreceptors require effective pigment regeneration mechanisms to maintain their sensitivity in the light. Our previous studies in carp cones suggested the presence of an unconventional and very effective mechanism to produce 11-cis retinal, the necessary component in pigment regeneration. In this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox coupling reaction, AL-OL coupling reaction), formation of 11-cis retinal, i.e. oxidation of 11-cis retinol is coupled to reduction of an aldehyde at a 1:1 molar ratio without exogenous NADP(H) which is usually required in this kind of reaction. Here, we identified carp retinol dehydrogenase 13-like (RDH13L) as an enzyme catalyzing the AL-OL coupling reaction. RDH13L was partially purified from purified carp cones, identified as a candidate protein, and its AL-OL coupling activity was confirmed using recombinant RDH13L. We further examined the substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and expression level of RDH13L. Based on these results, we concluded that RDH13L contributes to a significant part, but not all, of the AL-OL coupling activity in carp cones. RDH13L contained tightly bound NADP(+) which presumably functions as a cofactor in the reaction. Mouse RDH14, a mouse homolog of carp RDH13L, also showed the AL-OL coupling activity. Interestingly, although carp cone membranes, carp RDH13L and mouse RDH14 all showed the coupling activity at 15-37 °C, they also showed a conventional NADP(+)-dependent 11-cis retinol oxidation activity above 25 °C without addition of aldehydes. This dual mechanism of 11-cis retinal synthesis attained by carp RDH13L and mouse RDH14 probably contribute to effective pigment regeneration in cones that function in the light. PMID:25533474

  8. Environmental history and tephrostratigraphy at Carp Lake, southwestern Columbia Basin, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Bartlein, P.J.; Nickmann, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from Carp Lake provide a pollen record of the last ca. 125,000 years that helps disclose vegetational and climatic conditions from the present day to the previous interglaciation (120-133 ka). The core also contained 15 tephra layers, which were characterised by electron-microprobe analysis of volcanic glass shards. Identified tephra include Mount St. Helens Ye, 3.69 ka; Mazama ash bed, 7.54 ka; Mount St. Helens layer C, 35-50 ka; an unnamed Mount St. Helens tephra, 75-150 ka; the tephra equivalent of layer E at Pringle Falls, Oregon, <218 ka; and an andesitic tephra layer similar to that at Tulelake, California, 174 ka. Ten calibrated radiocarbon ages and the ages of Mount St. Helens Ye, Mazama ash, and the unnamed Mount St. Helens tephra were used to develop an age-depth model. This model was refined by also incorporating the age of marine oxygen isotope stage (IS) boundary 4/5 (73.9 ka) and the age of IS-5e (125 ka). The justification for this age-model is based on an analysis of the pollen record and lithologic data. The pollen record is divided into 11 assemblage zones that describe alternations between periods of montane conifer forest, pine forest, and steppe. The previous interglacial period (IS-5e) supported temperate xerothermic forests of pine and oak and a northward and westward expansion of steppe and juniper woodland, compared to their present occurrence. The period from 83 to 117 ka contains intervals of pine forest and parkland alternating with pine-spruce forest, suggesting shifts from cold humid to cool temperate conditions. Between 73 and 83 ka, a forest of oak, hemlock, Douglas-fir, and fir was present that has no modem analogue. It suggests warm wet summers and cool wet winters. Cool humid conditions during the mid-Wisconsin interval supported mixed conifer forest with Douglas-fir and spruce. The glacial interval featured cold dry steppe, with an expansion of spruce in the late-glacial. Xerothermic communities prevailed in the early Holocene, when temperate steppe was widespread and the lake dried intermittently. The middle Holocene was characterised by ponderosa pine forest, and the modem vegetation was established in the last 3900 yr, when ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, fir, and oak were part of the local vegetation.

  9. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of Lake Qinghai scaleless carp Gymnocypris przewalskii.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, D M; Xie, Z; Wang, Y; Du, J; Brauner, C J; Richards, J G; Wood, C M; Chen, X-Q; Murray, B W

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the spatial genetic relationships of the Lake Qinghai scaleless carp Gymnocypris przewalskii within the Lake Qinghai system, determining whether genetic evidence supports the current taxonomy of Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihonensis and whether Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii are returning to their natal rivers to spawn. Comparison of mitochondrial (control region) variation (42 haplotypes in 203 fish) of G. przewalskii with the postulated ancestral species found in the Yellow River, Gymnocypris eckloni (10 haplotypes in 23 fish), indicated no haplotype sharing, but incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with the sub-species status, an AMOVA indicated that the Ganzi River population was significantly different from all other river populations (F(ST) = 0·1671, P < 0·001). No genetic structure was found among the other rivers in the Lake Qinghai catchment. An AMOVA of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci, however, revealed significant genetic differences between most spawning populations (F(ST) = 0·0721, P < 0·001). Both mitochondrial and AFLP data found significant differences among G. p. przewalskii, G. p. ganzihonensis and G. eckloni (F(ST) values of 0·1959 and 0·1431, respectively, P < 0·001). Consistent with the incomplete lineage sorting, Structure analysis of AFLP loci showed evidence of five clusters. One cluster is shared among all sample locations, one is unique to G. p. ganzihonensis and G. eckloni, and the others are mostly found in G. p. przewalskii. Genetic evidence therefore supports the current taxonomy, including the sub-species status of G. p. ganzihonensis, and is consistent with natal homing of most Lake Qinghai populations. These findings have significant implications for the conservation and management of this unique and threatened species. The evidence suggests that G. p. przewalskii should be treated as a single population for conservation purposes. Exchangeability of the populations, however, should not be used to promote homogenization of fish spawning in the different rivers. As some degree of genetic divergence was detected in this study, it is recommended that the spawning groups be treated as separate management units. PMID:21133917

  10. Effect of eutrophication on mercury, selenium, and essential fatty acids in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) from reservoirs of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Razavi, N Roxanna; Arts, Michael T; Qu, Mingzhi; Jin, Binsong; Ren, Wenwei; Wang, Yuxiang; Campbell, Linda M

    2014-11-15

    Analyses of the risks and benefits of consuming fish assess the content of beneficial fatty acids found in fish relative to harmful pollutants such as methylmercury (MeHg). Quantifying the effect of eutrophication on mercury (Hg), selenium (Se) and essential fatty acids (EFAs) in fish is necessary to determine how measures of risk vary with productivity. Total Hg and MeHg, Se and fatty acids, including the EFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were analyzed in Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) dorsal muscle tissue from seven subtropical reservoirs of eastern China. Individual elements and fatty acids, as well as derived measures of risk (Se:Hg and hazard quotient, HQ(EFA)) were regressed against indicators of eutrophication, including total phosphorous (TP), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and phytoplankton species composition. We found low MeHg concentrations (range=0.018-0.13 ?g/g ww) and Se concentrations (range=0.12-0.28 ?g/g ww), and Se:Hg molar ratios that were well above 1.0, indicating a low risk of Hg toxicity. Bighead Carp had a high content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (?PUFAs=44.2-53.6%), which included both EPA (6.9-12.5%) and DHA (16.1-23.2%). However, fish had significantly lower Se:Hg molar ratios in reservoirs with high TP, and lower EPA content with increasing plankton density (i.e. higher chl-a). Phytoplankton species composition predicted Se concentrations, but not Hg concentrations or EFA content. Overall, Hg concentrations in Bighead Carp were very low relative to consumption guidelines, and Se concentrations were adequate to confer protective benefits against MeHg toxicity. Our findings suggest that changes to plankton species composition and density with eutrophication may result in fish of lower nutritional value and thus increase risks to fish consumers by changing the availability of Se and EPA relative to MeHg. PMID:25173860

  11. Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet NAME: _______________________________ STUDENT ID Required: 1010 Culture and the Human Experience [BF} / 3001 Anthropology as a Major and Career / 1 Two From) [BF] / 1050 Evolution of Human Nature [SF] / 1070 Introduction to Linguistics in Anthropology / Two

  12. Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet NAME: ________________________________ STUDENT ID Required: 1010 Culture and the Human Experience [BF] / 3001 Anthropology as a Major and Career / 1 Two From be retaken for abetter gradeAnthropology hours required: This can include ANY

  13. ?-Glucan-supplemented diets increase poly(I:C)-induced gene expression of Mx, possibly via Tlr3-mediated recognition mechanism in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Falco, Alberto; Miest, Joanna J; Pionnier, Nicolas; Pietretti, Danilo; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Hoole, David

    2014-02-01

    We have previously observed that in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), administration of ?-glucan (MacroGard®) as feed additive leads to a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting that this immunostimulant may be preventing an acute and potentially dangerous response to infection, particularly in the gut. However, in general, mechanisms to detect and eliminate pathogens must also be induced in order to achieve an efficient clearance of the infection. Protection against viral diseases acquired through ?-glucan-supplemented feed has been extensively reported for several experimental models in fish but the underlining mechanisms are still unknown. Thus, in order to better characterize the antiviral action induced by ?-glucans in fish, MacroGard® was administered daily to common carp in the form of supplemented commercial food pellets. Carp were fed for a period of 25 days prior to intra-peritoneal injection with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a well-known double-stranded RNA mimic that triggers a type-I interferon (IFN) response. Subsequently, a set of immune related genes, including mx, were analysed by real-time PCR on liver, spleen, head kidney and mid gut tissues. Results obtained confirmed that treatment with ?-glucan alone generally down-regulated the mRNA expression of selected cytokines when compared to untreated fish, while mx gene expression remained stable or was slightly up-regulated. Injection with poly(I:C) induced a similar down-regulated gene expression pattern for cytokines in samples from ?-glucan fed fish. In contrast, poly(I:C) injection markedly increased mx gene expression in samples from ?-glucan fed fish but hardly in samples from fish fed control feed. In an attempt to explain the high induction of mx, we studied Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) gene expression in these carp. TLR3 is a prototypical pattern recognition receptor considered important for the binding of viral double-stranded RNA and triggering of a type-I IFN response. Through genome data mining, two sequences for carp tlr3 were retrieved (tlr3.1 and tlr3.2) and characterized. Constitutive gene expression of both tlr3.1 and tlr3.2 was detected by real-time PCR in cDNA of all analysed carp organs. Strikingly, 25 days after ?-glucan feeding, very high levels of tlr3.1 gene expression were observed in all analysed organs, with the exception of the liver. Our data suggest that ?-glucan-mediated protection against viral diseases could be due to an increased Tlr3-mediated recognition of ligands, resulting in an increased antiviral activity of Mx. PMID:24370748

  14. SFA MAJOR REQUIREMENTS SFA Corrections major requires

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    1301. Note 2 3 hrs of math from New Core or: MTH 110,MATH 1316,1314,1324,1342,2313. Office Texas Common Course Numbers & New Core Curriculum 2015-2016 Catalog TCCN CORE COURSES 010 ENGL 1301 Core (see Note 3) 3 hrs from Creative Arts Core (Note 4) Law Enforcement major requires: CRIJ 1301

  15. Risk-taking behaviour may explain high predation mortality of GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Zhang, T; Hu, W; Xie, S; Sundström, L F; Li, Z; Zhu, Z

    2013-11-01

    The competitive ability and habitat selection of juvenile all-fish GH-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio and their size-matched non-transgenic conspecifics, in the absence and presence of predation risk, under different food distributions, were compared. Unequal-competitor ideal-free-distribution analysis showed that a larger proportion of transgenic C. carpio fed within the system, although they were not overrepresented at a higher-quantity food source. Moreover, the analysis showed that transgenic C. carpio maintained a faster growth rate, and were more willing to risk exposure to a predator when foraging, thereby supporting the hypothesis that predation selects against maximal growth rates by removing individuals that display increased foraging effort. Without compensatory behaviours that could mitigate the effects of predation risk, the escaped or released transgenic C. carpio with high-gain and high-risk performance would grow well but probably suffer high predation mortality in nature. PMID:24580661

  16. Electron Microscopic Observation and Biochemical Properties of Carp Myosin B during Frozen Storage at -8°C with Cryoprotectants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Norio; Oguni, Moritoshi; Yamamoto, Mika; Shinano, Haruo

    The cryoprotective effect of sorbitol (0.5M) and monosodium glutamate (0.3M) was examined on the freeze denaturation of carp myosin B filaments by observing the morphological changes in electron microscopy. Myosin B in the presence of 0.1 or 0.6M KCl was stored at -8°C that was higer temperature than the eutectic point of KCl and provided the concentrated KCl solution for causing the filamentous structure to deform. In the case of frozen storage in 0.1M KCl, the deformation of myosin B filaments was protected with both cryoprotectants. In the case of 0.6M KCl with monosodium glutamate, the deformation of the filaments was prevented. However, the granular matters deformed from myosin B were observed to some extent in 0.6M KCl with sorbitol. Morphological changes of the filaments in the electron microscopy agreed with the changes in biochemical properties of myosin B.

  17. Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    A nationwide reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 to develop and evaluate a suite of reproductive and endocrine biomarkers for their potential to assess reproductive health and status in teleost (bony) fish. Fish collections were made at 119 sites, representing many regions of the country and land- and water-use settings. Collectively, this report will provide a national and regional benchmark and a basis for evaluating biomarkers of endocrine and reproductive function. Approximately 2,200 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and 650 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were collected from 1994 through 1997. The suite of biomarkers used for these studies included: the plasma sex-steroid hormones, 17?-estradiol (E2) and 11 ketotestosterone (11KT); the ratio of E2 to 11KT (E2:11KT); plasma vitellogenin (VTG); and stage of gonadal development. This data report provides fish size, stage and reproductive biomarker data for individual fish and for site and regional summaries of these variables.

  18. Preliminary validation of high performance liquid chromatography method for detection of methyl-testosterone residue in carp muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jie; Lin, Hong; Fu, Xiaoting; Li, Mingming

    2005-07-01

    The use of synthetic anabolic steroid methyltestosterone (MT) as growth promoter is prohibited in China. Validations of analytical methods for MT residue in food and the results obtained have become indispensable. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of MT with liquid-liquid extraction by trichloromethane-methanol in carp muscle tissue was preliminarily validated with reference to the following parameters: recovery (accuracy) at the 1, 5 and l0 mgkg-1 level, between-run and within-run CV values (repeatability, also called relative standard deviation (RSD)) and limit of detection. The recoveries were above 80% and the between-run and within-run CV values below 10% for muscle tissue. The limit of detection was 0.05 mgkg-1.

  19. Tissue-specific bioconcentration of the synthetic steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Steele, W Baylor; Garcia, Santos N; Huggett, Duane B; Venables, Barney J; Barnes, Sid Edwin; La Point, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    The steroid hormone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), commonly used in oral and injectable contraceptives, has been detected in surface and wastewaters near urban and agricultural areas in several rivers of the world. The objectives of this study were to examine the accumulative potential and tissue distribution of MPA in fish. A freshwater species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), was exposed to 100 ?g/L of MPA for a 7-day period followed by a depuration phase in which fish were maintained in dechlorinated tap water for an additional 7 days. Tissues (muscle, brain, plasma, and liver) were sampled during the uptake (days 1, 3, and 7) and depuration (day 14) phases of the experiment. Tissue-specific bioconcentration factors (BCF) ranged from 4.3 to 37.8 and uptake was greatest in the liver>brain>plasma and lowest in the muscle. From a regulatory standpoint, MPA shows little tendency to bioaccumulate in fish. PMID:24161818

  20. Substrate Specificity and Subcellular Localization of the Aldehyde-Alcohol Redox-coupling Reaction in Carp Cones*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Fukagawa, Takashi; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Yamano, Yumiko; Wada, Akimori; Kawamura, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study suggested the presence of a novel cone-specific redox reaction that generates 11-cis-retinal from 11-cis-retinol in the carp retina. This reaction is unique in that 1) both 11-cis-retinol and all-trans-retinal were required to produce 11-cis-retinal; 2) together with 11-cis-retinal, all-trans-retinol was produced at a 1:1 ratio; and 3) the addition of enzyme cofactors such as NADP(H) was not necessary. This reaction is probably part of the reactions in a cone-specific retinoid cycle required for cone visual pigment regeneration with the use of 11-cis-retinol supplied from Müller cells. In this study, using purified carp cone membrane preparations, we first confirmed that the reaction is a redox-coupling reaction between retinals and retinols. We further examined the substrate specificity, reaction mechanism, and subcellular localization of this reaction. Oxidation was specific for 11-cis-retinol and 9-cis-retinol. In contrast, reduction showed low specificity: many aldehydes, including all-trans-, 9-cis-, 11-cis-, and 13-cis-retinals and even benzaldehyde, supported the reaction. On the basis of kinetic studies of this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox-coupling reaction), we found that formation of a ternary complex of a retinol, an aldehyde, and a postulated enzyme seemed to be necessary, which suggested the presence of both the retinol- and aldehyde-binding sites in this enzyme. A subcellular fractionation study showed that the activity is present almost exclusively in the cone inner segment. These results suggest the presence of an effective production mechanism of 11-cis-retinal in the cone inner segment to regenerate visual pigment. PMID:24217249

  1. Genotoxicity assessment of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings by tissue DNA damage and micronucleus test, after environmental exposure to fenitrothion.

    PubMed

    Sepici-Dincel, Aylin; Sahin, Duygu; Karasu Benli, A Caglan; Sarikaya, Rabia; Selvi, Mahmut; Erkoc, Figen; Altan, Nilgun

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects of sublethal doses of fenitrothion, an organophosphothionate insecticide on brain, gill, liver, and muscle tissues as a ratio of 8-OHdG to dG to indicate the DNA damage and erythrocyte micronucleus frequency for genotoxicity of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings. In our study, the mean weights and lengths of the fish (n?=?4-12) were 31.13?±?14.24?g and 12.53?±?1.41, respectively. Before the experiment, fish were maintained in aerated dechlorinated tap water at 21.8?±?1 °C and fed daily with commercial feed at a rate of 2% of their body weights. Experiments were conducted under static conditions in the aquaria. Technical grade (95%) fenitrothion was diluted in acetone to give a dosing solution of 10?mg/L. The increased lesions/10? DNA bases (p?carp following the exposure to 48?h fenitrothion (6.43?±?3.89; p<0.05) was observed when compared to control group (1.29?±?1.03). The available data indicate that there is still lack of well-established dose-response relationships between occupational or environmental exposures and the induction of 8-OHdG. Such biomarkers may be used in assessing adverse/toxic effects of pesticides as environmental stressors. PMID:21417631

  2. Differential expression of interleukin-12 p35 and p40 subunits in response to Aeromonas hydrophila and Aquareovirus infection in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Pandit, N P; Shen, Y B; Xu, X Y; Yu, H Y; Wang, W J; Wang, R Q; Xuan, Y F; Li, J L

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) aquaculture industry in Asia is prone to bacterial and viral hemorrhagic diseases. Effective adjuvants for vaccine formulation are the need of the hour for control of these diseases and long-term sustainability of grass carp farming. In this study, the involvement of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from grass carp (gcIL?12) in anti-bacterial and anti-viral immune responses was demonstrated via expression profiles of gcIL-12 subunits in immune tissues of the fish, following infection by Aeromonas hydrophila and Aquareovirus. Additionally, cDNA of the gcIL-12 subunits, p35 and p40 was cloned and characterized. We found that most of the structurally and functionally important features of vertebrate orthologues were conserved in gcIL-12 subunits, p35 and p40, with some features specific to grass carp. High levels of gcIL-12 p35 expression in the brain and gills suggest that IL-12 plays an important role in neural and immune systems. High expression levels in the heart, blood, and immune-related tissues suggest an important role in circulation and the immune system as well. Infections by both, A. hydrophila and Aquareovirus stimulated the mRNA expression of gcIL-12 subunits, p35 and p40 in most immune tissues. Significant upregulation or downregulation of gcIL-12 subunits, p35 and p40 by bacterial and viral infection confirms their potential role in anti-bacterial and anti-viral immune responses in fish. PMID:25730056

  3. Effects of the lipid regulating drug clofibric acid on PPAR?-regulated gene transcript levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at pharmacological and environmental exposure levels

    PubMed Central

    Corcoran, Jenna; Winter, Matthew J.; Lange, Anke; Cumming, Rob; Owen, Stewart F.; Tyler, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) plays a key role in regulating various genes involved in lipid metabolism, bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homeostasis, and is activated by a diverse group of compounds collectively termed peroxisome proliferators (PPs). Specific PPs have been detected in the aquatic environment; however little is known on their pharmacological activity in fish. We investigated the bioavailability and persistence of the human PPAR? ligand clofibric acid (CFA) in carp, together with various relevant endpoints, at a concentration similar to therapeutic levels in humans (20 mg/L) and for an environmentally relevant concentration (4 ?g/L). Exposure to pharmacologically-relevant concentrations of CFA resulted in increased transcript levels of a number of known PPAR? target genes together with increased acyl-coA oxidase (Acox1) activity, supporting stimulation of lipid metabolism pathways in carp which are known to be similarly activated in mammals. Although Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1) activity was not affected, mRNA levels of several biotransformation genes were also increased, paralleling previous reports in mammals and indicating a potential role in hepatic detoxification for PPAR? in carp. Importantly, transcription of some of these genes (and Acox1 activity) were affected at exposure concentrations comparable with those reported in effluent discharges. Collectively, these data suggest that CFA is pharmacologically active in carp and has the potential to invoke PPAR?-related responses in fish exposed in the environment, particularly considering that CFA may represent just one of a number of PPAR-active compounds present to which wild fish may be exposed. PMID:25749508

  4. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Patrick R.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  5. Structurally conserved C-RFa revealed prolactin releasing activity in vitro and gene expression changes in pituitary of seasonally acclimatized carp.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alex; Montefusco-Siegmund, Rodrigo; Valenzuela, Guillermo; Kausel, Gudrun; Muller, Marc; Brauchi, Sebastian; Figueroa, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Here we show the cloning and characterization of a novel homolog of prepro C-RFa cDNA from Cyprinus carpio. The deduced preprohormone precursor of 115 amino acids leads to a mature bioactive peptide of 20 amino acids with identical sequence to other teleost C-RFa. Modeling of the mature C-RFa peptide highlighted significant similarity to homologous human PrRP20, specifically the conserved amphipathic system defined by the C-terminal alpha-helix. Clearly, the synthetic C-RFa peptide stimulated prolactin release from primary cultured fish pituitary cells. For the first time, significant variation was shown in C-RFa mRNA and protein levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary between summer- and winter-acclimatized carp. Furthermore, C-RFa protein distribution in carp central nervous tissue was visualized by immunodetection in fibers and cells in hypothalamus, olfactory tract, cerebellum and pituitary stalk. In conclusion, we demonstrated the structure conservation of C-RFa in teleosts and mammals and immunopositive cells and fibers for C-RFa in brain areas. Finally, the increase of C-RFa expression suggests the participation of this hypothalamic factor in the mechanism of modulation in PRL expression in carp. PMID:23096363

  6. Identification of methyl triclosan and halogenated analogues in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Las Vegas Bay and semipermeable membrane devices from Las Vegas Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leiker, T.J.; Abney, S.R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues have been identified in extracts of individual whole-body male carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissue that were collected from Las Vegas Bay, Nevada, and Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMD) that were deployed in Las Vegas Wash, Nevada. Methyl triclosan is believed to be the microbially methylated product of the antibacterial agent triclosan (2, 4, 4'-trichloro-4-hydroxydiphenyl ether, Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number 3380-34-5, Irgasan DP300). The presence of methyl triclosan and four halogenated analogues was confirmed in SPMD extracts by comparing low- and high-resolution mass spectral data and Kovats retention indices of methyl triclosan with commercially obtained triclosan that was derivatized to the methyl ether with ethereal diazomethane. The four halogenated analogues of methyl triclosan detected in both whole-body tissue and SPMD extracts were tentatively identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Methyl triclosan was detected in all 29 male common carp from Las Vegas Bay with a mean concentration of 596????g kg- 1 wet weight (ww) which is more than an order of magnitude higher than previously reported concentrations in the literature. The halogenated analogs were detected less frequently (21%-76%) and at much lower concentrations (< 51????g kg- 1 ww). None of these compounds were detected in common carp from a Lake Mead reference site in Overton Arm, Nevada.

  7. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  8. Massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio in the upper Elbe basin associated with herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (CyHV-2).

    PubMed

    Dan?k, Tomá; Kalous, Luká; Vesel, Tomá; Krásová, Eva; Reschová, Stanislava; Rylková, Kater?ina; Kulich, Pavel; L, Miloslav Petrt; Pokorová, Dagmar; Knytl, Martin

    2012-12-27

    From 22 May to 10 June 2011 massive mortality of Prussian carp Carassius gibelio was observed in alluvial Lake ?ehac?ka close to the Elbe River in the Czech Republic. More than 1400 kg of dead fish were collected and no other fish species were affected. Further molecular and cytogenetic investigation of fish (n = 232) revealed that the R?ehac?ka population of Prussian carp consisted exclusively of gynogenetic triploid females. The causative agent was identified by means of molecular and electron microscopy as a herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis virus (Cyprinid herpesvirus 2, CyHV-2). This is the first report of CyHV-2 from the Czech Republic and the second finding worldwide of CyHV-2 causing mass mortality of C. gibelio. Some other localities in the upper Elbe River basin where C. gibelio was affected are also noted. We assume that the massive wave of deaths of all female gynogenetic Prussian carp can be attributed to limited genetic variation and the favourable conditions for development of viral disease. PMID:23269383

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of amh, dax1 and cyp19a1a genes and their response to 17?-methyltestosterone in Pengze crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Houpeng; Liang, Hongwei; Zheng, Yao; Qin, Fang; Liu, Shaozhen; Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Zaizhao

    2013-05-01

    The proteins encoded by amh, dax1 and cyp19a1a play important roles in gonad differentiation. Their functions have been far less studied in teleosts. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of amh, dax1 and cyp19a1a were cloned and characterized in a triploid gynogenic fish, the Pengze crucian carp. Their expression profilings in juvenile development, adult tissues and juveniles exposed to 100 ng/L 17?-methyltestosterone (MT) were investigated. Results showed that their putative proteins shared high identities to their counterparts in cyprinid fish species, respectively. The tissue distribution results indicated that amh and cyp19a1a were predominantly expressed in the ovary and dax1 was dominantly expressed in the liver. Gene profiling in the developmental stages showed that all the three target genes had a consistent highest expression at 48 days post hatching (dph). The period of 48 dph appeared to be a key time during the process of the gonad development of Pengze crucian carp. 100 ng/L MT significantly increased the mRNA expression of amh at 2- and 4-week exposures and enhanced dax1 and cyp19a1a at 6-week exposure. The present study indicated that MT could influence the gonad development in Pengze crucian carp by disturbing sex-differentiation associated gene expression. Furthermore, the present study will be of great significance to broaden the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the physiological processes of reproduction in fish. PMID:23528270

  10. Enhancement of secondary metabolites from Bacillus Licheniformis XY-52 on immune response and expression of some immune-related genes in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Lu, Hong-Mei; Niu, Xiao-Tian; Wang, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2015-07-01

    This study was undertaken to isolate active secondary metabolites from immunostimulatory Bacillus Licheniformis XY-52 and evaluate their activities at 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 2.0% doses supplementation with feed on immune response in common carp at weeks 1, 2, and 3. By applying chromatography techniques and successive recrystallization, two purified metabolites were obtained and identified by spectral data (mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance) as: Cyclo-(Phe-Tyr) and Cyclo-(Phe-Gly). The results revealed that humoral innate immune parameters (lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity and bactericidal activity) were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after feeding on the two active compounds-supplemented diet. Furthermore, administration of the two active compounds significantly (P < 0.05) up regulated IL-1?, Type 1 IFN, IFN g2b, IL10 and TNF-? gene expression. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) lower as compared to control group at the end of trial. Common carp fed with the two compounds had higher survival rates (69.3%) compared to the controls (32.0%) after challenged with the pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila. The present study indicates that the two isolated active compounds could positively influence immune response and enhance disease resistance of common carp against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:25703710

  11. Comparisons of heavy metal concentration of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Cuv. et Val.) in a shallow eutrophic lake and a fish pond (possible effects of food contamination).

    PubMed

    Vigh, P; Mastala, Z; Balogh, K V

    1996-02-01

    Nickel, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations were determined in gills, liver, kidney, muscle and gut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Cuv. et Val.) collected from Lake Balaton (Hungary) and from a fish pond of a fish farm nearby. The body weight normalised heavy metal concentrations in different organs/tissues were compared and ordered for both Lake Balaton and the fish farm. Metal concentrations, in most cases were highest in kidney or in liver, and lowest in muscle or in gut. Nickel concentration was lower in liver, muscle and gills of fish from Lake Balaton. We suppose that an earlier sewage water load resulted in the higher Ni levels in grass carp from the fish pond. Mercury concentration was also lower in the gut of grass carp from Lake Balaton, but the other organs showed higher concentrations at this location. Our results suggest that the accumulation mechanism of Hg may be different from other metals in non-predatory fish species. Mercury uptake from food may be dominant for all fish species, but 'biomagnification' becomes obvious only in the case of predatory species. PMID:8867148

  12. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors

  13. In vivo and in silico analyses of estrogenic potential of bisphenol analogs in medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2015-10-01

    Various studies have demonstrated the estrogenic effect of bisphenol A (BPA), a member of bisphenol analogs (BPs), in in vitro and in vivo assays. However, limited data are available on the estrogenic potentials and risks of other BPs in aquatic organisms. In addition, the estrogenic effect of chemicals is known to have species-specific responses in teleost fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential estrogenic effects of BPs on the medaka (Oryzias latipes) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using in vivo and in silico assays. Our quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that the expression levels of several hepatic estrogen-responsive biomarker genes in male medaka responded to various types and concentrations of BPs in a dose-response manner. The order of in vivo estrogenic potencies of BPs was as follows: BPC?BPAF>BPB>BPA?BPP. To further investigate the interaction potential of BPs with medaka estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in silico, a three-dimensional model of the ER? ligand-binding domain (LBD) was built and docking simulations were performed. The docking simulation analysis revealed that BPC interaction potential for medaka ER? LBD was the most potent, followed by BPAF and BPA. Comparing this with carp ER? LBD revealed that the interaction potentials of these BPs to medaka ER? LBD were more stable than to carp ER? LBD. Furthermore, we identified key amino acid residues in medaka ER? LBD that interacted with BPC (Glu356, Arg397, and Cys533), BPAF (Thr350 and Glu356), and BPA (Glu356 and Met424), and found some differences in these key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ER? LBDs. These results of in vivo and in silico analyses showed potential estrogenic effects of BPs in teleost fish, and they also indicated that the differences in interaction potentials and key amino acid residues between medaka and carp ER? LBDs may be due to the differences between the species and estrogenic potencies of the selected BPs. PMID:26086576

  14. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on NIMH’s depression page . NEXT Statistical Methods and Measurement Caveats Diagnostic Assessment: Modules related to major depressive ... NSDUH weighting includes non-response adjustments to reduce bias, these adjustments may not fully account for differential ...

  15. DCTD — Major Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Major Initiatives Search Grants Search Clinical Trials Ongoing Projects NCI Grants Policies Grant Application and Review Process DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

  16. 'Who's who' in renal sphaerosporids (Bivalvulida: Myxozoa) from common carp, Prussian carp and goldfish--molecular identification of cryptic species, blood stages and new members of Sphaerospora sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Astrid Sibylle; Bartošová, P; Pecková, H; Tyml, T; Atkinson, S; Bartholomew, J; Sipos, D; Eszterbauer, E; Dyková, I

    2013-01-01

    Myxozoans are a group of diverse, spore-forming metazoan microparasites bound to aquatic environments. Sphaerospora dykovae (previously S. renicola) causes renal sphaerosporosis and acute swim bladder inflammation (SBI) in juvenile Cyprinus carpio carpio, in central Europe. A morphologically similar species with comparably low pathogenicity, S. angulata has been described from C. c. carpio, Carassius auratus auratus and Carassius gibelio. To clarify uncertainties and ambiguities in taxon identification in these hosts we decided to re-investigate differences in spore morphology using a statistical approach, in combination with SSU and LSU rDNA sequence analyses. We found that developing spores of S. angulata and S. dykovae cannot be distinguished morphologically and designed a duplex PCR assay for the cryptic species that demonstrated S. dykovae is specific to C. c. carpio, whereas S. angulata infects C. a. auratus and C. gibelio. The molecular identification of myxozoan blood stages in common carp and goldfish, which had previously been ascribed to Sphaerospora spp. showed that approximately 75% of blood stages were from non-sphaerosporid coelozoic species infecting these cyprinids and more than 10% were from an alien species, Myxobilatus gasterostei, developing in sticklebacks. We hereby report non-selective myxozoan host invasion and multi-species infections, whose role in SBI still requires clarification. PMID:22917178

  17. Effective Physics Major Recruiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Only the high school students that are in the top 2% in math of those that are college bound do well as physics majors. These students you recruit face to face in April by telling them your program is academically the toughest that they will find at your school. You promise that while crippling their social life and assuring that their lowest grades will be in their physics major, they will get to find out just how good they are. We will discuss:How to get face to face with that top 2% high school student.Why high school teachers and counselors will not help you.Why wait until April to recruit.What parents want to know about your physics program.Which activities are a waste of time when recuiting.By investing 20 hours spread over 2 weeks expect to get about 8 good physics majors.

  18. MFO activity in carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to treated pulp and paper mill effluent in Lake Coleman, Victoria, Australia, in relation to AOX, EOX, and muscle PCDD/PCDF

    SciTech Connect

    Ahokas, J.T.; Holdway, D.A.; Brennan, S.E. . Key Centre for Applied and Nutritional Toxicology); Goudey, R.W.; Bibrowska, H.B. . Marine Studies Group)

    1994-01-01

    European carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to highly treated pulp mill effluent in Lake Coleman, a shallow-water lake in southern Victoria, Australia, had significantly elevated hepatic microsomal EROD levels relative to reference fish from a nearby unexposed water body. Mean hepatic microsomal EROD activity appeared to be correlated with site adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels, with a simple linear regression yielding the equation Y = 0.059 X + 1.415 (r[sup 2] = 0.93, n = 5), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean AOX concentration in micrograms per liter. Mean liver EROD activity was poorly related with fish muscle-tissue extractable organic halogen (EOX) and sediment EOX concentrations. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity also appeared to be correlated with the low levels of PCDD/PCDFs measured in carp muscle. Simple linear regression of mean EROD activity in carp liver with the mean fish muscle dioxin content yielded the equation Y = 6.514X + 5.754 (n = 4, r[sup 2] = 0.88), where Y is mean EROD activity in nanomoles per minute per milligram and X is mean dioxin concentration in ppt of TCDD TEs. Hepatic microsomal ECOD activity, however, was not significantly different at any exposure site from the reference sites. Overall, Lake Coleman contained between 4.5 and 9.3 times the water AOX levels, 0.8 and 13.7 times the sediment EOX levels, 1.5 and 2.2 times the carp muscle-fat EOX levels, 5.0 and 5.3 times the carp whole-muscle TCDD toxic equivalents, and 6.5 times the carp fat TCDD toxic equivalents, compared to reference samples. Within Lake Coleman, mean liver microsomal EROD activity levels were 2.3 to 6.3 times higher than the reference sites, respectively.

  19. Purification and characterization of a gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase from the skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiu-Lin; Ge, Shang-Ying; Cai, Zhi-Xing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2014-02-15

    A gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteinase (gMMP) from grass carp skeletal muscle was purified by 30-70% ammonium sulphate fractionation and a combination of chromatographic steps including ion exchange on DEAE-Sephacel, gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200, and affinity on gelatin-sepharose. The molecular weight of the proteinase as estimated by SDS-PAGE was 70 kDa under non-reducing conditions. The enzyme revealed high activity from 30 to 50 °C, and the gelatin hydrolysing activity was investigated at a slightly alkaline pH range using gelatin as substrate. Metalloproteinase inhibitor EDTA completely suppressed the gelatinolytic activity, while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was essential for the gelatinolytic activity. Further, peptide mass fingerprinting obtained four fragments with 45 amino acid residues, which were highly identical to MMP-2 from fish species. The gMMP could effectively hydrolyse type I collagen even at 4 °C, suggesting its involvement in the texture softening of fish muscle during the post-mortem stage. PMID:24128525

  20. [Metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Sapanca lake].

    PubMed

    Uzunay, Ece; Soylu, Erhan

    2006-01-01

    In this study metazoan parasites of carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) and vimba (Vimba vimba Linnaeus, 1758) in the Lake Sapanca were investigated from January 2004 to December 2004. A total of 31 fish were investigated. Out of the 16 C. carpio, 13 were infected by parasites and of the 15 V. vimba, 11. The parasites found in C. carpio were: Dactylogyrus phoxini (Malevitskaya, 1949), Dactylogyrus extensus (Müller, Van Cleave, 1932), Gyrodactylus sp. Monogenoidea, Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781), Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Rud, 1808) Cestoidea, Diplostomum sp. Trematoda, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia. The parasites found in V. vimba were: Dactylogyrus sphyrna (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornu (Linstow, 1878), Dactylogyrus cornoides (Gläser et Gussev, 1971) Monogenoidea, Aspidogaster limacoides (Dies., 1835), Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Nordmann, 1832), Tylodelphys clavata (Nordmann, 1832), Diplostomum sp., Tetracotyle sp. (Linstow, 1856) Trematoda, Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Müller, 1780) Acanthocephala, Glochidium sp. Bivalvia, Argulus foliaceus (Linnaeus, 1758), Ergasilus sieboldi (Nordmann, 1832) Crustacea. The parasites were investigated according to the place they were found in the host, prevalence and intensity of infections in the fish. Also the average intensity of the infection as well as the minimum and maximum intensities was estimated. PMID:17124667

  1. Identification and effect of two flavonoids from root bark of Morus alba against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing-Han; Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Lin, De-Jie

    2015-02-11

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important ciliate that parasitizes gills and skin of freshwater fish and causes massive fish mortality. In this study, two flavonoids (kuwanons G and O) with anti-Ich activity were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the root bark of Morus alba, an important plant for sericulture. The chemical structures of kuwanons G and O were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Kuwanons G and O caused 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at the concentration of 2 mg/L and possessed a median effective concentration (EC50) of 0.8 ± 0.04 mg/L against the theronts. In addition, kuwanons G and O significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts at concentrations of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/L. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of kuwanons G and O to grass carp were 38.0 ± 0.82 and 26.9 ± 0.51 mg/L, which were approximately 50 and 35 times the EC50 for killing theronts. The results indicate that kuwanons G and O have the potential to become safe and effective drugs to control ichthyophthiriasis. PMID:25603693

  2. Life without Oxygen: Gene Regulatory Responses of the Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) Heart Subjected to Chronic Anoxia

    PubMed Central

    Stensløkken, Kåre-Olav; Ellefsen, Stian; Vasieva, Olga; Fang, Yongxiang; Farrell, Anthony P.; Olohan, Lisa; Vaage, Jarle; Nilsson, Göran E.; Cossins, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Crucian carp are unusual among vertebrates in surviving extended periods in the complete absence of molecular oxygen. During this time cardiac output is maintained though these mechanisms are not well understood. Using a high-density cDNA microarray, we have defined the genome-wide gene expression responses of cardiac tissue after exposing the fish at two temperatures (8 and 13°C) to one and seven days of anoxia, followed by seven days after restoration to normoxia. At 8°C, using a false discovery rate of 5%, neither anoxia nor re-oxygenation elicited appreciable changes in gene expression. By contrast, at 13°C, 777 unique genes responded strongly. Up-regulated genes included those involved in protein turnover, the pentose phosphate pathway and cell morphogenesis while down-regulated gene categories included RNA splicing and transcription. Most genes were affected between one and seven days of anoxia, indicating gene regulation over the medium term but with few early response genes. Re-oxygenation for 7 days was sufficient to completely reverse these responses. Glycolysis displayed more complex responses with anoxia up-regulated transcripts for the key regulatory enzymes, hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, but with down-regulation of most of the non-regulatory genes. This complex pattern of responses in genomic transcription patterns indicates divergent cardiac responses to anoxia, with the transcriptionally driven reprogramming of cardiac function seen at 13°C being largely completed at 8°C. PMID:25372666

  3. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Na; Cao, Li-hua; Jiang, Shan-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments), seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha tubulin (TUBA), ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species. PMID:25249772

  4. Molecular characterization of Sphaerospora molnari (Myxozoa), the agent of gill sphaerosporosis in common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio.

    PubMed

    Eszterbauer, E; Sipos, D; Forró, B; Ová, P Barto; Holzer, A S

    2013-04-29

    Sphaerospora molnari Lom, Dyková, Pavlásková and Grupcheva, 1983 often causes severe infections in the gills and skin of common carp fingerlings Cyprinus carpio carpio in Central Europe. Although most Sphaerospora spp. are coelozoic and affect the excretory system of fish, S. molnari develops mature spores in the epithelia of gill filaments, making it a rare representative of histozoic freshwater species within the genus. On the basis of a partial 18S rDNA sequence assigned as belonging to S. molnari, previous phylogenetic studies located the species within the Myxobolus clade. In the present study, S. molnari isolates from Hungary and the Czech Republic were characterized based on morphology, DNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic comparison. The obtained 3714 bp final consensus 18S rDNA sequence of the parasite showed several, sometimes extremely long inserts in the variable regions of the gene and differed considerably from the one published in GenBank in 2002. In situ hybridization confirmed the validity of the obtained DNA sequence and detected pre-sporogonic blood stages in the interstitium and blood vessels of the kidney. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. molnari clusters within the Sphaerospora sensu stricto clade with a high support, revealing it as the first known histozoic member of the Sphaerospora subclade comprising parasites of freshwater fish. PMID:23670080

  5. Effect of ultrasonication on the fibril-formation and gel properties of collagen from grass carp skin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Wang, Haibo; Deng, Mingxia; Wang, Zhongwen; Zhang, Juntao; Wang, Haiyin; Zhang, Hanjun

    2016-02-01

    Controlling the fibril-formation process of collagen in vitro to fabricate novel biomaterials is a new area in the field of collagen research. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonication on collagen fibril formation and the properties of the resulting collagen gels. Native collagen, extracted from the skin of grass carp, self-assembled under ultrasonic conditions (at different ultrasonic power and duration). The self-assembly kinetics, fibrillar morphology, and physical and cell growth-promoting properties of the collagen gels were analyzed and compared. The results showed that the self-assembly rate of collagen was increased by ultrasonication at the nucleation stage. The resulting fibrils exhibited smaller diameters and D-periodicity lengths than that of the untreated collagen samples (p<0.05). The viscoelasticity and textural properties of collagen gels also changed after ultrasonication at the nucleation stage. Texture profile analysis and cell proliferation assays showed that ultrasonication produced softer collagen gel colloids, which were more suitable for cell proliferation than the untreated collagen gels. PMID:26652462

  6. [Optimization of electroporation parameters for ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney cells and transient expression of grass carp reovirus NS26 protein].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Lv, Li-Qun

    2014-05-01

    In this study, pEGFP-N1 was chosen as the reporter plasmid and transferred into Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney (CIK) cells by electroporation, and the optimal electroporation conditions were determined by testing the transfection efficiency with different voltages, pulse times, plasmid amounts, and numbers of shocks. The results showed that the maximum electroporation efficiency was achieved under the following conditions in a 0.2 cm electroporation cuvette containing CIK cells (1.5 x 10(7)/mL, 200 microl): electric voltage 200 V, pulse time 45 ms, plasmid 30 microg, and one electric shock. The total genomic RNA of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) was extracted in this experiment and reversely transcribed into cDNA, which was used to amplify the gene segment of GCRV non-structural protein NS26 using designed specific primers. The PCR product was recombined into pEGFP-N1 vector. The fusion protein EGFP-NS26 was successfully and efficiently expressed in the CIK cells by electroporation, which was confirmed by both fluorescent imaging and Western blot analysis. This experiment laid a foundation for further functional studies of the non-structural protein NS26 of GCRV. PMID:25118383

  7. Effects of subchronic exposure to phosalone on oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L., 1758).

    PubMed

    Kaya, Hasan; Çelik, Ekrem ?anver; Gürkan, Mert; Y?lmaz, Sevdan; Akbulut, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    In this study, possible oxidative stress, biomarkers, and histopathological alterations were investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L., 1758) that were exposed to various phosalone concentrations in vivo. Fish were exposed to 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/L phosalone concentrations in a semistatic regime for 14 d. Biomarkers, including Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and histopathological changes, were determined in gills, liver, and kidney tissues of fish. Sublethal phosalone concentrations produced lipid peroxidation and impairment in the antioxidant defense system by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. While GSH increased in all groups at d 7 compared to control, GSH fell significantly at medium and high doses at d 14. Reduced GSH levels were diminished in all tissues and a significant induction in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) was observed. Na(+),K(+)-ATPase enzyme activity was significantly inhibited especially in gills. No histopathological effects were observed in the control group. Lamellar aneurysm, lamellar fusion, hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, and hemorrhages were observed in gill tissues exposed to phosalone. Histopathological effects in the liver tissues of fish exposed to phosalone were characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolation, congestion, hypertrophy, and nuclear degeneration. Hypertrophy, tubule degeneration, mononuclear cell infiltration, and dilation of glomerular capillaries were noted in kidney tissues exposed to phosalone. The results indicate that phosalone exposure adversely affected the health of the fish, attributable to oxidative stress. PMID:24053362

  8. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; Zarei, Neda; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions) in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to Aphanius sophiae from the Kor River and that Aphanius farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to Aphanius arakensis plus Aphanius sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection. PMID:22936871

  9. Otolith microchemistry of modern versus well-dated ancient naked carp Gymnocypris przewalskii: Implication for water evolution of Lake Qinghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Chia-Hui; Li, Fuchun; Wang, Yujiao; Wang, Xulong; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Liumei; Du, Jinhua

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate over how the water level and composition of the water in Lake Qinghai changed in the past and might change in future. This study of the microchemistry of otoliths from ancient naked carp explores the chemistry of a relict lake isolated from Lake Qinghai during the Little Ice Age (LIA). A close correlation between the ages measured on fish bone and otoliths by AMS-14C, and by optically stimulated luminescence on overlying sediments, confirms a high water level in Lake Qinghai before 680-300 years ago. The contrasting compositions of the ancient otoliths relative to modern otoliths and waters indicate that the relict lake became enriched in 18O, Mg, Li, B and to a lesser extent Ba, but depleted in 13C, owing to strong evaporation, authigenic carbonates precipitation, (micro-)organism activity, and less fresh water input after it was isolated. If there were long-term fresh water input, however, a reverse trend might occur. The most important observation is that, because the waters have been supersaturated with respect to carbonates, authigenic carbonate precipitation would result in low but consistent Sr/Ca ratios in the lakes, as recorded by both the ancient and modern otoliths. The geochemical records of ancient versus modern biogenic carbonates provide insights into the long-term hydroclimatic evolution processes of an inland water body.

  10. Undergraduate Education DECLARATION OF MAJOR(S) / CHANGE OF ADVISOR

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Undergraduate Education DECLARATION OF MAJOR(S) / CHANGE OF ADVISOR For Liberal Arts Students Updated 7/31/2014 Please inform your previous advisor(s) of any major or advisor changes prior A MAJOR I am declaring a major in ________________________________________________ Major advisor

  11. Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 1 Category Item Information with T3i underwater case #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 2 Small black SLR camera bag - good #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

  12. Psychology MAJOR Event Presentation

    E-print Network

    Green, C. Shawn

    Psychology MAJOR Event Presentation 4:00 P.M. Welcome Associate Chair, Karl Rosengren, PhD 4:10 P Session #1 "Harnessing the Power of the Mind" Cheri Cope, Athletic Mind, LLC Using the Power of the Mind distractions. By harnessing the power of the mind we create a life of purpose. Getting Involved in Research

  13. Serving Emerging Majority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the demographic shifts occurring in the United States and discusses the associated rapid increase in the number of community college students from diverse racial backgrounds. Profiles of two community colleges offer examples of timely responses to emerging majority students' academic, economic, and social…

  14. Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease

    E-print Network

    Alper, Chester A.

    Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease Associations Chester A Alper, Harvard Medical School at least a third of normal European Caucasian MHC haplotypes and contribute most of the MHC disease susceptibility genetic markers. Whereas this has facilitated the detection of MHC gene-disease association

  15. Mobilizing the Moral Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Robert C.

    The Moral Majority has been more successful in mobilizing conservative Christians than three other evangelical groups--Third Century Publishers, Christian Voice, and the Religious Roundtable. According to the literature on social movements, four possible explanations for the success of such groups are that they have access to financial resources,…

  16. Career Majors: Overcoming Aimlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best-Louther, Mary Jane

    The Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction's Career Major Project (CMP) is a statewide effort to modify the educational system to help students develop meaningful career goals through their learning experiences in high schools, technical colleges, and universities. This document presents materials used in the project, containing information on…

  17. Undergraduate major Christoffer Renner

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    of Mathematical Sciences again delivered about 10% of the total student credit hours at MSU. We had 103 undergraduate majors seeking a B.S. degree in one of four options (Applied Mathematics, Mathematics, Mathematics Teaching, Statistics). In addition we had 109 graduate students enrolled in programs in Mathematics

  18. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  19. Involvement of PI3 kinase and MAP kinase in IGF-I and insulin-induced ovarian steroidogenesis in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sudipta; Pramanick, Kousik; Kundu, Sourav; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2013-01-15

    Previously, we observed that in vitro steroidogenesis in intact ovarian follicles of common carp Cyprinus carpio can alone be induced by recombinant human insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and bovine insulin (b-insulin) and this induction was gonadotropin-independent. To investigate early signal transduction components involved in this process, the possible role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase) during ovarian steroidogenesis was examined. IGF-I and b-insulin induced testosterone and 17?-estradiol production in carp ovarian theca and granulosa cells in short-term coincubation and this induction was significantly inhibited by Wortmannin and LY294002, two mechanistically different specific inhibitors of PI3 kinase. IGF-I and b-insulin were shown to activate PI3 kinase from 30 min onwards with a maximum at 90 min. In this study, we found the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in the regulation of IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in carp ovary. An antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase1/2 (MEK1/2) markedly attenuated IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroid production. Cells treated with IGF-I and b-insulin stimulated ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase1/2 (ERKs1/2) in a time-dependent manner, which was significantly attenuated in presence of MEK1/2 inhibitor. PI3 kinase inhibitors strongly attenuated phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase, which was increased during IGF-I and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3 kinase is an initial component of the signal transduction pathway which precedes the MAP kinase during IGF-I- and b-insulin-induced steroidogenesis in C. carpio ovarian follicles. PMID:23073341

  20. Tc1-like Transposase Thm3 of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Can Mediate Gene Transposition in the Genome of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-Ming; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Sun, Yi-Wen; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tc1-like transposons consist of an inverted repeat sequence flanking a transposase gene that exhibits similarity to the mobile DNA element, Tc1, of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. They are widely distributed within vertebrate genomes including teleost fish; however, few active Tc1-like transposases have been discovered. In this study, 17 Tc1-like transposon sequences were isolated from 10 freshwater fish species belonging to the families Cyprinidae, Adrianichthyidae, Cichlidae, and Salmonidae. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of these sequences using previously isolated Tc1-like transposases and report that 16 of these elements comprise a new subfamily of Tc1-like transposons. In particular, we show that one transposon, Thm3 from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; Cyprinidae), can encode a 335-aa transposase with apparently intact domains, containing three to five copies in its genome. We then coinjected donor plasmids harboring 367 bp of the left end and 230 bp of the right end of the nonautonomous silver carp Thm1 cis-element along with capped Thm3 transposase RNA into the embryos of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala; one- to two-cell embryos). This experiment revealed that the average integration rate could reach 50.6% in adult fish. Within the blunt snout bream genome, the TA dinucleotide direct repeat, which is the signature of Tc1-like family of transposons, was created adjacent to both ends of Thm1 at the integration sites. Our results indicate that the silver carp Thm3 transposase can mediate gene insertion by transposition within the genome of blunt snout bream genome, and that this occurs with a TA position preference. PMID:26438298

  1. Study on effect of salinity level of water on electrocardiogram and some of blood serum minerals in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    PubMed Central

    Enayati, Ala; Peyghan, Rahim; Papahn, Ahmad Ali; Khadjeh, Gholam-Hosain

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effects of salinity on the electrocardiogram and some of blood serum minerals in grass carp were investigated. For this purpose, grass carp were exposed to concentrations of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 salinities and electrocardiogram of all fish was recorded. Blood samples were also collected from all fish and serum minerals were measured. Our results indicated that mineral level in the studied groups was significantly different. The average of heart rate per minute in control group and 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 were 10.15, 10.06, 12.17 and 7.79 beat per min, respectively. In 8 g L-1 group only the average of QT and ST segment decreased significantly in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). In 12 g L-1 group the average of heart rate per minute decreased significantly in comparison with 8 g L-1 group (p < 0.05) and no difference in the average of heart rate per minute was observed in all groups. The average of RR, PT and ST segment in the 12 g L-1 group were significantly more than the other groups (p < 0.05). The results showed that water salinity level increased to concentrations above 8 g L-1 can have significant effect on the electrocardiogram and mineral level of blood serum in grass carp. These changes are probably can be considered as one of the causes of impairment of health and death of this fish species in the salinities more than 8 g L-1 due to ion imbalance and cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25593686

  2. Localization of ?-synuclein in teleost central nervous system: immunohistochemical and Western blot evidence by 3D5 monoclonal antibody in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Rosa; Toni, Mattia; Casini, Arianna; Vivacqua, Giorgio; Yu, Shun; D'este, Loredana; Cioni, Carla

    2015-05-01

    Alpha synuclein (?-syn) is a 140 amino acid vertebrate-specific protein, highly expressed in the human nervous system and abnormally accumulated in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders, known as synucleinopathies. The common occurrence of ?-syn aggregates suggested a role for ?-syn in these disorders, although its biological activity remains poorly understood. Given the high degree of sequence similarity between vertebrate ?-syns, we investigated this proteins in the central nervous system (CNS) of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, with the aim of comparing its anatomical and cellular distribution with that of mammalian ?-syn. The distribution of ?-syn was analyzed by semiquantitative western blot, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence by a novel monoclonal antibody (3D5) against a fully conserved epitope between carp and human ?-syn. The distribution of 3D5 immunoreactivity was also compared with that of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and serotonin (5HT) by double immunolabelings. The results showed that a ?-syn-like protein of about 17 kDa is expressed to different levels in several brain regions and in the spinal cord. Immunoreactive materials were localized in neuronal perikarya and varicose fibers but not in the nucleus. The present findings indicate that ?-syn-like proteins may be expressed in a few subpopulations of catecholaminergic and serotoninergic neurons in the carp brain. However, evidence of cellular colocalization 3D5/TH or 3D5/5HT was rare. Differently, the same proteins appear to be coexpressed with ChAT by cholinergic neurons in several motor and reticular nuclei. These results sustain the functional conservation of the ?-syn expression in cholinergic systems and suggest that ?-syn modulates similar molecular pathways in phylogenetically distant vertebrates. PMID:25488013

  3. The effects of Ficus carica polysaccharide on immune response and expression of some immune-related genes in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Guo, Jian Lin; Ye, Jin Yun; Zhang, Yi Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Ficus carica polysaccharide (FCP), isolated from the fruit of F. carica L., at 0%, 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% doses supplementation with feed on genes Interleukin 1-? (IL-1?), Tumor Necrosis Factor ? (TNF-?) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression in blood, humoral innate immune parameters and resistant to Flavobacterium columnare of grass carp at weeks 1, 2 and 3. The results revealed that administration of FCP significantly (P<0.05) up regulated IL-1? and TNF-? gene expression. HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P<0.05) lower in FCP-fed fish at the end of trial. The serum total protein, albumin and globulin did not significantly increased in any diet on the first week whereas it was significantly enhanced in 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on weeks 2 and 3 when compared to control. The serum complement C3 was significantly (P<0.05) increased on weeks 1 and 2 when compared to control, however, no significant difference was found in this activity after 3 weeks of treatment. All diets significantly enhanced the serum lysozyme activity, bactericidal activity from weeks 1-2 as compared to control. Grass carp fed with FCP showed remarkably higher resistance against F. columnare (60% survival) compared to the control group (30% survival). These results confirm that FCP can up regulate immune related genes expression, stimulates immune response that per se enhances disease resistance in grass carp. PMID:25449378

  4. Molecular cloning of Pcc-dmrt1s and their specific expression patterns in Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze) affected by 17?-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yao; Liang, Hongwei; Xu, Peng; Li, Meng; Wang, Zaizhao

    2014-08-01

    Dmrt1, an important transcription factor associated with testicular differentiation, is conserved among teleost, which could also be detected in ovaries. In the present study, three isoforms of Pcc-dmrt1s (Pcc-dmrt1a, Pcc-dmrt1b and Pcc-dmrt1c) resulting from alternative splicing of the dmrt1 gene were cloned and characterized in the triploid gynogenetic fish, the Pengze crucian carp. Their mRNA expression profiling was investigated in juvenile developmental stages, tissues of the adult fish, and the juveniles under 84.2 ng/L 17?-methyltestosterone (MT) treatments. Results showed that their putative proteins shared high identities to Dmrt1 in cyprinid fish species. Gene expression profiling in the developmental stages showed that all the three target genes had a highest/lowest expression at 56/40 days post-hatching (dph), respectively. The period of 40 dph appeared to be a key time during the process of the ovary development of Pengze crucian carp. The tissue distribution results indicated that Pcc-dmrt1s were predominantly expressed in hepatopancreas, brain, spleen and ovary of the female fish. MT significantly increased the mRNA expression of Pcc-dmrt1a (all 4-week exposures) and Pcc-dmrt1b (except for week 2), while repressed Pcc-dmrt1c transcripts at all exposure period except for week 2. MT extremely significant repressed cyp19a1a transcripts for 1 week. The present study indicated that MT could influence the ovary development of Pengze crucian carp by disturbing gene expressions of Pcc-dmrt1s and cyp19a1a. Furthermore, the present study will be of great significance to broaden the understanding of masculinizing pathway during ovary development in gynogenetic teleost. PMID:24445816

  5. Effect of dietary isoleucine on the immunity, antioxidant status, tight junctions and microflora in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Weidan; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongan; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary isoleucine (Ile) on the immune response, antioxidant status, tight junctions, and microbial population in the intestine of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1200 juvenile Jian carp with average initial weight 6.9 ± 0.03 g were fed semi-purified isonitrogenous diets containing 4.2 (unsupplemented control group), 7.0, 9.5, 11.9, 13.9 and 16.9 g Ile kg(-1) diet for 60 days. Results indicated that Ile supplementation decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl content, and the amounts of Escherichia coli and Aeromonas in the intestine (P < 0.05), and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and the amounts of Lactobacillus and Bacillus in the intestine (P < 0.05). Furthermore, real time polymerase chain reaction revealed that relative mRNA expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-ZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), CAT, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) in the intestine were increased with increasing of dietary Ile up to a certain point (P < 0.05). Conversely, the relative mRNA expression of occludin, claudin-3, claudin-7, TNF-?, IL-10, Kelch-like-ECH- associated protein 1 (Keap1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) in the intestine showed a downward trend (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary Ile improves intestinal immune function, antioxidant capacity and microbial population, and regulates gene expression of antioxidant enzyme, tight junctions, Nrf2, Keap1, p38 and ERK1 in the intestine of Jian carp. PMID:25451003

  6. Tc1-like Transposase Thm3 of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Can Mediate Gene Transposition in the Genome of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiu-Ming; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Sun, Yi-Wen; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Tc1-like transposons consist of an inverted repeat sequence flanking a transposase gene that exhibits similarity to the mobile DNA element, Tc1, of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. They are widely distributed within vertebrate genomes including teleost fish; however, few active Tc1-like transposases have been discovered. In this study, 17 Tc1-like transposon sequences were isolated from 10 freshwater fish species belonging to the families Cyprinidae, Adrianichthyidae, Cichlidae, and Salmonidae. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of these sequences using previously isolated Tc1-like transposases and report that 16 of these elements comprise a new subfamily of Tc1-like transposons. In particular, we show that one transposon, Thm3 from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix; Cyprinidae), can encode a 335-aa transposase with apparently intact domains, containing three to five copies in its genome. We then coinjected donor plasmids harboring 367 bp of the left end and 230 bp of the right end of the nonautonomous silver carp Thm1 cis-element along with capped Thm3 transposase RNA into the embryos of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala; one- to two-cell embryos). This experiment revealed that the average integration rate could reach 50.6% in adult fish. Within the blunt snout bream genome, the TA dinucleotide direct repeat, which is the signature of Tc1-like family of transposons, was created adjacent to both ends of Thm1 at the integration sites. Our results indicate that the silver carp Thm3 transposase can mediate gene insertion by transposition within the genome of blunt snout bream genome, and that this occurs with a TA position preference. PMID:26438298

  7. Major SSC tunneling begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project.

  8. The first non-mammalian CXCR5 in a teleost fish: molecular cloning and expression analysis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemokines, a group of small and structurally related proteins, mediate chemotaxis of various cell types via chemokine receptors. In mammals, seven different CXC chemokine receptors denoted as CXCR1 to CXCR7 have been reported. However, the chemokine receptor CXCR5 has not been reported in other vertebrates. Results In the present study, the genomic sequence of CXCR5 was isolated from the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The cDNA sequence of grass carp CXCR5 (gcCXCR5) consists of 1518 bp with a 43 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 332 bp 3' UTR, with an open reading frame of 1143 bp encoding 381 amino acids which are predicted to have seven transmembrane helices. The characteristic residues (DRYLAIVHA) and conserved cysteine residues are located in the extracellular regions and in the third to seventh transmembrane domains. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 37.6-66.6% identities with CXCR5 of mammals, avian and other fish species. The grass carp gene consists of two exons, with one intervening intron, spaced over 2081 bp of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the gcCXCR5 is clustered with those in other teleost fish and then in chicken and mammals. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gcCXCR5 was expressed in all tested organs/tissues and its expression level was the highest in trunk kidney, followed by in the spleen. The expression of gcCXCR5 was significantly modulated by immunostimulants such as peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid sodium salt (Poly I:C) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Conclusion The cDNA and genomic sequences of CXCR5 have been successfully characterized in a teleost fish, the grass carp. The CXCR5 has in general a constitutive expression in organs/tissues examined, whereas its expression was significantly up-regulated in immune organs and down-regulated in brain, indicating its potential role in immune response and central nervous system. PMID:20504365

  9. Confocal microscopy as a useful approach to describe gill rakers of Asian species of carp and native filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system.

    PubMed

    Walleser, L R; Howard, D R; Sandheinrich, M B; Gaikowski, M P; Amberg, J J

    2014-11-01

    To better understand potential diet overlap among exotic Asian species of carp and native species of filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system, microscopy was used to document morphological differences in the gill rakers. Analysing samples first with light microscopy and subsequently with confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Dorosoma cepedianum was more thoroughly described and illustrated than previous work with traditional microscopy techniques. The three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Ictiobus cyprinellus was described and illustrated for the first time. PMID:25141916

  10. Confocal microscopy as a useful approach to describe gill rakers of Asian species of carp and native filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liza R. Walleser; D.R. Howard; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand potential diet overlap among exotic Asian species of carp and native species of filter-feeding fishes of the upper Mississippi River system, microscopy was used to document morphological differences in the gill rakers. Analysing samples first with light microscopy and subsequently with confocal microscopy, the three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix,Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Dorosoma cepedianum was more thoroughly described and illustrated than previous work with traditional microscopy techniques. The three-dimensional structure of gill rakers in Ictiobus cyprinellus was described and illustrated for the first time.

  11. MAJOR DECLARATION FORM PLEASE PRINT

    E-print Network

    (fill out both columns) COMBINED MAJOR WITH WOMEN'S STUDIES OR JEWISH OR ETHNIC STUDIES OR HUMAN RIGHTS ONLY for a single major, a complete double major, or a combined major with Women's Studies or Jewish Studies or Human Rights. DO NOT use this form for a double major with single unifying thesis

  12. Signals from cone photoreceptors to L-type horizontal cells are differentially modulated by low calcium in carp retina.

    PubMed

    Xu, H P; Luo, D G; Yang, X L

    2001-04-01

    Ca2+ plays crucial roles in both phototransduction and calcium-dependent glutamate release from the photoreceptor terminal. Modulation, by lowering extracellular Ca2+, of red-sensitive (R-) and short wavelength-sensitive (S-) cone-driven light responses of L-type horizontal cells (LHCs) was studied in the isolated superfused carp retina using intracellular recording techniques. Low Ca2+ (nominally Ca2+-free) Ringer's reduced responses of LHCs to both green (500 nm) and red (680 nm) flashes in darkness, with the former being suppressed more substantially than the latter. This differential suppression became more significant when contribution of R-cones to the green-light-induced responses was diminished by a moderate red (680 nm) background light. Application of IBMX, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE), increased LHC responses to both red and green flashes equally, resembling the effect of low Ca2+ on phototransduction. In addition, photopic electroretinographic P III responses, reflecting the activity of cones, to red flashes were more potentiated by low Ca2+, compared to those to green flashes, whilst they were both equally potentiated by IBMX. Furthermore, low Ca2+ caused a more pronounced suppression of LHC responses to red flashes than those to green flashes in the presence of IBMX. It is postulated that reduction of LHC responses in low Ca2+ may be due to the 'saturation suppression' caused by the increased glutamate release from the photoreceptor terminal and the differential modulation may reflect a consequence of the dual action of low Ca2+ on the PDE activity in the photoreceptor outer segment and the synaptic strength between cones and LHCs. PMID:11298802

  13. Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Fazio, Angela; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney). PMID:26219478

  14. Biomarkers of effects of hypoxia and oil-shale contaminated sediments in laboratory-exposed gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio).

    PubMed

    Kreitsberg, Randel; Baršien?, Janina; Freiberg, Rene; Andreik?nait?, Laura; Tammaru, Toomas; Rumvolt, Kateriina; Tuvikene, Arvo

    2013-12-01

    In North-East Estonia, considerable amounts of toxicants (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, heavy metals) leach into water bodies through discharges from the oil-shale industry. In addition, natural and anthropogenic hypoxic events in water bodies affect the health of aquatic organisms. Here we report a study on the combined effects of contaminated sediment and hypoxia on the physiology of gibel carp (Carssius auratus gibelio). We conducted a laboratory exposure study that involved exposure to polluted sediments from oil-shale industries (River Purtse) and sediments from a relatively clean environment (River Selja), together with sediments spiked with PAHs. The oxygen content (saturation vs. hypoxia (< 2 mg/L)) was changed to reflect hypoxia. A multi-biomarker approach was chosen to enable the combined effects to be assessed comprehensively and integratively. We used HPLC to measure the PAH concentration in sediment and fish muscle, fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) analyses to indicate the presence of PAH metabolites in fish bile, and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes as markers of geno- and cyto-toxicity; and we monitored the change in body condition and measured EROD activity to indicate CYP1A induction. High levels of PAH conjugates in fish bile were found in the group exposed to the Purtse River sediment under hypoxia. The results suggested that induction of the CYP1A gene was modulated by hypoxia as well as by heavy metals. We found a correlation between several erythrocyte abnormalities (8-shaped nuclei and blebbed nuclei) and PAH metabolite content in fish. In conclusion, a measurable effect of pollution from the oil-shale industry on fish health parameters was clear under different oxygen levels. PMID:24018143

  15. Phosphorylation-independent suppression of light-activated visual pigment by arrestin in carp rods and cones.

    PubMed

    Tomizuka, Junko; Tachibanaki, Shuji; Kawamura, Satoru

    2015-04-10

    Visual pigment in photoreceptors is activated by light. Activated visual pigment (R*) is believed to be inactivated by phosphorylation of R* with subsequent binding of arrestin. There are two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones, in the vertebrate retina, and they express different subtypes of arrestin, rod and cone type. To understand the difference in the function between rod- and cone-type arrestin, we first identified the subtype of arrestins expressed in rods and cones in carp retina. We found that two rod-type arrestins, rArr1 and rArr2, are co-expressed in a rod and that a cone-type arrestin, cArr1, is expressed in blue- and UV-sensitive cones; the other cone-type arrestin, cArr2, is expressed in red- and green-sensitive cones. We quantified each arrestin subtype and estimated its concentration in the outer segment of a rod or a cone in the dark; they were ?0.25 mm (rArr1 plus rArr2) in a rod and 0.6-0.8 mm (cArr1 or cArr2) in a cone. The effect of each arrestin was examined. In contrast to previous studies, both rod and cone arrestins suppressed the activation of transducin in the absence of visual pigment phosphorylation, and all of the arrestins examined (rArr1, rArr2, and cArr2) bound transiently to most probably nonphosphorylated R*. One rod arrestin, rArr2, bound firmly to phosphorylated pigment, and the other two, rArr1 and cArr2, once bound to phosphorylated R* but dissociated from it during incubation. Our results suggested a novel mechanism of arrestin effect on the suppression of the R* activity in both rods and cones. PMID:25713141

  16. Expression and characterization of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its activity against type I collagen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ci; Zhan, Chun-Lan; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Du, Cui-Hong; Liu, Guang-Ming; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2014-05-10

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play essential roles in the metabolism of animal collagen while few reports are available for MMPs in aquatic animals. In this study, we report the complete sequence of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) gene from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) skeletal muscle. The full-length cDNA of MMP-2 was 2792bp which contains an open reading frame of 1974bp, corresponding to a protein of 657 amino acid residues. Based on the structural feature of MMP-2, the gene of the catalytic domain containing 351 amino acid residues was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE showed that the truncated recombinant MMP-2 (trMMP-2) with molecular mass of approximately 38kDa was in the form of inclusion body. The trMMP-2 was further purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. After renaturation, similar to native MMP-2, the trMMP-2 exhibited high hydrolyzing activity toward gelatin as appeared on gelatin zymography and optimal activity was at pH 8.0 and 40°C. The activity of the trMMP-2 was completely suppressed by metalloproteinase inhibitors, including EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline while other proteinase inhibitors did not show any inhibitory effect. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) was necessary for the gelatinolytic activity, suggesting it is a calcium-dependent metalloproteinase. Moreover, the trMMP-2 effectively hydrolyzed native type I collagen at 37°C and even at 4°C, implying its potential application value as a collagenase for preparation of biologically active oligopeptides. PMID:24613299

  17. The combined effect of hypoxia and nutritional status on metabolic and ionoregulatory responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Moyson, Sofie; Liew, Hon Jung; Diricx, Marjan; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the combined effects of hypoxia and nutritional status were examined in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a relatively hypoxia tolerant cyprinid. Fish were either fed or fasted and were exposed to hypoxia (1.5-1.8mg O2L(-1)) at or slightly above their critical oxygen concentration during 1, 3 or 7days followed by a 7day recovery period. Ventilation initially increased during hypoxia, but fasted fish had lower ventilation frequencies than fed fish. In fed fish, ventilation returned to control levels during hypoxia, while in fasted fish recovery only occurred after reoxygenation. Due to this, C. carpio managed, at least in part, to maintain aerobic metabolism during hypoxia: muscle and plasma lactate levels remained relatively stable although they tended to be higher in fed fish (despite higher ventilation rates). However, during recovery, compensatory responses differed greatly between both feeding regimes: plasma lactate in fed fish increased with a simultaneous breakdown of liver glycogen indicating increased energy use, while fasted fish seemed to economize energy and recycle decreasing plasma lactate levels into increasing liver glycogen levels. Protein was used under both feeding regimes during hypoxia and subsequent recovery: protein levels reduced mainly in liver for fed fish and in muscle for fasted fish. Overall, nutritional status had a greater impact on energy reserves than the lack of oxygen with a lower hepatosomatic index and lower glycogen stores in fasted fish. Fasted fish transiently increased Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity under hypoxia, but in general ionoregulatory balance proved to be only slightly disturbed, showing that sufficient energy was left for ion regulation. PMID:25263807

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of two types of CD8alpha from ginbuna crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii.

    PubMed

    Somamoto, Tomonori; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2005-01-01

    We cloned and sequenced full-length cDNAs for two types of CD8alpha from the S3n strain of ginbuna crucian carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) and quantified the expression of CD8alpha genes after sensitization by scale grafting, employing a model system of clonal triploid ginbuna and tetraploid ginbuna-goldfish hybrids. RT-PCR yielded four different fragments of CD8alpha homologue from the S3n strain of ginbuna and these sequences were classified into two groups. The two types of ginbuna CD8alpha (gbCD8alpha) were also found in other strains of triploid ginbuna and goldfish, which are a subspecies of ginbuna. The gbCD8alpha chains consisted of a signal peptide, Ig superfamily (IgSf) V-like domain, hinge, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic domain similar to other known CD8alpha. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both types of gbCD8alpha are closely related to CD8alpha from other vertebrates. Expression of both types of gbCD8alpha mRNA was detected in the gill, thymus, head kidney, posterior kidney, spleen, intestine and peripheral blood leucocytes. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that copy numbers of both gbCD8alpha gene products in kidney cells increased significantly following grafting with allogeneic but not isogeneic scales, and that regulation of expression correlated with that of TCRbeta. Expression of both gbCD8alpha genes after second scale allografting was elevated compared to that after the first set of grafting. These results suggest that expression analysis of these two gbCD8alpha sequences provides a useful tool to address the involvement of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes during the cell-meditated immune response in fish. PMID:15854681

  19. The effect of starving and feeding on copper toxicity and uptake in Cu acclimated and non-acclimated carp.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Shodja; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2008-01-31

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were fed two different food rations: 0.5% body weight (low ration, LR) and 5% body weight (high ration, HR) and were either acclimated to sublethal copper (1 microM) for 28 days in softened Antwerp city tap water or not acclimated. Fish were exposed for 10 days to high Cu levels using four different concentrations (3.5, 6, 10, and 15 microM) before and after the Cu acclimation. Fish tolerance against Cu exposure was evaluated, and gill, liver, and carcass Cu and sodium levels were measured in dead and surviving fish. HR fish were twice as sensitive as LR fish in both tests. The 96h median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the non-acclimated LR and HR fish were 8.46+/-2.79 and 4.34+/-0.82 microM, respectively. The fish became more resistant to low Cu concentrations after Cu acclimation and the LC50 values were slightly increased, reaching 9.20+/-1.56 microM and 5.01+/-1.93 in LR and HR fish accordingly. Cu concentrations in the gills, liver, and carcass were significantly elevated in response to the short-term Cu exposure, and were significantly higher in LR fish than in HR fish. High Cu levels caused a net loss of sodium resulting in a severe ion regulatory disturbance. The rate of sodium loss increased linearly with increasing exposure concentrations. Cu acclimation resulted in reduced sodium loss and increased the resistance and tolerance to Cu toxicity. PMID:18063142

  20. Soyabean glycinin depresses intestinal growth and function in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var Jian): protective effects of glutamine.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Hu, Kai; Zhang, Jin-Xiu; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of glycinin on the growth, intestinal oxidative status, tight junction components, cytokines and apoptosis signalling factors of fish. The results showed that an 80 g/kg diet of glycinin exposure for 42 d caused poor growth performance and depressed intestinal growth and function of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Meanwhile, dietary glycinin exposure induced increases in lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation; it caused reductions in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities; and it increased MnSOD, CuZnSOD, GPx1b and GPx4a mRNA levels, suggesting an adaptive mechanism against stress in the intestines of fish. However, dietary glycinin exposure decreased both the activity and mRNA levels of nine isoforms of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3), indicating toxicity to this enzyme activity and corresponding isoform gene expressions. In addition, glycinin exposure caused partial disruption of intestinal cell-cell tight junction components, disturbances of cytokines and induced apoptosis signalling in the distal intestines>mid intestines>proximal intestines of fish. Glycinin exposure also disturbed the mRNA levels of intestinal-related signalling factors Nrf2, Keap1a, Keap1b, eleven isoforms of protein kinase C and target of rapamycin/4E-BP. Interestingly, glutamine was observed to partially block those negative influences. In conclusion, this study indicates that dietary glycinin exposure causes intestinal oxidative damage and disruption of intestinal physical barriers and functions and reduces fish growth, but glutamine can reverse those negative effects in fish. This study provides some information on the mechanism of glycinin-induced negative effects. PMID:26349522

  1. Carp head kidney leukocytes display different patterns of oxygen radical production after stimulation with PAMPs and DAMPs.

    PubMed

    Vera-Jimenez, N I; Nielsen, M E

    2013-10-01

    Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Despite this, only a few studies have been devoted to study tissue regeneration during wound healing in fish. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular hydrogen peroxide, play an important dual role both for promoting tissue repair, but also for eradication of pathogens. This study aims at dissecting the contribution of PAMPs (using ?-glucan) and DAMPs in the respiratory burst response of carp head kidney-derived leukocytes, and address their contribution to wound healing processes. Consistent with a pathogen eradication strategy, ROS responses to PAMP stimulation (?-glucan) was fast, vigorous and highly dominated by production of superoxide anion. In contrast, stimulation with DAMPs led to a slow, subtle but long-lasting production of oxygen radicals dominated by hydrogen peroxide. Using an in vitro model of scratch-wounded CCB fibroblast cell cultures and a novel PhotoID proliferation assay, stimulation with low and continuous levels of hydrogen peroxide (5 ?M) led to a slight increase in the percentage of wound recovery and thus promoted wound closure. In contrast, high doses of hydrogen peroxide (300 ?M) impaired fibroblast scratch-wound recovery and caused cell death. These results elucidate the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to influence the fate of tissue regeneration through the establishment of environments suitable for promoting either tissue regeneration or oxidative stress and thereby potential tissue damage. Direct in vitro stimulation with ?-glucans did not impact fibroblast scratch-wound recovery, which further suggests that interaction with tissue-resident leukocytes or other components of the fish immune system are required to induce fibroblast proliferation and thus for the accelerated wound healing promoted by ?-glucan stimulation. PMID:23517739

  2. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  3. Adam Merkling Major: Information Technology

    E-print Network

    Hamburger, Peter

    Employed Since: April 2012 Bethany Lowe Major: Graphic Design Position: Multimedia Specialist Studio M M Employed Since: January 2013 Cassandra Wilson Major: Graphic Design Position: Multimedia & Economics Position: Help Desk Employed Since: January 2013 Sasha Allgayer Major: Media Criticism, History

  4. Gastrointestinal absorption, dynamic tissue-specific accumulation, and isomer composition of dechlorane plus and related analogs in common carp by dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Tang, Bin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-02-01

    Dechlorane plus (DP) is a high-productive volume substance which had been identified as ubiquitous pollutant and has been widely detected in biota. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to known amounts of commercial DP-25 under laboratory conditions. The gastrointestinal absorption and tissue-specific bioaccumulation of DP and its dechlorinated analogs in common carp were investigated. The higher absorption efficiencies but lower assimilation efficiencies of anti-isomers indicated stereoselective metabolism of anti-isomers in fish. Linear uptake curves were seen in serum and muscle, but the depuration curves for all the four tissues (muscle, serum, liver and gonad) did not follow the first-order kinetics. The liver exhibited a high affinity for anti-isomers during the experiment. Other tissues, such as serum, muscle, and gonad, showed a selective accumulation of syn-DP in the early stages of the experiment, particularly the serum. However, the deviation of fanti between different tissues disappeared at late stages of the experiment, and the fanti values in all tissues were close to that in commercial mixtures. Our results suggest that the bioaccumulation of DP is a complex and multi-factorial process. PMID:24433788

  5. Hematological and plasma biochemical responses of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) to intraperitoneal injection of extracted microcystins with the possible mechanisms of anemia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xie, Ping; Li, Dapeng; Shi, Zechao

    2007-06-15

    Alterations in hematological indices such as decreases in blood cell counts (RBC), hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations are key symptoms of anemia. However, few experiments were conducted to examine changes in hematological indices of fish exposed to microcystins that are believed to be fatal to circulatory systems of vertebrates. An acute toxicological experiment was designed to study hematological changes of crucian carp injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracted microcystins at two doses, 50 and 200 microg MC-LReq kg(-1) body weight. After being i.p. injected with microcystins, the fish exhibited behavioral abnormity. There were significant decreases in RBC in the high-dose group, and in Ht and Hb concentrations in both dose groups, while erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) significantly increased, indicating the appearance of normocytic anemia. There were no prominent changes in the three red cell indices, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR) in both dose groups suggest the occurrence of kidney impairment. Alteration in blood indices was reversible at the low dose group. Conclusively, anemia induced by kidney impairment was a key factor to cause abnormity of swimming behaviors and high mortality of crucian carp. PMID:17400268

  6. Yeast Surface Display of Capsid Protein VP7 of Grass Carp Reovirus: Fundamental Investigation for the Development of Vaccine Against Hemorrhagic Disease.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shaoxiang; Yan, Liming; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yuan, Li; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Yong-An; Dai, Heping

    2015-12-28

    VP7, an outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), was expressed and displayed on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for developing an efficient vaccine against hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. The result of flow cytometry analysis indicated that protein VP7 could be displayed on the surface of yeast cells after inducing with galactose. The expression of VP7 was confirmed by western blot analysis and further visualized with confocal microscopy. The specific antibodies against VP7 generated from mice were detectable from all immune groups except the control group, which was immunized with untransformed yeast cells. The displaying VP7 on glycosylation-deficient strain EBY?Mnn9 was detected to induce a relatively low level of specific antibody amongst the three strains. However, the antiserum of EBY?M9-VP7 showed relative high capacity to neutralize GCRV. Further neutralization testing assays indicated that the neutralizing ability of antiserum of the EBY?M9-VP7 group appeared concentration dependent, and could be up to 66.7% when the antiserum was diluted to 1:50. This result indicates that appropriate gene modification of glycosylation in a yeast strain has essential effect on the immunogenicity of a yeast-based vaccine. PMID:26282690

  7. Organ Damage and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Feed-Borne Exposure to the Mycotoxin, Deoxynivalenol (DON)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Schulz, Carsten; Rovira, Pere; Kloas, Werner; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) frequently contaminates animal feed, including fish feed used in aquaculture. This study intends to further investigate the effects of DON on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at concentrations representative for commercial fish feeds. Experimental feeding with 352, 619 or 953 ?g DON kg?1 feed resulted in unaltered growth performance of fish during six weeks of experimentation, but increased lipid peroxidation was observed in liver, head kidney and spleen after feeding of fish with the highest DON concentration. These effects of DON were mostly reversible by two weeks of feeding the uncontaminated control diet. Histopathological scoring revealed increased liver damage in DON-treated fish, which persisted even after the recovery phase. At the highest DON concentration, significantly more fat, and consequently, increased energy content, was found in whole fish body homogenates. This suggests that DON affects nutrient metabolism in carp. Changes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in kidneys and muscle and high lactate levels in serum indicate an effect of DON on anaerobic metabolism. Serum albumin was reduced by feeding the medium and a high dosage of DON, probably due to the ribotoxic action of DON. Thus, the present study provides evidence of the effects of DON on liver function and metabolism. PMID:24566729

  8. Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint (Mentha longifolia) essential oil on the quality of bighead carp fillets during storage at 4°C

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Ramin; Bavandi, Shahmir; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-01-01

    Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint essential oil (HEO) on the quality of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C) was studied. Bighead carp fillets were coated with neat sodium alginate (SA) and sodium alginate containing 0.5 and 1% v/v of HEO and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and microbial counts were investigated. SA coating enriched with the essential oil could reduce the spoilage of the fillets and extend their shelf-life. Samples treated with SA-containing HEO showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower TVB-N content and lipid oxidation, as reflected by lower PV, FFA and TBA values during the storage period compared with the SA and control. The treatment also reduced the degree of microbial deterioration of the fillets (about 1.5 log10 CFU/g) more efficiently than the SA. PMID:25987993

  9. A role for melatonin in maintaining the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance by influencing leukocyte migration and apoptosis in carp.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Magdalena; Szwejser, Ewa; Pijanowski, Lukasz; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    Melatonin is responsible for the synchronization of many physiological processes, including the immune response. Here we focus on the expression of melatonin MT1 receptors in/on leukocytes, and on the effects of melatonin administration on the inflammatory processes of carp. For the first time, we showed that fish leukocytes express MT1 receptors, implicating direct responsiveness to melatonin stimulation. Moreover, both in vitro and in vivo, melatonin modulated the immune response. The most potent effects of melatonin concerned the regulation of leukocyte migration. Melatonin reduced chemotaxis of leukocytes towards CXC chemokines in vitro. In vivo, during zymosan induced peritonitis, i.p. administration of melatonin reduced the number of neutrophils. This correlated with a melatonin-induced decrease of gene expression of the CXCa chemokine. Moreover, melatonin induced a decrease of the respiratory burst in inflammatory leukocytes. Although these data do suggest a potent anti-inflammatory function for this hormone, melatonin-induced inhibition of leukocyte apoptosis clearly indicates towards a dual function. These results show that also in carp, melatonin performs a pleiotropic and extra-pineal function that is important in maintaining the delicate pro- and anti-inflammatory balance during infection. They furthermore demonstrate that neuroendocrine-immune interaction via melatonin is evolutionary conserved. PMID:26188098

  10. Evaluation of Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Responses and Recovery Ability of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after Acute Exposure to Atrazine Herbicide

    PubMed Central

    Blahova, Jana; Modra, Helena; Sevcikova, Marie; Marsalek, Petr; Zelnickova, Lenka; Skoric, Misa; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of atrazine exposure (5, 15, 20, and 30?mg·L?1) on common carp and the ability of regeneration. During 96?h exposure we observed abnormal behavior in fish exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Mortality and histological alterations were noticed only in the group exposed to 30?mg·L?1. Most experimental groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower values of haemoglobin, haematocrit, leukocyte, and lymphocyte and significantly higher values of monocytes, segmented and band neutrophile granulocytes, and also metamyelocytes and myelocytes. A significantly lower (P < 0.05) leukocyte count was also recorded in experimental groups (5 and 15?mg·L?1) after recovery period. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) alterations in glucose, total protein, lactate, phosphorus, calcium, and biopterin as well as in activities of ALT, AST, ALP, and LDH were found in most experimental groups. These changes were most apparent in the groups exposed to 20 and 30?mg·L?1. Most of the indices were found to be restored after the 7-day recovery period with the exception of LDH, ALT, and lactate in the group exposed to 15?mg·L?1. Our results showed that atrazine exposure had a profound negative influence on selected indices and also on histological changes of common carp. PMID:24791011

  11. Identification, characterization and immunological analysis of Ras related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mo-Yan; Shen, Yu-Bang; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Yu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Meng; Dang, Yun-Fei; Li, Jia-Le

    2016-01-01

    Rac1, a Rho GTPase, serves critical immunological functions in mammals. Here, a Rac1 homolog (gcRac1) was identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The full-length 2023-base pair gcRac1 cDNA contained a 579-bp open reading frame encoding a 192-residue protein, including a conserved RHO domain and nuclear localization signal. The gcRac1 protein shares high identity with other Rac1 counterparts and phylogenetically clustered with Danio rerio Rac1. The gcRac1 transcript showed wide tissue distribution and was inducible by Aeromonas hydrophila in vivo and in vitro; its expression also fluctuated with LPS or flagellin stimulation in vitro. With gcRac1 over-expression, gcPAK1, gcIL1-?, gcTNF-? and gcIFN were basically up-regulated by A. hydrophila and bacterial PAMPs induction, while gcRac1 knockdown decreased these transcripts after A. hydrophila challenge. Over-expression of gcRac1 reduced, while its suppression facilitated, bacterial invasion. Moreover, gcRac1 could activate NF-?B signaling. These findings implicate the vital role of gcRac1 in grass carp innate immunity. PMID:26315145

  12. Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint (Mentha longifolia) essential oil on the quality of bighead carp fillets during storage at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Ramin; Bavandi, Shahmir; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-05-01

    Effect of sodium alginate coating enriched with horsemint essential oil (HEO) on the quality of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fillets at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C) was studied. Bighead carp fillets were coated with neat sodium alginate (SA) and sodium alginate containing 0.5 and 1% v/v of HEO and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), and microbial counts were investigated. SA coating enriched with the essential oil could reduce the spoilage of the fillets and extend their shelf-life. Samples treated with SA-containing HEO showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower TVB-N content and lipid oxidation, as reflected by lower PV, FFA and TBA values during the storage period compared with the SA and control. The treatment also reduced the degree of microbial deterioration of the fillets (about 1.5 log10 CFU/g) more efficiently than the SA. PMID:25987993

  13. Syrtis Major Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows barchan sand dunes west of the Meroe Patera volcanic caldera in central Syrtis Major. The winds that shape these dunes blow from the right/upper right (northeast). The surface across which the dunes have traveled is probably composed of volcanic rocks; the dunes, too, may have volcanic materials, such as sand-sized grains of tephra-volcanic ash-in them. This October 2003 view is located near 7.4oN, 292.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Checklist for designing a psychology major & filing major cards

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Checklist for designing a psychology major & filing major cards __________________________________________________ __________________ please print your name date checklist & materials submitted This checklist will guide you in preparing cannot be checked, the major plan cannot be approved. #12;Bring the Checklist and completed major cards

  15. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  16. Two HMGB1 genes from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella mediate immune responses to viral/bacterial PAMPs and GCRV challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunrong; Peng, Limin; Su, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal and a master regulator of innate immunity, at the crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity. To clarify the immune characterizations of HMGB1 in fishes, two co-orthologs of HMGB1 (CiHMGB1a and CiHMGB1b) were identified in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by local EST database searching and RACE techniques. mRNA expressions of the two HMGB1 genes are widespread in fifteen tissues investigated. The transcripts of CiHMGB1a and CiHMGB1b were significantly up-regulated and reached peak at 24h post GCRV challenge in spleen and head kidney tissues (P<0.05). The modulations are slow post-bacterial PAMP stimulations by contrast with those after viral PAMP or GCRV challenge. They are inhibited by bacterial PAMPs, but are enhanced by viral PAMP or virus. mRNA expression of CiHMGB1a is high and strongly modulated by nucleic acids and transcription of CiHMGB1b is low and mildly regulated by nucleic acids and capsids of GCRV. The over-expression vectors were constructed and transfected into C. idella kidney cell line to obtain stably expressing recombinant proteins. In HMGB1 over-expressed cells, mRNA expressions of IPS-1, MyD88 and Mx1 were down-regulated, whereas TRIF was found to be up-regulated and IFN-I showed no change in its expression. After GCRV challenge, the transcripts of IPS-1, MyD88 and Mx1 were up-regulated, while IFN-I showed down-regulation, and TRIF showed up-regulation after an initial phase of decline. The titer assay demonstrated no antiviral activity of HMGB1s. The results indicated mRNA expressions of HMGB1a and HMGB1b are enhanced by GCRV or viral PAMP, and are inhibited by bacterial PAMPs; HMGB1a and HMGB1b collaborate with each other and play important roles in modulating the innate immune responses, although without direct antiviral effect; the immune network triggered by HMGB1 work together in concert to maintain homeostasis. PMID:23228458

  17. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) the lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, complement component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor ?1, inhibitor factor ?B? (I?B?) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, nuclear factor ?B p65 (NF-?B p65), I?B kinase ? (IKK?) and I?B kinase ? (IKK?) mRNA expression; (2) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b; (3) the transcription abundance of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) genes. In conclusion, the positive effect of PL on gill health is associated with the improvement of the immunity, antioxidant status and tight junction barrier of fish gills. Finally, based on ACP activity, C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills, the optimal dietary PL level for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) was estimated to be 3.62%, 4.30%, 3.91% and 3.86%, respectively. PMID:26584756

  18. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp involves differential expression of rRNA and molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Nardocci, Gino; Fernandez de la Reguera, Catalina; Simonet, Nicolas; Fumeron, Robinson; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA transcription, were evaluated during the seasonal acclimatization of the carp. First, the nucleotide sequences encoding the components forming the NoRC (ttf-I, tip5) and eNoSC (sirt1, nml, suv39h1), two chromatin remodeling complexes that silence rRNA synthesis, as well as the sequence of ubf1, a key regulator of rDNA transcription, were obtained. Subsequently the transcriptional regulation of the aforementioned molecules, and other key molecules involved in rRNA synthesis (mh2a1, mh2a2, h2a.z, h2a.z.7, nuc, p80), was assessed. The carp sequences for TTF-I, TIP5, SIRT1, NML, SUV39H1, and UBF1 showed a high conservation of domains and key amino acids in comparison with other fish and higher vertebrates. The mRNA contents in muscle for ttf-I, tip5, sirt1, nml, suv39h1, mh2a1, mh2a.z, and nuc were up-regulated during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the mRNA levels of mh2a2, ubf1, and p80 were down-regulated. Also, the contents of molecules involved in processing the rRNA (snoRNAs) and pRNA, a stabilizer of NoRC complex, were analyzed, finding that these non-coding RNAs were not affected by seasonal acclimatization. These results suggest that variations in the expression of rRNA and the molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis are contributing to the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp. PMID:24769445

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert J. Gonzales Philip R. Fresquez

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties exist. A review of historical quantitative PCB data for fish from the Rio Grande and Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs does not indicate a distinct contribution of PCBs from LANL to fish in the Rio Grande or Cochiti. Analysis of homologue patterns for fish does not provide sufficient evidence of a LANL contribution. Nevertheless, concentrations of PCBs in fillets of fish sampled from the Rio Grande are indicative of potential adverse chronic health impact from consumption of these fish on a long-term basis.

  20. Disappearing Scales in Carps: Re-Visiting Kirpichnikov's Model on the Genetics of Scale Pattern Formation

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Chin Heng; Kathiresan, Purushothaman; Németh, Sándor; Jeney, Zsigmond; Bercsényi, Miklós; Orbán, László

    2013-01-01

    The body of most fishes is fully covered by scales that typically form tight, partially overlapping rows. While some of the genes controlling the formation and growth of fish scales have been studied, very little is known about the genetic mechanisms regulating scale pattern formation. Although the existence of two genes with two pairs of alleles (S&s and N&n) regulating scale coverage in cyprinids has been predicted by Kirpichnikov and colleagues nearly eighty years ago, their identity was unknown until recently. In 2009, the ‘S’ gene was found to be a paralog of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, fgfr1a1, while the second gene called ‘N’ has not yet been identified. We re-visited the original model of Kirpichnikov that proposed four major scale pattern types and observed a high degree of variation within the so-called scattered phenotype due to which this group was divided into two sub-types: classical mirror and irregular. We also analyzed the survival rates of offspring groups and found a distinct difference between Asian and European crosses. Whereas nude × nude crosses involving at least one parent of Asian origin or hybrid with Asian parent(s) showed the 25% early lethality predicted by Kirpichnikov (due to the lethality of the NN genotype), those with two Hungarian nude parents did not. We further extended Kirpichnikov's work by correlating changes in phenotype (scale-pattern) to the deformations of fins and losses of pharyngeal teeth. We observed phenotypic changes which were not restricted to nudes, as described by Kirpichnikov, but were also present in mirrors (and presumably in linears as well; not analyzed in detail here). We propose that the gradation of phenotypes observed within the scattered group is caused by a gradually decreasing level of signaling (a dose-dependent effect) probably due to a concerted action of multiple pathways involved in scale formation. PMID:24386179

  1. The Majors Fair: Helping College Students Decide on Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg-Kolin, Helene; Krueger, Gretchen; Thomas-Clark, Cheryl; Finck, Brian

    The Majors Fair is a campus event that showcases academic departments and programs for undergraduate college students deciding majors and minors. Including elements of career counseling, academic advising, and peer mentoring, the purpose of the Majors Fair is to provide information needed for decision making through easy access to faculty, staff,…

  2. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  3. Anthropology Major Effective Winter 2016

    E-print Network

    Awtar, Shorya

    Anthropology Major Effective Winter 2016 Prerequisites to the major: None, but ANTHRCUL 101 at least one course in each of the following subfields: 1. Anthropological Archaeological Beginning in Winter 2016, the anthropological archaeological course requirements are revised to include only

  4. Linguistics Major Senior Thesis Guidelines

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    in computational linguistics. The topic of the thesis can be in any area of linguistic research which a faculty1 Linguistics Major Senior Thesis Guidelines Fall 2013 All primary majors in Linguistics must write a Senior Thesis to complete their degree. Students with an additional major in Linguistics may write

  5. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  6. Influence of potassium permanganate, cobalt chloride, and dietary supplement of vitamin B complex on the histopathological changes in gill epithelium of common carp exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.K.; Kaviraj, A.

    1994-10-01

    Fry of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were chronically exposed to 2.5 mg Cd/L alone and in combination with 1.0 mg KMnO{sub 4}/L or 2.0 mg CoCl{sub 2}/L or a dietary supplement of vitamin B complex at the rate of 26.5 mg/100 g food. Cadmium induced edema of primary and secondary gill lamellae, nuclear swelling, and necrosis and hypertrophy of epithelial cells of the secondary gill lamellae. Similar or more severe lamellar damages were observed with exposure to cadmium together with potassium permanganate and to cadmium together with cobalt chloride. Potassium permanganate alone was also found to produce severe edema of the gill lamellae. A dietary supplement of vitamin B complex reduced the cadmium-induced gill damages and resulted in a normal gill in exposed fish. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Trans- and cis-urocanic acid, biogenic amine and amino acid contents in ikan pekasam (fermented fish) produced from Javanese carp (Puntius gonionotus) and black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Ezzat, M A; Zare, D; Karim, R; Ghazali, H M

    2015-04-01

    Ikan pekasam is a fermented fish product produced in Malaysia and is usually made from freshwater fish with ground roasted uncooked rice as the main source of carbohydrate. In this study, the amino acid, biogenic amine, and trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) contents of fifteen commercial samples of Ikan pekasam made from Javanese carp and black tilapia, that had undergone either natural or acid-assisted fermentation, were quantified. The latter includes either tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp or dried slices of Garcinia atroviridis fruit in the fermentation process. Results showed that there are no significant differences in most of the biogenic amines including histamine, while there are significant differences in total UCA content, and trans- and cis-UCA contents between the two samples. Differences in the amino acid contents were largely fish-dependent. PMID:25442635

  8. Effect of certain toxicants on gonadotropin-induced ovarian non-esterified cholesterol depletion and steroidogenic enzyme stimulation of the common carp Cyprinus carpio in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Guha, D.; Kumar, V. )

    1992-06-01

    Isolated ovarian tissues from the common carp, Cyprinus carpio were incubated in vitro to obtain a discrete effect of four common toxicants of industrial origin, namely phenol, sulfide, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride, on gonadotropin-induced alteration of nonesterified and esterified cholesterol and steroidogenic enzymes, delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activity. Stage II ovarian tissue containing 30-40% mature oocytes were shown to be most responsive to gonadotropins in depleting only nonesterified cholesterol moiety and stimulating the activity of both. Safe doses of above mentioned toxicants when added separately to stage II ovarian tissue with oLH (1 microgram/incubation) gonadotropin-induced depletion of nonesterified cholesterol and gonadotropin-induced stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was significantly inhibited. Esterified cholesterol remained almost unaltered. Findings clearly indicate the impairment of gonadotropin induced fish ovarian steroidogenesis by the four toxicants separately.

  9. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A.; Echols, Kathy R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Torres, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17? (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those reported by studies where exposure concentrations were relatively high. Lastly, this study highlighted advantages of multivariate/multiple regression approaches for exploring associations between complex contaminant mixtures and gradients and reproductive condition in wild fishes.

  10. Intestinal immune function, antioxidant status and tight junction proteins mRNA expression in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed riboflavin deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of riboflavin on intestinal immunity, tight junctions and antioxidant status of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets containing graded levels of riboflavin (0.63-10.04 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that riboflavin deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and contents of complement component 3 and reduced glutathione in the intestine of fish (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, riboflavin deficiency increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents and catalase activity (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to investigate mRNA expression patterns and found that the mRNA levels of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor ?1, Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-b and Claudin-c, inhibitor protein ?B?, target of rapamycin, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 and NF-E2-related factor 2, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin 1?, interleukin 8, nuclear factor kappa B p65, Ikappa B kinase ?, Ikappa B kinase ?, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and Claudin-12 were increased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency decreased immunity and structural integrity of fish intestine. The optimum riboflavin level for intestinal acid phosphatase activity of young grass carp was estimated to be 6.65 mg/kg diet. PMID:26419312

  11. [Collation of data on the ploidy levels and mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic lineages in the silver crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio from Far Eastern and Central Asian populations].

    PubMed

    Apalikova, O V; Elise?kina, M G; Kovalev, M Iu; Brykov, V A

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of the diploid and triploid forms and the correspondence between ploidy and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic lineages of the silver crucian carp have been studied in Far Eastern water bodies and the Syr Darya River. Both diploid and triploid forms have been found in large river systems (the Amur, Suifun, Tumangan, and Syr Darya river basins). Only the diploid form has been detected in lakes of Bol'shoi Pelis Island (Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan), Sakhalin Island, and the Kamchatka River basin (the Kamchatka Peninsula). It has been confirmed that there are two mtDNA phylogroups in the silver crucian carp in the area studied. Both mtDNA phylogenetic lineages are present in the Suifun and Tumangan river basins. Only one mtDNA phylogroup (characteristic of the gynogenetic form) has been detected in two samples from the Amur River and in the Syr Darya population. The other mtDNA phylogroup is predominant in insular populations and in Kamchatka. The gynogenetic form carries only mtDNA phylogroup I, whereas both phylogroups have been found in diploid bisexual fish. The existence of only two mtDNA phylogroups substantially differing from each other indicates that the gynogenetic form has emerged from the diploid form only once and evolved independently for a long time after that. The absence of haplotypes transitional between the two mtDNA phylogroups suggests that the secondary contact between the gynogenetic and bisexual forms in continental populations occurred within recent historical time. The obtained data confirm that genetic (though asymmetric) exchange between the two forms is possible, which explains the high morphological and, probably, genetic similarity between them. PMID:18767549

  12. Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Gene and Their Associations with Growth Traits in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiu; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role in the growth and development of vertebrates. To study polymorphisms of IGF-I, we screened a total of 4555 bp of genomic sequences in four exons and partial introns for the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Three SNPs (g.3759T>G, g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C) in intron 2 and a nonsynonymous SNP (g.7892C>T) in exon 3 were identified in a pilot population including random parents and their progenies. 289 progenies were further genotyped for studying possible associations between genotypes or combined genotypes and growth traits. The results showed that the locus g.7627T>A was significantly associated with body weight and body length, and fish with genotype AA had a mean body weight 5.9% higher than those with genotype TT. No significant associations were observed between genotypes of other loci and growth traits. However, when both g.7627T>A and g.7722T>C were considered, the combined genotype TT/TT was extremely associated with the lowest values of body length and body weight and the highest K value in comparison with other diplotypes (p < 0.01). These results suggest that genotype AA at g.7627T>A and its combined genotypes with alleles from another locus have positive effects on growth traits, which would be a candidate molecular marker for further studies in marker-assisted selection in common carp. PMID:25486058

  13. Dietary tryptophan changes serum stress markers, enzyme activity, and ions concentration of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to ambient copper.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Soudagar, Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Effect of dietary tryptophan (TRP) on copper toxicity was investigated in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Fish were randomly distributed into two triplicate treatments (control and TRP) and fed control (TRP = 3.1 g kg(-1)) or TRP (TRP = 8.1 g kg(-1)) diets over a 2-week period. Then, both treatments were subjected to 10 mg l(-1) copper sulfate over a 7-day period. Mortality and serum cortisol, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sodium, potassium, and chloride levels were recorded at 0, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h post-copper exposure. There was no mortality in the TRP group, whereas the control group mortality was started at 120 h post-copper exposure (21.7 ± 7.6 %) and reached 61.7 ± 10.4 % at the end of the experiment. Cortisol, glucose, ALT, and AST levels significantly (P < 0.05) increased after copper exposure in both groups; however, the control group showed significantly higher levels than the TRP group. In both groups, sodium decreased after copper exposure and did not return to the pre-exposure values. Potassium levels significantly increased 24 h post-copper exposure in both groups and remained significantly elevated in the control group at 72 h, when fell to the pre-exposure values in the TRP group. No significant changes were observed in the chloride levels in any groups. It is concluded that dietary TRP is capable to increase common carp tolerance to copper toxicity via mitigating copper-induced stress rather than restoring gill dysfunction and hydromineral imbalance. PMID:22415861

  14. Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

  15. Defining Global Gene Expression Changes of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Female sGnRH-Antisense Transgenic Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Huang, Wei; Zhong, Chengrong; Luo, Daji; Li, Shuangfei; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is critical in the development and regulation of reproduction in fish. The inhibition of neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression may diminish or severely hamper gonadal development due to it being the key regulator of the axis, and then provide a model for the comprehensive study of the expression patterns of genes with respect to the fish reproductive system. Methodology/Principal Findings In a previous study we injected 342 fertilized eggs from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with a gene construct that expressed antisense sGnRH. Four years later, we found a total of 38 transgenic fish with abnormal or missing gonads. From this group we selected the 12 sterile females with abnormal ovaries in which we combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and cDNA microarray analysis to define changes in gene expression of the HPG axis in the present study. As a result, nine, 28, and 212 genes were separately identified as being differentially expressed in hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary, of which 87 genes were novel. The number of down- and up-regulated genes was five and four (hypothalamus), 16 and 12 (pituitary), 119 and 93 (ovary), respectively. Functional analyses showed that these genes involved in several biological processes, such as biosynthesis, organogenesis, metabolism pathways, immune systems, transport links, and apoptosis. Within these categories, significant genes for neuropeptides, gonadotropins, metabolic, oogenesis and inflammatory factors were identified. Conclusions/Significance This study indicated the progressive scaling-up effect of hypothalamic sGnRH antisense on the pituitary and ovary receptors of female carp and provided comprehensive data with respect to global changes in gene expression throughout the HPG signaling pathway, contributing towards improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways in the reproductive system of teleost fish. PMID:21695218

  16. Effects of Pro-Tex on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae, adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and adult yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    PubMed

    Boerrigter, Jeroen G J; van de Vis, Hans W; van den Bos, Ruud; Abbink, Wout; Spanings, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Martinez, Laura Louzao; van Andel, Wouter F M; Lopez-Luna, Javier; Flik, Gert

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture practices bring several stressful events to fish. Stressors not only activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis, but also evoke cellular stress responses. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs) is among the best studied mechanisms of the cellular stress response. An extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica), Pro-Tex, a soluble variant of TEX-OE(®), may induce expression of HSPs and reduce negative effects of cellular stress. Pro-Tex therefore is used to ameliorate conditions during stressful aquaculture-related practices. We tested Pro-Tex in zebrafish (Danio rerio), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) exposed to aquaculture-relevant stressors (thermal stress, net confinement, transport) and assessed its effects on stress physiology. Heat shock produced a mild increase in hsp70 mRNA expression in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae. Pro-Tex increased basal hsp70 mRNA expression, but decreased heat-shock-induced expression of hsp70 mRNA. In carp, Pro-Tex increased plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while it did not affect the mild stress response (increased plasma cortisol and glucose) to net confinement. In gills, and proximal and distal intestine, stress increased hsp70 mRNA expression; in the distal intestine, an additive enhancement of hsp70 mRNA expression by Pro-Tex was seen under stress. In yellowtail kingfish, Pro-Tex reduced the negative physiological effects of transport more efficiently than when fish were sedated with AQUI-S(®). Overall, our data indicate that Pro-Tex has protective effects under high levels of stress only. As Pro-Tex has potential for use in aquaculture, its functioning and impact on health and welfare of fish should be further studied. PMID:24493298

  17. Comparative study of ?-glucan induced respiratory burst measured by nitroblue tetrazolium assay and real-time luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Vera-Jimenez, N I; Pietretti, D; Wiegertjes, G F; Nielsen, M E

    2013-05-01

    The respiratory burst is an important feature of the immune system. The increase in cellular oxygen uptake that marks the initiation of the respiratory burst is followed by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide which plays a role in the clearance of pathogens and tissue regeneration processes. Therefore, the respiratory burst and associated ROS constitute important indicators of fish health status. This paper compares two methods for quantitation of ROS produced during the respiratory burst in common carp: the widely used, single-point measurement based on the intracellular reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and a real-time luminol-enhanced assay based on the detection of native chemiluminescence. Both assays allowed for detection of dose-dependent changes in magnitude of the respiratory burst response induced by ?-glucans in head kidney cells of carp. However, whereas the NBT assay was shown to detect the production of only superoxide anions, the real-time luminol-enhanced assay could detect the production of both superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide. Only the chemiluminescence assay could reliably record the production of ROS on a real-time scale at frequent and continual time intervals for time course experiments, providing more detailed information on the respiratory burst response. The real-time chemiluminescence assay was used to measure respiratory burst activity in macrophage and neutrophilic granulocyte-enriched head kidney cell fractions and total head kidney cell suspensions and proved to be a fast, reliable, automated multiwell microplate assay to quantitate fish health status modulated by ?-glucans. PMID:23454430

  18. Chronic exposure to pollutants in Madín Reservoir (Mexico) alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Morachis-Valdez, Gabriela; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Madín Reservoir (MR) is located on the Río Tlalnepantla in Mexico. Previous studies seeking to identify pollutants at this site evidence that MR water contains a considerable metal load as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) at concentrations above those determined suitable for aquatic life. This study aimed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to pollutants in MR alters oxidative stress status and flesh quality in muscle of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following biomarkers were evaluated in muscle of carp caught in the general area of discharge from the town of Viejo Madín: hydroperoxide content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC), and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Physicochemical and textural properties of muscle were also evaluated. Results show that the metals Al and Fe were accumulated in muscle of C. carpio at levels of 21.3 and 29.6 ?g L(-1), respectively, and the NSAIDs diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen at levels from 0.08 to 0.21 ng L(-1). Fish exposed to discharge from the town of Viejo Madín showed significant increases in HPC (9.77 %), LPX (69.33 %), and PCC (220 %) with respect to control specimens (p?

  19. Effects of environmental temperature on the development of the myotomal white muscle in larval carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Alami-Durante, H; Bergot, P; Rouel, M; Goldspink, G

    2000-12-01

    A study was conducted on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to determine the effects of environmental temperature experienced by embryos and larvae on the development of myotomal white muscle. Eggs from one female were divided into two groups following fertilisation and incubated at constant pre-hatch temperatures of 18 or 28 degrees C. At hatching, larvae from the 18 degrees C-incubated eggs were divided into two groups and either reared at the same temperature of 18 degrees C ('cold' group) or transferred over a period of 5 days (at 2 degrees C per day) to 28 degrees C ('transferred' group). Larvae hatched from eggs incubated at 28 degrees C were reared at the same temperature of 28 degrees C ('warm' group). Larvae were sampled at two developmental stages (stage 1, inflation of the back chamber of the swimbladder; stage 2, inflation of the front chamber of the swimbladder) and at 26 days post-hatching. The maturation of myotome shape during larval life was studied in parallel with the changes occurring in the organisation of white fibres. At stage 1, the epaxial part of the myotomes surrounding the vent had the shape of lamellae inclined backwards, and only one central layer of white fibres was present. At stage 2, the epaxial part of the myotomes began to acquire a V-shape, which was well developed at 26 days post-hatch. At stage 2 and at 26 days post-hatch, two layers of white fibres were identified: the initial central layer and a second apical layer. These differ in their orientation, the initial central layer being orientated backwards and the apical layer forwards, and in the mean fibre diameter, which is greater in the initial central layer. Studies on the effects of temperature (constant 18 degrees C, constant 28 degrees C, transfer from 18 to 28 degrees C at hatching) were carried out according to both the developmental stage and the length of the larvae. At stage 1, no significant differences were found between the three groups for larval standard length and muscle variables. The number of fibres in one quadrant of epaxial white muscle sectioned at the level of the vent was 100-111. At stage 2, there were significant differences between groups. Larval standard length and mass were higher in the cold group than in the warm group. The transferred larvae were of intermediate standard length but had a significantly higher cross-sectional area of white muscle than either of the other two groups. This increase in surface area was related to a 50 % greater fibre number (233) in the transferred larvae compared with the cold (165) or the warm (152) larvae. The increase in fibre number was more marked for large-diameter ( >20 microm) white fibres located in the initial central fibre layer (+58-72 % in transferred larvae) than in small-diameter ((less than equal to) 10 microm) white fibres mainly located in the apical layer (+18-35 %). In 26 days post-hatch samples, transferred larvae still showed a higher total number of white fibres than warm larvae, but the difference was no longer significant when the total number of white fibres was regressed against larval standard length, suggesting that this stimulation may be temporary. PMID:11076732

  20. Mitochondrial genome sequencing and development of genetic markers for the detection of DNA of invasive bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) in environmental water samples from the United States.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Heather L; Edwards, Christine E; Guan, Xin; Carr, Matthew R; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Lance, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) pose a substantial threat to North American aquatic ecosystems. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material shed by organisms into their environment that can be detected by non-invasive sampling strategies and genetic assays, has gained recognition as a tool for tracking the invasion front of these species toward the Great Lakes. The goal of this study was to develop new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative (qPCR) markers for detection of these species in North American surface waters. We first generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 33 bighead and 29 silver carp individuals collected throughout their introduced range. These sequences were aligned with those from other common and closely related fish species from the Illinois River watershed to identify and design new species-specific markers for the detection of bighead and silver carp DNA in environmental water samples. We then tested these genetic markers in the laboratory for species-specificity and sensitivity. Newly developed markers performed well in field trials, did not have any false positive detections, and many markers had much higher detection rates and sensitivity compared to the markers currently used in eDNA surveillance programs. We also explored the use of multiple genetic markers to determine whether it would improve detection rates, results of which showed that using multiple highly sensitive markers should maximize detection rates in environmental samples. The new markers developed in this study greatly expand the number of species-specific genetic markers available to track the invasion front of bighead and silver carp and will improve the resolution of these assays. Additionally, the use of the qPCR markers developed in this study may reduce sample processing time and cost of eDNA monitoring for these species. PMID:25706532

  1. Proteomic identification and characterization of Ctenopharyngodon idella tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (CiTrap1): an anti-apoptosis factor upregulated by grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Tu; Podok, Patarida; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

    2015-04-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (Trap1) is a mitochondrial protein identical to heat shock protein 75 (HSP75) that plays an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress and apoptosis. In this study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (designated as CiTrap1) was identified through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis and its pattern of expression was investigated in grass carp kidney (CIK) cells infected with grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The full length cDNA of CiTrap1 contained an opening reading frame of 2157 bp that encoded a peptide of 718 amino acids. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the CiTrap1 shared 87% identity with its homologue from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The transcriptional level of CiTrap1 in CIK cells was upregulated post virus infection as well as poly (I: C) stimulation. Following virus infection, grass carp PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Sorcin, whose coding proteins interact with Trap1 in human, were simultaneously upregulated with CiTrap1. Typical characteristics of apoptosis were observed in CIK cells infected with GCRV by DAPI staining, DNA ladder electrophoresis, TUNEL assay and Annexin ? labeling. RNAi-mediated silencing of CiTrap1 in CIK cells resulted in the increased rate of virus-induced apoptotic cells. The results of this study suggest that CiTrap1 is involved in the host's innate immune response to viral infection possibly through protecting infected cells from apoptosis. PMID:25655331

  2. Vitamin D inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response potentially through the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Shi, Dan; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Yin, Long; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Ye

    2015-11-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D both in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. In primary enterocytes, exposure to 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/l increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium (P<0·05) and resulted in a significant loss of cell viability (P<0·05). LPS exposure increased (P<0·05) the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8), which was decreased by pre-treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3) in a dose-dependent manner (P<0·05). Further results showed that pre-treatment with 1,25D3 down-regulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) and NF-?B p65 mRNA expression (P<0·05), suggesting potential mechanisms against LPS-induced inflammatory response. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of LPS significantly increased TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in the intestine of carp (P<0·05). Pre-treatment of fish with vitamin D3 protected the fish intestine from the LPS-induced increase of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-8 mainly by downregulating TLR4, Myd88 and NF-?B p65 mRNA expression (P<0·05). These observations suggest that vitamin D could inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory response in juvenile Jian carp in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D is mediated at least in part by TLR4-Myd88 signalling pathways in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:26346737

  3. Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Development of Genetic Markers for the Detection of DNA of Invasive Bighead and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) in Environmental Water Samples from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, Heather L.; Edwards, Christine E.; Guan, Xin; Carr, Matthew R.; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Lance, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) pose a substantial threat to North American aquatic ecosystems. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material shed by organisms into their environment that can be detected by non-invasive sampling strategies and genetic assays, has gained recognition as a tool for tracking the invasion front of these species toward the Great Lakes. The goal of this study was to develop new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative (qPCR) markers for detection of these species in North American surface waters. We first generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 33 bighead and 29 silver carp individuals collected throughout their introduced range. These sequences were aligned with those from other common and closely related fish species from the Illinois River watershed to identify and design new species-specific markers for the detection of bighead and silver carp DNA in environmental water samples. We then tested these genetic markers in the laboratory for species-specificity and sensitivity. Newly developed markers performed well in field trials, did not have any false positive detections, and many markers had much higher detection rates and sensitivity compared to the markers currently used in eDNA surveillance programs. We also explored the use of multiple genetic markers to determine whether it would improve detection rates, results of which showed that using multiple highly sensitive markers should maximize detection rates in environmental samples. The new markers developed in this study greatly expand the number of species-specific genetic markers available to track the invasion front of bighead and silver carp and will improve the resolution of these assays. Additionally, the use of the qPCR markers developed in this study may reduce sample processing time and cost of eDNA monitoring for these species. PMID:25706532

  4. Internship Coordinators in Majors MAJOR Internship Coordinator Email Office Location

    E-print Network

    Courtier, Anna M.

    Internship Coordinators in Majors MAJOR Internship Coordinator Email Office Location internships for credit Dietetics Dr. Janet Gloeckner gloeckjw@jmu.edu HHS 3124 Earth Science L@jmu.edu Keezell Hall 407 Finance & Business Law Don't offer internships for credit Foreign

  5. "Within fifteen years, nanotech will bring major, major changes."

    E-print Network

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    "Within fifteen years, nanotech will bring major, major changes." Mool Gupta Langley Professor on the impacts of high power lasers for industrial manufacturing, solar cell devices and photonic sensors. An NSF process and has applications in solar cells for efficient light trapping, development of superhydrophobic

  6. Flesh Shear Force, Cooking Loss, Muscle Antioxidant Status and Relative Expression of Signaling Molecules (Nrf2, Keap1, TOR, and CK2) and Their Target Genes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Muscle Fed with Graded Levels of Choline

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Six groups of grass carp (average weight 266.9 ± 0.6 g) were fed diets containing 197, 385, 770, 1082, 1436 and 1795 mg choline/kg, for 8 weeks. Fish growth, and muscle nutrient (protein, fat and amino acid) content of young grass carp were significantly improved by appropriate dietary choline. Furthermore, muscle hydroxyproline concentration, lactate content and shear force were improved by optimum dietary choline supplementation. However, the muscle pH value, cooking loss and cathepsins activities showed an opposite trend. Additionally, optimum dietary choline supplementation attenuated muscle oxidative damage in grass carp. The muscle antioxidant enzyme (catalase and glutathione reductase did not change) activities and glutathione content were enhanced by optimum dietary choline supplementation. Muscle cooking loss was negatively correlated with antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione content. At the gene level, these antioxidant enzymes, as well as the targets of rapamycin, casein kinase 2 and NF-E2-related factor 2 transcripts in fish muscle were always up-regulated by suitable choline. However, suitable choline significantly decreased Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 a (Keap1a) and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 b (Keap1b) mRNA levels in muscle. In conclusion, suitable dietary choline enhanced fish flesh quality, and the decreased cooking loss was due to the elevated antioxidant status that may be regulated by Nrf2 signaling. PMID:26600252

  7. @Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major.

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    @Why Physics Comprehensive Physics Major. From the basic laws of physics to the resulting emergent behavior, physics studies what the universe is made of and how it works. As a Physics major that surrounds us, to the structure and evolution of the entire universe. We offer three degrees in Physics

  8. Major Depression and Complicated Grief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... grief process Next Topic Coping with loss Major depression and complicated grief Depression It’s common for people to have sadness, pain, ... might be getting worse—going into a major depression. About 1 in 5 bereaved people will develop ...

  9. Anthropology Major with Health Emphasis

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Anthropology Major with Health Emphasis Complete your pre-med (and other health-related professional school) requirements with an Anthropology degree! Anthropology Advisor: Shawn W. Carlyle, Ph.utah.edu/students/advisors.php #12;Anthropology Major with Health Emphasis http://www

  10. Risk Management In Major Projects 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Scott William

    The integration of risk management in major projects within the construction and oil and gas industries has never been more significant especially as these projects are becoming larger and more complex. The increased ...

  11. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: MAJOR BARIUM CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes data on air emissions from the production of major barium chemicals. Compounds studied include barium sulfide, barium carbonate, barium chloride, barium hydroxide, and barium sulfate. In order to evaluate potential environmental effects the source severity,...

  12. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  13. Osteochondral Lesions of Major Joints

    PubMed Central

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Yildirim, Omer Selim

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides information about osteochondral lesions (OCL) and example cases of OCL occurring in major joints, some of which are rarely seen. This simple tutorial is presented in question and answer format. PMID:26180500

  14. Molecular Analysis of Spring Viraemia of Carp Virus in China: A Fatal Aquatic Viral Disease that Might Spread in East Asian

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi Nan; Zhang, Ting; Xia, Chun

    2009-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a fatal viral disease for cyprinid fish, which is caused by spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). To date, no SVC outbreak has been reported in China. Between 1998 and 2002, outbreaks of SVC were reported in ornamental and wild fish in Europe and America, imported from multiple sources including China. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the viral strain isolated from America was shown to be originated from Asia. These outbreaks not only resulted in huge economic losses, but also raise an interesting question as to whether SVCV really exists in China and if so, is it responsible for SVC outbreaks? From 2002 to 2006, we screened 6700 samples from ornamental fish farms using the cell culture method of the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), and further verified the presence of SVCV by ELISA and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Two infected samples were found and the complete genome of SVCV was sequenced from one of the isolates, termed SVCV-C1. Several unique hallmarks of SVCV-C1 were identified, including six amino acid (KSLANA) insertion in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) protein and ten nucleotide insertion in the region between glycoprotein (G) and L genes in European SVCV strains. Phylogenetic tree analysis of the full-length G protein of selected SVCV isolates from the United Kingdom and United States revealed that G proteins could be classified into Ia and Id sub genogroups. The Ia sub genogroup can be further divided into newly defined sub genogroups Ia-A and Ia-B. The isolates derived from the United States and China including the SVCV-C1 belongs to in the Ia-A sub genogroup. The SVCV-C1 G protein shares more than 99% homology with the G proteins of the SVCV strains from England and the United States, making it difficult to compare their pathogenicity. Comparison of the predicted three-dimensional structure based on the published G protein sequences from five SVCV strains revealed that the main differences were in the loops of the pleckstrin homology domains. Since SVCV is highly pathogenic, we speculate that SVC may therefore pose a serious threat to farmed cyprinid fish in China. PMID:19623265

  15. Differential modulation of ammonia excretion, Rhesus glycoproteins and ion-regulation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following individual and combined exposure to waterborne copper and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Amit Kumar; Kapotwe, Mumba; Dabi, Shambel Boki; Montes, Caroline da Silva; Shrivastava, Jyotsna; Blust, Ronny; Boeck, Gudrun De

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to understand the mode of interaction between waterborne copper (Cu) and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure on freshwater fish, and how they influence the toxicity of each other when present together. For this purpose, individual and combined effects of Cu and HEA were examined on selected physiological and ion-regulatory processes and changes at transcript level in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to 2.6?M Cu (25% of the 96h LC50value) and to 0.65mM ammonia (25% of the 96h LC50value) singly and as a mixture for 12h, 24h, 48h, 84h and 180h. Responses such as ammonia (Jamm) and urea (Jurea) excretion rate, plasma ammonia and urea, plasma ions (Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+)), muscle water content (MWC) as well as branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) and H(+)-ATPase activity, and branchial mRNA expression of NKA, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-3) and Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins were investigated under experimental conditions. Results show that Jamm was inhibited during Cu exposure, while HEA exposed fish were able to increase excretion efficiently. In the combined exposure, Jamm remained at the control levels indicating that Cu and HEA abolished each other's effect. Expression of Rhcg (Rhcg-a and Rhcg-b) mRNA was upregulated during HEA, thereby facilitated ammonia efflux out of gills. On the contrary, Rhcg-a transcript level declined following Cu exposure which might account for Cu induced Jamm inhibition. Likewise, Rhcg-a was also down-regulated in Cu-HEA co-exposed fish whilst a temporary increment was noted for Rhch-b. Fish exposed to HEA displayed pronounced up-regulation in NKA expression and activity and stable plasma ion levels. In both the Cu exposure alone and combined Cu-HEA exposure, ion-osmo homeostasis was adversely affected, exemplified by the significant reduction in plasma [Na(+)] and [Cl(-)], and elevated plasma [K(+)], along with an elevation in MWC. These changes were accompanied by a decline in NKA activity. Gill H(+)-ATPase mRNA levels and activities were not affected by either Cu or HEA or both. Likewise, NHE-3 expression remained unaltered but tended to be numerically higher during HEA exposure. Overall, these data suggest that at equitoxic concentrations (25% of 96h LC50), the individual effect of Cu is more harmful while HEA induces quicker adaptive responses. Our findings also denote a competitive mode of interaction, exemplified by the inhibition of HEA -mediated adaptive responses in the presence of Cu. PMID:26655657

  16. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009a [NRC/IOM, 2009a]) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown that incidence of major depressive episodes can be significantly reduced. Meta-analyses suggest that 22% to 38% of major depressive episodes could be prevented with currently available methods. We argue that, if major depressive episodes can be prevented, the health care system should provide routine access to evidence-based depression prevention interventions, just as it provides inoculations for other common and debilitating health problems. At the same time, researchers should pursue the major directions advocated by the IOM report to increase the enduring effectiveness of future prevention interventions. These directions include taking a developmental perspective, learning to identify groups at high risk, and testing evidence-based interventions that are likely to have the widest reach. Scientific evidence has shown that clinical depression can be averted. Our societies must take action to reduce clinical depression to the lowest possible level. PMID:22583342

  17. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  18. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a…

  19. Retinal abnormalities in ?-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (?)-thalassemia (?-TM: ?-thalassemia major, ?-TI: ?-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with ?-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with ?-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  20. Dance Major Handbook 2013-14

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    UMass Dance Major Handbook 2013-14 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction1. ...................................................................... 6 BA Dance Major Requirements5 Dance Major Requirements6. ....................................................................... 9

  1. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  2. The effect of gamma radiation on the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio): In vivo genotoxicity assessment with the micronucleus and comet assays.

    PubMed

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Soorambail K, Shyama; Bhagatsingh Harisingh, Sonaye; D'costa, Avelyno; Ramesh Chandra, Chaubey

    2015-10-01

    Radioactive wastes may be leached into freshwater, either accidentally or in industrial effluents. We have studied gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in the freshwater fish Cyprinus carpio. Fish were irradiated with 2-10Gy gamma radiation and genotoxic effects in blood cells were studied with the micronucleus (MN) and comet assays. Micronuclei and a dose-dependent increase in comet-tail DNA were seen in dose- and time-dependent studies. The highest % tail DNA was observed at 24h, declining until 72h, which may indicate the repair of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks after gamma radiation. However, double-stranded DNA damage may not have been repaired, as indicated by increased micronuclei at later periods. A positive correlation was observed between the comet and micronucleus assay results. This study confirms the mutagenic/genotoxic potential of gamma radiation in the Common carp, as well as the possible combined use of the micronucleus and comet assays for in vivo laboratory studies with fresh-water fish for screening the genotoxic potential of radioactive pollution. PMID:26433258

  3. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC??) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC?? were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L?¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L?¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L?¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened. PMID:24210350

  4. Impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system and oxidative stress in liver of crucian carp (Carassius auratus L.) exposed to microcystins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Ping; Fan, Huihui; Zhao, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are produced by cyanobacteria in diverse water bodies and the pathophysiology includes induction of reactive oxygen species and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion in cells. In this study, we evaluated MCs induced changes in the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in mitochondria of crucian carp liver. Fish were subdivided into two groups that were intraperitoneally injected with two doses of MCs (50 and 200 MC-LReq ?g/kg bw) and were sacrificed at 1, 3, 12, 24, and 48 h postinjection. The activities of five enzyme complexes of electron transport chain and mRNA expression of mitochondrial-encoded genes (cox1, cox2, cox3, and atp6) were significantly reduced in a time-dependent pattern after injection. There were also changes in mitochondrial ultrastructure, decreases in ATPase activities and reduction in antioxidant level after MCs exposure. Disorder in the OXPHOS system and decreased activities of antioxidative enzymes might contribute to bioenergy deficiency and consequent hepatocyte damage induced by MCs. PMID:21913302

  5. Caffeine-Induced Ca2+ Oscillations in Type I Horizontal Cells of the Carp Retina and the Contribution of the Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ting; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of release, depletion, and refilling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ were investigated in type I horizontal cells of the carp retina using a fluo-3-based Ca2+ imaging technique. Exogenous application of caffeine, a ryanodine receptor agonist, induced oscillatory intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) responses in a duration- and concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free Ringer’s solution, [Ca2+]i transients could also be induced by a brief caffeine application, whereas subsequent caffeine application induced no [Ca2+]i increase, which implied that extracellular Ca2+ was required for ER refilling, confirming the necessity of a Ca2+ influx pathway for ER refilling. Depletion of ER Ca2+ by thapsigargin triggered a Ca2+ influx which could be blocked by the store-operated channel inhibitor 2-APB, which proved the existence of the store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway. Taken together, these results suggested that after being depleted by caffeine, the ER was replenished by Ca2+ influx via store-operated channels. These results reveal the fine modulation of ER Ca2+ signaling, and the activation of the store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway guarantees the replenishment of the ER so that the cell can be ready for response to the subsequent stimulus. PMID:24918937

  6. Genome Sequences of Three Koi Herpesvirus Isolates Representing the Expanding Distribution of an Emerging Disease Threatening Koi and Common Carp Worldwide?

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takashi; Hirono, Ikuo; Kurokawa, Ken; Fukuda, Hideo; Nahary, Ronen; Eldar, Avi; Davison, Andrew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Bercovier, Herve; Hedrick, Ronald P.

    2007-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, lethal infections of koi herpesvirus (KHV) have been spreading, threatening the worldwide production of common carp and koi (both Cyprinus carpio). The complete genome sequences of three KHV strains from Japan, the United States, and Israel revealed a 295-kbp genome containing a 22-kbp terminal direct repeat. The finding that 15 KHV genes have clear homologs in the distantly related channel catfish virus (ictalurid herpesvirus 1) confirms the proposed place of KHV in the family Herpesviridae, specifically in the branch with fish and amphibian hosts. KHV thus has the largest genome reported to date for this family. The three strains were interpreted as having arisen from a wild-type parent encoding 156 unique protein-coding genes, 8 of which are duplicated in the terminal repeat. In each strain, four to seven genes from among a set of nine are fragmented by frameshifts likely to render the encoded proteins nonfunctional. Six of the affected genes encode predicted membrane glycoproteins. Frameshifts or other mutations close to the 3? ends of coding sequences were identified in a further six genes. The conclusion that at least some of these mutations occurred in vivo prompts the hypothesis that loss of gene functions might be associated with emergence of the disease and provides a basis for further investigations into the molecular epidemiology of the virus. PMID:17329333

  7. Mechanism of Polyphosphates Hydrolysis by Purified Polyphosphatases from the Dorsal Muscle of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys Molitrix) as Detected by (31) P NMR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Yawei; Wang, Fulong; Hui, Teng; Cui, Baowei; Guo, Xiuyun; Peng, Zengqi

    2015-11-01

    The dynamic hydrolysis of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) and polyphosphate compound, which was catalyzed by purified pyrophosphatase (PPase) and myosin- tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) from the silver carp dorsal muscle, was studied using (31) P NMR spectroscopy. In the PPase + TSPP system, the pyrophosphate (PP) was hydrolyzed quickly and completely within 8 h and the hydrolysis rate of PP was 12.51%/h. In the TPPase + STPP system, the first-order hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate (TPP) was not yet complete after 48 h, and the derived PP accumulated progressively. Given the coexistence of PPase and TPPase, only 1.20% of TPP in STPP alone remained after 48 h. However, the generation rate of Pi in the polyphosphate compound (TSPP: STPP: sodium hexametaphosphate = 1: 8: 1) was 0.76%/h, which was less than 0.88%/h in STPP alone. In the presence of polyphosphatases, the decrease of PP or TPP content in the polyphosphate compound was not as rapid as that in TSPP or STPP alone due to the inhibitory effect of PP on TPPase and the effect of low system pH on PPase. The understanding of polyphosphates hydrolysis mechanism was capable of developing the advanced polyphosphate mixture in order to reduce the phosphate residue in fish products. PMID:26417665

  8. Morphological and mtDNA sequence studies on three crucian carps (Carassius: Cyprinidae) including a new stock from the Ob River system, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Iguchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Sideleva, V G; Goto, A

    2009-05-01

    Three morphologically and genetically distinct forms of the genus Carassius were collected from the Ob River system, Kazakhstan, Central Asia; Carassius carassius, Carassius gibelio gibelio and an unknown stock tentatively referred to as Carassius gibelio sub-species M. The last mentioned had 33-41 gill rakers, being intermediate between the other two forms (23-27 in C. carassius and 44-49 in C. g. gibelio), and five scales in the upper transverse series, less than in the others. It also had a relatively larger erythrocyte suggesting triploidy and an mtDNA haplotype distinct from all other known crucian carps. Comparative mtDNA phylogenetic analysis suggested that C. gibelio gibelio in the Ob River system was introduced from China and the Amur River, the same possibly being true for European C. gibelio gibelio based on published haplotypes. C. gibelio sub-species M is thought to be more widely distributed in central Asia, probably extending as far west as European Russia. PMID:20735669

  9. Toxicity and molecular effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) on CYP1A, SOD, and GPx in Cyprinus carpio (common carp).

    PubMed

    Agus, Hizlan H; Sümer, Sibel; Erkoç, Figen

    2015-07-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a widely used plasticizer in the plastic industry, affects regulation of the endocrine system and causes toxicity in animals. In the present study, we evaluated a series of ecotoxicological stress biomarkers in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as an experimental model to test for alterations in gene expression at a sublethal concentration of 1 mg/L DBP for 4, 24, and 96 h. In gills, an immediate increase in CYP1A messenger RNA (mRNA) levels was observed within the first 4 h and persisted for 96 h. Protein levels were nearly consistent with mRNA levels. However, a time-dependent inhibition was observed in CYP1A levels in the liver within 96 h. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels increased gradually in liver with exposure time to a maximum level of 11-fold. Varied responses of different tissues were likely due to xenobiotic metabolism of DBP. In conclusion, evaluating the tissue-specific alterations of CYP1A, SOD, and GPx levels can be used as specific and effective biomarkers for ecotoxicological monitoring of DBP pollution. We strongly recommend using molecular tools to ecotoxicologists for aquatic monitoring of newly emerging pollutants. PMID:26065888

  10. Antibody screening identifies 78 putative host proteins involved in Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection or propagation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    Gotesman, M; Soliman, H; El-Matbouli, M

    2014-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a serious and notifiable disease afflicting common and koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L., termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Significant progress has been achieved in the last 15 years, since the initial reports surfaced from Germany, USA and Israel of the CyHV-3 virus, in terms of pathology and detection. However, relatively few studies have been carried out in understanding viral replication and propagation. Antibody-based affinity has been used for detection of CyHV-3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR-based techniques, and immunohistological assays have been used to describe a CyHV-3 membrane protein, termed ORF81. In this study, monoclonal antibodies linked to N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-activated spin columns were used to purify CyHV-3 and host proteins from tissue samples originating in either CyHV-3 symptomatic or asymptomatic fish. The samples were next analysed either by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and subsequently by electrospray ionization coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) or by ESI-MS analysis directly after purification. A total of 78 host proteins and five CyHV-3 proteins were identified in the two analyses. These data can be used to develop novel control methods for CyHV-3, based on pathways or proteins identified in this study. PMID:23347276

  11. Bioavailability of cadmium and zinc to the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in complexing environments: A test for the validity of the free ion activity model

    SciTech Connect

    Ginneken, L. Van; Chowdhury, M.J.; Blust, R.

    1999-10-01

    The uptake of cadmium and zinc by the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, was studied in chemically defined freshwater in the presence of different organic ligands (i.e., citrate, glycine, histidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid). In most cases, metal complexation decreased Cd and Zn uptake by reducing the free Cd and Zn ion activity. However, Cd and Zn uptake did not increase linearly with the free Cd and Zn ion activity in the solution. A good fit to the data was obtained when the observations were fitted to a Michaelis-Menten-like model for carrier-mediated transport of the metal ions across the biological interface. In addition, the uptake of Cd in the presence of citrate, glycine, and histidine was markedly higher than expected on the basis of the free Cd ion activity. It was concluded that cadmium complexes of these low molecular weight, hydrophilic ligands contributed to the Cd bioavailability, probably by direct uptake of these complexes. Zinc uptake in the presence of the complexing agents could be predicted on the basis of the ambient free Zn ion activity, although uptake in the presence of citrate was lower than expected on the basis of the free Zn ion activity. These results provide a challenging test for the free ion activity model.

  12. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  13. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  14. Rediscovering Major N. Clark Smith.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Reginald T.

    1985-01-01

    Historians of American music education have yet to recognize a Black music educator as important and worthy of observation. This article discusses a candidate--Major Nathaniel Clark Smith, a little-known Black music educator, composer of more than a hundred works, businessman, humanitarian, and teacher of numerous big-name jazz musicians. (RM)

  15. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  16. Undergraduate Anthropology Major /Minor Information

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Undergraduate Anthropology Major /Minor Information (Health Emphasis and Integrative Human Biology of Utah Department of Anthropology (102 Stewart Building) 270 S. 1400 E. RM. 102 Salt Lake City, UT 84112.utah.edu/students/advisors.php and click on Select Shawn Carlyle, Anthropology Advisor and choose from the available dates/times. Research

  17. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  18. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  19. Heavy metal partitioning in sediments and bioaccumulation in commercial fish species of three major reservoirs of river Cauvery delta region, India.

    PubMed

    Dhanakumar, S; Solaraj, G; Mohanraj, R

    2015-03-01

    Chemical partitioning of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni) were determined in surface sediments of three reservoirs at the Delta region of Cauvery River, India. The abundance of metals in sediments varied in the following descending order: Fe, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Pb. Higher concentrations of Zn, Pb, Fe, Mn and Cu in exchangeable and carbonate fraction indicated toxicity risk to the biota. Therefore, to understand the extent of bioaccumulation, six commercial fish species were collected from the same sites and analyzed for heavy metals distribution in different organs. Among the metals found in fish samples, iron was observed in the highest concentration, followed by Zn, Pb, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Concentrations of Pb, Cr and Zn in many fish samples exceeded the permissible limits of Food and Agriculture Organization. The concentrations of Pb (17.7-31.7%), Cr (6.2-15.1%), Cu (15.2-30.5%) and Zn (30-40%) associated with exchangeable and carbonate fractions had significant positive correlation with the respective metal concentrations in fish. Among the fish species, Catla catla and Etroplus suratensis showed the highest accumulation of metals suggesting risk for human consumption. PMID:25497770

  20. Purification and characterization of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and inhibition effects of several metal ions on G6PD activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Zhi, Luo; Zhuo, Mei-Qin; Zhu, Qing-Ling; Zheng, Jia-Lang; Chen, Qi-Liang; Gong, Yuan; Liu, Cai-Xia

    2013-06-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme catalyzing the first step of the pentose phosphate pathway which generates NADPH for anabolic pathways and protection systems in various organisms, including fish. In the present study, G6PD was purified from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hepatopancreas using the methods of 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography followed by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography. The characterization of G6PD and inhibition effects of several metal ions on G6PD activity in vitro were also determined. Grass carp hepatopancreas G6PD, with a specific activity of 18 U/mg protein, was purified 1,066-fold with a yield of 19.5 % and Mr of 71.85 kDa. The enzyme had a temperature optimum of 42 °C, pH optimum of 7.5 and 9.0. The K(m) values for G6-P and NADP(+) were determined to be 0.026, 0.0068 mM, respectively. The V(max) values for G6-P and NADP(+) were 2.20 and 2.27 ?M min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. The catalytic efficiency for G6-P and NADP as the substrates was 0.085 and 0.334 × 10(-6) min(-1) mg protein(-1), respectively. Inhibition effects of metal ions on the purified G6PD activity indicated that IC50 values of Zn(+2), Mn(+2), Al(+3), Cu(+2), and Cd(+2) were 0.42, 0.54, 0.94, 1.20, and 4.17 mM, respectively. The Ki constants of Zn(+2), Al(+3), Cu(+2), and Cd(+2) were 0.52, 1.12, 0.26, and 4.8 mM, respectively. Zn(+2), Al(+3), and Cd(+2) showed competitive inhibition, while Cu(+2) inhibited the G6PD in a noncompetitive inhibition manner. Our study provided important information about the control of the grass carp liver PPP, the biosynthesis of several important related biomolecules, and the status of detoxification systems in grass carp liver in relation to metabolism. PMID:23053609

  1. Wilbur Alexander Scholarship -Accounting major; renewable Beatrice Jones Bess Outstanding Management Award -graduating Management major

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    - Finance or Accounting major · Don Evans Scholarship - General Business major with preference given Scholarship - Accounting major, 3.0 GPA · Joyce Swearingen Scholarship - Finance major; female; sophomore· Wilbur Alexander Scholarship - Accounting major; renewable · Beatrice Jones Bess Outstanding

  2. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  3. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    PubMed Central

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  4. The hatching of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) embryos in response to exposure to different concentrations of cryoprotectant at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, M M; Bhattacharyya, D; Jana, B B

    2002-04-01

    The hatching performance of embryos of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was examined after 1, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days of storage at -8, -6, -4, -2, 0, 2, or 4 degrees C with different concentrations of methanol (0.5-7.0 M in 0.5 M steps) or varying concentrations of methanol in 0.1 M sucrose or trehalose. Preserved embryos failed to hatch after storage at -8 and -6 degrees C, regardless of the duration of storage or the concentrations tested. Likewise, there was no hatching out above 5.0 M concentration of methanol, even with the addition of sucrose or trehalose. After storage at 2 or 4 degrees C, the hatching rate was higher with mixtures of methanol (1.5 M) and trehalose (0.1 M) than with methanol plus sucrose or methanol alone. At 4 degrees C, the solution containing 1.5 M methanol supplemented with trehalose gave the highest hatching response of embryos stored for 14 days. Comparison of hatching after 24h of storage at the effective temperatures (-4, -2, 0, 2, and 4 degrees C) revealed that low concentrations of methanol were effective at high temperatures and high concentrations at sub-zero temperatures. The combination of 0.1 M trehalose with 1.5 M methanol gave the highest percentage hatching out both at 4 and 2 degrees C. At 0 degrees C, the highest percentage hatching occurred with 0.1 M trehalose plus 2.5 M methanol and at -2 and 4 degrees C, the best results were with 0.1 M trehalose plus 3.0 M methanol. PMID:12151266

  5. Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

    1985-04-01

    Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

  6. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of the crucian carp, Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae), using chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridisation with rDNA probes

    PubMed Central

    Spoz, Aneta; Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Karolewska, Monika; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech; Juchno, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) is a species with restricted and decreasing distribution in Europe. Six males and six females of the species from the Baltic Sea basin in Poland were examined to show sequentially CMA3/AgNO3 staining pattern, DAPI staining, and, for the first time in literature, molecular cytogenetic analysis using double-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 28S and 5S rDNA probes. The karyotype consisted of 20 m, 36 sm and 44 sta chromosomes, NF=156. The AgNO3 stained NORs were most frequently located terminally in the short arms of two sm and two sta elements, and CMA3-positive sites were also observed suggesting abundant GC-rich repetitive DNA in the regions. Other CMA3-positive sites in the short arms of six to ten sm and sta chromosomes were detected. The results based on 28S rDNA FISH confirmed the location of rDNA sites. DAPI-negative staining of NORs suggested the scarcity of AT-rich DNA in the regions. FISH with 5S rDNA probe revealed 8–14 loci (ten and 12 in respectively 49 and 29% of metaphases). They were located in two sm and eight to ten sta chromosomes and six of them were larger than others. Simultaneously, mapping of the two rDNA families on the chromosomes of C. carassius revealed that both 28S and 5S rDNA probes were located in different chromosomes. Molecular cytogenetic data of C. carassius presented here for the first time give an important insight into the structure of chromosomes of this polyploid and declining species and may be useful in its systematics. PMID:25349674

  7. Organization and Variation Analysis of 5S rDNA in Different Ploidy-level Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp × Topmouth Culter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Li, Tangluo; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jun; Xie, Lihua; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC?, Cyprininae, 2n?=?100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC?, Cultrinae, 2n?=?48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp) in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp) in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC) and only class IV from their male parent (TC). Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC) and class IV from their male parent (TC). Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC), and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I–N). The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics. PMID:22720007

  8. Nutritional studies on rats and fish (carp Cyprinus carpio) fed diets containing unheated and heated Jatropha curcas meal of a non-toxic provenance.

    PubMed

    Makkar, H P; Becker, K

    1999-01-01

    Unheated and heated (121 degrees C, 66% moisture; 15, 30 and 45 min) Jatropha meals of non-toxic provenance from Veracruz state in Mexico were evaluated using rats and fish. With rats, the weight gain was highest for the casein diet followed by heated (30 min; only this treatment was studied using rats) and unheated Jatropha meal containing diets. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) for unheated and heated Jatropha meal containing diets was 37 and 86%, respectively, of the casein diet. On the other hand, the body weight gain, PER and feed conversion ratio of fish were statistically similar for unheated and heated (15, 30 and 45 min) Jatropha meal containing diets fed for a period of 35 days. Although these parameters were statistically similar for the unheated and heated Jatropha meal containing diets, the body weight gain, PER and protein productive value were highest and the feed conversion ratio lowest with 15 min heated Jatropha meal, suggesting that the heat treatment for 15 min is optimal for the meal. Trypsin inhibitor and lectin activities decreased drastically (>83 and 99%, respectively) after 30 and 45 min of heat treatment and after 15 min, the residual lectin activity was negligible and the residual trypsin inhibitor activity was 34%. These results, together with the nutritional parameters investigated, imply that Jatropha trypsin inhibitors and lectins do not have any adverse effects on carp at least up to 35 days of feeding. The nutritional value of Jatropha meal of the non-toxic provenance is high, and potential exists for its incorporation into the diets of monogastrics, fish and possibly humans. PMID:10517277

  9. Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance Major I ­ Pre-professional (Medicine, Dentistry, Business, Law, Engineering) Major II ­ ACS Certified e.g. Graduate Study or Entry Level Chemistry Employment. Major III ­ Forensic Chemistry Major IV** ­ Biochemistry Option Chemistry Minor General Chemistry I & II

  10. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  11. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. [MAJOR DEPRESSION AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Pitchot, W

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health problem. According to the World Health Organization (OMS), depression is currently the second cause of disability in developing countries. Depression is also one of the most frequent mental illnesses. When treating depression, the main objective is to achieve complete remission and to prevent recurrence. Unfor-tunately, in clinical practice, this aim is particularly difficult to reach. Indeed, in clinical trials and in naturalistic studies, remission levels are rather low. The challenge is to individualize the treatment of depression taking account clinical specificities, but also advances in the field of biological and genetic research. Today, intense psychiatric research tries to discover biomarkers to predict treatment response. Because individuals are highly different from a biological, psychological and sociological point of view, more personalized therapeutic approaches are recommended. PMID:26285462

  13. Major Transitions in Political Order

    E-print Network

    DeDeo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We present three major transitions that occur on the way to the elaborate and diverse societies of the modern era. Our account links the worlds of social animals such as pigtail macaques and monk parakeets to examples from human history, including 18th Century London and the contemporary online phenomenon of Wikipedia. From the first awareness and use of group-level social facts to the emergence of norms and their self-assembly into normative bundles, each transition represents a new relationship between the individual and the group. At the center of this relationship is the use of coarse-grained information gained via lossy compression. The role of top-down causation in the origin of society parallels that conjectured to occur in the origin and evolution of life itself.

  14. Vilazodone: in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2011-07-01

    Vilazodone, a novel antidepressant agent that combines selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) activity and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist activity in a single molecule, is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in the US. It is administered orally, once daily, with food. At the recommended dosage of 40?mg/day, vilazodone was effective in the short-term treatment of MDD in adults, as evidenced by significant improvements versus placebo on multiple measures of depression, including the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17), in two pivotal, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, phase III studies. Significant differences between vilazodone and placebo on the MADRS and HAM-D-17 were seen after 1 week of treatment (first efficacy timepoint) in one of the two studies. Long-term treatment with vilazodone 40?mg/day was associated with an improvement from baseline in depressive symptoms in a 52-week, noncompar-ative, phase III study. Vilazodone was generally well tolerated in the short- and long-term treatment of MDD, with diarrhoea and nausea being the most frequently occurring treatment-emergent adverse events. Vilazodone had a minimal impact on sexual functioning in the three phase III studies. PMID:21699273

  15. Molecular signatures of major depression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10(-14), odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81-0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease. PMID:25913401

  16. Molecular Signatures of Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual’s somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10?42, odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10?14, odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81–0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease. PMID:25913401

  17. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  18. Major natural disaster afteraction assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of natural disasters has disrupted energy supplies. Some incidents occurred in the continental US, others in offshore US territory, and still others in foreign countries. Each locale provided a unique backdrop against which energy emergency activities were conducted. Minimizing the consequences of these incidents is considered to be both good business and in national interest. It is often achieved through a combination of emergency preparedness and emergency response activities, usually taken in coordination and as appropriate, by industry, State and local government and Federal agencies. This project was undertaken to capture the experience gained during recent natural disasters, subject it to careful scrutiny, and thereby improve future energy emergency preparedness, response, and recovery activities. It considered the emergency activities actually undertaken, the level and effectiveness of coordination between the various agents engaged in the response, and the appropriateness of established roles and responsibilities of each. The material forming the basis for this assessment was obtained through numerous in-depth interviews with personnel involved at all levels of response activities, afteraction reports by others, and articles in the technical and general press. Energy types considered were electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. Major attention was focused on telecommunications and military interdependencies with the energy supply infrastructure.

  19. Double Your Major, Double Your Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rossi, Alison F.; Hersch, Joni

    2008-01-01

    We use the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates to provide the first estimates of the effect on earnings of having a double major. Overall, double majoring increases earnings by 2.3% relative to having a single major among college graduates without graduate degrees. Most of the gains from having a double major come from choosing fields across…

  20. Wind Streaks in Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located on the lava flows of Meroe Patera in Syrtis Major.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.7, Longitude 73.2 East (286.8 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.