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Sample records for major carp catla

  1. 3D modeling and molecular dynamics simulation of an immune-regulatory cytokine, interleukin-10, from the Indian major carp, Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash R; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Maiti, Nikhil K; Samanta, Mrinal

    2012-05-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immune-regulatory cytokine that is expressed in various species of fish and higher vertebrates, and is activated during infection. In spite of its important role, IL-10 has not been well characterized either functionally or structurally in fish. To analyze its properties and function, we constructed a 3D model of IL-10 in the Indian major carp, the catla (Catla catla), which is a highly preferred fish species and the most commercially important one in the Indian subcontinent. The catla IL-10 model was constructed by comparative modeling using human IL-10 (2ILK) as the template, and a 5 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out to characterize its structural and dynamical features, which was validated by the SAVES, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers. Analysis using the VAST server revealed a comparatively low level of homology between catla and human IL-10 amino acids at the N-terminal (22.7%) compared to the C-terminal (38.29%). Six conserved domains (A-F) were predicted in catla that threaded well with human IL-10, but their putative interaction sites varied significantly. The amino acid residues in helices A and F differed in length between catla and human IL-10, which may lead to the differences in the IL-10/IL-10R complexes of these two species. The existence of two highly conserved amino acid residues (Cys5 and Cys10) in fish IL-10 but not in higher vertebrate (including human) IL-10 was analyzed in this 3D model. CastP, cons-PPISP and InterProSurf server identified several binding pockets with various probe radii, but Cys5 and Cys10 did not form any significant bonds relating to structural stabilization or protein-protein interactions. PMID:21830101

  2. Gut melatonin response to microbial infection in carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Pal, Palash Kumar; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of present study was to demonstrate the response of gut melatoninergic system to Aeromonas hydrophila infection for 3 or 6 days and search for its correlation with the activity of different antioxidative and digestive enzymes to focus their interplay under pathophysiological conditions in carp (Catla catla). Microscopic study of gut in infected fish revealed degenerative changes in the tunica mucosa and lamina propria layers with sloughed off epithelial cells in the lumen. The activity of each digestive enzyme was reduced, but the levels of melatonin, arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase protein, the key regulator of melatonin biosynthesis, and different enzymatic antioxidants in gut were gradually and significantly increased with the progress of infection. Gut melatonin concentrations in A. hydrophila challenged carp by showing a positive correlation with the activity of each antioxidative enzyme, and a negative correlation with different digestive enzymes argued in favor of their functional relation, at least, during pathological stress. Moreover, parallel changes in the gut and serum melatonin titers indicated possible contribution of gut to circulating melatonin. Collectively, present carp study provided the first data to suggest that endogenous gut melatonin may be implicated to the mechanism of response to microbial infections in any fish species. PMID:26563281

  3. Inhibitory effect of Pistia tannin on digestive enzymes of Indian major carps: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sudipta; Ghosh, Koushik

    2010-12-01

    Aquatic weeds are one of the major unconventional feed ingredients tested for aquafeed formulation. Tannin content in the water lettuce, Pistia, has been quantified (26.67 mg g(-1); dry weight) and graded levels of which (12.5-200 μg) have been incorporated in the reaction mixtures to evaluate any change in the in vitro activity of the principal digestive enzymes from the three Indian major carps (IMC), namely rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala). Result of the experiment revealed that the Pistia tannin (PT) significantly inhibit/lower the activities of the digestive enzymes from three IMCs in a dose-dependent manner, even at very low concentration. Significant variation in the reduction of the enzyme activities was noticed between the three fish species, as well as between the three enzymes studied. Among the three species studied, digestive enzymes from L. rohita were found to be the most sensitive to the PT, whereas enzymes from C. catla were found to be comparatively least affected. On the other hand, protease and lipase activities were comparatively more affected than the amylase activity. The results of the study suggest that more stress should be given on the elimination of tannin while incorporating feed ingredients of plant origin in fish diets. PMID:20369287

  4. Nutrients budget and effluents characteristics in polyculture of scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and Indian major carps ponds using organic inputs.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Subhendu; Sahu, Bharat Chandra; Dey, Lambodar

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for the study of nutrient budget in farmers' ponds (0.4-0.6 ha) in Orissa, India, at stocking densities of 0.30-0.38/m(2) for scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and 0.60-0.70/m(2) for Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala). The average initial body weights of scampi and the major carps were 0.02 and 8-10 g, respectively. The culture period was 272-292 days. Feed was the main input. The FCR (feed conversion ratio) varied from 1.78 to 1.83. Feed and cow dung were applied to these ponds as organic inputs. At harvest time, the average weight of scampi and carps varied from 73 to 92 g and from 718 to 820 g, respectively. Among all the inputs, feed alone accounted for 97.60% total nitrogen (N), 97.90% total phosphorus (P) and 94.72% total organic carbon (OC), respectively. The harvest of scampi and carps accounted for recovery of 52.45% N, 19.43% P and 18.12% OC, respectively. N, P and OC accumulated in sediment were 38.31, 71.40 and 69.50%, respectively. The median nutrient loads in the fish pond effluents were equivalent to 0.58 kg of inorganic N, 0.135 kg of P and 8.83 kg of total OC per ton of Indian major carps and scampi production. PMID:22864442

  5. Identification, cDNA Cloning, and Characterization of Luteinizing Hormone Beta Subunit (lhb) Gene in Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Rather, Mohd Ashraf; Bhat, Irfan Ahmad; Sharma, Rupam

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive hormones play a significant role in the gonadal development and gametogenesis process of animals. In the present study luteinizing hormone beta, (lhb) subunit gene was cloned and characterized from the brain of Catla catla. The lhb full-length of cDNA sequence is 629 bp which consists of 43bp 5'-UTR (untranslated region) 447bp, ORF(open reading frame) and 139 bp of 3'-UTR respectively. The coding region of lhb gene encoded a peptide of 148 amino acids. The coding sequence of lhb gene consist of a single N-linked glycosylation site (NET) and 12 cysteine knot residues. Phylogenetic analysis of C. catla Lhβ deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with Carassius auratus followed by Gobiocypris rarus. 3D structure Lhβ protein comprises of five β-sheets and six coils/loops. The qPCR results revealed lhb mRNA is mainly expressed in the pituitary, ovary while moderate expression was observed in brain and testis. To best our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification, molecular characterization and structural information regarding luteinizing hormone in Indian major carp. PMID:26980432

  6. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while that of total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the end of 22 days of ice storage. The major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p < 0.05) during ice storage. The TVB-N values of fish meat as a function of ice storage was within the prescribed limit up to 17 days of the ice storage. PMID:24741158

  7. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

  8. A new myxosporean species Myxobolus sclerii sp. nov. and one known species M. stomum Ali et al. 2003 from two Indian major carp fishes.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harpreet; Singh, Ranjeet

    2010-04-01

    The present communication deals with description of one new species of Myxobolus (Myxozoa: Myxosporea: Bivalvulida), M. sclerii sp. nov. infecting eye ball of Catla catla (Hamilton) and redescription of M. stomum infecting scales of Labeo rohita (Hamilton), two major carps of Kanjali and Ropar Wetlands respectively. Spores of M. sclerii sp. nov. measure 7.9-9.5(8.7 ± 1.13) × 4.3-5.7(5 ± 0.98) μm in size. Parietal folds absent. Polar capsules two, equal and measuring 4-5.4(4.7 ± 0.98) × 1-2.6(1.8 ± 1.31) μm in size. A rod-shaped medium-sized intercapsular process is present. Iodinophilous vacuole present measuring 2.19-4.13(3.16 ± 1.37) μm in diameter. Spores of M. stomum Ali et al.2003 measure 9.8-10.3(10.0 ± 0.35) × 7.9-8.7(8.3 ± 0.56) μm in size, with rounded anterior and posterior end. Spore valves smooth, symmetrical, thick measuring 0.88 μm in thickness. Parietal folds absent. Two anteriorly situated polar capsules are equal, pear-shaped measuring 4.8-5.2(5.0 ± 0.28) × 1.5-2.3(1.9 ± 0.56) μm in size, each with a neck leading to a fine duct opening independently. Both polar capsules converge slightly anteriorly but diverge apart posteriorly occupying more than half of spore body. Intercapsular appendix is absent. Earlier, the parasite was recorded in the buccal cavity, muscles and lips of Plectorhynchus gaterinus (Forsskal), Egypt. A new locality-Ropar Wetland, a new location-scales and a new host- Labeo rohita (Hamilton) are recorded for this parasite. PMID:21526031

  9. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  10. Melatonin actions on ovaprim (synthetic GnRH and domperidone)-induced oocyte maturation in carp.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mahammed; Hasan, Kazi Nurul; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The major objective of the present study was to demonstrate the actions of exogenous melatonin on ovaprim (synthetic GnRH and domperidone)-induced final oocyte maturation focusing on the oxidative status of pre-ovulatory follicles in the carp Catla catla. Accordingly, gravid carp during the early spawning phase of the reproductive cycle were injected with melatonin and/or ovaprim at different time intervals or luzindole (a pharmacological blocker of melatonin receptors) before their administration. We studied their effects on the latency period, the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; a visual marker of final oocyte maturation) in oocytes, and the levels of maturation-promoting factor (MPF), as well as oxidative stress, different antioxidants, melatonin and MT1 melatonin receptor protein in the extracts of pre-ovulatory follicles. Notably, melatonin treatment 2 h before the injection of ovaprim resulted in the shortest latency period as well as the highest rate of GVBD and MPF formation. Exogenous melatonin, irrespective of the injection schedule, caused a significant reduction in intra-follicular oxidative stress and an increase in the levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, melatonin and its receptor protein. Concentrations of ovarian melatonin in each fish exhibited a significant negative correlation with the level of oxidative stress, but a positive correlation with the rate of GVBD and the activity/level of different antioxidants. However, no significant effects of melatonin and/or ovaprim were detected in luzindole-pretreated carp. Collectively, the present study provides the first evidence that melatonin pretreatment in carp ameliorates ovaprim actions on the process of final oocyte maturation by the formation of MPF and alleviates oxidative stress in pre-ovulatory follicles by stimulating different antioxidants. PMID:26729919

  11. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on reproduction of four major Chinese carps species in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Gao, Xin; Cao, Wenxuan; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-01-01

    Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) are the four major Chinese carps and are commercially important aquaculture species in China. Reproduction of these carp has declined since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) due to an altered water flow and thermal regime in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River. However, details of the changes in reproduction of the four species are not well understood. To assess the impact of the TGD on reproduction of the four carp, we investigated their eggs and larvae at Yidu City, which is 80 km below the TGD, during 2005-2012. We examined diff erences in larval abundance of the four species in the Jianli section (350 km downstream of the TGD) before (1997-2002) and after (2003-2012) construction of the TGD. Based on these observations, the first spawning date of the four species was delayed a mean of about 25 days after the dam was constructed. Mean egg abundance in the Yidu section of the river was 249 million and mean larval abundance was 464 million, which were significant decreases since the 1980s. Moreover, larval abundance in the Jianli section after the dam was constructed was significantly lower than that before construction (ANCOVA, P<0.05). The observed larval abundance accounted for only 24.66% of the predicted value in 2003 when the dam was first inundated. The present spawning grounds between the TGD and Yidu section of the river are very similar to those described in the 1980s, and some spawning grounds exist upstream of the TGD. Large free-flowing stretches upstream of the TGD and the creation of artificially flooded downstream reaches are needed to stimulate spawning and eff ectively conserve these four major Chinese carps species.

  12. Establishment and characterization of an epithelial cell line from thymus of Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Sood, Neeraj; Swaminathan, T Raja; Rathore, Gaurav; Pradhan, P K; Agarwal, N K; Jena, J K

    2013-01-10

    A cell line, CTE, derived from catla (Catla catla) thymus has been established by explant method and subcultured for more than 70 passages over a period of 400 days. The cell line has been maintained in L-15 (Leibovitz) medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. CTE cell line consists of homogeneous population of epithelial-like cells and grows optimally at 28°C. Karyotype analysis revealed that the modal chromosome number of CTE cells was 50. Partial amplification, sequencing and alignment of fragments of two mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and COI confirmed that CTE cell line originated from catla. Significant green fluorescent signals were observed when the cell line was transfected with phrGFP II-N mammalian expression vector, indicating its potential utility for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. The CTE cells showed strong positivity for cytokeratin, indicating that cell line was epithelial in nature. The flow cytometric analysis of cell line revealed a higher number of cells in S-phase at 48 h, suggesting a high growth rate. The extracellular products of Vibrio cholerae MTCC 3904 were toxic to the CTE cells. This cell line was not susceptible to fish betanodavirus, the causative agent of viral nervous necrosis in a large variety of marine fish. PMID:23026220

  13. Morphometric and molecular identification of Paradactylogyrus catlaius (Thapar 1948) in Catla catla (Hamilton 1822).

    PubMed

    Rana, Nibedita; Das, Basanta K

    2016-03-01

    Paradactylogyrus are small monogenean ectoparasites found mostly on the gills of Cyprinidae and are highly host specific. Conventionally these parasites are identified by microscopic analysis. In contrast to this conventional method, molecular identification using nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) provides specific, sensitive and safe detection of parasites. The present study is aimed to identify the Paradactylogyrus on Catla catla using morphological and molecular tools. Morphologically the parasite is having hamuli, marginal hooks, bars and copulatory organs which differentiate it from other monogeneans. The parasite is having unpaired central spine, tubular cirrus and extracaecal vitellaria. 28s rDNA study revealed that the species is P. catlaius and the sequence was submitted to Genbank (accession no. KF269531). The study suggests that morphological characters along with molecular study are essential for validating and identifying the monogeneans. This is the first published sequence of species from the genus Paradactylogyrus (Thapar 1948). PMID:27065594

  14. Bighead Carp

    This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

  15. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS AGENCY... Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c) and 33 CFR 81... Regulations, Parts 81 and 89, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS. Full compliance with...

  16. Isolation and characterization of collagen from fish waste material- skin, scales and fins of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, Shahid

    2015-07-01

    The collagen of skin, scales and fins of Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala were isolated and characterised. Nine fishes of each fish species of three weight groups were collected from a commercial fish farm. Collagen characterisation using SDS-PAGE revealed the molecular weights (kDa) of the C. catla skin, scales, and fins which ranged from 120 to 210, 70 to 201, and 68 to 137 kDa, respectively. The size of the collagen of C. mrigala skin, scales and fins ranged from 114 to 201, 77 to 210, and 70 to 147 kDa, respectively. Glycine and alanine were the most abundant amino acid, whereas tryptophan was totally absent in all selected tissues. Thus, significant variation exists in type of collagen and amino acid profile within the weight groups of the two fish species. The imino acid (proline and hydroxyproline) contents estimated in C. catla and C. mrigala skin (161-165 and 160-168), scales (155-159 and 152-161) and fins (162-171 and (152-155) residues/1,000 residues, respectively. The proximate analysis was also performed for skin, scales and fins. The maximum protein content of the skin was determined as 26.10 % and 22.90 % in the C. catla and C. mrigala, respectively, from the W3 weight group. The scales of the W3 weight group exhibited maximum protein contents of 25.90 and 21.77 % for C. catla and C. mrigala, respectively. The maximum protein contents (19.04 % and 18.12 %) were recorded for C. catla and C. mrigala, respectively in the fins. PMID:26139894

  17. Gamma radiation induced micronuclei and erythrocyte cellular abnormalities in the fish Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N

    2012-10-15

    Ionizing radiation induced DNA damage in fishes is a scarcely studied topic and very few studies are available in fishes exposed to ionizing radiation using the erythrocyte micronucleus assay under laboratory conditions. Since radionuclides released accidentally or during a nuclear disaster can contaminate inland water bodies, biomonitoring methods are required for assessing the impacts of high and low levels of radiation that may ultimately result in ionizing radiation exposure to both humans and non-human biota. Fresh water fish, Catla catla were subjected to protracted (0.002 Gy/min) and acute (3.2 Gy/min) gamma radiation to a total dose of 5 Gy. Peripheral blood samples were collected at different intervals (days 3, 6, 12, 18, 30, 45, 90, 135, 202) and analyzed by the erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Nuclear anomalies observed were micronuclei (MN), deformed nuclei (DN), nuclear bud (NBu), nuclear bridge (NBr), vacuolated nucleus (VN), binucleated cell (BNC), apoptotic cells (AC) while cytoplasmic abnormalities detected were vacuolated cytoplasm (VC), anisochromasia (AN), echinocytes (EC) and enucleus (EN). Both exposures caused a statistically significant increase in nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities that correlated with micronucleus and other nuclear anomalies. However, the extent of damage is higher after an acute exposure lasting for a longer period leading to apoptosis. Nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities are the resultants of gamma radiation induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. PMID:22771702

  18. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370 μg g−1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Leucas aspera engineered silver nanoparticles against Aeromonas hydrophila in infected Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Antony, Jacob Joe; Nivedheetha, Murugaiyan; Siva, Durairaj; Pradeepha, Ganesapandy; Kokilavani, Palanivel; Kalaiselvi, Seenivasan; Sankarganesh, Arunachalam; Balasundaram, Athmanathan; Masilamani, Vivekanandan; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2013-09-01

    This research describes green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing Leucas aspera. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and inductively coupled plasmon optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). UV-vis analysis proved the wavelength of the sample to be 429 nm, resembling the surface resonance peak (SPR) specific for AgNPs. DLS analysis indicated particles with superior stability with an average diameter of 189.3 nm. TEM results showed that the particles were in the size range of 29-45 nm. FTIR prediction indicated the presence of possible polyphenol and protein encapsulates on the AgNPs. Antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs was tested against Aeromonas hydrophila. Catla catla, the model organism used for the experiment was divided into six groups with 15 animals in each group. In vivo analysis of biochemical parameters and histological architecture provided evidence for the antibacterial effect of AgNPs in the fish model. PMID:23603038

  20. Silver Carp

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  1. Gamma radiation induced cell cycle perturbations and DNA damage in Catla Catla as measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N

    2015-03-01

    Gamma radiation induced cell cycle perturbations and DNA damage in Catla catla were analyzed in erythrocytes at different time points using flow cytometry (FCM). Protracted exposure to radiation induced damage between days 12 and 45. Disturbances in cell cycle machinery, i.e., proportional increase and decrease in Gap0 or quiescent/Gap1 (G0/G1), Synthesis (S) and Gap2/Mitotic (G2/M) phases were observed at both acute and protracted treatments. Both acute and protracted exposures induced apoptosis with a notable significance between days 3 and 6 at protracted and on day 45 at acute doses. Fish exposed protractedly avail some DNA repair mechanisms than acutely exposed. This is the first study to analyze radiation induced DNA damage under laboratory conditions and suggests that flow cytometry can also be an alternate tool to screen genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in fish. PMID:25483367

  2. Carp and Radio Transmitters

    Iowa Unit Graduate student Chris Penne listens for signals from carp with surgically implanted radio transmitters in Clear Lake. Chris studied carp aggregation to assist in planning for carp reduction by the DNR....

  3. Grass Carp

    Josh Schloesser, a MS student at the Kansas Unit holding a grass carp collected while sampling with the USFWS on the Missouri River. Josh is working closely with the FWS and other agencies to develop sampling protocols for Missouri River fishes....

  4. Silver Carp Larvae

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  5. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  6. Simulation study of natural UV-B radiation on Catla catla and its impact on physiology, oxidative stress, Hsp 70 and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Moirangthem Kameshwor; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Chakrabarti, Rina

    2015-08-01

    UV-B radiation is a potential stressor to the aquacultural species. Catla catla, catla larvae (1.08±0.065g) were exposed to different doses of UV-B radiation, 0 (control), 504, 1008, 1512 and 2016mJ/cm(2) at a mean radiant energy of 80μW/cm(2) for 21days. The dose of UV-B radiation was selected on the basis of the field study conducted in Lake Naini, Delhi, India (Latitude: 28°41'26″N and Longitude: 77°12″37″E). Significantly (P<0.05) lower survival, average weight and specific growth rate were found in UV-B irradiated larvae compared to the control one. Food conversion ratio was 1.5-4-fold higher in UV-B treated larvae compared to the control one. The carbonyl protein (CP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were significantly (P <0.05) higher in UV-B irradiated larvae compared to the control group. Among the treated larvae, CP and SOD were significantly (P <0.05) higher in larvae exposed at 1512mJ/cm(2) UV-B. A correlation was found between the CP and SOD (R(2)=0.834). Highest TBARS level was found in 2016mJ/cm(2) UV-B exposed catla. Nitric oxide synthase level was significantly (P <0.05) lower in UV-B exposed larvae compared to the control one. A 3-fold increased Hsp 70 level was recorded in UV-B irradiated catla compared to the control larvae. Comet assay analysis indicated that UV-B irradiation enhanced DNA fragmentation. Tail extent moment and the olive tail moment were significantly (P <0.05) higher in 2016mJ/cm(2) UV-B exposed catla compared to others. The tail length was significantly (P <0.05) higher in 1512 and 2016mJ/cm(2) UV-B exposed larvae compared to the other doses. The present study suggests that the catla is a useful species for the biomonitoring of stress in the aquatic environment. PMID:26065818

  7. Juvenile Bighead Carp

    These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

  8. Juvenile Silver Carp

    These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

  9. Silver and Bighead Carp

    These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

  10. Silver Carp Larva

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  11. Silver Carp Egg

    This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  12. Hypoxic stress: impact on the modulation of TLR2, TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 receptor and their down-stream signalling genes expression in catla (Catla catla).

    PubMed

    Basu, Madhubanti; Paichha, Mahismita; Lenka, Saswati S; Chakrabarty, Rina; Samanta, Mrinal

    2016-01-01

    The damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released from the damaged tissue/cells are recently reported as endogenous ligands to activate toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors signaling pathways. In the aquatic environment, reduction in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration causes hypoxic stress resulting in tissue damage and patho-biological changes in fish. We envisaged the critical role of TLR and NOD receptors in recognizing DAMPs as endogenous ligands during hypoxic stress in fish. Catla (Catla catla) fingerlings (avg. wt ~56g) was exposed to hypoxic stress (DO: 1-3mg/L) for 1 and 24h. After the designated time course, total RNA was extracted from gill, liver, kidney and blood, and modulation of TLRs (TLR2 and TLR4), NOD (NOD1 and NOD2) receptors, MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), RICK (receptor interacting serine-threonine protein kinase-2), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10 gene expression were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Significant (p<0.05) up-regulation of some DAMPs {high-mobility group box 1 and heat shock protein-70}, TLRs and NOD receptors genes expressions were observed in the hypoxic fish tissues as compared to the control. Further investigation revealed inductive expression of MyD88, RICK, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 genes in the TLRs and NODs activated tissues of the hypoxic fish. These data together may suggest the important role of TLRs and NOD receptors signaling pathway in sterile inflammation and pathobiology of fish in hypoxic stress, and warrant further study to investigate the role of TLR and NOD receptors in abiotic stress management in aquaculture. PMID:26590162

  13. Dietary lysine requirement of fingerling Catla catla (Hamilton) based on growth, protein deposition, lysine retention efficiency, RNA/DNA ratio and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Zehra, Seemab; Khan, Mukhtar A

    2013-06-01

    A 12-week experiment was conducted to quantify dietary lysine requirement of fingerling Catla catla (3.65 ± 0.05 cm; 0.58 ± 0.02 g) by feeding casein-gelatine-based diets (33.0 % crude protein; 14.3 kJ/g digestible energy) with six levels of L-lysine (1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 % dry diet). The experiment was conducted in eighteen 70-L indoor polyvinyl circular troughs provided with a water flow-through system (1-1.5 L/min). Live weight gain (LWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein deposition (PD), lysine retention efficiency (LRE%) and RNA/DNA ratio were used as the response criteria. Second-degree polynomial regression analysis at 95 % maximum and minimum response of LWG and FCR data exhibited the lysine requirement between 1.8 and 1.9 % dry diet, corresponding to 5.5-5.7 % dietary protein. Regression analysis of PD, LRE and RNA/DNA ratio yielded the requirement between 1.7 and 1.8 % dry diet, corresponding to 5.2-5.5 % dietary protein. Since live weight gain and protein deposition are the key parameters for estimating nutrient requirement, these tools were used to recommend the lysine requirement of fingerling C. catla which ranges between 1.7 and 1.8 % dry diet. Data generated during this study will be useful to formulate lysine-balanced feed for intensive culture of this fish. PMID:22968345

  14. Oxygen stress: impact on innate immune system, antioxidant defence system and expression of HIF-1α and ATPase 6 genes in Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Singh, Samar Pal; Sharma, JaiGopal; Ahmad, Tauqueer; Chakrabarti, Rina

    2016-04-01

    Catla catla catla (2.28 ± 0.1 g) were exposed to six different levels of dissolved oxygen: 1 (DO-1), 3 (DO-3), 5 (DO-5), 7 (DO-7), 9 (DO-9) and 11 (DO-11) mg/L. DO-5 served as control. In DO-1 and DO-3, the number of red blood cells (RBC), lysozyme, respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide synthase were significantly (p < 0.05) lower compared to the control one. In DO-7 and DO-9, RBC and lysozyme were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to the control one. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in catla exposed at low (1 and 3 mg/L) and high (9 and 11 mg/L) dissolved oxygen compared to others. In muscles and hepatopancreas, reduced glutathione was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in DO-5 and DO-7 and in gills of DO-5 compared to others after 1 h. In muscles, glutathione S-transferase (GST) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in DO-5 and DO-7 compared to others. In hepatopancreas, GST and glutathione peroxidise (GPx) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in DO-1 and DO-3 compared to others. In gills, GPx was higher in DO-9 and DO-11 after 48 h. In brain, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mRNA level was induced in DO-1 and DO-3 compared to others after 1 h of exposure. In gills and hepatopancreas, HIF-1α mRNA level was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in DO-1 compared to others after 1 h. The ATPase 6 mRNA level was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in brain and hepatopancreas of DO-1 after 1 h and in gills and hepatopancreas of DO-3 and DO-9, respectively, after 48 h compared to others. PMID:26588934

  15. Update on CARP codes

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, T.N.

    1995-12-31

    The Committee on Acoustic Emission from Reinforced Plastic (CARP) sprang from basic industry needs in the late 1970`s for appropriate NDT technology for the inspection of both new and in-service FRP components in the chemical processing and electric power industries. Originally, CARP operated under the auspices of the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI). CARP is currently working within the auspices of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT). The CARP subcommittee on Tanks and Pressure Vessels is currently completing work on a new document to replace the 1987 edition of the recommended practice on tanks and pressure vessels. The revised procedure will reflect current field test practice, the use of microprocessor controlled instruments with large data storage capacity, and advances in post-test analysis. It is anticipated that the new procedure, which will be published by the American Society for Nondestructive Testing, will replace the 1987 CARP procedure which will be phased out. The CARP Ad Hoc Committee on International Symposia is currently planning the ``Sixth International Symposium on Acoustic Emission from Composite Materials`` (AECM-6). It will be held in San Antonio, TX, July 1998. The American Society for Nondestructive Testing is the anticipated sponsor.

  16. High-jumping Silver Carp

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  17. Black Carp: Biological synopsis and risk assessment of an introduced fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, L.G.; Williams, J.D.; Jelks, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Major subjects addressed are (1) taxonomy, description, and distinguishing characteristics of the species; (2) native distribution; (3) biology and natural history, with emphasis on diet and reproduction; (4) history of the species in world aquaculture; (5) history of introduction within and outside the United States; (6) use as a biological control control agent, including a review of digenetic trematodes and snail-borne parasites of special concern and methods used for control; (7) alternatives to the use of black carp; (8) environmental tolerance and potential geographic range; and (9) risks associated with its introduction. The book also includes substantial information on the other Chinese carp species, including bighead carp, silver carp, and grass carp.

  18. Lactococcosis in Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lester H; Austin, Frank W; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Gaunt, Patricia S; Riecke, Dennis K; Jacobs, Alicia M; Meals, Keith O; Dunn, Arthur W; Griffin, Matt J

    2014-03-01

    An adult Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with a focally extensive skin lesion near the caudal peduncle and mild iridial hemorrhage was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, Mississippi, as part of a fish kill investigation. Touch impressions of this musculoskeletal lesion revealed small cocci (∼1 μm) in pairs or chains within an inflammatory milieu. A pure Gram-positive cocci isolate was obtained from the brain, while cultures of the kidney and muscle yielded multiple bacterial colony types, including the Gram-positive cocci seen in the brain. This brain isolate was characterized biochemically and identified as Lactococcus spp. Analysis of the near complete 16S small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequences revealed the bacterium to be L. lactis subsp. lactis (SSU rDNA: 100% identity, 1,372/1,372 bp; gyrB: 99.7% identity, 1,779/1,785 bp). Comparatively, at the gyrB locus the case isolate shared less than 90% similarity to L. lactis subsp. cremoris (1,599/1,781 bp) and less than 80% homology to L. garvieae (1409/1775 bp). Histopathological examination confirmed a severe meningoencephalitis, a moderate mononuclear myositis, and a mild interstitial nephritis. We believe this represents the first report of a natural infection by L. lactis subsp. lactis in Silver Carp. PMID:24689953

  19. [Effect of glyphosate on the energy exchange in carp organs].

    PubMed

    Zhidenko, A A; Bibchuk, E V; Barbukho, E V

    2013-01-01

    The use of glyphosate as a herbicide in agriculture can lead to the presence of its residues and metabolites (aminomethylphosphonic acid) in food for human consumption and pose a threat to health. The effect of these herbicides on the fish organism at the biochemical level has been insufficiently studied. We studied changes in the content of adenine nucleotides, enzyme activity, quantitative indexes of energy metabolism substrates in carp under the action of glyphosate. It has been found that proteins are the major energy substrate under the influence of glyphosate in the liver, brain, white muscle of carp yearlings. Glyphosphate decreases energy metabolism in the brain of carp and increases it in the white muscles. The growth of activity of catabolic enzymes in the liver under the influence of glyphosate can be attributed to the adaptive remodelling of metabolic pathways for homeostasis and enantiostasis in response to herbicides. PMID:23937045

  20. CARP: fishing for novel mechanisms of neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Susan E; Shi, Yubin; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2006-09-01

    Gene expression profiling of mouse skin wounds has led to the discovery of numerous target genes that may have therapeutic or diagnostic value. Among these, cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP, ankrd1) expression was markedly and persistently elevated in several cutaneous compartments. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of CARP and its regulation in biological systems. In addition to its role as a nuclear transcription cofactor in many cell types including vascular endothelium, CARP is also a structural component of the sarcomere. CARP transcripts are prominent in cardiogenesis and muscle injury, and they are under complex regulation by cytokines, hypoxia, doxorubicin, and other forms of stress. CARP overexpression in wounds by adenoviral gene transfer leads to a high vascular density, and CARP exerts effects on endothelial behavior. The unusual cellular distribution and actions of CARP make it a novel candidate gene in tissue repair. PMID:17069020

  1. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  2. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  3. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  4. Acute and subchronic toxic effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): Immunotoxicity assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ziwei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-08-01

    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used pesticides in agricultural practices throughout world. It has resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems, such as impacts on many non-target aquatic species, including fish. The spleen and head kidney in the bony fish are the major hematopoietic organs, and play a crucial part in immune responses. This study evaluated the subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 in the immune organs of common carp and compared the acute and subchronic effects of ATR and CPF on the swimming speed (SS) of common carp. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the 96 h-LC50 of ATR and CPF for common carp was determined to be 2.142 and 0.582 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, acute and subacute toxicity of ATR and CPF in common carp resulted in hypoactivity. We also found that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 genes were induced in the spleen and head kidney of common carp exposed to ATR and CPF in the subchronic toxicity test. Our results indicate that ATR and CPF are highly toxic to common carp, and hypoactivity in common carp by acute and subchronic toxicity of ATR and CPF may provide a useful tool for assessing the toxicity of triazine herbicide and organophosphorous pesticides to aquatic organisms. In addition, the results from the subchronic toxicity test exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that ATR and CPF exposure cause immunotoxicity to common carp. PMID:25917970

  5. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  6. Photoreceptor proteins and melatonin rhythm generating AANAT in the carp pineal: Temporal organization and correlation with natural photo-thermal cues.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2010-04-01

    We studied temporal organization of both the photoreceptor (rod-like opsin, alpha subunit of the G protein transducin or alpha-TD) and melatonin generating (AANAT) proteins in the same pineal of a tropical surface dwelling free-living carp Catla catla, and analyzed possible correlation between them as well as with natural photo-thermal variables in an annual cycle. The pineal from individual fish was collected at four different time points (06.00 h, 12.00 h, 18.00 h, and 24.00 h) in a 24.00 h cycle and the same was repeated in four distinct seasons in an annual reproductive cycle to study each protein following Western blot and densitometric analyses of respective immunoblots. The rod-like opsin was represented by four distinct bands, a closely spaced doublet of 39 kDa and bands of 78 and 115 kDa. Two separate bands, one at 43 kDa and another at 65 kDa, were detected for alpha-TD, and a single band at 23 kDa for AANAT. Both the pineal photoreceptor proteins exhibited an identical pattern of diurnal variations with a peak at midday (12.00 h) and fall at midnight (24.00 h), while maximum band intensity of AANAT was noted in midnight (24.00 h) and minimum at midday (12.00 h) depicting a significant negative correlation (p<0.001) between them. Likewise, in an annual cycle, a significant (p<0.01) negative correlation was found between the expression of each pineal photoreceptor protein (being highest during the spawning phase) and AANAT (maximum during the post-spawning phase). Seasonal fluctuations of both the photoperiod and water temperature exhibited a significant (p<0.01) positive correlation with the expression of pineal photoreceptor proteins and a significant (p<0.05) negative correlation with the pineal AANAT. Collectively, the present phenological study is the first report on temporal organization of pineal photoreceptor proteins and their correlation with the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme AANAT as well as environmental photo-thermal cues depicting their integrative role in the synthesis of proteins in the pineal in any fish. Nonetheless, importance of further experimental studies on carp is emphasized for a conclusive evidence of functional relationship between the studied variables in the pineal and the components of environment in which the fish live in. PMID:20185327

  7. Rhabdomyosarcoma in a Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Annahita; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Ansari, Mahshid Bagherzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is a primitive neoplasm that originates from skeletal muscle progenitor cells. In a routine inspection of a cyprinid farm in southwestern Iran, an approximately 2-year-old female Silver Carp was observed to have a raised mass located on the dorsolateral surface just caudal to the head. Macroscopic examination revealed a firm irregular fleshy pink mass (5 × 4 cm, depth = 3 cm) that appeared to arise from the subcutaneous musculature. Histologic sections were prepared using routine methods and separate sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Massons' trichrome. Microscopically, the tumor mass was composed of spindle cells that were densely packed and arranged in long interwoven bundles. The nuclei were vesicular and oval to elongated or cigar-shaped. Nuclear pleomorphism and multinucleate tumor giant cells were clearly evident. The neoplastic cell cytoplasm was eosinophilic with indistinct cell margins, and clear cross striations were observed in fibrils. The striated fibrils stained diffusely red with Masson's trichrome. This account represents the first reported occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma in Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. Received July 10, 2015; accepted February 4, 2016. PMID:27229885

  8. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    PubMed

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  9. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  10. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  11. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  12. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  13. An agent-based mathematical model about carp aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu; Wu, Chao

    2005-05-01

    This work presents an agent-based mathematical model to simulate the aggregation of carp, a harmful fish in North America. The referred mathematical model is derived from the following assumptions: (1) instead of the consensus among every carps involved in the aggregation, the aggregation of carp is completely a random and spontaneous physical behavior of numerous of independent carp; (2) carp aggregation is a collective effect of inter-carp and carp-environment interaction; (3) the inter-carp interaction can be derived from the statistical analytics about large-scale observed data. The proposed mathematical model is mainly based on empirical inter-carp force field, whose effect is featured with repulsion, parallel orientation, attraction, out-of-perception zone, and blind. Based on above mathematical model, the aggregation behavior of carp is formulated and preliminary simulation results about the aggregation of small number of carps within simple environment are provided. Further experiment-based validation about the mathematical model will be made in our future work.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    PubMed Central

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  15. Comparative genomics of carp herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2013-03-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  16. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-03-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

  17. Lactococcosis in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adult silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was submitted to the Aquatic Research & Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, MS, as part of an investigation of a fish kill event in September 2011, at the Tunica Cutoff, Tunica county, Mississippi. Gross lesions included a focally extensive...

  18. Spring viraemia of carp virus: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Usama; Lu, Yuanan; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa; Wang, Min; Liu, Xueqin

    2016-05-01

    Spring viraemia of carp is an environmentally and economically important disease affecting cyprinids, primarily common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The causative agent of this disease is Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) - a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The disease is presently endemic in Europe, America and several Asian countries, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality in affected fish. SVCV infection is generally associated with exophthalmia; abdominal distension; petechial haemorrhage of the skin, gills, eyes and internal organs; degeneration of the gill lamellae; a swollen and coarse-textured spleen; hepatic necrosis; enteritis; and pericarditis. The SVCV genome is composed of linear, negative-sense, ssRNA containing five genes in the order 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5', encoding a nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Fully sequenced SVCV strains exhibit distinct amino acid substitutions at unique positions, which may contribute to as-yet unknown strain-specific characteristics. To advance the study of SVCV and the control of spring viraemia of carp disease in the future, this review summarizes our current understanding of SVCV in terms of its genomic characteristics, genetic diversity and pathogenesis, and provides insights into antiviral immunity against SVCV, diagnosis of SVCV and vaccination strategies to combat SVCV. PMID:26905065

  19. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp. PMID:26092357

  20. Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

  1. Intestinal barrier of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during a cyprinid herpesvirus 3-infection: molecular identification and regulation of the mRNA expression of claudin encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Syakuri, Hamdan; Adamek, Mikołaj; Brogden, Graham; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Matras, Marek; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium of vertebrates, claudin proteins are crucial to develop a selective permeable function and to maintain integrity of the barrier. The intestine has been reported as one of the targeted tissue of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) which causes major disease problems in carp production worldwide. To analyse the impact of the disease on the epithelial barrier of the intestine, carp claudin encoding genes were cloned, their tissue expression was described, and the abundance of gene transcripts in the intestine of carp under CyHV-3 infection was determined. Some of the carp claudin genes such as claudin-7 and -11 were expressed in various tissues, whilst others, like claudin-2 and -23, showed more tissue-specific expression profiles, which may reflect specific functions of these particular claudins. Along the gut axis, a spatial distribution of claudin gene expressions was found, with a lower abundance of gene transcripts in anterior regions of the intestine and increased expression in the distal section of the intestine, which might indicate specific functions of different regions in the intestinal tract of carp. In carp under CyHV-3 infection, an up-regulation in the expression of IFN-a2, IL-1beta and iNOS was observed, together with an elevation of transcriptional levels of claudin-2, -3c, -11, and -23. The data suggest that expression of claudins is involved in the reorganisation of the intestinal epithelium in CyHV-3-infected carp, which may be responsible for changes in the paracellular permeability. An increased expression of the claudins might be a response to the disturbance of the hydromineral balance in carp under CyHV-3 infection. PMID:23194746

  2. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Hkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brnmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  3. Carp vitellogenin detection by an optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy biosensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Dong-Kyung; Cho, Yong-Jin; Moon, Dae-Kyung; Kim, Woo-Yeon

    2008-11-15

    A label-free carp vitellogenin sensor has a strong potential for on-site monitoring on the possible contamination of edible fish with endocrine disruptors as a sum parameter in an inland carp farm. In this study, we performed a sensitive detection for carp vitellogenin with a direct-binding optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy-based immunosensor. Carp vitellogenin bound over the sensor surface quite specifically, judging from the sensor responses according to stepwise antibody immobilization. This was also supported by a negligible sensor response found at bovine serum albumin immobilization. When plotted in double-logarithmic scale for carp vitellogenin concentrations of 0.00675-67.5 nM, a linear relationship was found between analyte concentration and sensor response, together with the limit of detection of 0.00675 nM. The reusability of the immunosensor after the regeneration with 10mM HCl was reasonably good, as presumed from the coefficient of variability of 6.02% for nine repetitive measurements. The model sample prepared by spiking a purified carp vitellogenin into a 10-fold diluted vitellogenin-free carp serum in 9.45 nM showed the response ratio of 96.70% against 9.45 nM of the purified carp vitellogenin. When a female and male carp sera induced with 17beta-estradiol injection were analyzed, biomarker induction was even identifiable at 2000-fold serum dilution. PMID:18534837

  4. Competitive Interactions between Age-0 Bighead Carp and Paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.; Fairchild, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis on native planktivores in the USA is unknown. The objectives of this study were to experimentally test for competitive interactions between age-0 bighead carp and age-0 paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Differences among water chemistry variables, invertebrate densities, and relative growth of fish were assessed in mesocosms. Water chemistry variables were similar among treatments throughout the experiment and only exhibited a temporal effect. Zooplankton density declined in mesocosms after fish were introduced. In general, zooplankton densities did not differ among treatments but did differ from the control. The relative growth of paddlefish was negative in the paddlefish and paddlefish-bighead carp treatments. The relative growth of bighead carp was negative in the bighead carp treatment but positive in the paddlefish-bighead carp treatment. Age-0 paddlefish exhibited the greatest decrease in relative growth in mesocosms with bighead carp. Bighead carp exhibited the greatest increase in relative growth in mesocosms with paddlefish. These data suggest that bighead carp have the potential to negatively affect the growth of paddlefish when food resources are limited.

  5. Influences of radiation on carp from farm ponds in Fukushima

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    A massive release of artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused radioactive contamination of farms as well as of aquatic products. Carp in small ponds in the highly radiocontaminated area of Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture, have been confined to the ponds since the accident, and it is thought that the carp may have suffered health issues as a result. Therefore, I investigated the health condition of the carp in order to elucidate the effects of radiation. Blood neutrophil, monocyte and lymphocyte counts in the carp from three ponds in Fukushima were lower than those in carp from a non-polluted pond in Tochigi Prefecture. Histological observations indicated abnormal hyperplasia of macrophages in the spleen, kidney, liver and pancreas of carp in Fukushima. Although there are likely to have been deleterious effects on carp health due to the radiation in Fukushima, this has not yet been confirmed because only one control pond was available for comparison, and I was not able to find any symptoms in the carp that correlated with internal cesium concentration. Further research is now being conducted to investigate the effects of radiation on carp. PMID:26666689

  6. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  7. Protective immunity of grass carp immunized with DNA vaccine encoding the vp7 gene of grass carp reovirus using carbon nanotubes as a carrier molecule.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-02-01

    The uses of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carriers for DNA delivery have received considerable attention in cell studies. DNA vaccination of fish has been shown to elicit durable transgene expression, but no reports exist on intramuscular administration of SWCNTs-DNA vaccine electrostatic complexes which prepared through non-covalent conjugation. In this study, we injected grass carp intramuscularly with a plasmid vector containing a major capsid protein gene (vp7) of grass carp reovirus as a) naked pcDNA-vp7, b) SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7, c) empty plasmid vector, or phosphate buffered saline. After intramuscular administration, the ability of the different immune treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed. The results indicated that higher levels of transcription and expression of the vp7 gene could be detected in muscle tissues of grass carp 28 days intramuscular injection in SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups compare with naked pcDNA-vp7 treatment groups. Moreover, the serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, immune-related genes, antibody levels and relative percentage survival were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with SWCNTs-pcDNA-vp7 vaccine. The data in this study suggested that SWCNTs were promising carriers for plasmid DNA vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by intramuscular approach. PMID:25463298

  8. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  10. Facts About Invasive Bighead and Silver Carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC), Columbia, Missouri, carry out basic and applied research on the ecology of invasive fishes in the Missouri and Mississippi river basins. Emphasis is placed on improving understanding of the life cycles of bighead and silver carp to provide information needed to manage these aggressively invasive species. USGS scientists collaborate with Federal and State management agencies and universities, nationally and internationally, to fill critical science information gaps.

  11. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-05-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp ( Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  12. Response of Bighead Carp and Silver Carp to repeated water gun operation in an enclosed shallow pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Jensen, Nathan; Parsley, Michael J.; Gaugush, Robert F.; Severson, Todd J.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Adams, Ryan F.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    The Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp H. molitrix are nonnative species that pose a threat to Great Lakes ecosystems should they advance into those areas. Thus, technologies to impede Asian carp movement into the Great Lakes are needed; one potential technology is the seismic water gun. We evaluated the efficacy of a water gun array as a behavioral deterrent to the movement of acoustic-tagged Bighead Carp and Silver Carp in an experimental pond. Behavioral responses were evaluated by using four metrics: (1) fish distance from the water guns (D); (2) spatial area of the fish’s utilization distribution (UD); (3) persistence velocity (Vp); and (4) number of times a fish transited the water gun array. For both species, average D increased by 10 m during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period. During the firing period, the spatial area of use within the pond decreased. Carp were located throughout the pond during the pre-firing period but were concentrated in the north end of the pond during the firing period, thus reducing their UDs by roughly 50%. Overall, Vp decreased during the firing period relative to the pre-firing period, as fish movement became more tortuous and confined, suggesting that the firing of the guns elicited a change in carp behavior. The water gun array was partially successful at impeding carp movement, but some fish did transit the array. Bighead Carp moved past the guns a total of 78 times during the pre-firing period and 15 times during the firing period; Silver Carp moved past the guns 96 times during the pre-firing period and 13 times during the firing period. Although the water guns did alter carp behavior, causing the fish to move away from the guns, this method was not 100% effective as a passage deterrent.

  13. GRASS CARP AS A POTENTIAL CONTROL AGENT FOR CATTAILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Replicate ponds were stocked with grass carp in May 1982 and a fence exclosure placed in each pond to assess the effects of this herbivorous fish on the cattail community. Stocking rate of grass carp four individuals oer pond each membership 18-23 cm in total length. In August 19...

  14. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false La Carpe Bayou. 117.460 Section 117.460 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of...

  19. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  20. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  1. Impact of the Gezhouba and Three Gorges Dams on habitat suitability of carps in the Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Wang, Zhaoyin; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe Gezhouba Dam and Three Gorges Project are the two largest hydraulic projects in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Although these projects have yielded benefits to local communities by providing flood control, water supply, and safe navigation, they also have changed the physical habitat of the Yangtze River. As a consequence, aquatic organisms, including rare species and fishes with economic value, have been affected. The Yangtze River's four major carp species (YFMCS)—black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp ( Ctenop haryngodon idellus), silver carp ( Hypoph thal michthys molitrix), and big-head carp ( Aristichyths nobilis)—have significant importance to the fresh water fishery in China. According to field surveys, the percentage of the YFMCS in the total catch of fish from Tongting Lake has gradually reduced. The percentages were 22%, 14.1%, 11.84%, and 8.5% in 1963, 1980-1982, 1997, and 2002, respectively. These reductions in species population are mainly attributed to the loss of spawning ground caused by dam construction. Considering the spawning characteristics of the YFMCS, a habitat suitability index model (HSI) has been established. A one-dimensional (1-D) mathematical model was also developed to simulate and predict aspects of the physical habitat situation for the YFMCS. By coupling the habitat suitability curves and the 1-D mathematical model, a HSI model for the YFMCS was established. The HSI model was validated by comparing measured data with predictions from the model. These comparisons show that the computed results agree well with the measured results. The HSI model for the YFMCS is used to suggest a minimum instream flow and suitable daily discharge increase during the reproduction season for the carp species. The minimum discharge needed for the YFMCS in the middle reach of the Yangtze River is 3000 m 3/s. Different daily discharge increases are required for different initial discharges, too small or too large of an increase in daily discharge is not good for carps spawning. Therefore, adjusting reservoir operations to create reasonable water level fluctuations is a key method to improve the habitat suitability of carps spawning sites.

  2. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  3. Insights into the antiviral immunity against grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reovirus (GCRV) in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Rao, Youliang; Su, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease. PMID:25759845

  4. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  5. Carbon nanotube-based nanocarrier loaded with ribavirin against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diseases of viral origin cause major aquatic production losses in different parts of the world. Because of formidable barriers for gastrointestinal tract, skin and cell, large amounts of antiviral drugs have limited therapeutic effect. In the current study, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were selected as a drug carrier to carry antiviral drug for the treatment of viral diseases on fish. The results show that increasing antiviral drug (ribavirin) intake was observed by SWCNTs carrier and therapeutic dosage to kill grass carp reovirus is significantly reduced. At 12d post infection, survival rate and infection rate were 29.7% and 50.4% for naked ribavirin treatment group exposed to the highest concentration (20 mg/L); however, survival rate of 96.6% and infection rate of 9.4% were observed in 5 mg/L ribavirin-SWCNTs treatment group. In addition, the drug detention time in different organs and tissues (blood, gill, liver, muscle, kidney and intestine) was also significantly extended (about 72 h) compared with the same dosage in naked ribavirin treatment group. Moreover, the toxicity of functionalized SWCNTs in grass carp can be minimal, and physiological markers (some antioxidant enzymes activities, apoptotic factors activities and their corresponding genes expression) remained within normal ranges following treatment. Our results indicated that drug delivery with functionalized SWCNTs can improve the antiviral effect on grass carp and has a potential application value to control fish viral diseases in aquaculture. PMID:25796971

  6. First evidence of endocrine disruption in feral carp from the Ebro River.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Ramón; Thibaut, Rémi; Raldúa, Demetrio; Martín, Rebeca; Porte, Cinta

    2004-04-15

    Feral carps (Cyprinus carpio) were collected in spring 2001 from five sites along the lower course of Ebro River (Spain) with the aim of investigating the existence of endocrine-disrupting effects. Several findings (low gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasmatic vitellogenin (VTG), depressed levels of testosterone, and histological alterations in gonads) detected in male carps downstream of Zaragoza's sewage treatment plant (STP) strongly suggest that the concentration of sewage effluent in the area is a major causal factor leading to the detected estrogenic effects. Important alterations (viz. delayed maturation in females, indications of arrested spermatogenesis in males) were detected in carps from Flix, a heavily industrialized area. Low ovarian P-450 aromatase and reduced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol in males were observed in Zaragoza and Canal Imperial de Aragón-an agricultural area-which suggest decreased estrogen synthesis, and possibly, reduced sex hormone excretion in those organisms. These results were related to some in vitro assays aimed to assess the interference of model compounds (atrazin, vinclozolin, diuron, pp'-DDE, dicofol, triphenyltin, nonylphenol, and fenarimol) with the glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol by liver microsomal fractions. The fungicide fenarimol (10-20 microM) and nonylphenol (50 microM) were found to significantly inhibit (20%) both activities at relatively low doses. Overall, this work provides the first evidence of the existence of significant alterations of the endocrine system of carps from the medium-low course of the Ebro River and demonstrates the ability of several chemicals to modulate the inactivation of endogenous steroids. PMID:15081271

  7. Arsenic impacted the development, thyroid hormone and gene transcription of thyroid hormone receptors in bighead carp larvae (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Tang, Ming-Hu; Sun, Li; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-02-13

    Arsenic (As) contamination in aquatic environment adversely impacts aquatic organisms. The present study assessed the toxicity of different As species and concentrations on bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) at early life stage, a major fish in Yangtze River, China. We measured the changes in embryo and larvae survival rate, larvae aberration, concentrations of thyroid hormone thyroxine, and transcription levels of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in fish larvae after exposing to arsenite (AsIII) or arsenate (AsV) at 0, 10, 30, 50, 100, or 150 μg L(-1) for 78 h. As concentrations ≤ 150 μg L(-1) had limited effect on embryo survival rate (6-8% inhibition), but larvae survival rate decreased to 53-57% and larvae aberration rate increased to 20-24% after As exposure. Moreover, thyroxine levels elevated by 23% and 50% at 100 μg L(-1) AsIII and 150 μg L(-1) AsV. Besides, AsIII and AsV decreased the transcriptional levels of TRα by 72 and 53%, and TRβ by 91 and 81% at 150 μg L(-1) As. Our data showed that AsIII and AsV had limited effect on carp embryo survival, but they were both toxic to carp larvae, with AsIII showing more effect than AsV. As concentrations <150μg L(-1) adversely influenced the development of bighead carp larvae and disturbed their thyroid hormone homeostasis. PMID:26513566

  8. Phylogenetic and Evolutionary Analyses of the Frizzled Gene Family in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Provide Insights into Gene Expansion from Whole-Genome Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the frizzled (FZD) gene family encodes 10 homologous proteins that commonly localize to the plasma membrane. Besides being associated with three main signaling pathways for cell development, most FZDs have different physiological effects and are major determinants in the development process of vertebrates and. Here, we identified and annotated the FZD genes in the whole-genome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), a teleost fish, and determined their phylogenetic relationships to FZDs in other vertebrates. Our analyses revealed extensive gene duplications in the common carp that have led to the 26 FZD genes that we detected in the common carp genome. All 26 FZD genes were assigned orthology to the 10 FZD genes of on-land vertebrates, with none of genes being specific to the fish lineage. We postulated that the expansion of the FZD gene family in common carp was the result of an additional whole genome duplication event and that the FZD gene family in other teleosts has been lost in their evolution history with the reason that the functions of genes are redundant and conservation. Through the expression profiling of FZD genes in common carp, we speculate that the ancestral gene was likely capable of performing all functions and was expressed broadly, while some descendant duplicate genes only performed partial functions and were specifically expressed at certain stages of development. PMID:26675214

  9. Reproduction mode of an artificial allotetraploid carp (Pisces; Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuzhen; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Xiaohu; Wu, Qingjiang

    2002-01-01

    Mature eggs of allotetraploid carp were activated by inactive sperm or crossed with normal sperms of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), crucian carp (Carassius auratus), Chinese blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala), Hemiculter leucisculus and Pseudorasbora parva. Chromosome counts showed that all offspring of these crosses presented a mode number of 200 chromosomes (4n = 200), and their morphological traits are much like maternal. Microsatelite marker and RAPD patterns between allotetraploid maternal and its offspring, reproduced from different paternal species, were identical. Cytological, morphological and molecular evidences suggested that allotetraploid carp female nucleus would not fuse with any male nucleus and its reproduction mode might be gynogenesis and therefore their offspring are retaining their tetraploidy and give origin to clonal individuals. PMID:12627840

  10. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) following the same experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Ai, X; Wang, F; Yang, H; Xu, N; Yang, Q

    2015-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of quinocetone (QCT) in crucian carp (Carassius auratus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were compared after oral administration of QCT (50 mg/kg body weight) at water temperature of 24 ± 1 °C. Similar QCT plasma concentration-time profiles were found in the three species of cyprinid fish at the same dosage regimen and water temperature, which were all fitted two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model. However, different pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in crucian carp, common carp, and grass carp. The absorption rate constants (K(a)) of QCT were 1.65, 1.40 and 1.74/h, respectively and absorption half-lives (t(1/2kα)) were 0.42, 0.49, and 0.40/h, respectively. The distribution half-life (t(1/2α)) was 2.83, 0.67, and 0.88 h, respectively, and elimination half-lives (t(1/2β)) of QCT were 133.97, 63.55, and 40.76 h, respectively. The maximum concentrations (C(max)) of QCT in plasma were 0.315, 0.182, and 0.139 μg/mL and the time to peak concentrations (T(p)) were 1.45, 0.96, and 1.08 h, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were 12.35, 5.99, and 4.52 μg·h/mL, respectively. The distribution volumes (V(d)/F) of QCT were calculated as 117.81, 128.71, and 220.10 L/kg, respectively. The tissue analysis showed that a similar regularity was obtained in the three species of cyprinids with a single dose of 50 mg/kg body weight after oral administration at the same water temperature. The tissue concentration of QCT in each fish was in order of liver>kidney>muscle, while the residues of QCT in the three species of cyprinid fish were in order of crucian carp>common carp>grass carp. PMID:25515188

  12. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Jon G.

    1976-01-01

    Gynogenesis occurred in eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) treated with X-irradiated milt from goldfish (Carassius auratus). Gynogenetic offspring were females, which indicates functional female homogamety in grass carp. Five of these gynogenetic fish were used as an egg source for a second generation of artificially gynogenetic fish. The percentage yield in this second generation was about the same as in the first, which suggests that the tendency to become diploid is not strongly heritable

  13. Painful os styloideum: bone scintigraphy in carpe bossu disease

    SciTech Connect

    Apple, J.S.; Martinez, S.; Nunley, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The os styloideum (ninth carpal bone) is an anatomic variant that may occur as an accessory ossicle located dorsally between the capitate and trapezoid, and the bases of the second and third metacarpals. The association of dorsal wrist pain or fatigability with an os styloideum is known as carpe bossu disease. The authors describe a woman with dorsal wrist pain in whom the diagnosis of painful os styloideum (carpe bossu disease) was made using plain radiography, bone scintigraphy and tomography.

  14. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The microbes in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are of high importance for the health of the host. In this study, Roche 454 pyrosequencing was applied to a pooled set of different 16S rRNA gene amplicons obtained from GI content of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to make an inventory of the diversity of the microbiota in the GI tract. Compared to other studies, our culture-independent investigation reveals an impressive diversity of the microbial flora of the carp GI tract. The major group of obtained sequences belonged to the phylum Fusobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes and Gammaproteobacteria were other well represented groups of micro-organisms. Verrucomicrobiae, Clostridia and Bacilli (the latter two belonging to the phylum Firmicutes) had fewer representatives among the analyzed sequences. Many of these bacteria might be of high physiological relevance for carp as these groups have been implicated in vitamin production, nitrogen cycling and (cellulose) fermentation. PMID:22093413

  15. Evidence for the evolutionary origin of goldfish derived from the distant crossing of red crucian carp × common carp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Distant hybridization can generate transgressive hybrid phenotypes that lead to the formation of new populations or species with increased genetic variation. In this study, we produced an experimental hybrid goldfish (EG) by distant crossing of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio) followed by gynogenesis. Results We evaluated the phenotype, ploidy level, gonadal structure, and 5S rDNA of the EG. Diploid EG possessed a high level of genetic variation, which was stably inherited. In particular, the EG combined transgressive phenotypes, including a forked tail and shortened caudal peduncle, traits that are present in common goldfish. The EG and common goldfish share a number of morphological and genetic similarities. Conclusions Using the EG, we provide new evidence that goldfish originated from hybridization of red crucian carp × common carp. PMID:24628745

  16. Metabolic Disposition and Elimination of Cyadox in Pigs, Chickens, Carp, and Rats.

    PubMed

    Lingli, Huang; Ning, Xu; Harnud, Sechenchogt; Yuanhu, Pan; Dongmei, Chen; Yanfei, Tao; Zhenli, Liu; Zonghui, Yuan

    2015-06-10

    The metabolism, distribution, and elimination of cyadox (CYA) is investigated in pigs, chickens, carp, and rats to identify the marker residue and target tissue of CYA in food animals for food safety concerns. Following a single oral gavage of [(3)H]-CYA, the total radioactivity was rapidly excreted, with more than 95% of the dose excreted within 14 days in the four species. Fecal excretion of the total radioactivity was 66.2% and 51.6%, and urinary excretion of the total radioactivity was 28.35% and 44.3% in rats and pigs, respectively. Radioactivity was observed in nearly all of the tissues in the first 6 h after 7 days of consecutive oral dosing. The highest radioactivity and longest persistence were in the livers and kidneys, where the majority of the radioactivity was cleared within 7 days. A total of 15 metabolites were identified in rats, pigs, chickens, and carp, and eight new metabolites were identified for the first time in vivo. No parent drug could be detected in the tissues of rats and pigs. The major metabolites of CYA were Cy1, Cy3, and Cy6 in pigs, Cy1, Cy5, and Cy6 in chickens, Cy1, Cy2, and Cy4 in carp, and Cy1, Cy2, Cy4, and Cy5 in rats. Cy1 was suggested to be the marker residue, and the kidneys were identified as the target tissue of CYA in pigs and chickens. These results provide comprehensive information for the food safety evaluation of CYA in food animals and will improve the understanding of the pharmacology and toxicology of CYA in animals. PMID:25973850

  17. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short settling zone upstream of the Grafton Dam, whereas the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers both had extensive settling zones (>5 km) behind major dams. These longer settling zones are likely to capture more eggs than shorter settling reaches. All four rivers exhibited settling zones at their river mouths, with the Lake Erie tributaries having much larger settling zones extending more than 10 km up the tributaries. While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

  18. Do physicochemical variables regulate the distribution of zooplankton communities in reservoirs dominated by filter-feeding carp?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Menghong; Yang, Lili; Liu, Qigen

    2014-03-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton communities in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Xin'anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang, China, were investigated monthly, between 2009 and 2010. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) dominated the pelagic fish community of this large, deep reservoir. Cladocerans were distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. Rotifers were mainly found in the upper reaches, while copepods tended to assemble in the lower reaches. The Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were used to identify the major physicochemical gradients influencing community variations. Zooplankton community distributions were influenced by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and silicon. Excess nutrients, in particular silicon, stimulated rotifer growth. Based on these findings, it is possible to use rotifer density as a bioindicator of eutrophic status in deep reservoir ecosystems.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  20. Transcriptome profiling analysis of naked carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) provides insights into the immune-related genes in highland fish.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chao; Zhang, Cunfang; Zhang, Renyi; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The naked carp, Gymnocypris przewalskii, is one of the dominant aquaculture fish species in Qinghai Province, China. Its wild stocks have severely suffered from overfishing, and the farming species are vulnerable to various pathogens infections. Here we report the first immune-related tissues transcriptome of a wild naked carp using a deep sequencing approach. A total of 158,087 unigenes are generated, 2687 gill-specific gene and 3215 kidney-specific genes are identified, respectively. Gene ontology analysis shows that 51,671 unigenes are involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Further analysis shows that numerous consensus sequences are homologous to known immune-related genes. Pathways mapping annotate 56,270 unigenes and identify a large number of immune-related pathways. In addition, we focus on the immune-related genes and gene family in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway involved in innate immunity, including toll-like receptors (TLRs), interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), interleukins (ILs) and tumor necrosis factors (TNFs). Eventually, we identify 5 TLRs, 4 IRFs, 3 ILs and 2 TNFs with a completed coding sequence though mining the transcriptome data. Phylogeny analysis shows these genes of naked carp are mostly close to zebrafish. Protein domain and selection pressure analyses together show that all these genes are highly conserved in gene sequence and protein domain structure with other species, and purifying selection underwent in these genes, implied functionally important features are conserved in the genes above. Intriguingly, we detect positive selection signals in naked carp TLR4, and significant divergence occurred among tested species TLR4, suggested that naked carp TLR4 function may be affected. Finally, we identify 23,867 simple sequence repeat (SSR) marks in this transcriptome. Taken together, this study not only contributes a large number of candidate genes in naked carp immunity, and also helps improve current understanding of immunogenetics basis and evolutionary history of immune related genes and gene family in highland fish species. PMID:26117731

  1. Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S.; Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

  2. Dynamics of carp growth and biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, N.Y.; Romanenko, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    When carp are reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations their growth is most intensive in July - 1st half of August and is dependent on the initial mass of the fish stocked. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers is directly correlated with the growth rate of the fish. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of carp yearlings reared in natural water bodies and in containers in warm water is higher than in the liver of carp of 1+ reared under similar conditions.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4. PMID:24521498

  4. Ichthyophthiriasis in carp Cyprinus carpio: infectivity of trophonts prematurely exiting both the immune and non-immune host.

    PubMed

    Wahli, T; Matthews, R A

    1999-05-31

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis exposed to naturally immunised carp established short-term infections, the majority of parasites actively emerging within 2 h of entering the epidermis. A small, but significant, number of these expelled parasites were shown to retain theront-like properties with the capacity to directly re-invade a further fish host. Infectivity fell rapidly with time in the host and was comparable to that of trophonts of a similar age artificially induced to emerge from non-immune hosts with the aid of MEM (minimal essential medium). Trophonts recovered with MEM from immune carp 2 to 8 h post infection rarely established infections upon exposure to susceptible new hosts and no infections resulted from older trophonts recovered after 8 to 24 h exposure; older trophonts, however, represented only a small percentage of the original parasite population. A low level of infectivity was recorded in trophonts collected with the aid of MEM from non-immune carp after up to 24 h of infection. The results are discussed in relation to theront transformation and evasion of the host immune response. PMID:10401585

  5. In vivo and in vitro exposures of carp and carp tissues to graded concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bottero, S; Cevasco, A; Monteverde, M; Pedemonte, F; Bertolotti, R; Viganò, L; Mandich, A; Massari, A

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate morphological and biochemical parameters of reproductive activity in fish exposed to graded concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Two-year-old carps were exposed for two weeks to graded concentrations of ethynyl-estradiol, tamoxifen, and flutamide. For each chemical, morphological alterations of the gonads and liver were described according to biomarker and sex steroid levels. In parallel, isolated follicular cells (FCs) and testis fragments were incubated in the presence or absence of carp pituitary homogenate and 25-hydroxycholesterol. Media were analyzed for sex steroid level evaluations. PMID:15891032

  6. Metabolism and Disposition of Aditoprim in Swine, Broilers, Carp and Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liye; Huang, Lingli; Pan, Yuanhu; Kuča, Kamil; Klímová, Blanka; Wu, Qinghua; Xie, Shuyu; Ahmad, Ijaz; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Wan, Dan; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Aditoprim (ADP) is a newly developed antibacterial agent in veterinary medicine. The metabolism and disposition of ADP in swine, broilers, carp and rats were investigated by using a radio tracer method combined with a radioactivity detector and a liquid chromatography/ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After a single oral administration, more than 94% of the dose was recovered within 14 d in the four species. The urine excretion was dominant in swine and rats, making up 78% of the dose. N-monodesmethyl-ADP, N-didesmethyl-ADP, and 10 new metabolites were characterized. These metabolites were biotransformed from the process of demethylation, α-hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and NH2-glucuronidation. After an oral dose for 7 d, ADP-derived radioactivity was widely distributed in tissues, and high concentrations were especially observed in bile, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen. The radioactivity in the liver was eliminated much more slowly than in other tissues, with a half-life of 4.26, 3.38, 6.69, and 5.21 d in swine, broilers, carp, and rats, respectively. ADP, N-monodesmethyl-ADP, and N-didesmethyl-ADP were the major metabolites in edible tissues. Notably, ADP was detected with the highest concentration and the longest duration in these tissues. These findings indicated that ADP is the marker residue and the liver is the residue target tissue. PMID:26838160

  7. Metabolism and Disposition of Aditoprim in Swine, Broilers, Carp and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liye; Huang, Lingli; Pan, Yuanhu; Kuča, Kamil; Klímová, Blanka; Wu, Qinghua; Xie, Shuyu; Ahmad, Ijaz; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Wan, Dan; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Aditoprim (ADP) is a newly developed antibacterial agent in veterinary medicine. The metabolism and disposition of ADP in swine, broilers, carp and rats were investigated by using a radio tracer method combined with a radioactivity detector and a liquid chromatography/ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After a single oral administration, more than 94% of the dose was recovered within 14 d in the four species. The urine excretion was dominant in swine and rats, making up 78% of the dose. N-monodesmethyl-ADP, N-didesmethyl-ADP, and 10 new metabolites were characterized. These metabolites were biotransformed from the process of demethylation, α-hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and NH2-glucuronidation. After an oral dose for 7 d, ADP-derived radioactivity was widely distributed in tissues, and high concentrations were especially observed in bile, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen. The radioactivity in the liver was eliminated much more slowly than in other tissues, with a half-life of 4.26, 3.38, 6.69, and 5.21 d in swine, broilers, carp, and rats, respectively. ADP, N-monodesmethyl-ADP, and N-didesmethyl-ADP were the major metabolites in edible tissues. Notably, ADP was detected with the highest concentration and the longest duration in these tissues. These findings indicated that ADP is the marker residue and the liver is the residue target tissue. PMID:26838160

  8. High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive plant and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garner, A. Brad; Kwak, Thomas J.; Manuel, Kenneth L.; Barwick, D. Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Stocking grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes)] is a commonly applied technique to control nuisance aquatic vegetation in reservoirs. Factors that influence the degree of aquatic vegetation control are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant community, and relative grass carp feeding preferences for plant species. We evaluated high-density grass carp stocking in a southeastern U.S. reservoir for control of parrot-feather [Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and the associated effects on water quality. Lookout Shoals Lake, a 528-ha piedmont North Carolina reservoir, was stocked with triploid grass carp at a density of 100 fish per vegetated hectare. Parrot-feather biomass in the lake was significantly reduced three months after grass carp stocking, compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures. During the second year after grass carp stocking, parrot-feather biomass in the lake compared to biomass in in-situ exclosures indicated continued control, but unexplained lack of growth within most experimental exclosures precluded biomass analyses. Increases in ambient water chlorophyll a, reactive phosphorus, and nitrate-nitrite concentrations were measured after grass carp stocking. The biological significance of observed changes in water chemistry and long-term effects on lake biota remain undetermined. Our results demonstrate that intensive grass carp stocking can control an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp and reveal associated changes in water quality.

  9. [The seasonal dynamics of Sphaerospora renicola (Myxosporidia) in carp (Osteichthyes)].

    PubMed

    Odening, K; Walter, G; Bockhardt, I

    1988-06-01

    We observed 2 different types of the course of incidence of sporogonic phase and blood phase. Type I shows in both phases a maximum in the first summer, a minimum in winter or autumn and a second maximum between late autumn and second summer. In this case the sporulation was especially distinct with the first maximum. Type II starts in the first summer with the blood phase without occurrence of the sporogonic phase (and the swim-bladder phase), which appears only from autumn until the second summer in a form of three peaks. Here the sporulation was successful only in the third peak. Hitherto there has been no other example of that type. The course of incidence, characterized by peaks and valleys, is regarded as an expression of an internal rhythm of different phases of the parasite and not as caused by the declining of infection and by reinfection. Premunition (if a hitherto unknown reservoir phase is surviving) or age resistance and/or less chance of coincidence of infective stages and older carps are supposed to be the cause of the rare occurrence of the 3 known phases in carps more than 14-15 months old. There are some indications of the infection of carps by carps. Carassius au. auratus was ascertained as a new host for S. renicola in a field experiment. PMID:3177937

  10. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  11. [Effect of substrates of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle on the level of oxidative processes in spermatozoa of grass carp and carp].

    PubMed

    Gosh, R I

    1983-01-01

    Endogenic respiration of grass carp and carp spermatozoids is rather low. Oxidation rate of metabolites is different--malate is oxidized more intensively, it is followed by lactate, pyruvate, succinate. Sperm storage lowers the respiration level and oxidation rate of metabolites. PMID:6845449

  12. Trypanosomiasis-Induced Th17-Like Immune Responses in Carp

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Bird, Steve; Chadzinska, Magdalena; Scheer, Marleen; Verburg-van Kemenade, B. M. Lidy; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2010-01-01

    Background In mammalian vertebrates, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 consists of a heterodimer between p35 and p40 subunits whereas interleukin-23 is formed by a heterodimer between p19 and p40 subunits. During an immune response, the balance between IL-12 and IL-23 can depend on the nature of the pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognized by, for example TLR2, leading to a preferential production of IL-23. IL-23 production promotes a Th17-mediated immune response characterized by the production of IL-17A/F and several chemokines, important for neutrophil recruitment and activation. For the cold blooded vertebrate common carp, only the IL-12 subunits have been described so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Common carp is the natural host of two protozoan parasites: Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. We found that these parasites negatively affect p35 and p40a gene expression in carp. Transfection studies of HEK293 and carp macrophages show that T. carassii-derived PAMPs are agonists of carp TLR2, promoting p19 and p40c gene expression. The two protozoan parasites induce different immune responses as assessed by gene expression and histological studies. During T. carassii infections, in particular, we observed a propensity to induce p19 and p40c gene expression, suggestive of the formation of IL-23. Infections with T. borreli and T. carassii lead to an increase of IFN-γ2 gene expression whereas IL-17A/F2 gene expression was only observed during T. carasssii infections. The moderate increase in the number of splenic macrophages during T. borreli infection contrasts the marked increase in the number of splenic neutrophilic granulocytes during T. carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite. PMID:20885956

  13. Interspecific differences in hypoxia-induced gill remodeling in carp.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Rashpal S; Yao, Lili; Matey, Victoria; Chen, Bo-Jian; Zhang, An-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Brauner, Colin J; Wang, Yuxiang S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    The gills of many fish, but in particular those of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), are capable of extensive remodeling in response to changes in oxygen (O2), temperature, and exercise. In this study, we investigated the interspecific variation in hypoxia-induced gill modeling and hypoxia tolerance in 10 closely related groups of cyprinids (nine species, with two strains of Cyprinus carpio). There was significant variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as the O2 tension (P(O2)) at which fish lost equilibrium (LOEcrit), among the 10 groups of carp. In normoxia, there was a significant, phylogenetically independent relationship between mass-specific gill surface area and LOEcrit, with the more hypoxia-tolerant carp having smaller gills than their less hypoxia-tolerant relatives. All groups of carp, except the Chinese bream (Megalobrama pellegrini), increased mass-specific gill surface area in response to 48 h of exposure to hypoxia (0.7 kPa) through reductions in the interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) volume. The magnitude of the hypoxia-induced reduction in the ILCM was negatively correlated with LOEcrit (and thus positively correlated with hypoxia tolerance), independent of phylogeny. The hypoxia-induced changes in gill morphology resulted in reduced variation in mass-specific gill surface area among species and eliminated the relationship between LOEcrit and mass-specific gill surface area. While behavioral responses to hypoxia differed among the carp groups, there were no significant relationships between hypoxia tolerance and the Po2 at which aquatic surface respiration (ASR) was initiated or the total number of ASR events observed during progressive hypoxia. Our results are the first to show that the extent of gill remodeling in cyprinids is associated with hypoxia tolerance in a phylogenetically independent fashion. PMID:24241069

  14. Sterile 'Judas' carp--Surgical sterilisation does not impair growth, endocrine and behavioural responses of male carp.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jawahar G; Purser, G J; Nicholson, A M

    2015-09-15

    Use of 'Judas' fish to betray the locations of conspecifics is a powerful tool in management of invasive pest fish but poses a risk of contributing to recruitment. Our aim therefore was to generate surgically sterilised male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and test whether they readily assimilate into wild populations, retain sexual behaviour and successfully betray the locations of feral carp. Male common carp were surgically sterilised (n=44) adopting a two-point nip technique, using either a haemoclip, suture or electro cautery to tie each of the testicular ducts about 2.5 cm cranial to urogenital sinus-retaining all of the glandular testis tissue. Observed survival (95%) and success (>70%) rates were relatively high. Plasma steroids (11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were quantified by immunoassay. A subset of sterile and control male fish (n=7 each) were implanted with radio-transmitters and released into Lake Sorell (50 km(2)) and their ability to betray the location of feral carp was assessed by radio tracking and targeted fishing. There was a statistically significant difference in 11-keto testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels over time (P<0.05), but not between the sterile and control groups within each sampling time (P>0.05), implying that surgery did not compromise the animals physiologically. The sterile Judas fish integrated well into the population-behaving similarly to control Judas males and assisted in the capture of feral carp. The study marks a significant breakthrough in the management of this pest fish with potential adoption to the management of other pest fish globally. PMID:25776462

  15. Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Fibulin-4 as a potential interacting partner for grass carp reovirus outer capsid proteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Lu, Liqun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 2 (Fibulin-4/EFEMP2), an extracellular matrix(ECM) protein and a member of the fibulin family, is involved in elastic fiber formation, connective tissue development and some human diseases. In a yeast-two hybrid screening of host proteins interacting with outer capsid protein of grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a grass carp homologue of Fibulin-4 (designated as GcFibulin-4) is suggested to hold the potential to bind VP7, VP56 and VP55, the outer capsid protein encoded by type I, II, III GCRV, respectively. GcFibulin-4 gene of grass carp was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. Full-length cDNA of GcFibulin-4 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1323 bp encoding a putative protein of 440 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of GcFibulin-4 indicated that it shared a high homology with zebra fish Fibulin-4 protein. Transcriptional distribution analysis of GcFibulin-4 in various tissues of healthy grass carp showed that GcFibulin-4 was highly expressed in muscle, moderately expressed in the intestine and brain, and slightly expressed in other examined tissues; the expression pattern is consistent with tissue tropism of GCRV resulting in hemorrhage symptom in the corresponding tissues. Our results suggested that Fibulin-4 might enable free GCRV particles, the pathogen for grass carp hemorrhagic disease, to target fish tissues more efficiently by interacting with viral outer capsid proteins. PMID:26626583

  16. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as candidate recombinant subunit vaccine carrier for immunization of grass carp against grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Gong, Yu-Xin; Ling, Fei; Song, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-12-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the most pathogenic aquareovirus, can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in fingerling and yearling grass carp. Vaccination by injection is by far the most effective method of combating disease. However it is labor intensive, costly and not feasible to vaccinate large numbers of the fish. Thus, an efficient and economic strategy for the prevention of GCRV infection becomes urgent. Here, functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as carrier were used to manufacture SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine with chemical modification. Different developmental stages of grass carps were immunized by VP7/SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine against GCRV by intramuscular injection and bath immunization. The results indicate that better immune responses of grass carp immunized with the SWCNTs-VP7 subunit vaccine were induced in comparison with VP7 subunit vaccine alone. Immunization doses/concentrations are significantly reduced (about 5-8 times) to prevent GCRV infection in different developmental stages of grass carp with injection or bath treatment when SWCNTs carrier was used. A good immune protective effect (relative percentage survival greater than 95%) is observed in smaller size fish (0.2 g) with SWCNTs-VP7 bath immunization. In addition, serum respiratory burst activity, complement activity, lysozyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, immune-related genes and antibody levels were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with vaccine. This study suggested that functionalized SWCNTs was the promising carrier for recombinant subunit vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by bath approach. PMID:25240976

  17. Food consumption and growth rates of juvenile black carp fed natural and prepared feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgins, Nathaniel C.; Schramm, Harold L., Jr.; Gerard, Patrick D.

    2014-01-01

    The introduced mollusciphagic black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus poses a significant threat to native mollusks in temperate waters throughout the northern hemisphere, but consumption rates necessary to estimate the magnitude of impact on mollusks have not been established. We measured food consumption and growth rates for small (77–245 g) and large (466–1,071 g) triploid black carp held individually under laboratory conditions at 20, 25, and 30°C. Daily consumption rates (g food · g wet weight fish−1·d−1·100) of black carp that received prepared feed increased with temperature (small black carp 1.39–1.71; large black carp 1.28–2.10), but temperature-related increases in specific growth rate (100[ln(final weight) - ln(initial weight)]/number of days) only occurred for the large black carp (small black carp −0.02 to 0.19; large black carp 0.16–0.65). Neither daily consumption rates (5.90–6.28) nor specific growth rates (0.05–0.24) differed among temperatures for small black carp fed live snails. The results of these laboratory feeding trials indicate food consumption rates can vary from 289.9 to 349.5 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp receiving prepared feed, from 268.8 to 441.0 J·g−1·d−1for 800 g black carp receiving prepared feed, and from 84.8 to 90.2 J·g−1·d−1 for 150 g black carp that feed on snails. Applying estimated daily consumption rates to estimated biomass of native mollusks indicates that a relatively low biomass of bla

  18. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  19. Apparent digestibility of Asian carp and common carp-derived fish meals in feeds for hybrid striped bass Morone saxatilis female x M. chrysops male and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients (crude protein, amino acids, crude lipid, fatty acids, and minerals) were determined for fish meals derived from menhaden, Asian carp (combination of silver and bighead carps), and common carp in feeds for hybrid striped bass and rainbow trout....

  20. Functional morphology of durophagy in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Taylor, Chantel; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Osteichthyes: Cyprinidae), crushes its snail and other molluscan prey with robust pharyngeal jaws and strong bite forces. Using gross morphology, histological sectioning, and X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), we investigated structural, behavioral, and mechanical aspects of pharyngeal jaw function in black carp. Strut-like trabeculae in their pharyngeal jaws support large, molariform teeth. The teeth occlude with a hypertrophied basioccipital process that is also reinforced with stout trabeculae. A keratinous chewing pad is firmly connected to the basioccipital process by a series of small bony projections from the base of the pedestal. The pharyngeal jaws have no bony articulations with the skull, and their position is controlled by five paired muscles and one unpaired median muscle. Black carp can crush large molluscs, so we used XROMM to compare pharyngeal jaw postures as fish crushed ceramic tubes of increasing sizes. We found that black carp increase pharyngeal jaw gape primarily by ventral translation of the jaws, with ventral rotation and lateral flaring of the jaws also increasing the space available to accommodate large prey items. A stout, robust ligament connects left and right jaws together firmly, but allows some rotation of the jaws relative to each other. Contrasting with the pharyngeal jaw mechanism of durophagous perciforms with fused left and right lower pharyngeal jaws, we hypothesize that this ligamentous connection may serve to decouple tensile and compressive forces, with the tensile forces borne by the ligament and the compressive forces transferred to the prey. J. Morphol. 276:1422-1432, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26289832

  1. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  2. Analysis of three-dimensional kinematics of carp tail fin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ming; Zhang, Shu; He, Xiaoyuan

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, a test based on the wavelet transform for instantaneous three dimensional (3D) Carp tail fin profile measurements and analysis the kinematics of Carp tail fin method was proposed to understand the function of the tail fin. This experiment method is used in cruising carp. Projecting a moiré fringes onto a tail fin, the deformed fringe pattern containing 3D information was produced and varied with the movement of tail fin. The time-sequence deformed fringe pattern images were captured by a high speed camera. By wavelet transform profilometry, the tail fin movements were really reconstructed. On this basis, the kinematics parameter of tail fin was analyses. Experimental results indicate that the 3D profile of tail fin was varied during the tail-beat cycle. Analysis of tail kinematics suggests that, at a swimming speed 0.5Ls-1, the tail beat frequency is 1.42Hz and the dorsal lobe of the tail undergoes a 15.6% greater lateral excursion than does the ventral lobe. The timing of maximal lateral excursion was different at different location of tail fin.

  3. Identification and characterization of MAVS from black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Jujun; Lv, Ying; Qu, Yixiao; Chi, Mengdie; Li, Jun; Feng, Hao

    2015-04-01

    MAVS (mitochondria antiviral signaling protein) plays an important role in the host cellular innate immune response against microbial pathogens. In this study, MAVS has been cloned and characterized from black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp MAVS (bcMAVS) consists of 2352 nucleotides and the predicted bcMAVS protein contains 579 amino acids. Structural analysis showed that bcMAVS is composed of functional domains including an N-terminal CARD, a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal TM domain, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. bcMAVS is constitutively transcribed in all the selected tissues including gill, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin and spleen; bcMAVS mRNA level in intestine, liver, muscle increased but decreased in spleen right after GCRV or SVCV infection. Multiple bands of bcMAVS were detected in western blot when it was expressed in tissue culture, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. Immunofluorescence assay determined that bcMAVS is a mitochondria protein and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that bcMAVS could induce zebrafish IFN and EPC IFN expression in tissue culture. Data generated in this manuscript has built a solid foundation for further elucidating the function of bcMAVS in the innate immune system of black carp. PMID:25655327

  4. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Lacey Act (18 U.S.C. 42). In a final rule of July 10, 2007 (72 FR 37459), the Service added silver and..., 2007 (72 FR 59019), the Service added black carp to this list. The Service published a Federal Register notice of inquiry on bighead carp (68 FR 54409; September 17, 2003) and provided a 60-day public...

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  6. An analysis of inputs cost for carp farming sector in 2001 in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    Carp is widely sold and used in its fresh in Iran, however, recently a range of value additions may also be observed. It is essential to the sustainable development of a carp farm to know the production costs and their contribution. Warm-water fish farming is mainly based on common, silver, grass and bighead carp and the common carp and the three Chinese species are often reared in poly culture in Iran. Since, the 1970s carp farming has spread around the Caspian coast and farmed production reached a peak in 2006 with production of more than 73,400 tons. A study of production, costs and profitability of carp farming sector was carried out to help clarify carp production costs and their difference with location in 2001. A total of 101 farms from the three main carp farming provinces, Guilan, Mazandaran and Khuzestan were randomly selected, classified and studied. The results of the survey showed that the various producer provinces have different cost structures. Overall, feed and fertilizer with the highest level of variation accounted for 23% of total costs, followed by seed and labor and salary with 23 and 17%, respectively. On average, benefit-cost ratio and the rate of farm income were closely related to location. This result suggests that farmers practice more efficiently and have better conditions in Mazandaran, followed by Guilan province. PMID:19090234

  7. History of introductions and governmental invovlement in promoting the use of Asian carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This chapter traces the chronology associated with introductions of Asian carps and discusses the likeliest pathways of their introduction to th...

  8. Effects of phorbol esters in carp (Cyprinus carpio L).

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Makkar, H P

    1998-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L) were fed diets containing phorbol esters at concentrations of 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 31, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 micrograms/g feed. Phorbol esters were from Jatropha curcas nuts. Jatropha curcas toxicity has been reported in humans, rodents and livestock, and phorbol esters have been identified as the main toxic agent. The adverse effects observed in carp at phorbol esters concentrations of 31 micrograms/g or higher were lower average metabolic growth rate, fecal mucus production and rejection of feed. Average metabolic growth rates (g/kg 0.8/d) in a 7-d experimental period during which diets containing phorbol esters were fed to carp (values with different letters being significantly different) were 15.4a, 14.4a, 12.5ab, 12.4ab, 10.9b, 3.4c, 0.2c, -3.8d, -4.9d and -5.6d, respectively, at the above mentioned concentrations. The values for the recovery phase of 9-d during which phorbol esters were not included in the diet were 16.0a, 15.6a, 14.9a, 15.6a, 5.3b, 1.6b, 4.6bc, 6.3bc, 7.8c and 8.2c, respectively. The adverse effects of phorbol esters were reversible since withdrawal of the esters from the diets led to gain in body mass. None of the fish died at any of the concentrations studied. Incorporation of vitamin C, an antioxidant, at levels of 0.4 and 2% in the feed did not prevent occurrence of the adverse effects of the phorbol esters. The threshold level at which phorbol esters appeared to cause adverse effects in carp was 15 micrograms/g feed or 15 ppm in the diet. Carp were highly sensitive to phorbol esters, thus making them a useful species for bioassay of these compounds. This bioassay together with other analytic procedures could be of immense use in the development of detoxification processes for agro-industrial products containing phorbol esters, such as jatropha meal or jatropha oil, and as a quality control method to monitor successive stages in industrial detoxification processes. PMID:9554059

  9. Transcriptome analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with animal and plant diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; He, Yu-Hui; Cai, Wen-Jing; Wang, Ya-Ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Numerous studies have been focused on the replacement of fish meal by other alternative protein sources. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanism of utilization of diets with different protein sources in fish. Grass carp is a typical herbivorous fish. To elucidate the relationship between gene expression and utilization of animal and plant diets, transcriptome sequencing was performed in grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed. Grass carp fed with duckweed had significantly higher relative length of gut than those fed with chironomid larvae. 4435 differentially expressed genes were identified between grass carp fed with chironomid larvae and duckweed in brain, liver and gut, involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, circadian rhythm, digestion and metabolism pathways. These pathways might play important roles in utilization of diets with different protein sources in grass carp. And the findings could provide a new insight into the replacement of fish meal in artificial diets. PMID:26283148

  10. The effects of cooking on residues of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscles.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Posyniak, Andrzej; Zmudzki, Jan

    2007-03-14

    The effects of various cooking methods (boiling, baking and microwaving) on residues of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG), in incurred carp muscles were investigated. Moreover, the stability of MG and LMG standard solutions under boiling in water and in oil was examined. The MG and LMG residues in cooked meat were determined by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detectors. The results showed that in muscles cooked by boiling or baking MG concentration was reduced by 54% in 15 min while LMG was stable in these conditions. By microwave cooking MG residues were reduced by 61% after 1 min. Microwaving was the only method of cooking when a loss of LMG was observed (40% in 1 min). Both MG and LMG standard solutions were stable in boiling water at 100 degrees C. In cooking oil, MG was reduced by 49% after 10 min and less than 3% of the original MG remains after 90 min at 150 degrees C. No losses of LMG were observed over a time period of 120 min in cooking oil at 150 degrees C. Upon increasing the temperature to 210 degrees C and holding for 120 min, MG was rapidly reduced by 97% after 10 min. LMG under the same conditions was reduced by 18% after 10 min. No further loses of MG and LMG were observed after 120 min. The findings of this investigation show that the high temperature does not guarantee a full breakdown of residue of MG and LMG which may occur in carp muscles. PMID:17386743

  11. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p < 0.05). In fin and skin, size dependence was evident in winter, but not in summer, while in other tissues (ventricle, atrium, intestine, liver, muscle, and spleen), no size dependence was found. The liver was much bigger in small than large fish ( p < 0.001), and there was a prominent enlargement of the liver in winter irrespective of fish size. As a consequence, the whole body glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  12. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  13. Suitability of Lake Erie for bigheaded carps based on bioenergetic models and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Karl R.; Chapman, Duane C.; Wynne, Timothy; Masagounder, Karthik; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Algal blooms in the Great Lakes are a potential food source for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis; together bigheaded carps). Understanding these blooms thus plays an important role in understanding the invasion potential of bigheaded carps. We used remote sensing imagery, temperatures, and improved species specific bioenergetics models to determine algal concentrations sufficient for adult bigheaded carps. Depending on water temperature we found that bigheaded carp require between 2 and 7 μg/L chlorophyll or between 0.3 and 1.26 × 105cells/mL Microcystis to maintain body weight. Algal concentrations in the western basin and shoreline were found to be commonly several times greater than the concentrations required for weight maintenance. The remote sensing images show that area of sufficient algal foods commonly encompassed several hundred square kilometers to several thousands of square kilometers when blooms form. From 2002 to 2011, mean algal concentrations increased 273%–411%. This indicates Lake Erie provides increasingly adequate planktonic algal food for bigheaded carps. The water temperatures and algal concentrations detected in Lake Erie from 2008 to 2012 support positive growth rates such that a 4 kg silver carp could gain between 19 and 57% of its body weight in a year. A 5 kg bighead carp modeled at the same water temperatures could gain 20–81% of their body weight in the same period. The remote sensing imagery and bioenergetic models suggest that bigheaded carps would not be food limited if they invaded Lake Erie.

  14. Influence of methisoprinol on the replication of rhabdoviruses isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Ictalurus melas): in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, A K; Pozet, F; Morand, M; Kazuń, B; Trapkowska, S; Małaczewska, J

    2003-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses constitute one of the most pathogenic viruses isolated from rainbow trout and carp culture. Several viruses were also isolated from other species of fish. These viruses are mostly associated with epizootics and heavy losses. Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) have been the most extensively studied, due to their significant economic impact. Significant progress has been made towards controlling the major bacterial fish diseases using vaccines, but this approach has not yet been successful in preventing viral diseases in fish culture. However, for an effective therapeutic approach, specific drugs should be developed to selectively inhibit virus replication and/or stimulate antiviral protection. In this investigation we examined the in vitro influence of methisoprinol on the SVCV and virus isolated from catfish (Ictalurus melas) replication by measuring their RNA synthesis. The viruses were propagated in EPC cells and cell cultures containing methisoprinol were followed by infection with SVCV or catfish rhabdovirus suspension containing 10(7) TCID50/ml. Methisoprinol (Polfa, Poland) at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 microg/ml of medium (Glasgow MEM) was used in this study. The results of this study show the strong inhibition of incorporation (cpm) of [3H]-uridine into SVCV and catfish rhabdovirus RNA in cell culture exposed to methisoprinol at various concentrations. The highest percent of inhibition of viral RNA at 72 h after infection with two rhabdoviruses were observed in doses of 400 and 500 microg/ml of methisoprinol in medium. The results of this in vitro study showed that methisoprinol inhibits the rhabdoviruses isolated from carp and catfish. PMID:12675468

  15. Development of a novel candidate subunit vaccine against Grass carp reovirus Guangdong strain (GCRV-GD108).

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuanyuan; Ye, Xing; Zhang, Lili; Deng, Guocheng; Bai, Yueqiang

    2013-08-01

    Grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain (GCRV-GD108) was recently isolated in Guangdong province, China. M6 gene of GCRV-GD108 was speculated encoding virus major outer capsid protein VP4. Blast analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of GCRV-GD108 VP4 was homologous to the structural protein VP4 of known Aquareoviruses (27.3-32.9%). Immunogenicity prediction by DNAStar software revealed there were multiple B cell epitopes on GCRV-GD108 VP4. Prokaryotic expression vector pET32a was used to express VP4 recombinant protein (rVP4) in E. coli BL21(DE3) strain. As expected, the molecular weight of recombinant VP4 was about 87 kDa showed by SDS-PAGE result. Neutralization assay demonstrated that the rabbit polyclonal antibody of rVP4 could prevent virus infection efficiently. After 14 days immunization with the rVP4, grass carps were challenged with GCRV-GD108, the results showed that different doses of rVP4 (1 μg/g, 3 μg/g and 5 μg/g) all provided protection against virus infection (47-82%). The relative percent survival reached 82% in the group immunized with 3 μg/g of rVP4. ELISA revealed rVP4 induced high antibody titer in immunized fish. IgM expression levels in head kidney of grass carp were detected by RT-PCR, and the results showed that IgM expressed at a significantly higher level in immunization groups than in blank control, indicating the rVP4 can induce strong immune response. In conclusion, rVP4 is a candidate vaccine against GCRV-GD108. PMID:23664915

  16. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  17. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

  18. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  19. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lhβ was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lhβ expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

  20. Genetic variations of body weight and GCRV resistance in a random mating population of grass carp

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Sun, Jiaxian; Luo, Qing; He, Libo; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Guo, Fuhua; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important species in freshwater aquaculture both in China and on a global scale. Variety degeneration and frequent diseases have limited the further development of grass carp aquaculture. Thus, new and improved varieties are required. Here, we identified and assessed the body weight and disease resistance in a random mating population of 19 ♀ × 22 ♂ grass carp, which were derived from different water systems. In both the growth experimental group of 10,245 fish and grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-infected group with 10,000 fish, 78 full-sib families were statistically analyzed for body weight and GCRV resistance. The findings showed that body weight traits had low heritability (0.11 ± 0.04, 0.10 ± 0.03 and 0.12 ± 0.05), GCRV resistance traits had high heritability (0.63 ± 0.11); body weight was higher in 3 families, whereas GCRV resistance was significantly greater in 11 families. Our results confirmed that the natural germplasm resources of wild grass carp were genetically diverse. Breeding of GCRV resistant varieties of grass carp have better genetic basis. This study provides the basis for constructing basal populations for grass carp selective breeding, quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) analysis. PMID:26439690

  1. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Mark B.

    1993-03-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management of aquatic vegetation in open waterways. Potential impacts of grass carp in open systems were identified by reviewing grass carp biology relative to the impact assessment checklist. The potential consequences of introduced grass carp were reviewed for one case study. The case study demonstrated that conclusions about potential impacts and monitoring needs can be made despite incomplete information and uncertainty. Indicators of environmental impact and vulnerability of host systems were grouped into six categories: population control, hybridization, diseases and parasites, habitat alterations, biological effects, and management issues. Triploid grass carp can significantly alter habitat and biological resources through the secondary effects of reductions in aquatic vegetation. Potential impacts and significant uncertainties involve fish dispersions from plant control areas, inability to control vegetation loss, loss of diverse plant communities and their dependent species, and conflicts with human use of the water resource. Adequate knowledge existed to assess most potential consequences of releasing large numbers of triploid grass carp in Guntersville Reservoir, Alabama. However, the assessment of potential impacts indicated that moderate, incremental stockings combined with monitoring of vegetation and biological resources are necessary to control the effects of grass carp and achieve desirable, intermediate plant densities.

  2. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  3. A specific CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces protective antiviral responses against grass carp reovirus in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Yuan, Gailing; Su, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) show strong immune stimulatory activity in vertebrate, however, they possess specific sequence feature among species. In this study, we screened out an optimal CpG ODN sequence for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), 1670A 5'-TCGAACGTTTTAACGTTTTAACGTT-3', from six published sequences and three sequences designed by authors based on grass carp head kidney mononuclear cells and CIK (C. idella kidney) cells proliferation. VP4 mRNA expression was strongly inhibited by CpG ODN 1670A in CIK cells with GCRV infection, showing its strong antiviral activity. The mechanism via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-mediated signaling pathway was measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and TLR21 did not play a role in the immune response to CpG ODN. The late up-regulation of CiRIG-I mRNA expression indicated that RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) signaling pathway participated in the immune response to CpG ODN which is the first report on the interaction between CpG and RLRs. We also found that the efficient CpG ODN can activates interferon system. Infected with GCRV, type I interferon expression was reduced and type II interferon was induced by the efficient CpG ODN in CIK cells, especially IFNγ2, suggesting that IFNγ2 played an important role in response to the efficient CpG ODN. These results provide a theoretical basis and new development trend for further research on CpG and the application of CpG vaccine adjuvant in grass carp disease control. PMID:26972738

  4. Effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on blood biochemical parameters, antioxidase activity, and immune function in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Yu-Ke; Wang, Qiu-Ju; Yang, Yi-Yu

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotic use in livestock feed additives has resulted in harmful residue accumulation and spread of drug-resistance. We examined the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a safer alternative to antibiotics in feeding the common carp. AMPs were added to common carp basal diets (Control) as additives at four concentrations: 100 mg kg(-1) (B1), 200 mg kg(-1) (B2), 400 mg kg(-1) (B3), 600 mg kg(-1) (B4) by dry weight of basal diet. After a 60-day feeding experiment, the final weight, DG and SGR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly higher than the control (p < 0.05). The FCR of carps on B1, B2 and B3 diet were significantly lower than the control (p < 0.05). Carps on B2, B3, and B4 diets showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of triglyceride than the control. B4-fed carps showed significantly lower (p < 0.05) levels of total protein, albumin, and total cholesterol than the control. However there was no remarkable difference (p > 0.05) in levels of uric ammonia, globulin, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase and blood glucose in all groups. The serum superoxide dismutase and catalase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and B4-fed carps. The serum alkaline phosphate activity of carps on B1 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than B4-fed carps. The serum acid phosphatase activity of B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other antimicrobial peptide-fed groups. The serum lysozyme activity of carps on B1, B2, and B3 diets was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control- and B4-fed carps. Regarding immune factors in serum, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) and interleukin (IL)-1β in B1-fed carps were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control and other groups, while IL-1α levels in B1-fed carps was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the control-, B2-, and B3-fed carps. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the content of MHC among the five groups. In conclusion, antimicrobial peptide can reduce triglyceride levels in serum, enrich oxidation resistance, and improve immunity of the common carp. It showed that appropriate concentration of antibacterial peptide as supplements in diets for common carp increased the final weight, DG, SGR and decreased the FCR. PMID:26386195

  5. The use of food wastes as feed ingredients for culturing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    Different types of food wastes, e.g., meats, bones, cereals, fruits, and vegetables, were collected from hotels in Hong Kong, mixed in different ratio, and processed into feed pellets (food wastes (FWs) A, B, and C) for feeding trials in aquaculture species. Grass carp fed with cereal-dominant feed (FW A) showed the best growth (in terms of specific growth rate, relative weight gain, and protein efficiency ratio), among all food waste feeds. However, the growth rates of food waste groups especially the meat product-contained feeds (FW B and FW C) were lower than the commercial feed, Jinfeng(®) 613 formulation (control). The results indicated that grass carp utilized plant proteins better than animal proteins and preferred carbohydrate as a major energy source than lipid. The high-lipid content in feed containing meat products was also a possible reason for hindering growth and resulted high body lipid. It is suggested that lipid should be removed in the preparation of food waste feed or further investigations by implementing supplements, e.g., enzymes in feed to enhance lipid or protein utilization by fish. This utilization of food waste could be an effective and practical way to deal with these wastes in this densely populated city. PMID:26432269

  6. Mercury concentrations in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) tissues, sediment and water from fish farm along the Karoun River in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maktabi, Payvand; Javaheri Baboli, Mehran; Jafarnejadi, Ali Reza; Askary Sary, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The Karoun River is major source of water for warm‌water fish culture industry in southwest of Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of mercury in tissues of marketable common carp and in bottom sediments of fish farms in Khouzestan province. This study was carried out on 45 fish farms that are located on the bank of the Karoun River in Khouzestan province, south-west Iran. Concentration of mercury (Hg) was determined using spectrophotometery in three tissues (muscles, liver and gills) of farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio), water and bottom sediments of fish farms collected from three regions (North, center and south) of the Karoun River, in Khouzestan province, Iran. The concentrations of Hg in muscle tissue (2.71 mg kg-1 dry matter) of fish from the south were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than from the other two sites. In the center and south sampling zones, Hg concentration in muscle was found to be above the maximum tolerable values provided by Food and Drug Administration standards. The Hg concentration of fish farm sediment and water samples were ranged as 0.46 to 0.48 mg kg-1 dry matter and 3.10 to 4.11 μg Hg L-1, respectively. Finally, Hg concentrations at downstream site were higher than upstream site. PMID:26893811

  7. [The suitability of some chemical methods for evaluation of freshness of stored suffocated carp].

    PubMed

    Gilka, J; Habrda, J; Matyás, Z; Janková, B

    1979-09-01

    For the assessment of the degree of meat freshness of stored unbleeded carp some simple chemical methods were tested to be used as auxiliary criteria for veterinary decisions regarding the edibility. Under the experimental conditions where the suffocated carp were stored at cooling and room temperatures in water or in the air, differences were determined in the followed criteria between fresh and deteriorating fish which were statistically insignificant for most indicators. In view of requirements regarding chemical indicators only the determination of ribose content was found to be expedient. Changes in the levels of ribose were significantly correlated with the sense-detected changes in meat freshness of the stored carp. PMID:117604

  8. Age estimation of a large bighead carp from Grand Lake, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Nealis, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    On April 23, 2011, a 1356-mm total length (TL), 39.8 kg bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) was brought to the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation. This specimen is the largest bighead carp recorded from Oklahoma, and it is near the maximum size reported from the United States. This specimen was estimated to be nine years old based on estimates from three different structures (pectoral fin ray, branchiostegal ray, and otolith). The age, together with past Oklahoma records of the species, indicates that there has been multiple introductions or undocumented reproduction of bighead carp in the Grand Lake basin.

  9. Immunomodulation by Zearalenone in Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Junge, Ranka; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a frequent contaminant of animal feeds, but its effects on fish have not yet been investigated extensively. In order to fill this gap a feeding trial with juvenile carp was conducted. Three groups of fish were fed feeds contaminated with ZEN at three concentrations (low: 332 μg kg−1, medium: 621 μg kg−1, and high: 797 μg kg−1 feed) for four weeks. Possible reversible effects of ZEN were evaluated by feeding additional groups with the ZEN-contaminated feeds for four weeks, followed by the uncontaminated diet for two weeks. Immune function of isolated leukocytes from head kidney and trunk kidney was assessed using the assessment of NO production, the respiratory burst assay, the chemiluminescence assay, and the measurement of arginase activities. These investigations frequently revealed increased immune responses after exposure of fish to low ZEN concentrations and reduced immune responses after exposure to high mycotoxin concentrations. Moreover, the feeding of the uncontaminated diet for further two weeks did not improve the immune responses in most cases. These results indicate that cellular immune functions in ZEN-contaminated carp are influenced which may be relevant for fish health in aquaculture. PMID:26491670

  10. Transcriptome profiling of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Yu, Hui; Li, Hua; Wang, Anli

    2016-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the causative pathogen of intestinal hemorrhage which has caused great economic loss in grass carp aquaculture. In order to understand the immunological response of grass carp to infection by A. hydrophila, the transcriptomic profiles of the spleens from infected and non-infected grass carp groups were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). An average of 63 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 80% of these genes were successfully mapped to the reference genome. A total of 1591 up-regulated and 530 down-regulated genes were identified. Eight immune-related categories involving 105 differently expressed genes were scrutinized. 16 of the differently expressed genes involving immune response were further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide valuable information for further analysis of the mechanisms of grass carp defense against A. hydrophila invasion. PMID:26945937

  11. Predictability of PCBs in carp harvested in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-05-01

    Samples of carp flesh were analyzed for PCBs, dieldrin, and DDT using a gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni/sup 63/ electron capture detector. Of 211 carp obtained commercially from Saginaw Bay, none exceeded the current tolerance of 5 ppm PCBs in edible fillet. Prediction equations were calculated which accounted for 68-90 percent of PCB in many groups. The carp from 2 to 4 kg were less predictable as to their level of PCBs as were female carp or those caught in the fall. The percentage fat was an important component of these prediction equations. Length of fish correlated better for fish 4 to 5.5 kg. Correlations were highest for spring and summer catches and for males. Thus size alone could be a reasonably good predictor of PCBs caught during the spring and summer but is less so the rest of the year.

  12. Aquacultural and socio-economic aspects of processing carps into some value-added products.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, H S; Sehgal, G K

    2002-05-01

    Carps are the mainstay of Indian aquaculture, contributing over 90% to the total fish production, which was estimated to be 1.77 million metric tonnes in 1996. Carp culture has a great potential for waste utilization and thus for pollution abatement. Many wastes such as cow, poultry, pig, duck, goat, and sheep excreta, biogas slurry, effluents from different kinds of factories/industries have been efficiently used for enhancing the productivity of natural food of carps and related species. Besides, several organic wastes/byproducts such as plant products, wastes from animal husbandry, and industrial by-products have been used as carp feed ingredients to lower the cost of supplementary feeding. However, to ensure the continued expansion of fish ponds and the pollution control, there must be a market for the fish (carps) produced in these ponds. The carps have, however, a low market value due to the presence of intra-muscular bones, which reduces their consumer acceptability. Thus, a need was felt to develop some boneless convenience products for enhancing the consumer acceptability of the carps. Efforts were made to prepare three value-added fish products, namely fish patty, fish finger and fish salad from carp flesh and were compared with a reference product ('fish pakoura'). Sensory evaluation of these products gave highly encouraging results. The methods of preparation of these products were transferred to some progressive farmers of the region who prepared and sold these products at very attractive prices. Carp processing has a great potential for the establishment of a fish ancillary industry and thus for boosting the production of these species. In Punjab alone, there is a potential of consuming 32,448 metric tonnes per annum of such value-added products (which would require 54,080 metric tonnes of raw fish). The development of value-added products has a significant role in raising the socio-economic status of the people associated with carp culture. The average cost of production of these products was estimated to be INR 80 per kg. With a sale price of INR 110 per kg, and a sale of 50 kg per day of the value-added products (26 days a month), the average monthly income of a carp-processing unit comes to be INR 39,000 (929 USD, approximately). PMID:11991079

  13. Stress-induced adaptation of neutrophilic granulocyte activity in K and R3 carp lines.

    PubMed

    Pijanowski, L; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Irnazarow, I; Chadzinska, M

    2015-12-01

    Both in mammals and fish, stress induces remarkable changes in the immune response. We focused on stress-induced changes in the activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in the R3 and K lines of common carp, which showed differential stress responses. Our study clearly demonstrates that a prolonged restraint stress differentially affects the activity of K and R3 carp neutrophils. In the K line, stress decreased the respiratory burst, while in the R3 line it reduced the release of extracellular DNA. Surprisingly, the stress-induced changes in ROS production and NET formation did not correlate with changes in gene expression of the inflammatory mediators and GR receptors. In neutrophilic granulocytes from K carp, gene expression of the stress-sensitive cortisol GR1 receptor was significantly higher than in neutrophils from R3 fish, which will make these cells more sensitive to high levels of cortisol. Moreover, upon stress, neutrophilic granulocytes of K carp up-regulated gene expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 while this was not observed in neutrophilic granulocytes of R3 carp. Therefore, we can hypothesize that, in contrast to R3 neutrophils, the more cortisol sensitive neutrophils from K carp respond to stress with up-regulation of IL-10 and consequently reduction of ROS production. Most probably the ROS-independent NET formation in K carp is not regulated by this anti-inflammatory cytokine. These data may indicate a predominantly ROS-independent formation of NETs by carp neutrophilic granulocytes. Moreover, they underline the important role of IL-10 in stress-induced immunoregulation. PMID:26505123

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and mRNA expression of six peroxiredoxins from Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus in response to lipopolysaccharide challenge or dietary carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenglong; Gao, Jun'e; Cao, Fang; Lu, Zhibin; Chen, Lian; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-03-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) belongs to a cellular antioxidant protein family that plays important roles in innate immune function and anti-oxidative capability. In the present study, six Prxs were cloned from Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus (MpPrx) by homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. There were 199, 197, 250, 260, 189 and 222 amino acids in six MpPrxs, respectively. BLAST analysis reveals that MpPrxs shares high identities and similar characteristics with other known Prxs from animals. The phylogenetic analysis evidenced three major subclasses corresponding to one-Cys-Prx (MpPrx6), typical two-Cys-Prx (MpPrx1-4) and atypical 2-Cys-Prx (MpPrx5) that reflected the present hierarchy of vertebrates and invertebrates. Although six MpPrxs are constitutively expressed in all tissues, relatively higher-level mRNA expression levels of six MpPrxs can be detected in liver, eyes, heart and adipose tissues by real-time PCR assays. The transcriptional patterns of six MpPrxs mRNA in liver were detected by real-time PCR in Black carp after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and treated with graded levels of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) (106.5, 194.3, 288.4 and 379.1 g kg(-1)), respectively. These results showed that stimulation with LPS could induce up-expression of six MpPrxs mRNA, and the variations of MpPrx4 were more sensitive than these of other MpPrxs in the liver of Black carp. Compared with those in group with 106.5 g kg(-1) dietary CHO, the expression levels of MpPrx2, MpPrx3 and MpPrx6 were significantly down-regulated while MpPrx5 were significantly induced in liver of Black carp fed with adequate dietary CHO (194.3 g kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of MpPrx2, MpPrx3 and MpPrx6 were observed in Black carp fed with excessive dietary CHO (379.1 g kg(-1)). And MpPrx4 could be constantly induced with increasing dietary CHO contents in this study. These results indicated that MpPrxs were constitutive and inducible proteins and might play important roles in innate immune function after LPS challenge and regulating redox homeostasis in the metabolism of dietary CHO. PMID:26828261

  15. Comparison of the exomes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Henkel, Christiaan V; Dirks, Ron P; Jansen, Hans J; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Spaink, Herman P

    2012-06-01

    Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17?kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4-1.5?Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which--due to a higher degree of compactness--did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

  16. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Spatial and interspecific patterns in persistent contaminant loads in bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Sass, Gregory G; Epifanio, John M

    2013-09-01

    We measured concentrations of selected organohalogens, fluorinated compounds and mercury in whole, ground silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp from the Illinois River, Illinois, in 2010 and 2011 to characterize spatial and interspecific patterns of contaminant burdens. Silver carp, which had greater lipid content, tended to have greater concentrations of lipophilic compounds. Concentrations of organohalogens were generally greater in carp from the upper reaches of the river. The halogenated compounds were associated with length and lipid content in silver carp. Bighead carp had greater mercury concentrations than did silver carp; total mercury concentrations were negatively associated with lipid content of bighead carp. Perfluorinated compounds, comprised predominantly of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, did not vary by species or river reach. Chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls were of potential concern with regard to the use of these carp as animal feed additives. Our results indicated that, even though they occupy a lower trophic level than many similarly-sized fish, these carp may accumulate measureable concentrations of organic contaminants. PMID:23887862

  18. Efficacy of quinine against ichthyophthiriasis in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Ilka V; Wedekind, Helmut; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2011-07-12

    Ichthyophthiriasis, caused by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, is an economically important worldwide parasitic disease that infects all freshwater fish. Since the banning of malachite green for use in food fish, there has been a great need for alternative therapeutants. The goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of quinine against I. multifiliis. Parasite developmental stages from our laboratory-established life cycle in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to quinine in vitro, and a dual fluorescent staining technique was used to allow a clear distinction between viable and damaged parasites. Furthermore, the effect of quinine was assessed in vivo by oral administration and intraperitoneal injections in common carp Cyprinus carpio. The results of the in vitro experiments proved quinine to be effective against the parasite. Quinine injected at a dosage of 60 mg kg(-1) body weight resulted in a significantly lower number of trophonts. In contrast, in-feed trials did not show a significant reduction of trophonts after treatment commencing 1 d after infection with concentrations of up to 20 g quinine kg(-1) feed for 3 d. After a 14-d treatment at concentrations of up to 10 g quinine kg(-1) feed prior to theront exposure, there was also no significant difference in parasite numbers between treated and control groups. The results of oral versus parenteral application of quinine indicate that the substance is not completely absorbed from the intestinal tract of common carp. However, medicated feed containing higher concentrations of quinine was less readily accepted by the fish, presumably due to the bitter taste. PMID:21932533

  19. Optimization of gelatin extraction from silver carp skin.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Regenstein, J M

    2009-10-01

    Fish skins are a by-product of the fish processing industry that can be successfully processed into gelatin. This study was designed to optimize the extraction process to obtain the highest yield, gel strength, and viscosity for gelatin production from silver carp skin. A fractional factorial design (2 levels, resolution III, 2(9-5)) was chosen to screen 9 parameters to determine the most significant ones. Those found to be significant were optimized to determine the maximum value for 3 dependent variables mentioned above. The hydroxyproline content and hydroxyproline/protein ratio of the skin were 1.7% and 6.5%, respectively. The protein content of the skin was 26%. The hydroxyproline content of the gelatin for the sample giving the highest hydroxyproline/protein ratio was 10.9%. This sample was arbitrarily called pure gelatin and the purity of the remaining samples was between 71.8% and 97%. The highest protein and gelatin recovery was 78.1% and 98.8% of the total available, respectively. The latter, gelatin recovery, is proposed to be used instead of protein yield. Four variables were determined as significant in screening and these variables were studied by a central composite rotatable design (4-factor and 5-level with 6 central points) to model the system and response surface methodology was used for optimization. The optimum extraction conditions were 50 degrees C for the extraction temperature, 0.1 N HCl for the acid concentration, 45 min for the acid pretreatment time, and finally 4 : 1 (v/w) for the water/skin ratio. The predicted responses for these extraction conditions were 630 g gel strength, 6.3 cP viscosity, and 80.8% gelatin recovery. The data suggest that silver carp skin gelatin is similar to those of fish gelatins currently being exploited commercially. PMID:19799664

  20. Structure, organization and expression of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) NKEF-B gene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Gao, Long-Ying; Wang, Ya-Ping; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qiong-Lin

    2009-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell enhancing factor (NKEF) belongs to the newly defined peroxiredoxin (Prx) family. Its functions are to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity and to protect DNA and proteins from oxidative damage. In this study, a partial cDNA sequence of carp NKEF-B was isolated from thymus cDNA library. Subsequently, the full-length cDNA of carp NKEF-B was obtained by means of 3' and 5' RACE, respectively. The full-length cDNA of carp NKEF-B was 1022 bp, consisting of a 73 bp 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 355 bp 3'-terminal UTR, and a 594 bp open reading frame coding for a protein of 197 amino acids. Carp NKEF-B contained two consensus Val-Cys-Pro (VCP) motifs and three consensus cysteine (Cys-51, Cys-70 and Cys-172) residues. Sequence comparison showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of carp NKEF-B had an overall similarity of 74-96% to that of other species homologues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that carp NKEF-B forms a cluster with other known teleost NKEF-Bs. Then, by PCR we obtained a 5.1-k long genomic DNA of carp NKEF-B containing six exons and five introns. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that carp NKEF-B gene was predominantly detected in kidney and head kidney under un-infected conditions. Whereas under SVCV-infection condition, the expression of NKEF-B gene was significantly increased in blood cells, gill, intestine and spleen, but maintained in liver, and decreased significantly in kidney and head kidney. Finally, the rNKEF-B was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. By using an antibody against carp rNKEF-B, immunohistochemical study further indicated that NKEF-B positive cells are mainly some RBCs and a few epithelial cells in gill and intestine, and that under SVCV-infection condition, these positive cells or positive products in their cytoplasm were mainly increased in gill and spleen sections of carp. The results obtained in the present study will help to understand the function of NKEF-B in teleost innate immunity. PMID:19032984

  1. A comparison of endogenous and microbial proteolytic activities during fast fermentation of silver carp inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Xia, Wen-Shui; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan-Shun; Jiang, Qi-Xing

    2016-09-15

    The study was aimed to investigate different roles of endogenous and Lactobacillus plantarum proteases during fast fermentation of silver carp. The results show that endogenous proteases could degrade both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. In contrast, L. plantarum had low proteinase activities and could only hydrolyze sarcoplasmic peptides. This indicates that gel properties could be mainly affected by endogenous proteolysis while microbial proteolysis contributed to the production of smaller peptides and free amino acids which may be related to flavor and taste. Texture and free amino acid analyses verified these hypotheses. It shows that endogenous lysosomal proteases were the major contributors for the decrease of gel strength while L. plantarum proteolytic activities could lead to the increase of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and alanine, which may result in umami and sweet taste; and also lead to a rise in some amino acids which were volatile compounds precursors. PMID:27080883

  2. Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji )

    1990-04-01

    A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

  3. Effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Gomelsky, B; Schneider, K J; Glennon, R P; Plouffe, D A

    2012-09-01

    The effect of ploidy on scale-cover pattern in linear ornamental (koi) common carp Cyprinus carpio was investigated. To obtain diploid and triploid linear fish, eggs taken from a leather C. carpio female (genotype ssNn) and sperm taken from a scaled C. carpio male (genotype SSnn) were used for the production of control (no shock) and heat-shocked progeny. In heat-shocked progeny, the 2 min heat shock (40° C) was applied 6 min after insemination. Diploid linear fish (genotype SsNn) demonstrated a scale-cover pattern typical for this category with one even row of scales along lateral line and few scales located near operculum and at bases of fins. The majority (97%) of triploid linear fish (genotype SssNnn) exhibited non-typical scale patterns which were characterized by the appearance of additional scales on the body. The extent of additional scales in triploid linear fish was variable; some fish had large scales, which covered almost the entire body. Apparently, the observed difference in scale-cover pattern between triploid and diploid linear fish was caused by different phenotypic expression of gene N/n. Due to incomplete dominance of allele N, triploids Nnn demonstrate less profound reduction of scale cover compared with diploids Nn. PMID:22957864

  4. Identification of furan fatty acids in the lipids of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Chvalová, Daniela; Špička, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed in muscle and gonad tissues of marketed common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The extracted lipids were separated into four fractions: polar lipids (PL), diacylglycerols, free fatty acids and triacylglycerols (TAG) using thin layer chromatography. FA content within the lipid fractions was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The muscle lipids consisted primarily of TAG (96.9% of total FA), while PL were the major component of both male (67.6%) and female gonad (58.6%) lipids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids predominated in PL of all tissues (52.2-55.8% of total FA); monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant FA group in TAG of muscle (51.8%) and female gonads (47.8%) whereas high proportion of furan fatty acids (F-acids) (38.2%) was detected in TAG of male gonads. Eight F-acids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in male gonad samples, including less common 12,15-epoxy-13,14-dimethylnonadeca-12,14-dienoic acid with even-numbered alkyl moiety. PMID:26830577

  5. Quantification of eDNA shedding rates from invasive bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers can more easily mitigate the effects of invasive species if action takes place before a population becomes established. Such early detection requires sensitive survey tools that can detect low numbers of individuals. Due to their high sensitivity, environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys hold promise as an early detection method for aquatic invasive species. Quantification of eDNA amounts may also provide data on species abundance and timing of an organism’s presence, allowing managers to successfully combat the spread of ecologically damaging species. To better understand the link between eDNA and an organism’s presence, it is crucial to know how eDNA is shed into the environment. Our study used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and controlled laboratory experiments to measure the amount of eDNA that two species of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) shed into the water. We first measured how much eDNA a single fish sheds and the variability of these measurements. Then, in a series of manipulative lab experiments, we studied how temperature, biomass (grams of fish), and diet affect the shedding rate of eDNA by these fish. We found that eDNA amounts exhibit a positive relationship with fish biomass, and that feeding could increase the amount of eDNA shed by ten-fold, whereas water temperature did not have an effect. Our results demonstrate that quantification of eDNA may be useful for predicting carp density, as well as densities of other rare or invasive species.

  6. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha; Levi, Edi; Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 ; Rishi, Arun K.; Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201; VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 ; Datta, Nabanita S.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

  7. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the spleen of common carp immune organ.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Wen, Lin; Liu, Zhonghu; Yan, Fengbin; Gao, Chunsheng

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of many fundamental biological processes in eukaryotes; however, miRNAs associated with immune functions in the common carp have not been reported. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the spleen of the common carp. A total of 10,603,456 high-quality clean reads, representing 293,603 unique sequences, were obtained from the small-cDNA library using the Solexa sequencing. By the bioinformatic analysis, 194 conserved miRNAs and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in the carp spleen. The abundant miRNAs principally belong to 30 miRNA gene families such as let-7, mir-10, mir-15, mir-30, and so on. The conservation analysis showed that 23 families were present both in protostomes and deuterostomes, 46 families were conserved only in vertebrates, and 5 families (mir-430, mir-722, mir-724, mir-734, and mir-738) were identified only in fish species. Furthermore, GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that miRNAs expressed in the spleen of common carp are involved in immune system development, lymphoid organ development, lymphocyte activation, immune response, B cell receptor signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and so on. This study described the miRNA transcriptome in spleen tissue for the first time in the common carp. The results expand the number of known common carp miRNAs and provides a meaningful framework to understand the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. PMID:24819892

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1β receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1β receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1β activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1β receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1β (rgcIL-1β) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-κB and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1β activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  9. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  10. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  11. An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for crucian carp was established.

  12. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  13. Comparative Proteomic, Physiological, Morphological, and Biochemical Analyses Reveal the Characteristics of the Diploid Spermatozoa of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Duan, Wei; Xu, Kang; Hu, Fangzhou; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Ming; Wang, Jing; Tao, Min; Luo, Kaikun; Zhao, Rurong; Qin, Qinbo; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Yun; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    The generation of diploid spermatozoa is essential for the continuity of tetraploid lineages. The DNA content of diploid spermatozoa from allotetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp and common carp was nearly twice as great as that of haploid spermatozoa from common carp, and the durations of rapid and slow progressive motility were longer. We performed comparative proteomic analyses to measure variations in protein composition between diploid and haploid spermatozoa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, 21 protein spots that changed in abundance were analyzed. As the common carp and the allotetraploid hybrids are not fully sequenced organisms, we identified proteins by Mascot searching against the National Center for Biotechnology Information non-redundant (NR) protein database for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), and verified them against predicted homologous proteins derived from transcriptomes of the testis. Twenty protein spots were identified successfully, belonging to four gene ontogeny categories: cytoskeleton, energy metabolism, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and other functions, indicating that these might be associated with the variation in diploid spermatozoa. This categorization of variations in protein composition in diploid spermatozoa will provide new perspectives on male polyploidy. Moreover, our approach indicates that transcriptome data are useful for proteomic analyses in organisms lacking full protein sequences. PMID:26674567

  14. Accumulation of 20 elements in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and its main prey, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio).

    PubMed

    Skoric, Stefan; Visnjić-Jeftic, Zeljka; Jaric, Ivan; Djikanovic, Vesna; Mickovic, Branislav; Nikcevic, Miroslav; Lenhardt, Mirjana

    2012-06-01

    In this study, 20 heavy metals and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Si, Se, Sr and Zn) were analyzed in different tissues (muscle, liver, intestine, feather and bone) of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) and in different tissues (muscle, liver, gills, kidney and gonad) of their main prey (common carp-Cyprinus carpio and Prussian carp-Carassius gibelio) during the nesting season. Cormorant and fish specimens were collected at the Ečka Fishing Farm (Serbia) and from the nearby river. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that cormorant livers were differentiated from other four tissues by higher concentrations of Hg, Fe, Cu and Mo, feathers by higher concentrations of Al and Si, and bones by higher concentrations of Sr and Mg. Differentiation among the three age classes of cormorants was observed only with regard to elemental concentrations in their feathers: subadult cormorants were differentiated by higher Hg and Zn concentrations, while the adults were separated by higher concentrations of Fe. In comparison with their prey (common carp and Prussian carp) cormorants were differentiated by higher concentrations of Fe, Hg and Cu in the muscle. Toxic mercury concentrations above 4μgg(-1)dw were determined in the liver of juvenile cormorants, as well as in the liver and feathers of subadults. Hg concentrations were significantly correlated among all studied tissues. Cormorant had significantly higher concentrations of Fe and Hg in muscle and liver than two studied fish species. PMID:22494478

  15. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17–32 ng g− 1 dry weight) compared to the reference (40–46 ng g− 1 dry weight) and VO ponds (55–86 ng g− 1 dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (δ13C, δ15N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp. PMID:23564978

  16. Physiological responses of over-wintering common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to disturbance by Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra).

    PubMed

    Poledník, Lukás; Rehulka, Jirí; Kranz, Andreas; Poledníková, Katerina; Hlavác, Václav; Kazihnitková, Hana

    2008-09-01

    Using a tame animal, the impact of otter (Lutra lutra) disturbance on over-wintering carp (Cyprinus carpio) was monitored in two experiments, 133 and 140 days, respectively, over two consecutive winters (November-April). The level of stress in over-wintering carp exposed to various intensities of disturbance by otters was quantified using biological indicators of stress (cortisol, cortisone, indices of nitrogen, carbohydrate, lipid and mineral metabolism and activity of basic blood plasma enzymes) taken from blood plasma of stocked carp at the end of the winter seasons (when the photoperiod was 12 light:12 dark, respectively, 13L:10D). Moreover, condition (Fulton's coefficient of condition and fat content in muscles) and mortality rate of that carp were measured after over-wintering and also after the subsequent vegetation period. The analysis of blood and tissue samples of experimental fish showed changes in nitrogen, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism as well as levels of hormones and fat reserves. Higher response to stress in metabolism of carp with lower intensity of disturbance by otter suggests that high level of disturbance can lead to metabolic adaptation of carp to stress. The effect of stress on the mortality rate of carp during the over-wintering is not clear. Nevertheless, the negative effect of stress on survival, condition and growth rate of carp in the subsequent vegetation period was not observed. PMID:18665460

  17. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided.

  18. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp Procypris rabaudi (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong; Jiang, Wanxiang; Song, Zhaobin

    2009-05-01

    Rock carp, Procypris rabaudi (Tchang), is an endemic fish species in China. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of it by high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction with conserved primers and primer walking sequencing method. The complete mitochondrial genome of rock carp is 16595 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region, with an identical order to that of most other vertebrates. The origin of L-strand replication (OL) in rock carp mitochondrion is located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY region) with 35 nucleotides in length. The control region is located between the tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe genes and is 943 bp in length. Three conserved sequence blocks (CSB), an extended termination associated sequence (ETAS), an AT-repeat microsatellite sequence and a putative promoter sequence for H-strand transcription (HSP) were identified within this region. The microsatellite sequence has a very low variation, with only one repeat alteration in 50 checked individuals (from 12 to 13 repeats). The phylogenetic analysis for rock carp was performed with Bayesian and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the concatenated nucleotide sequence of 12 protein-coding genes on the heavy strand. The result suggested that traditional taxonomic barbines possibly originated more early than cyprininaes; rock carp was placed at the position between barbines and cyprininaes, while has a closer relationship with cyprininaes than barbines. PMID:18496768

  20. Microsatellite genetic diversity and differentiation of native and introduced grass carp populations in three continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Chen, Qin; Wang, Chenghui; Zhao, Jinlian; Lu, Guoqing; Zsigmond, Jeney; Li, Sifa

    2012-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater species native to China, has been introduced to about 100 countries/regions and poses both biological and environmental challenges to the receiving ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. The allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, and within-population gene diversity were found to be lower in the introduced populations than in the native populations, presumably due to the small founder population size of the former. Significant genetic differentiation was found between all pairwise populations from different rivers. Both principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis revealed obvious genetic distinction between the native and introduced populations. Interestingly, genetic bottlenecks were detected in the Hungarian and Japanese grass carp populations, but not in the North American population, suggesting that the Mississippi River Basin grass carp has experienced rapid population expansion with potential genetic diversification during the half-century since its introduction. Consequently, the combined forces of the founder effect, introduction history, and rapid population expansion help explaining the observed patterns of genetic diversity within and among both native and introduced populations of the grass carp.

  1. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  2. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  3. CARP-1 / CCAR1: A biphasic regulator of cancer cell growth and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted cancer therapy using small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) has been useful in targeting the tumor cells while sparing the normal cells. Despite clinical success of many targeted therapies, their off-target effects and development of resistance are emerging as significant and challenging problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify targets to devise new means to treat cancers and their drug-resistant phenotypes. CARP-1/CCAR1 (Cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1), a peri-nuclear phospho-protein, plays a dynamic role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis by serving as a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors, β-catenin, Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase, and tumor suppressor p53. CARP-1/CCAR1 also regulates chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis. CARP-1/CCAR1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel SMIs of CARP-1/CCAR1 interaction with APC/C. CFMs promote apoptosis in a manner independent of p53. CFMs are potent inhibitors of a variety of cancer cells including the drug (Adriamycin or Tamoxifen)-resistant breast cancer cells but not the immortalized breast epithelial cells, while a nano-lipid formulation of the lead compound CFM-4 improves its bioavailability and efficacy in vivo when administered orally. This review focuses on the background and pleiotropic roles of CARP-1/CCAR1 as well as its apoptosis signaling mechanisms in response to chemotherapy in cancer cells. PMID:25894788

  4. The effect of encapsulated fennel extracts on the quality of silver carp fillets during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mazandrani, Hoda Alipour; Javadian, SeyedRoholla; Bahram, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    The effect of fennel extract on the quality of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillets, and the possible efficacy of liposomal encapsulation in the improvement of its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity during chilled storage (4 + 1°C) of the fillets were examined over a period of 15 days. Silver carp fillets were treated with pure fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v) and liposomal encapsulated fennel extract (0.3% and 0.5% w/v), and their quality changes in terms of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), microbial counts, and sensory properties were investigated. Fennel extract could retard the deterioration of silver carp fillets, as reflected in lower TVB-N, PV and TBA value. Moreover, the efficacy of fennel extract was improved when it was encapsulated into liposome. Silver carp fillets treated with the encapsulated fennel extract showed the lowest amount of lipid oxidation and microbial deterioration during the storage period compared with the control and pure extract treatments. Sensory evaluation revealed that shelf life of silver carp fillet was longest for samples treated with encapsulated fennel extract at 0.5% (15 days), as compared to the control (6 days) (P < 0.05). PMID:27004119

  5. The protective immunity against grass carp reovirus in grass carp induced by a DNA vaccination using single-walled carbon nanotubes as delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Liu, Guang-Lu; Li, Dong-Liang; Ling, Fei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the lethal hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and improve the production of grass carp, efficient and economic prophylactic measure against GCRV is the most pressing desired for the grass carp farming industry. In this work, a novel SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 DNA vaccine linked vp5 recombinant in the form of plasmid pEGFP-vp5 and ammonium-functionalized SWCNTs by a chemical modification method was prepared to enhance the efficacy of a vp5 DNA vaccine against GCRV in juvenile grass carp. After intramuscular injection (1, 2.5 and 5 μg) and bath administration (1, 10, and 20 mg/L), the ability of the different immune treatments to induce transgene expression was analyzed. The results showed that higher levels of transcription and expression of vp5 gene could be detected in muscle tissues of grass carp in SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 treatment groups compare with naked pEGFP-vp5 treatment groups. Moreover, antibody levels, immune-related genes, and relative percentage survival were significantly enhanced in fish immunized with SWCNTs-pEGFP-vp5 vaccine. In addition, we found that a good immune protective effect was observed in bath immunization group; which at a concentration of 20 mg/L could reach the similar relative percentage survival (approximately 100%) in injection group at a dose of 5 μg. All these results indicated that ammonium-functionalized SWCNTs could provide extensive application prospect to aquatic vaccine and might be used to vaccinate fish by intramuscular injection or bath administration method. PMID:26497092

  6. Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Witkovsky, P; Nelson, J; Ripps, H

    1973-04-01

    The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro-retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast component was investigated further. In complete dark adaptation, its action spectrum peaked near 540 nm and indicated input from both porphyropsin-containing rods (lambda(max) approximately 525 nm) and cones with longer wavelength sensitivity. Under photopic conditions a broad action spectrum, lambda(max) approximately 580 nm was seen. In the presence of chromatic backgrounds, the photopic curve could be fractionated into three components whose action spectra agreed reasonably well with the spectral characteristics of blue, green, and red cone pigments of the goldfish. In parallel studies, the carp rod pigment was studied in situ by transmission densitometry. The reduction in optical density after a full bleach averaged 0.28 at its lambda(max) 525 nm. In the isolated retina no regeneration of rod pigment occurred within 2 h after bleaching. The bleaching power of background fields used in adaptation experiments was determined directly. Both rods and cones generated increment threshold functions with slopes of +1 on log-log coordinates over a 3-4 log range of background intensities. Background fields which bleached less than 0.5% rod pigment nevertheless diminished photoreceptor sensitivity. The degree and rate of recovery of receptor sensitivity after exposure to a background field was a function of the total flux (I x t) of the field. Rod saturation, i.e. the abolition of rod voltages, occurred after approximately 12% of rod pigment was bleached. In light-adapted retinas bathed in normal Ringer solution, a small test flash elicited a larger response in the presence of an annular background field than when it fell upon a dark retina. The enhancement was not observed in aspartate-treated retinas. PMID:4694741

  7. Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing

    2007-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

  8. Reconnaissance of 17 beta-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology in common carp of United States streams; potential for contaminant-induced endocrine disruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Gross, Timothy S.; Denslow, Nancy P.; Bryant, Wade B.; Schoeb, Trenton R.

    1997-01-01

    A reconnaissance of sex steroid hormones and other biomarkers in common carp was used to assess whether endocrine disruption may be occurring in fish in United States streams, to evaluate relations between endocrine disruption and contaminant levels, and to determine requirements for further studies. 17?-estradiol, 11-ketotestosterone, vitellogenin, and gonadal histopathology were measured in adult carp (usually 10--15 for each sex) at 25 sites (647 fish), representing a wide range of environmental settings typical of major regions of the nation. Fish were collected during August--December 1994, a period of gonadal maturation after spawning. Contaminants evaluated were organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue; phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bed sediment; and dissolved pesticides in water. Mean site concentrations of steroid hormones spanned two orders of magnitude for both sexes. No significant regional differences in steroid hormones were detected for males, but females from the Northern and Southern Midcontinent were significantly different from other regions of the country in one or both hormones. Within all regions there were significant differences between sites in one or both hormones for both sexes. Most correlation coefficients between biomarkers and contaminants were negative. Contaminants that had significant (a=0.05) correlations with biomarkers were organochlorine pesticides, phenols, and dissolved pesticides. The strongest pattern common to both males and females was a negative correlation between the hormone ratio (E2/11-KT) and dissolved pesticides. The significant site-to-site differences in biomarkers, and the presence of significant correlations between biomarkers and contaminants, are evidence that fish in some streams may be experiencing endocrine disruption. Improved information is needed to evaluate whether endocrine disruption is actually occurring and if there are reproductive effects on individual or populations of carp or other species. Future studies should shift to more intensive study of fewer sites, including reference and contaminated sites, in order to address these additional questions.

  9. Nitrogen removal and water microbiota in grass carp culture following supplementation with Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4.

    PubMed

    Liang, Quan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lee, Khui Hung; Wang, Yibing; Yu, Kan; Shen, Wenying; Fu, Luoqin; Shu, Miaoan; Li, Weifen

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) culture. The selected strain Bacillus licheniformis BSK-4 significantly decreased nitrite, nitrate and total nitrogen levels in water over an extended, whereas increased ammonia level. Pyrosequencing showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were dominant in grass carp culture water. Compared with the control group, the number of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were increased, while Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased in treatment group. At the genus level, some genera, such as Bacillus, Prosthecobacter, Enterococcus, etc., appear only in the treatment, while many other genera exist only in the control group; Lactobacillus, Luteolibacter, Phenylobacterium, etc. were increased in treatment group compared to those in control group. As above, the results suggested that supplementation with B. licheniformis BSK-4 could remove some nitrogen and cause alterations of the microbial composition in grass carp water. PMID:26385546

  10. Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

  11. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    SciTech Connect

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  12. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts. PMID:26091762

  13. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  14. Intrachain diffusion in a protein loop fragment from carp parvalbumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Florian; Fierz, Beat; Axthelm, Fabian; Joder, Karin; Meyer, Dominique; Kiefhaber, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    During protein folding a polypeptide chain has to form specific intrachain interactions starting from an ensemble of unfolded conformation. Thus, intrachain diffusion in unfolded polypeptide chains can be regarded as an elementary step in protein folding, which should determine the dynamics of the early stages in the folding process. We have previously applied exothermic triplet-triplet energy transfer from xanthone to naphthalene to determine rate constants for intrachain end-to-end contact formation in unstructured homo-polypeptide chains. Here we show that the method can be applied to determine absolute rate constants for intrachain diffusion in natural loop sequences, if they are free of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine. We measured the rate of loop formation in an 18 amino acid polypeptide chain corresponding to a natural loop sequence from carp muscle β-parvalbumin (residues 85-102). Contact formation shows single exponential kinetics with a time constant ( τ=1/ k) of 53 ± 3 ns at 22.5 °C in water. Comparison with the results on homo-polypeptide chains shows that this value agrees well with rates obtained earlier for a polyserine chain of the same length.

  15. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on a common carp leucocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxin produced by different cyanobacterial species, increasingly detected in water reservoirs worldwide. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. The aim of the study was to elucidate the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the selected parameters of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). The cells were incubated with the cyanotoxin at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1 µg ml(-1) for up to 48 h. Cell viability and proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis induction, cell morphology and phagocytic activity were determined. The two higher toxin concentrations occurred to be evidently cytotoxic in a time-dependent manner and influenced all studied parameters. The lowest used concentration had no effects on cell viability and cell number; however, a strong reduction of bacteria uptake after 24-h exposure was detected. The obtained results indicate that cylindrospermopsin may interfere with the basic functions of fish phagocytic cells and as a consequence influence the fish immunity. PMID:24477983

  16. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  17. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  18. Improving efficiency and reliability of environmental DNA analysis for silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Monroe, Emy; Lance, Richard; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource agencies have established surveillance programs which use environmental DNA (eDNA) for the early detection of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix before they establish populations within the Great Lakes. This molecular monitoring technique must be highly accurate and precise for confident interpretation and also efficient, both in detection threshold and cost. Therefore, we compared two DNA extraction techniques and compared a new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with the conventional PCR (cPCR) assay used by monitoring programs. Both the qPCR and cPCR assays were able to amplify the DNA of silver carp present in environmental samples taken from locations where mixed populations of bigheaded carps existed. However, the qPCR assay had substantially fewer PCR positive samples which were subsequently determined not to contain DNA of bigheaded carps than the cPCR assay. Additionally, the qPCR assay was able to amplify the DNA of bigheaded carps even in the presence of inhibitors that blocked amplification with cPCR. Also, the selection of an appropriate DNA extraction method can significantly alter the efficiency of eDNA surveillance programs by lowering detection limits and by decreasing costs associated with sample processing. The results reported herein are presently being incorporated into eDNA surveillance programs to decrease the costs, increase DNA yield and increase the confidence that assays are amplifying the target DNA. These results are critical to enhancing our ability to accurately and confidently interpret the results reported from monitoring programs using eDNA for early detection of invasive species.

  19. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17β-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20β-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20β-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  20. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression of fibroblast growth genes in common carp.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Likun; Zhang, Songhao; Dong, Chuanju; Chen, Baohua; Feng, Jingyan; Peng, Wenzhu; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A; Xu, Peng

    2016-03-10

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are a large family of polypeptide growth factors, which are found in organisms ranging from nematodes to humans. In vertebrates, a number of FGFs have been shown to play important roles in developing embryos and adult organisms. Among the vertebrate species, FGFs are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino-acid sequence. However, studies on teleost FGFs are mainly limited to model species, hence we investigated FGFs in the common carp genome. We identified 35 FGFs in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the FGFs are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. By examining the copy number of FGFs in several vertebrate genomes, we found that eight FGFs in common carp have undergone gene duplications, including FGF6a, FGF6b, FGF7, FGF8b, FGF10a, FGF11b, FGF13a, and FGF18b. The expression patterns of all FGFs were examined in various tissues, including the blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, showing that most of the FGFs were ubiquitously expressed, indicating their critical role in common carp. To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis verified the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. Gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp FGF gene family provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, physiological, and phylogenetic studies on FGFs in teleosts. PMID:26691502

  1. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  2. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  3. Characterization of Common Carp Transcriptome: Sequencing, De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Peifeng; Liu, Guiming; Xu, Jian; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species of Cyprinidae with an annual global production of 3.4 million tons, accounting for nearly 14% of the freshwater aquaculture production in the world. Due to the economical and ecological importance of common carp, genomic data are eagerly needed for genetic improvement purpose. However, there is still no sufficient transcriptome data available. The objective of the project is to sequence transcriptome deeply and provide well-assembled transcriptome sequences to common carp research community. Result Transcriptome sequencing of common carp was performed using Roche 454 platform. A total of 1,418,591 clean ESTs were collected and assembled into 36,811 cDNA contigs, with average length of 888 bp and N50 length of 1,002 bp. Annotation was performed and a total of 19,165 unique proteins were identified from assembled contigs. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed and classified all contigs into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. Open Reading Frames (ORFs) were detected from 29,869 (81.1%) contigs with an average ORF length of 763 bp. From these contigs, 9,625 full-length cDNAs were identified with sequence length from 201 bp to 9,956 bp. Comparative analysis revealed that 27,693(75.2%) contigs have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins, and 24,371(66.2%), 24,501(66.5%) and 25,025(70.0%) to teraodon, medaka and three-spined stickleback refseq proteins. A total of 2,064 microsatellites were initially identified from 1,730 contigs, and 1,639 unique sequences had sufficient flanking sequences on both sides for primer design. Conclusion The transcriptome of common carp had been deep sequenced, de novo assembled and characterized, providing the valuable resource for better understanding of common carp genome. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on common carp genome, and gradually apply in breeding programs of common carp, as well as closely related other Cyprinids. PMID:22514716

  4. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

  5. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  6. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  7. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440 000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  8. Lack of a contact requirement for direct antibacterial activity of lymphocyte subpopulations in ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Tartor, Haitham M; Matsuura, Yuta; El-Nobi, Gamal; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2014-08-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) recognize and kill cells infected with viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors with MHC restriction and antigen specificity. In addition to these activities, recent studies in mammals have suggested that CTL can exhibit direct microbicidal activity. In our previous study we documented direct antibacterial activity of CD4(+) T cells and sIgM(+) cells as well as CD8α(+) T cells from immunized fish. However, we also found weak non-specific killing activity of lymphocytes against bacteria. In the present study we further analyzed the weak killing activity of lymphocytes, increasing the effector cell to target bacteria ratio from 10:1 to 10(3):1. Sensitized and non-sensitized effector lymphocytes (CD8α(+), CD4(+) and sIgM(+)) separated by MACS were incubated with target bacteria. CD8α(+) T cells from Edwardsiella tarda-immunized ginbuna crucian carp killed 98%, 100% and 70% of E. tarda, Streptococcus iniae and Escherichia coli, respectively. CD8α(+) T cells from non-immunized fish showed similar but slightly lower killing activity than sensitized cells. CD4(+) and sIgM(+) lymphocytes also showed high killing activity against E. tarda and S. iniae as found for CD8α(+) T cells, although the activity was lower against E. coli. Supernatants from all three types of lymphocytes showed microbicidal activity, although the activity was lower than that evoked by effector lymphocytes. Furthermore, the presence of a membrane between effectors and targets did not affect the killing activity. The present results suggest that both sensitized and non-sensitized lymphocytes non-specifically killed target bacteria without the need of contact. The major difference between the present and previous experiments is the E:T ratio. We suspect that there are two different mechanisms in the direct bacterial killing by lymphocytes in ginbuna. PMID:24859594

  9. A Dense Genetic Linkage Map for Common Carp and Its Integration with a BAC-Based Physical Map

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Peifeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Zixia; Hou, Guangyuan; Huo, Linhe; Liu, Guiming; Li, Chao; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2013-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species with an annual global production of 3.4 million metric tons. It is also an important ornamental species as well as an important model species for aquaculture research. To improve the economically important traits of this fish, a number of genomic resources and genetic tools have been developed, including several genetic maps and a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map. However, integrated genetic and physical maps are not available to study quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assist with fine mapping, positional cloning and whole genome sequencing and assembly. The objective of this study was to integrate the currently available BAC-based physical and genetic maps. Results The genetic map was updated with 592 novel markers, including 312 BAC-anchored microsatellites and 130 SNP markers, and contained 1,209 genetic markers on 50 linkage groups, spanning 3,565.9 cM in the common carp genome. An integrated genetic and physical map of the common carp genome was then constructed, which was composed of 463 physical map contigs and 88 single BACs. Combined lengths of the contigs and single BACs covered a physical length of 498.75 Mb, or around 30% of the common carp genome. Comparative analysis between common carp and zebrafish genomes was performed based on the integrated map, providing more insights into the common carp specific whole genome duplication and segmental rearrangements in the genome. Conclusion We integrated a BAC-based physical map to a genetic linkage map of common carp by anchoring BAC-associated genetic markers. The density of the genetic linkage map was significantly increased. The integrated map provides a tool for both genetic and genomic studies of common carp, which will help us to understand the genomic architecture of common carp and facilitate fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits for genetic improvement and modification. PMID:23704958

  10. Sequestration of RNA by grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 is associated with its positive role in facilitating grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Lang; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tu; Lu, Liqun

    2015-10-01

    Previous report demonstrated that grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection resulted in unlinking cellular stress granule formation from aggregation of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella TIA1 (CiTIA1). Here, we provided evidence to show that CiTIA1 bound to synthesized ssRNA and dsRNA in vitro. Both GST-pull down assay and RNA immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed the association between GCRV-specific RNA and GST-tagged CiTIA1 in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Furthermore, CiTIA1 was shown to protect dsRNA of virus-origin from degradation in CIK cells through Northern blot analysis. Finally, transient overexpression of CiTIA1 enhanced the replication efficiency of GCRV in CIK cells. Taken together, our results suggested that cellular CiTIA1 might facilitate GCRV replication through sequestrating and protecting viral RNA from degradation. PMID:26208752

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio).

    PubMed

    Hu, Guang Fu; Liu, Xiang Jiang; Zou, Gui Wei; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the complete mitogenomes of (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and Russian scattered scale mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio). Comparison of these two mitogenomes revealed that the mitogenomes of these two common carp strains were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. There were only 55 bp variations in 16,581 nucleotides. About 1 bp variation was located in rRNAs, 2 bp in tRNAs, 9 bp in the control region and 43 bp in protein-coding genes. Furthermore, forty-three variable nucleotides in the protein-coding genes of the two strains led to four variable amino acids, which were located in the ND2, ATPase 6, ND5 and ND6 genes, respectively. PMID:24521500

  12. Ultraviolet photoreception in carp: microspectrophotometry and behaviorally determined action spectra.

    PubMed

    Hawryshyn, C W; Harosi, F I

    1991-01-01

    This study demonstrates correlations between u.v. sensitivity and microspectrophotometric absorption spectra determined sequentially for the same group of individuals. We used the heart-rate conditioning technique to measure spectral sensitivity of carp, a species known to have u.v.-sensitive photoreceptors. Mean spectral sensitivity (n = 3) determined with a spectrally-broad background (450 nm long pass filter) revealed a small but consistent u.v. peak (lambda max of 380 nm) in addition to the other long wavelength peaks. An intense blue-green background (490 nm) produced a more prominent u.v. peak (lambda max of 400 nm) when a 450 nm longpass filter was added to the background. Microspectrophotometric measurements of u.v.-sensitive photoreceptors from one individual, which belonged to the group used in the spectral sensitivity experiments, revealed an average lambda max of 377.5 nm (SD +/- 4.5 nm, n = 5 cells). Bleaching and dichroic measurements of these receptors ensured that we were examining typical vertebrate visual pigments and not stable photoproducts. The mean spectral sensitivity points were compared with the u.v. and blue-sensitive visual pigment absorption spectra. A linear subtractive model and ocular media absorption were used in this comparison for the various photic conditions used in the heart-rate conditioning experiments. The model successfully described the sensitivity of the test fish in two cases but in a third case there was some discrepancy. The model generated curve was broader than the spectral sensitivity of the u.v.-sensitive cone mechanism on the shortwave side even though the ocular media corrections had been accounted for. PMID:1843761

  13. Chlorinated paraffins: disposition of a polychloro-[1-14C]-hexadecane in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus).

    PubMed

    Darnerud, P O; Bengtsson, B E; Bergman, A; Brandt, I

    1983-12-01

    The disposition of polychloro-[1-14C]hexadecane (PCHD, 34% chlorine w/w) was studied in carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bleak (Alburnus alburnus). After intra-arterial (i.a.) injection in carp about 6% of dose was excreted as 14CO2 in 96 h. The autoradiographic distribution pattern after administration of PCHD to carp (i.a.) and bleak (up to 14 days of exposure in PCHD-contaminated water) was characterized by a strong labelling in the bile/intestinal contents. High radioactivity also appeared in the kidney, liver, gills and, particularly in bleak, in the nasal cavity, lens and skin. PMID:6419402

  14. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  15. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  16. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  17. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  18. Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Amado, Lílian L; Garcia, Márcia L; Pereira, Talita C B; Yunes, João S; Bogo, Maurício R; Monserrat, José M

    2011-09-01

    This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the first i.p. injection (condition 1); another group received two i.p. injections with a 24h of interval between each one and was killed 48h after the first injection (condition 2) and a third group received one i.p. injection and was killed 48h latter (condition 3). Results showed that LA was effective in promoting an increase in GSTs gene transcription in liver only in the condition 2. A second experiment was done, where carp pre-treated with LA (condition 2) were gavaged twice with a 24h interval with 50μg MC/kg. Ninety-six hours after experiment beginning, carp were killed, and organs were dissected. Results of GST activity in liver and brain suggest that LA can be a useful chemoprotection agent against MC induced toxicity, stimulating detoxification through the increment of GST activity (brain) or through reversion of GST inhibition (liver). PMID:21586338

  19. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  20. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

  2. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (P<0.05); 52% longer than day 0] and forelimb grip strength [1.18±0.05 Newton (P<0.01); 17% greater than day 0]. The extract increased muscle mass, but had little effect on body weight. Following the swimming exercise, blood glucose, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase levels in extract-fed mice were significantly higher (145%, 131%, and 106%, respectively) than in the saline control group. Blood levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly increased (128%) in mice given the extract compared to the controls. These results suggest that leather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts. PMID:26770911

  3. Experiential Online Development for Educators: The Example of the Carpe Diem MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Gilly; Gregory, Janet; Lokuge Dona, Kulari; Ross, Bella

    2015-01-01

    We report on educators' experiences of a massive open online course (MOOC) focused on the Carpe Diem learning design process. The MOOC was developed in-house using Blackboard CourseSites by a university innovation and development unit, Learning Transformations, at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. We report on a study of…

  4. Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

  5. NONYLPHENOL AND NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES IN CARP, WATER, AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES FROM CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of the occurrence of alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates in the Cuyahoga, Ohio, river system revealed that high levels of total APEs (NP 0 to 2 EO) occur in carp starting at the Akron WWTP and continues to the river mouth near Cleveland, e.g., 0.9 to 0.46 ppm wet weight, respectively. T...

  6. BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

  7. GIS-based rapid-assessment of bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) suitability in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, James M.; Liang, Yu; Shoup, Daniel E.; Dzialowski, Andrew R.; Bidwell, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Broad-scale niche models are good for examining the potential for invasive species occurrences, but can fall short in providing managers with site-specific locations for monitoring. Using Oklahoma as an example, where invasive bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) are established in certain reservoirs, but predicted to be widely distributed based on broad-scale niche models, we cast bighead carp reproductive ecology in a site-specific geospatial framework to determine their potential establishment in additional reservoirs. Because bighead carp require large, long free-flowing rivers with suitable hydrology for reproduction but can persist in reservoirs, we considered reservoir tributaries with mean annual daily discharge ≥8.5 cubic meters per second (m3 /s) and quantified the length of their unimpeded portions. In contrast to published broad-scale niche models that identified nearly the entire state as susceptible to invasion, our site-specific models showed that few reservoirs in Oklahoma (N = 9) were suitable for bighead carp establishment. Moreover, this method was rapid and identified sites that could be prioritized for increased study or scrutiny. Our results highlight the importance of considering the environmental characteristics of individual sites, which is often the level at which management efforts are implemented when assessing susceptibility to invasion.

  8. Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%. PMID:20872989

  9. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  10. The relationship between trace elements in fish otoliths of wild carp and hydrochemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling; Ren, Dongni; Qiao, Li; Li, Shengrong

    2010-03-01

    The trace element composition of the fish otolith is an indicator of biomineralization. In contrast to other skeletal tissue, the otolith retains its entire original structure and does not absorb any elements after the fish dies. Because otoliths in carp degrade very slowly in the dead body, the information it provides on the environment is retained, even in fossil form. Here, we report our analysis of the trace elements in otoliths of carp and of the water in Donghu Lake and Longhupao Lake, Heilongjiang province, China, where the fish lived. The results revealed that the trace elements found in the carp otoliths were clearly correlated with those found in these water bodies. There were high concentrations of Au, Ba, K, Sr and Zn in both the water and otoliths; in contrast there were high levels of As, Na and Se in water, but low concentrations in otoliths. These results indicate that an analysis of the otoliths of carps provides an accurate procedure for studying the surrounding hydrochemistry conditions. The interaction of the elements during deposition was also studied. The correlation coefficients of 13 trace elements identified in the otoliths in both lakes were calculated. PMID:19093220

  11. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study provide insights about transport, suspension, and dispersion of silver carp eggs. The knowledge gained from this study is useful to characterize the critical hydrodynamic conditions of the flow at which surrogates for silver carp water-hardened eggs settle out of suspension, and provides insight into how eggs may interact with riverbed sediments and morphology. PMID:26713855

  12. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study provide insights about transport, suspension, and dispersion of silver carp eggs. The knowledge gained from this study is useful to characterize the critical hydrodynamic conditions of the flow at which surrogates for silver carp water-hardened eggs settle out of suspension, and provides insight into how eggs may interact with riverbed sediments and morphology. PMID:26713855

  13. Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism of color patterns and promote aquaculture of Oujiang color varieties of common carp through molecular marker assisted-selective breeding. PMID:24603653

  14. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study provide insights about transport, suspension, and dispersion of silver carp eggs. The knowledge gained from this study is useful to characterize the critical hydrodynamic conditions of the flow at which surrogates for silver carp water-hardened eggs settle out of suspension, and provides insight into how eggs may interact with riverbed sediments and morphology.

  15. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lončarić, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging. PMID:25463866

  16. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID:25551462

  17. Bioconcentration, metabolism and effects of diphenhydramine on behavioral and biochemical markers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhengxin; Lu, Guanghua; Hou, Kangkang; Qin, Donghong; Yan, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine used to alleviate human allergies, is widespread in aquatic environments. However, little is known about the biochemical and behavioral effects of DPH on non-target aquatic animals. In the present study, the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, biochemical and behavioral effects were investigated in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to various concentrations of DPH (0.84, 4.23, 21.7 and 112μgL(-1)) for 7d. DPH can accumulate in crucian carp, and high concentrations have been observed in the liver and brain with maximum bioconcentration factors of 148 and 81.6, respectively. A portion of the absorbed DPH was metabolized by the crucian carp to N-demethyl DPH and N,N-didemethyl DPH via N-demethylation. Direct fluorimetric assay was employed to assess metabolic activity, while oxidative stress and neurotransmission biomarkers were determined by Diagnostic Reagent Kits. DPH was found to increase hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity in crucian carp with maximal induction of 119%. Concerning the oxidative stress status, DPH significantly inhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD, 37-58%) and glutathione S-transferase (GST, 43-65%) activities and led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, 67-140%) levels and catalase (CAT, 38-143%) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx, 39-189%) activities in fish liver. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was also induced in DPH-exposed crucian carp with maximal induction of 174%. In addition, shoaling was significantly enhanced, while swimming activity and feeding rates were markedly suppressed at DPH concentrations equal to or higher than 21.7μgL(-1). Furthermore, significant correlations were found between oxidative stress biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and MDA) and behavioral parameters. Collectively, our results confirmed that DPH can accumulate and be metabolized in fish and exert a negative effect at different levels of biological organization. PMID:26657385

  18. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR = 0.212M0.776 and MMR = 0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  19. Centromere Localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through Half-Tetrad Analysis in Diploid Gynogenetic Families

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2013-01-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N = 48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

  20. Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Tian, Li-xia; Zeng, Shuai-lin; Xie, Shi-wei; Yang, Hui-jun; Liang, Gui-ying; Liu, Yong-jian

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the dietary lipid requirement and its effects on liver oxidative status and non-specific immune responses of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Purified diets with five dietary lipid levels (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%, fish oil/corn oil = 1:1) were each fed to triplicate groups of grass carp (mean initial weight: 6.57 ± 0.01 g) in a recirculating rearing system maintained at 27.5 ± 0.5 °C for 10 weeks. Percent weight gain was highest (P < 0.05) with 5% lipid and lowest in fish fed the lipid free control diet. Feed efficiency (FE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in fish followed the same pattern of percent weight gain. Fish fed with lipid containing diets had better non-specific immune response indexes (e.g. phagocytic activity, plasma peroxidase and lysozyme activity) and low-level of liver oxidation status than fish fed with the control diet. But excess dietary lipid supplement would bring over metabolic burden to liver. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish fed control diet obtained significantly (P < 0.05) lower survival rate. The survival rate was highest with 7.5% lipid. The results of this study indicated that proper dietary lipid supplementation enhanced the immune response of grass carp and improved the survival rate in the bacterial challenge, but excess dietary lipid may elevate liver oxidation rates of grass carp. Analysis by second-order regression of percent weight gain indicated that the optimal dietary lipid level in juvenile grass carp (6.6-35.5 g) is about 6.5%. PMID:23416225

  1. Sequence, genomic organization and expression of ghrelin receptor in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-jing; Yuan, Xiao-chen; Yuan, Yong-chao; Xie, Shou-qi; Gong, Yuan; Su, Hang; Qiao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) is an endogenous receptor for the gut hormone ghrelin. Here we report the identification and characterization of GHS-R1a in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length GHS-R1a cDNA contained a 1803-bp coding domain sequence which encoded a peptide of 360 amino acid residues. Comparison analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of GHS-R1a were highly conserved in vertebrates and shared 97% amino acid identity with zebrafish (Danio rerio), 96% with jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and 93% with goldfish (Carassius auratus). The GHS-R1a showed the highest level of mRNA expression in the pituitary, followed by the brain and liver, and the lowest expression was observed in the hindgut. Intraperitoneally injected with grass carp ghrelin (50, 100 and 150ng/g body weight (BW)), grass carp showed greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in the pituitary compared with saline injected at 0.5h postinjection. It was observed that food deprivation could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary, demonstrating that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary. After a 2- or 4-week fast, plasma growth hormone (GH) increased, was positively correlated with ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA expression levels in the pituitary. These results suggested that the involvement of ghrelin/GHS-R1a systems in mediating the effects of nutritional status and ghrelin on growth processes in grass carp. PMID:25242546

  2. De novo assembly and characterization of the spleen transcriptome of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxi; Zhao, Yinli; Liu, Zhonghu; Gao, Chunsheng; Yan, Fengbin; Liu, Bianzhi; Feng, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquacultured species of the family Cyprinidae, and breeding this species for disease resistance is becoming more and more important. However, at the genome or transcriptome levels, study of the immunogenetics of disease resistance in the common carp is lacking. In this study, 60,316,906 and 75,200,328 paired-end clean reads were obtained from two cDNA libraries of the common carp spleen by Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Totally, 130,293 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 1400.57 bp. Approximately 105,612 (81.06%) unigenes could be annotated according to their homology with matches in the Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, COG, GO, or KEGG databases, and they were found to represent 46,747 non-redundant genes. Comparative analysis showed that 59.82% of the unigenes have significant similarity to zebrafish Refseq proteins. Gene expression comparison revealed that 10,432 and 6889 annotated unigenes were, respectively, up- and down-regulated with at least twofold changes between two developmental stages of the common carp spleen. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were performed to classify all unigenes into functional categories for understanding gene functions and regulation pathways. In addition, 46,847 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected from 35,618 unigenes, and a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) sites were identified in the spleen transcriptome of common carp. This study has characterized the spleen transcriptome of the common carp for the first time, providing a valuable resource for a better understanding of the common carp immune system and defense mechanisms. This knowledge will also facilitate future functional studies on common carp immunogenetics that may eventually be applied in breeding programs. PMID:25804493

  3. The draft genome of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) provides insights into its evolution and vegetarian adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Yong; Ning, Zemin; Li, Yan; Zhao, Qiang; Lu, Hengyun; Huang, Rong; Xia, Xiaoqin; Feng, Qi; Liang, Xufang; Liu, Kunyan; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Tingting; Huang, Tao; Fan, Danlin; Weng, Qijun; Zhu, Chuanrang; Lu, Yiqi; Li, Wenjun; Wen, Ziruo; Zhou, Congcong; Tian, Qilin; Kang, Xiaojun; Shi, Mijuan; Zhang, Wanting; Jang, Songhun; Du, Fukuan; He, Shan; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Gui, Bin; He, Huihui; Ning, Zhen; Yang, Cheng; He, Libo; Luo, Lifei; Yang, Rui; Luo, Qiong; Liu, Xiaochun; Li, Shuisheng; Huang, Wen; Xiao, Ling; Lin, Haoran; Han, Bin; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2015-06-01

    The grass carp is an important farmed fish, accounting for ∼16% of global freshwater aquaculture, and has a vegetarian diet. Here we report a 0.9-Gb draft genome of a gynogenetic female adult and a 1.07-Gb genome of a wild male adult. Genome annotation identified 27,263 protein-coding gene models in the female genome. A total of 114 scaffolds consisting of 573 Mb are anchored on 24 linkage groups. Divergence between grass carp and zebrafish is estimated to have occurred 49-54 million years ago. We identify a chromosome fusion in grass carp relative to zebrafish and report frequent crossovers between the grass carp X and Y chromosomes. We find that transcriptional activation of the mevalonate pathway and steroid biosynthesis in liver is associated with the grass carp's adaptation from a carnivorous to an herbivorous diet. We believe that the grass carp genome could serve as an initial platform for breeding better-quality fish using a genomic approach. PMID:25938946

  4. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  5. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions.

    PubMed

    Duran, Ayhan; Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu

    2009-11-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance. Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed that the temperature varied between 9 and 12 degrees C in sale conditions. In addition, we assumed the arrival time of the fish at the fish market to be 0 (zero) h. Biochemical analyses [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase activity] of carp tissues (muscle, liver, heart, spleen, brain) were carried out on fish which were held for 24 and 48 h, as well as on fresh fish (0 h). In addition, sensory analysis was conducted by a panel consisting of experienced judges of sensory evaluation. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) increases in MDA levels were found in liver, muscle, brain and spleen tissues when comparing the 0- and 24-h groups. But there was no statistically significant (P > 0.05) increase in MDA level in heart tissue of carp after 24 h. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in muscle, spleen and heart tissues when comparing the 24- and 48-h groups. In the group examined at 24 h, it was observed that there were statistically significant differences from the 0 h group values (P < 0.05) for catalase (CAT) activity in muscle, brain, spleen and heart tissues. The decreases in CAT activity in liver and spleen tissues were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) between the group examined at 24 h compared with the group examined at 48 h. Carp maintained good quality during the selling conditions up to 24 h. This experiment deals with the effects of post-slaughter time and storage temperature on carp tissues. It is concluded that by considering the storage temperature (9-12 degrees C) and storage time (post-slaughter) the product maintained acceptable quality up to 24 h. There was significant deterioration of sensory quality, as a result of changes in chemical constituents. PMID:19533401

  6. Chemotaxis towards, adhesion to, and growth in carp gut mucus of two Aeromonas hydrophila strains with different pathogenicity for common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    van der Marel, M; Schroers, V; Neuhaus, H; Steinhagen, D

    2008-05-01

    Characteristics that promote bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosal surface were examined in two strains of the common fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila, with different pathogenicity. The characteristics examined were chemotactic activity towards mucus, bacterial adherence to mucus and growth in mucus. Intestinal gut mucus of healthy common carp was used. The results indicate that chemotaxis is not necessary for a bacterium to become pathogenic, but it may be a necessary parameter for a bacterium to be an obligate pathogen. Adhesion also seems to be a factor influencing pathogenicity. The results suggest that higher adhesion to mucus and subsequent growth is associated with differences in pathogenicity. PMID:18355183

  7. Distinct cytochrome P450 aromatase isoforms in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio): sexual dimorphism and onset of ontogenic expression.

    PubMed

    Barney, Megan L; Patil, Jawahar G; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Carter, Chris G

    2008-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) is a key enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway that catalyses the conversion of testosterone to estrogen, and therefore is thought to influence gonadal sex differentiation. In an effort to understand the role of this enzyme in ovarian differentiation, we isolated cDNA encoding the two distinct isoforms, ovarian and brain (termed cyp19a and cyp19b, respectively) of adult common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The cloned cDNA for cyp19a had an open reading frame (ORF) of 518 amino acid residues, in contrast to cyp19b with an ORF of 511 amino acids. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that these CYP19 isoforms were orthologous with previously described cyp19a and cyp19b from other teleosts. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that both isoforms are expressed in adult ovary and brain, with predominant expression of cyp19a in the ovary and cyp19b in the brain. The major aromatase expressing tissue was found to be the brain, with greatest cyp19b expression in the anterior quarter (telencephalon) in both sexes. The gonad showed sexually dimorphic expression of both genes and dimorphic expression of cyp19a was observed in the cerebellum and the liver. Ontogenic expression showed that only the ovarian aromatase transcript is inherited maternally, with lower expression observed through early larval development under warmer rearing conditions. The differential and overlapping expression suggests these two aromatase genes have different roles in reproductive physiology. PMID:18430424

  8. First evidence of molecular characterization of rohu carp Sox2 gene being expressed in proliferating spermatogonial cells.

    PubMed

    Patra, Swagat Kumar; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Mohapatra, Chinmayee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2015-07-15

    Because little is known about the function of Sox2 (Sry-related box-2) in teleosts, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize Sox2 complementary DNA (cDNA) from the testis of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (rohu). The full-length cDNA contained an open reading frame of 936 nucleotides bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically, Sox2 of L rohita was most closely related to freshwater counterparts than marine water. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the Sox2 gene is encoded by an uninterrupted exon. Furthermore, comparative mRNA expression profile in various organs including proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) suggested about the participatory role of Sox2 during fish male germ cell development and maintenance of stem cells. In support, we have also provided evidence that Sox2 protein is indeed present in rohu SSCs by Western blot analysis. The evolutionarily conserved high-mobility group box domain indicated its possible involvement in common networking pathways for stem cell maintenance and pluripotency between mammals and nonmammals. Our findings could be the first step toward the use of Sox2 as a potential biomarker for proliferating SSCs and understanding the transcriptional regulatory network involved during male germ cell development and maintenance in fish species. PMID:25913275

  9. Analysis of Genome Survey Sequences and SSR Marker Development for Siamese Mud Carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Iranawati, Feni; Jung, Hyungtaek; Chand, Vincent; Hurwood, David A.; Mather, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Siamese mud carp (Henichorynchus siamensis) is a freshwater teleost of high economic importance in the Mekong River Basin. However, genetic data relevant for delineating wild stocks for management purposes currently are limited for this species. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing to generate a partial genome survey sequence (GSS) dataset to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from H. siamensis genomic DNA. Data generated included a total of 65,954 sequence reads with average length of 264 nucleotides, of which 2.79% contain SSR motifs. Based on GSS-BLASTx results, 10.5% of contigs and 8.1% singletons possessed significant similarity (E value < 10−5) with the majority matching well to reported fish sequences. KEGG analysis identified several metabolic pathways that provide insights into specific potential roles and functions of sequences involved in molecular processes in H. siamensis. Top protein domains detected included reverse transcriptase and the top putative functional transcript identified was an ORF2-encoded protein. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven sequences containing SSR motifs were identified, of which 422 qualified for primer design and eight polymorphic loci have been tested with average observed and expected heterozygosity estimated at 0.75 and 0.83, respectively. Regardless of their relative levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, microsatellite loci developed here are suitable for further population genetic studies in H. siamensis and may also be applicable to other related taxa. PMID:23109823

  10. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  11. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of triploid pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-wei; Zou, Gui-wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of triploid pengze crucian carp was 16,580 bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is A 31.53%, T 26.23%, G 16.15%, C 26.09%, with an A + T bias of 57.76%. The complete mtDNA sequence of the geographic triploid pengze crucian carp was reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25231717

  12. Bioavailability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from contaminated Wisconsin River sediment to carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, D.W.; Cook, P.M.; Batterman, A.R.; Lothenbach, D.; Butterworth, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in depuration of 32-34% TCDD. These values compare to field data where sediments ranged from 30-200 pg/g and 1.5 kg carp (70 pg/g) depurated 55% in 325 days. Analysis of sediment, laboratory-exposed fish, and Wisconsin River fish for other PCDDs and PCDFs showed residues of 2,3,7 and 8-substituted congeners selectively enriched.

  13. Identification of 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene metabolites in carp: part 1. in vivo experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, H.; Saito, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism of diisopropylnaphthalene (DIPN) in fish was studied from an ecotoxicological viewpoint to clarify the environmental fate of DIPN, a solvent of carbonless paper which is widely used as a substitute for PCB. This study identified the following metabolites in carp by in vivo experiment; 2-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl) ethyl-6-isopropylnaphthalene, 2-(1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-6-isopropylnaphthalene, 2,6-(1-hydroxy-1-methyl) ethyl-naphthalene, 2-(1-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl) ethyl-6-isopropylnaphthalene and ..cap alpha..-(2-(6-isopropylnaphthyl)) propionic acid. Identification was based on UV, IR, MS, and NMR analyses. The metabolism of 2, 6-DIPN in carp was concluded mainly through oxidation of the isopropyl chain.

  14. Nutritional lipid liver disease of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idullus (C. et V.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ding; Mao, Yongqing; Cai, Fasheng

    1990-12-01

    The inadequate nutrient content of pellet feeds widely used in recent years in China for grass carp farming led to lipid liver degeneration in the fish. The present studies show that the pathological features of lipid liver disease are anaemia and hepatic ceroidosis. Other clinical features are; the ratio of liver to body weight exceeds 3% and lipid content exceeds 5%. Extreme infiltration of hepaiocytes by lipid results in the following deteriorative effects: swelling of the liver cells, increase of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and dislocation of the nucleus, loss of cytoplasm staining affinity, and increased activities of GOT and GPT in serum. Lipid liver degeneration of grass carp can be divided into three stages: 1) deposition of liver lipid; 2) lipid infiltration of hepatic parenchyma; 3) atrophy of liver nucleus. The causes of lipid liver degeneration are complicated, but the main cause is assumed to be an imbalance of nutrients in daily feed and the lock of some lipotropic substances.

  15. Isolated horizontal cells from carp retina demonstrate dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Van Buskirk, R; Dowling, J E

    1981-01-01

    Horizontal cells of the carp retina were separated from other retinal cell types by using enzymatic dissociation and velocity sedimentation at unit gravity. Fractions containing horizontal cells were tested for their ability to accumulate cyclic AMP in the presence of various putative neurotransmitters. Micromolar concentrations of dopamine, when added in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in these isolated cells. The dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP in intact isolated horizontal cells was blocked by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, and fluphenazine. The results indicate that there is a postsynaptic dopamine receptor on carp horizontal cells that is associated with adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. Images PMID:6278491

  16. Fluoride-induced apoptosis and expressions of caspase proteins in the kidney of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjie; Cao, Jinling; Wang, Jundong; Jia, Ruhui; Xue, Wenjuan; Xie, Lingtian

    2015-07-01

    The study was conducted to investigate oxidative stress, apoptosis, and protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9 in kidney of the carp juveniles exposed to 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg L(-1) of fluoride (in the form of NaF) for 90 days. The results showed that dose- and time-dependent decrease of SOD and GSH and dose- and time-dependent increase of MDA were observed in the carp juveniles, which suggested that fluoride induced oxidative damage accompanied with morphological changes and significant apoptosis in fish exposed to fluoride, especially in the higher doses. Fluoride exposure also significantly elevated the protein expressions of caspase-3, 8, and 9. In conclusion, these results indicate that chronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress, damages the kidney structure, and results in renal apoptosis by caspase-dependent pathway. PMID:24459041

  17. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L(-1)  NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. PMID:22724455

  18. [Effect of grass carp introduction of the extinction of Ottelia acuminata in Dianchi Lake].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Xing; Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-12-01

    Ottelia acuminata was a dominant macrophyte in Dianchi Lake prior up through the 1970s, when it was thought to have gone extinct in 1976. Various theories have been proposed as to its extinction, with a particular focus on pollution-driven factors. By comparing the historical records on pollution and fish yields of Dianchi Lake from the 1950s to early 2000, we found that the extinction of O. acuminata from Dianchi Lake occurred earlier than the documented spread of pollution. The surveyed data also demonstrate that the extinction of O. acuminata was likely caused primarily by the massive introduction of grass carp, from1958 to 1973. Future reclamation of lake bays and pollution may yield some impact on the restoration of the O. acuminata population even after the decline of grass carp population. PMID:24415697

  19. Space experiment using large-sized fish: in case of carp in Spacelab-J mission.

    PubMed

    Mori, S; Mitarai, G; Takagi, S; Takabayashi, A; Usui, S; Nakamura, T; Sakakibara, M; Nagatomo, M; von Baumgarten, R J

    1994-07-01

    Two carp of 26 cm in size, intact and otolith-removed (LB), were flown on the Spacelab-J for 8 days in September 12-20, 1992. Light-dependent reaction to alternating direction of illumination was recorded for 10 min twice a day together with the cerebellar EEG activity, on 2 days before the launch, during the flight and for 4 days after the landing, in same fish chamber. Reproducing the video image, it was revealed that both carp were healthy during the mission, but the LB fish was almost immobilized from the 3rd test session (48 hours in flight) by tight twisting of the EEG cable. Both fish after landing tended to stay still on the bottom of the fish chamber. Findings that the body weight reduced remarkably in both fish and that nitrite and nitrate levels of the fish water were usually high, suggested that the fish metabolism might have been enhanced during the flight. PMID:11539537

  20. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

  1. Comparative mapping for bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) against model and non-model fishes provides insights into the genomic evolution of cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chuankun; Tong, Jingou; Yu, Xiaomu; Guo, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Comparative mapping provides an efficient method to connect genomes of non-model and model fishes. In this study, we used flanking sequences of the 659 microsatellites on a genetic map of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to comprehensively study syntenic relationships between bighead carp and nine model and non-model fishes. Of the five model and two food fishes with whole genome data, Cyprinus carpio showed the highest rate of positive BLAST hits (95.3 %) with bighead carp map, followed by Danio rerio (70.9 %), Oreochromis niloticus (21.7 %), Tetraodon nigroviridis (6.4 %), Gasterosteus aculeatus (5.2 %), Oryzias latipes (4.7 %) and Fugu rubripes (3.5 %). Chromosomal syntenic analyses showed that inversion was the basic chromosomal rearrangement during genomic evolution of cyprinids, and the extent of inversions and translocations was found to be positively correlated with evolutionary relationships among fishes studied. Among the five investigated cyprinids, linkage groups (LGs) of bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idella exhibited a one-to-one relationship. Besides, LG 9 of bighead carp and homologous LGs of silver carp and grass carp all corresponded to the chromosomes 10 and 22 of zebrafish, suggesting that chromosomal fission may have occurred in the ancestor of zebrafish. On the other hand, LGs of bighead carp and common carp showed an approximate one-to-two relationship with extensive translocations, confirming the occurrence of a 4th whole genome duplication in common carp. This study provides insights into the understanding of genome evolution among cyprinids and would aid in transferring positional and functional information of genes from model fish like zebrafish to non-model fish like bighead carp. PMID:25627158

  2. Evaluation of sugarcane by-product pressmud as a manure in carp culture.

    PubMed

    Keshavanath, P; Shivanna; Gangadhara, B

    2006-03-01

    The effectiveness of pressmud, a sugarcane by-product, was tested as a manure in the production of natural food and carp, by conducting two experiments. The first experiment, of 5 weeks duration, examined the effect of pressmud addition on water quality and natural food production. This study was carried out in fibreglass tubs (1.54 m3) with a 5 cm mud layer, employing pressmud at dosages of 5000, 10,000 and 15,000 kg ha(-1) for treatments T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Unfertilized tubs served as control (T0). The second experiment of 120-day duration to study the effect on growth, survival and quality of common carp was conducted in 25 m2 cement tanks with 15 cm-mud bottom, using the same dosages of pressmud. The control tanks in this experiment were manured with cattle dung at 10,000 kg ha(-1) (T0). Application of pressmud enhanced (P < 0.05) natural food production, with the greatest effect noted in treatment T3. Fish growth was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in treatments T2 and T3, there being no difference in growth between the control (T0) and 5000 kg pressmud treatment (T1). The greatest survival and production were obtained under treatment T2, which indicates that the dosage of 10,000 kg ha(-1) pressmud is optimal for carp culture. A significant effect (P < 0.05) of pressmud on carcass protein was observed. Organoleptic quality of both raw flesh and cooked meat of carp was not affected (P > 0.05) by pressmud treatment. PMID:16459356

  3. Stimulation of Spermiation by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Carp Pituitary Extract in Grass Puffer, Takifugu niphobles

    PubMed Central

    Goo, In Bon; Park, In-Seok; Gil, Hyun Woo; Im, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Spermiation was stimulated in the mature grass puffer, Takifugu niphobles, with an injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or carp pituitary extract (CPE). Spermatocrit and sperm density were reduced, but milt production was increased in both the HCG and CPE treatment groups relative to those in the control group (P <0.05). These results should be useful for increasing the fertilization efficiency in grass puffer breeding programs. PMID:26973977

  4. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus).

    PubMed

    Liang, LiQun; Chang, YuMei; He, XuLing; Tang, Ran

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, "protein localization" and "protein transport" were the most highly represented biological processes. "Circadian rhythm," "protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum," "endocytosis," "insulin signaling pathway," and "lysosome" were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction of gene expression during their six-month overwintering period. PMID:26098567

  5. Quality Changes and Biogenic Amines Accumulation of Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) Fillets Stored at Different Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongbing; Liu, Xiaochang; Hong, Hui; Shen, Song; Xu, Qian; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem quality changes of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) fillets stored at 20, 4, and 0°C (in ice) were determined in terms of pH value, K value, total volatile basic nitrogen, free amino acids, biogenic amines, drip loss, electrical conductivity (EC), sensory score, and microbial growth. The results showed that black carp fillets could maintain a good quality for 2, 9, and 12 days when stored at 20, 4, and 0°C, respectively. Pseudomonads, Aeromonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were the main spoilage bacteria in black carp. Tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine increased significantly (P < 0.05) during storage at the three temperatures, but not spermidine and spermine, among which tyramine and putrescine were the main biogenic amines in black carp fillets. A significantly higher concentration of histamine (132.05 mg/kg on the third day) was detected in the samples stored at 20°C (P < 0.01) than at 4 and 0°C (0.62 to 3.28 mg/kg) throughout storage, indicating storage of samples at 20°C favored the formation of histamine. The accumulations of tyramine, cadaverine, and histamine were highly correlated with the productions of tyrosine, lysine, and histidine, respectively. Correlations between EC and sensory, physical, chemical, and microbial parameters at the three storage temperatures showed that EC could be used as a better quality indicator to assess the overall quality of fish stored at 4 and 0°C (low temperature) than at 20°C. PMID:27052869

  6. CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-κB signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs. PMID:23826121

  7. Spatial and temporal variation of the gill rakers of gizzard shad and silver carp in three Midwestern rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walleser, Liza R.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; Howard, David R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Amberg, Jon J.

    2014-01-01

    Improved management of invasive Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix in the upper Mississippi River basin may be possible by better understanding the feeding abilities of this population. Food collection for filter-feeding fishes, such as Silver Carp, is influenced by the species-specific structure of their gill rakers. To investigate structural variation in gill rakers of Silver Carp, the morphology of gill rakers was quantified and compared with that of a native filter-feeding fish species which may compete with Silver Carp for food resources, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. Intra- and interspecies variation of gill rakers was examined in both species collected from three locations among four months. Interspecies analysis indicated the size of pores in gill rakers of Silver Carp were much larger than the interraker spacings of Gizzard Shad (95% CI ranged from 80.69 to 185.75 μm versus 16.72 to 47.36 μm, respectively). Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Silver Carp was related to the overall size of fish and occurred only among sites where dissimilar sizes of fish were collected. This suggested the size of particles filtered by Silver Carp may be dependent upon ontogenic development rather than phenotypic plasticity in response to spatial or temporal factors. Intraspecies variation of gill rakers from Gizzard Shad occurred among site and monthly sampling data; however, variation was only attributable to overall size of fish for monthly sampling data. This suggested ontogeny may influence the filter-feeding ability of this species within a habitat. However, variation noted among sites, which was not attributable to size of fish, may indicate gill rakers are phenotypically plastic among Gizzard Shad populations of various river systems of the upper Mississippi River basin.

  8. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  9. Application of dopaminergic antagonist: Metoclopramide, in reproduction of crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Cejko, Beata Irena; Kucharczyk, Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    The effectiveness of Ovopel (two pellets/kg body weight), a complex of [D-Ala(6) Pro(9)NEt-mGnRH] and dopamine antagonist (DA e.g. Metoclopramide, MET), was compared with the application MET alone at the dose of 20mg/kg body weight in spawning crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) in the present study. Ovulation and spermation rates were greater after MET application (90% and 100%, respectively) in comparison to the Ovopel (80% and 87.5%, respectively) when used as a broodstock reproductive stimulation agent. Sperm quality (CASA parameters) after MET treatment was very acceptable without a significant decrease in comparison to the samples from Ovopel-treated crucian carp when spermation stimulation treatments were employed. Though there were no differences in egg and sperm production between Ovopel and MET treatments, hatching rates were significantly greater after MET (84.4%) compared with Ovopel (76.2%) treatment. The usefulness of MET application without GnRHa addition for stimulation of reproduction was ascertained in the present study for the first time in crucian carp. PMID:26254249

  10. Genomic organization and expression of insulin receptors in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yuan, Xiaochen; Li, Aixuan; He, Yuhui; He, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptors have been demonstrated to be involved in embryogenesis, food intake regulation and glucose metabolism in several fish, while more researchis needed for further understanding. In this study, the complete coding sequence (CDS) of insulin receptor a (insra) gene and insulin receptor b (insrb) gene in grass carp were obtained, the CDS were 4068 bp and 4514 bp in length, encoding 1355 aa protein and 1351 aa protein. Both of insra and insrb in grass carp showed high amino acid identities with other fish. Insra and insrb genes were widely expressed in all tested tissues with an overlapping but distinct expressions. The high levels of insra mRNA were distributed in hindgut and heart tissues. The insrb gene showed the highest expression levels in liver and hindgut. We also proved that two forms of grass carp insulin receptors participate in the regulation of blood glucose and might act differently. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that different isoforms of fish insulin receptors are derived from two distinct genes, which was inconsistent with the generation of mammalian insulin receptors. Synteny analyses of insulin receptor genes showed that genes surrounding the insulin receptor genes were conserved in fish. Arhgef18, PEX11G, humanC19orf45 genes were highly conserved among mammal species. However, no conserved synteny was observed among fish, mammals, avians and amphibians. PMID:26772721

  11. Hydroxylated PAHs alter the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in subcellular fractions of carp gonads.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Porte, Cinta

    2013-03-01

    Four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene) and their hydroxylated metabolites (1-hydroxynaphthalene, 9-hydroxy-phenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-hydroxychrysene) were investigated for their ability to alter the synthesis of steroids by testes and ovaries of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Parental compounds had no significant effect on C17,20-lyase (CYP17), CYP11β and 11β-HSD catalyzed activities, all of them involved in the synthesis of active androgens in carp testes. Conversely, hydroxylated metabolites significantly inhibited C17,20-lyase and CYP11β activities; the strongest inhibitor was 9-hydroxyphenanthrene with IC50s of 10.8 and 31.3 μM for CYP17 and CYP11β, respectively. As for the biosynthesis of estrogens, only 9-hydroxyphenanthrene had a significant inhibitory effect on ovarian CYP19 activity (IC50: 4.3 μM). The study highlights the potential of hydroxylated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particularly 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, to disrupt the synthesis of androgens and estrogens in carp gonads. PMID:23376527

  12. Production, characterization and applications of mouse anti-grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yiu-Kwong Leung, Michael; Kwok-Keung Ho, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Mouse anti-grass carp growth hormone (gcGH) monoclonal antibody (MAb) secretors were produced by PEG-mediated fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells and splenic B-lymphocytes of gcGH hyper-immunized mice. Positive secretors were screened by direct ELISA and cloned by limiting dilution. Three positive secretors, 21D3, 22G5 and 23B3, were obtained in a single fusion trial. Anti-gcGH MAbs were produced by growing hybridomas in the peritoneal cavity of pristane-primed mouse. The three MAbs were isotyped to be IgG2a, IgG2b and IgM, respectively. IgG MAbs were purified from ascitic fluid by Hitrap protein G column and IgM MAb was purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified MAbs were highly specific and had moderate binding affinity. The MAbs were successfully used for the purification of native gcGH from mature grass carp pituitary extract by one-step immunoaffinity chromatography, for the quantification of gcGH by competitive sandwich ELISA, and for the probing of somatotropes in grass carp pituitary by immunohistochemistry. PMID:16352451

  13. Effects of the terbuthylazine metabolite terbuthylazine-desethyl on common carp embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Koutnik, Dalibor; Zuskova, Eliska; Stara, Alzbeta

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of terbuthylazine-desethyl to embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was assessed. Based on mortality, the lethal concentration of terbuthylazine-desethyl was estimated to be 31days LC50=441.6?g/L. Carp exposed to terbuthylazine-desethyl at 1800?g/L exhibited lower weight and length at 7days of exposure compared to the control group. By day 20, carp exposed to 900?g/L terbuthylazine-desethyl showed lower weight and length compared to control group. Terbuthylazine-desethyl in concentrations (180, 900, and 1800?g/L) caused delay in ontogenetic development. Total superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in all exposed groups. Exposure to 180 and 900?g/L terbuthylazine-desethyl was associated with alteration of the caudal kidney tubular system including peritubular dilatation detachment of epithelial cells from the basal lamina, and focal autolytic disintegration of the tubular epithelia. Chronic terbuthylazine-desethyl exposure affected survival, growth, ontogenetic development, and the antioxidant system and caused pathological changes to the caudal kidney. PMID:26363394

  14. Comparative hepatic cytochrome P450 activities and contaminant concentrations in caged carp and juvenile ducks

    SciTech Connect

    O`Keefe, P.; Gierthy, J.; Connor, S.; Bush, B.; Hong, C.S.; Wood, L.; Clayton, W.; Storm, R.

    1995-12-31

    Juvenile carp (Cyprinius carpio) weighing approx. 60 g were placed in cages located on the surface of sediments near an aluminum plant and an automobile parts plant in the Massena area of the St. Lawrence River. Fish were removed at weekly intervals over a 35 day exposure period and composited samples of liver tissue, cranial lipid, and fillet tissue were prepared for analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Liver tissue was also stored at {minus}80 C for determination of microsomal Cytochrome P450 activity using the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) assay. A control exposure was carried out upstream at an uncontaminated site. Juvenile pre-flight ducks (mallards, gadwalls, wood ducks and common mergansers) were collected in the contaminated areas on the St. Lawrence and on the Hudson River two to three months after hatching. Control pre-flight mallards, wood ducks and common mergansers were collected from remote lakes in the Addirondack State Park. Samples of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were removed for analysis as described above for the carp. There was a three fold increase in AHH activity in the carp liver tissue at the end of the 35 day exposure period and there was a similar increase it activity for the mallards, common mergansers and wood ducks compared to controls. For each species the enzyme activity increases will be compared to the contaminant concentrations.

  15. Antioxidant properties of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Justyna; Darewicz, Małgorzata; Vegarud, Gerd E; Minkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The presence of specific peptides with antioxidant properties released during carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysis by human/porcine digestive enzymes, respectively, was examined. Based on the results of the in silico data analysis, antioxidant peptides were selected for subsequent identification in the digests/hydrolysates. Carp proteins were more resistant to hydrolysis by porcine enzymes than by human digestive juices. The sarcoplasmic proteins were hydrolyzed faster than the myofibrillar ones by both human/porcine enzymes. The in vitro myofibrillar protein hydrolysate showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging activity (∼232.3 TEAC, μM Trolox/g), whereas the ex vivo hydrolysate of sarcoplasmic proteins showed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (∼88μM/g) and reducing power. Five antioxidant peptides were identified in carp protein ex vivo and in vitro hydrolysates: FIKK, HL, IY, PW, VY. The peptide HL from myofibrillar proteins was identified only in the ex vivo hydrolysate, whereas the peptide PW from sarcoplasmic proteins was identified only in the in vitro hydrolysate. PMID:26471617

  16. Development of an improved RT-PCR for specific detection of spring viraemia of carp virus.

    PubMed

    Shimahara, Y; Kurita, J; Nishioka, T; Kiryu, I; Yuasa, K; Sakai, T; Oseko, N; Sano, M; Dixon, P

    2016-03-01

    Spring viraemia of carp (SVC) is a rhabdovirus infection, which has a significant economic impact in pond cultures of carp in Europe and western Independent States of the former Soviet Union. The causative agent of SVC, spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV), has been divided into four subgroups, Ia, Ib, Ic and Id, on the basis of glycoprotein (G) protein gene sequences. In this study, a new primer set was designed from a G gene sequence of SVCV to identify the four subtypes of SVCV by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The specific PCR products of 369 bp were amplified from 15 SVCV isolates of all four subtypes. However, pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV), which is antigenically related to SVCV, and other viruses antigenically related to SVCV and PFRV were not amplified. The four subtypes of SVCV were specifically amplified by the RT-PCR. Furthermore, the detection limit of the RT-PCR was 7.1 × 10(2) copies/reaction, and it was not influenced by the addition of RNA extracted from fish tissues. The RT-PCR will be applied not only to RNA extracted from viral suspensions, but also from fish tissue. It will contribute to rapid identification of SVCV in fish with clinical signs of SVC. PMID:25832786

  17. Effects of Cyhalothrin-Based Pesticide on Early Life Stages of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžběta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Ševčíková, Marie; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60 g L−1) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250 μg L−1 (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μg L−1 gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50 μg L−1 died soon after hatching; at 25 μg L−1, 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5 μg L−1 showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  18. Participation of cathepsin L in modori phenomenon in carp (Cyprinus carpio) surimi gel.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaqin; Ji, Rong; Jiang, Hai; Zhang, Jinjie; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2012-10-15

    Cathepsin L (Cat L) in carp (Cyprinus carpio) dorsal muscles was purified and its molecular weight determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was 36 kDa. Its optimal temperature and pH were 50 °C and 5.5, respectively. The results of the effects of specific substrates, activators and inhibitors on the enzymatic activity showed that Cat L belongs to the family of cysteine proteinases containing thiol. Compared to the control, the gel strength of surimi with the addition of purified Cat L decreased significantly by 24.33% while that of surimi with both purified Cat L and inhibitors increased by 13.7% and 21.6%, respectively, suggesting the participation of Cat L in the modori phenomenon occurring in carp surimi. Both the SDS-PAGE electrophoretic pattern and microstructure figure revealed that Cat L could hydrolyse the main protein in carp surimi and was one of the enzymes involved in the modori phenomenon. PMID:23442651

  19. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  20. Comparison of intestinal bacterial communities in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, from two different habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Jiajia; Yu, Yuhe; Zhang, Tanglin; Gao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria of vertebrates form a close relationship with their host. External and internal conditions of the host, including its habitat, affect the intestinal bacterial community. Similarly, the intestinal bacterial community can, in turn, influence the host, particularly with respect to disease resistance. We compared the intestinal bacterial communities of grass carp that were collected from farm-ponds or a lake. We conducted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rRNA genes, from which 66 different operational taxonomic units were identified. Using both the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means clustering and principal component analysis ordination, we found that the intestinal bacterial communities from the two groups of pond fish were clustered together and inset into the clusters of wild fish, except for DF-7, and there was no significant correlation between genetic diversity of grass carp and their intestinal bacterial communities (Mantel one-tailed test, R=0.157, P=0.175). Cetobacterium appeared more frequently in the intestine of grass carp collected from pond. A more thorough understanding of the role played by intestinal microbiota on fish health would be of considerable benefit to the aquaculture industry.

  1. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  2. Effects of Dietary Exposure to Zearalenone (ZEN) on Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven; Schulz, Carsten; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Junge, Ranka

    2015-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is frequently contaminating animal feeds including feed used in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of dietary exposure to ZEN on carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were investigated. ZEN at three different concentrations (low dose: 332 µg kg−1, medium dose: 621 µg kg−1 and high dose: 797 µg kg−1 final feed, respectively) was administered to juvenile carp for four weeks. Additional groups received the mycotoxin for the same time period but were fed with the uncontaminated diet for two more weeks to examine the reversibility of the ZEN effects. No effects on growth were observed during the feeding trial, but effects on haematological parameters occurred. In addition, an influence on white blood cell counts was noted whereby granulocytes and monocytes were affected in fish treated with the medium and high dose ZEN diet. In muscle samples, marginal ZEN and α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) concentrations were detected. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of ZEN was confirmed by analysing formation of micronuclei in erythrocytes. In contrast to previous reports on other fish species, estrogenic effects measured as vitellogenin concentrations in serum samples were not increased by dietary exposure to ZEN. This is probably due to the fact that ZEN is rapidly metabolized in carp. PMID:26343724

  3. Metatranscriptomic discovery of plant biomass-degrading capacity from grass carp intestinal microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Ren, Yi; Peng, Chun; Hao, Yaotong; Xiong, Fan; Wang, Guitang; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Angert, Esther R

    2015-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of fish, the ecology and metabolic capacity of fish microbiomes are largely unknown. Here, we sequenced the metatranscriptome of the intestinal microbiota of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, a freshwater herbivorous fish species. Our results confirmed previous work describing the bacterial composition of the microbiota at the phylum level as being dominated by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. Comparative transcriptomes of the microbiomes of fish fed with different experimental diets indicated that the bacterial transcriptomes are influenced by host diet. Although hydrolases and cellulosome-based systems predicted to be involved in degradation of the main chain of cellulose, xylan, mannan and pectin were identified, transcripts with glycoside hydrolase modules targeting the side chains of noncellulosic polysaccharides were more abundant. Predominant 'COG' (Clusters of Orthologous Group) categories in the intestinal microbiome included those for energy production and conversion, as well as carbohydrate and amino acid transport and metabolism. These results suggest that the grass carp intestinal microbiome functions in carbohydrate turnover and fermentation, which likely provides energy for both host and microbiota. Grass carp intestinal microbiome thus reflects its evolutionary adaption for harvesting nutrients for an herbivore with a high-throughput nutritional strategy that is not dominated by cellulose digestion but rather the degradation of intracellular polysaccharides. PMID:26362922

  4. Characterisation of immunoglobulin-binding leucocytes in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Koumans-van Diepen, J C; van de Lisdonk, M H; Taverne-Thiele, A J; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M; Rombout, J H

    1994-01-01

    This study demonstrates the immunoglobulin(Ig)-binding capacity of Ig-positive carp macrophages employing immunofluorescence and immunogold methods. These methods allow for the characterisation of the Ig-binding cells. After internalisation of fluorescent- or gold-labelled Ig (30 min at room temperature), most macrophages from the hindgut were able to bind added purified carp Ig, which could be demonstrated clearly with a second fluorescent or gold label. In pronephros, an important haemopoietic organ in fish, a limited number of monocyte-like cells also showed Ig binding. Pronephros macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes appeared to be Ig-negative. The use of goat anti-mouse Ig gold particles bound by carp anti-goat antibodies revealed that, in addition to hindgut macrophages and pronephric monocyte-like cells, some lymphoid cells in both hindgut and pronephros cell suspensions were also able to bind Ig. The classic erythrocyte-antibody rosette assay resulted in a limited number of small rosettes in cell suspensions from both organs. PMID:8050616

  5. Composition, diversity, and origin of the bacterial community in grass carp intestine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang; Angert, Esther R; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Gut microbiota has become an integral component of the host, and received increasing attention. However, for many domestic animals, information on the microbiota is insufficient and more effort should be exerted to manage the gastrointestinal bacterial community. Understanding the factors that influence the composition of microbial community in the host alimentary canal is essential to manage or improve the microbial community composition. In the present study, 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of the bacterial communities in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) intestinal contents and fish culture-associated environments are performed. The results show that the fish intestinal microbiota harbors many cellulose-decomposing bacteria, including sequences related to Anoxybacillus, Leuconostoc, Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Citrobacter. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the grass carp intestinal content are those related to feed digestion. In addition, the potential pathogens and probiotics are important members of the intestinal microbiota. Further analyses show that grass carp intestine holds a core microbiota composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The comparison analyses reveal that the bacterial community in the intestinal contents is most similar to those from the culture water and sediment. However, feed also plays significant influence on the composition of gut microbiota. PMID:22363439

  6. Effects of dietary histidine on antioxidant capacity in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Gangfu; Jiang, Weidan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Hu, Kai; Li, Shuhong; Zhou, Xiaoqiu

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary histidine could improve antioxidant capacity of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). A total of 1,200 juvenile Jian carp were fed graded levels of histidine at 2.3 (unsupplemented control), 4.4, 6.3, 8.6, 10.8 and 12.7 g/kg diet for 60 days. Results showed that the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) in serum and all tissues apparently decreased with increasing histidine levels up to an optimal level and increased thereafter. Anti-superoxide anion (ASA) capacity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in serum and all tissues, anti-hydroxyl radical (a-HR) capacity, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities in serum, muscle and intestine, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in serum and intestine, as well as glutathione reductase (GR) activity in serum, muscle and hepatopancreas were improved by dietary histidine. Fish fed diet with 8.6 g/kg histidine had lower serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity than that fed with control diet, whereas pattern of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activity was opposite. The present results suggested that histidine could improve antioxidant capacity and inhibit lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of juvenile Jian carp. PMID:23053605

  7. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

  8. Bioaccumulation and metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in a water/sediment microcosm: important role of particulate matter exposure.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shengyan; Zhu, Lingyan; Bian, Jingna; Fang, Shuhong

    2012-03-01

    Microcosms were built up to simulate a pond system with polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contaminated sediment and bioorganisms. The microcosms were divided into groups A and B. In group A, both benthic invertebrates (tubificid worms) and carp (Cyprinu carpio) were added, while in group B, only fish were added. After exposure for 20 d, the fish were sampled (exposure I). A net was fixed in the microcosms, and new fish were added (exposure II). These fish were prohibited from contacting the sediment by the net, and the accumulation and depuration of PBDEs in the fish were investigated. Among 11 monitored PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, BDE-206, BDE-207, BDE-208, and BDE-209), only 5 congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154) were detected in the carp fillets and liver. BDE-99 and BDE-183 were not detected in the fish because of the efficient metabolic debromination in carp tissues. The uptake of PBDEs in exposure I was significantly higher/faster than that in exposure II, since the fish in exposure I had an opportunity to take in more of the highly contaminated particles. The uptake kinetics (k(s)) and elimination (k(e)) rate coefficients showed a general trend of decreasing with increasing log K(ow). No significant difference was observed in uptake/depuration kinetics between groups A and B, indicating that the tubificids' reworking does not affect the bioaccumulation of sediment-associated PBDEs in fish significantly. All the PBDE congeners, including nona- and deca-BDEs, were bioaccumulated in the tubificid worms. The PBDE concentrations in the worms were significantly higher than those in the fish, and the congener profile of the sevem major congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, and BDE-183) was distinctly different from that of fish tissues. The biota-sediment accumulation factors in the worms ranged from 0.01 to 5.89 and declined with increasing bromination and log K(ow.). PMID:22313265

  9. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  10. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Effect of Ultrastructure on Changes of Textural Characteristics between Crisp Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus C.Et V) and Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus) Inducing Heating Treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Ling; Yang, Xian-Qing; Li, Lai-Hao; Hao, Shu-Xian; Wang, Jin-Xu; Huang, Hui; Wei, Ya; Wu, Yan-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The research studies the ultrastructure effect on texture of crisp grass carp (CGC) and grass carp (GC) fillets inducing heating for 15, 25, and 40 min with boiling water. After heating, the hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC were higher than that of raw CGC, whereas the all textural characteristics of heating GC were lower obviously than that of raw GC. The hardness, fracturability, springiness, chewiness, resilience, and cohesiveness of CGC for heating 15 min were higher by 6.3%, 9.0%, 27.0%, 71.8%, 9.4%, and 23.9%, respectively, than that of raw CGC (RCGC). The hardness increasing of CGC flesh with the extension of heating time related closely to more coagulating connective tissue in interstitial spaces, especially relating to smaller muscle fiber diameter and denser muscle fiber density. The more and larger spaces between fiber and fiber with the extension of heating time results in the decrease of cohesiveness and resilience of CGC flesh. For chewiness, the stronger chewiness of cooked CGC associated with more detachment of myofiber-myocommata and fiber-fiber. Overall, the results show that the changes of texture characteristics of CGC fillet with extension of heating time correlates positively with the ultrastructure. PMID:26757426

  12. Molecular and functional characterization of the scavenger receptor CD36 in zebrafish and common carp.

    PubMed

    Fink, Inge R; Benard, Erica L; Hermsen, Trudi; Meijer, Annemarie H; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-02-01

    CD36 is a scavenger receptor which has been studied closely in mammals where it is expressed by many different cell types and plays a role in highly diverse processes, both homeostatic and pathologic. It is among other things important in the innate immune system, in angiogenesis, and in clearance of apoptotic cells, and it is also involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Recently, in the cephalochordate amphioxus a primitive CD36 family member was described, which was present before the divergence of CD36 from other scavenger receptor B family members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. Not much is known on the Cd36 molecule in teleost fish. We therefore studied Cd36 in both zebrafish and common carp, two closely related cyprinid fish species. Whereas a single cd36 gene is present in zebrafish, carp has two cd36 genes, and all show conserved synteny compared to mammalian CD36. The gene expression of carp cd36 is high in brain, ovary and testis but absent in immune organs. Although in mammals CD36 expression in erythrocytes, monocytes and macrophages is high, gene expression studies in leukocyte subtypes of adult carp and zebrafish larvae, including thrombocytes and macrophages provided no indication for any substantial expression of cd36 in immune cell types. Surprisingly, analysis of the cd36 promoter region does show the presence of several binding sites for transcription factors known to regulate immune responses. Overexpression of carp cd36 locates the receptor on the cell surface of mammalian cell lines consistent with the predicted topology of cyprinid Cd36 with a large extracellular domain, two transmembrane domains, and short cytoplasmic tails at both ends. Gene expression of cd36 is down-regulated during infection of zebrafish with Mycobacterium marinum, whereas knockdown of cd36 in zebrafish larvae led to higher bacterial burden upon such infection. We discuss the putative role for Cd36 in immune responses of fish in the context of other members of the scavenger receptor class B family. PMID:25306962

  13. Tissue expression of glandular kallikrein and its response to 17 beta-estradiol in the acclimatized carp.

    PubMed

    Haussmann, Denise; Vidal, Rene; Figueroa, Jaime

    2006-06-01

    Cyprinus carpio skeletal muscle kallikrein was isolated to apparent homogeneity, and a polyclonal antiserum against the purified protein was generated. Glandular kallikrein expression and tissue distribution were assessed using both Western blots and immunohistochemistry. A 39-kDa protein was detected in skeletal muscle, the gill, kidney, and pituitary gland, where an additional 72-kDa immunoreactive band was observed. Immunohistochemistry revealed immunoreactive kallikrein in the intermuscle tissue, epithelial gill cells, apical portion of distal and proximal tubular cells in the kidney, mucus and epithelial cells of the skin, intestinal tube, and prolactin-producing cells of the pituitary gland. In addition, the effect of 17beta-estradiol on kallikrein expression was analyzed in three different tissues of winter- and summer-acclimatized male carps. A 2.5-fold (p<0.05) increase in kallikrein immunoreactivity due to estrogen treatment was observed in winter-acclimatized carp muscle, but not in summer-acclimatized fish. In contrast, the gill responded differently, since a 2-fold (p<0.05) increase was found only in summer-acclimatized carps. Kallikrein immunoreactivity in the kidney increased both in summer- (2.5 fold) and in winter-acclimatized carps (1.5 fold). The signals obtained demonstrate the existence of tissue-specific variable responses to estrogen treatment in vivo, between winter and summer-acclimatized carp. PMID:16849838

  14. The Transcriptomes of the Crucian Carp Complex (Carassius auratus) Provide Insights into the Distinction between Unisexual Triploids and Sexual Diploids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Jiong-Tang; Kuang, You-Yi; Xu, Ru; Zhao, Zi-Xia; Hou, Guang-Yuan; Liang, Hong-Wei; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Both sexual reproduction and unisexual reproduction are adaptive strategies for species survival and evolution. Unisexual animals have originated largely by hybridization, which tends to elevate their heterozygosity. However, the extent of genetic diversity resulting from hybridization and the genomic differences that determine the type of reproduction are poorly understood. In Carassius auratus, sexual diploids and unisexual triploids coexist. These two forms are similar morphologically but differ markedly in their modes of reproduction. Investigation of their genomic differences will be useful to study genome diversity and the development of reproductive mode. We generated transcriptomes for the unisexual and sexual populations. Genes were identified using homology searches and an ab initio method. Estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that the hybridization of gibel carp occurred 2.2 million years ago. Microsatellite genotyping in each individual from the gibel carp population indicated that most gibel carp genes were not tri-allelic. Molecular function and pathway comparisons suggested few gene expansions between them, except for the progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathway, which is enriched in gibel carp. Differential expression analysis identified highly expressed genes in gibel carp. The transcriptomes provide information on genetic diversity and genomic differences, which should assist future studies in functional genomics. PMID:24871367

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ?6-desaturase and Elovl5 segments and their associations with common carp (Cyprinus carpio) growth traits.

    PubMed

    Ren, H Ren; Yu, J; Xu, P; Tang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) are crucial for the nutritional health, physiology, and reproduction of vertebrates. The ?6-desaturase and Elovl5 elongase genes produce essential enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of HUFAs. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of genes functionally related to the growth traits of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) can provide useful information for common carp molecular breeding. In this study, we isolated two ?6 Fad genes and two Elovl5 genes from the common carp. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed, and the genotypes of three SNPs (?6Fad-a intron 10_C73T, ?6Fad-b intron 10_A56G, and Elovl5-a intron 5_C64A) in 712 individuals (383 females and 329 males) were detected. Correlation analysis between the genotypes and weight gain revealed that intron 10_C73T of ?6Fad-a, intron 10_A56G of ?6Fad-b, and intron 5_ C64A of Elovl5-a were significantly associated with common carp weight gain. Weight gain increased with the enrichment of molecular SNP markers, consistent with the characteristics of quantitative traits. Our results indicate that ?6Fad and Elovl5 elongase genes could be candidate genes for the molecular breeding of the common carp. This study provides useful information for the improvement of this species. PMID:26505436

  16. Ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue--ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the obtained hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Borawska, J; Darewicz, M; Vegarud, G E; Iwaniak, A; Minkiewicz, P

    2015-01-01

    In the digestive tract of humans, bioactive peptides, i.e. protein fragments impacting the physiological activity of the body, may be released during the digestion of food proteins, including those of fish. The aim of the study was to establish the method of human ex vivo digestion of carp muscle tissue and evaluate the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of hydrolysates obtained after digestion. It was found that the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue obtained with the three-stage method of simulated ex vivo digestion showed ACE inhibitory as well as antioxidative activities. It was demonstrated that the degree of hydrolysis depended on the duration of individual stages and the degree of comminution of the examined material. Although the applied gastric juices initiated the process of hydrolysis of carp muscle tissue, the duodenal juices caused a rapid increase in the amount of hydrolysed polypeptide bonds. The antihypertensive and antioxidative activities of the hydrolysates of carp muscle tissue increased together with progressive protein degradation. However, the high degree of protein hydrolysis does not favour an increase in the activity of free radical scavenging. The presented results are an example of the first preliminary screening of the potential health-promoting biological activity of carp muscle tissue in an ex vivo study. PMID:25367247

  17. Final environmental assessment: Demonstration of use of grass carp in management of aquatic plants in Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) plans to introduce triploid (sterile) grass carp into Guntersville Reservoir to test their usefulness in managing aquatic vegetation in a reservoir system. This demonstration is compatible with the long-range management plan for Guntersville Reservoir being developed jointly by TVA and the US Army Corps of Engineers at the request of several members of Congress. TVA is not at this time proposing to include grass carp as a routine component if its ongoing aquatic plant management program for Guntersville Reservoir or the TVA reservoir system. TVA's present program consists of water level fluctuations supplemented by herbicides. This environmental assessment evaluates several alternatives to use of grass carp, including use of water level fluctuations (drawdowns), herbicides, and mechanical harvesters. The overall target for this demonstration is to reduce aquatic vegetation in Guntersville Reservoir to about 7,000 acres. The results of this initial stocking will be closely monitored. The proposed monitoring will serve to evaluate the effectiveness of the grass carp demonstration. Because only triploid grass carp will be stocked and phased stocking will be done, any undesirable effects that monitoring might reveal should be reversible within a few years following termination of stocking. 88 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. HIF-1alpha and iNOS levels in crucian carp gills during hypoxia-induced transformation.

    PubMed

    Sollid, Jørund; Rissanen, Eeva; Tranberg, Hanna K; Thorstensen, Tage; Vuori, Kristina A M; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Nilsson, Göran E

    2006-05-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) initiates expression of a wide variety of genes, some of which are involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We have previously shown that crucian carp increases its respiratory surface area 7.5-fold in response to hypoxia. This change is due to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in specific parts of its gills. Here we have characterized crucian carp HIF-1alpha, and measured mRNA, protein and DNA binding levels during hypoxia exposure in crucian carp gills. We have also measured an HIF-1alpha-induced gene, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which has the ability to initiate apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Crucian carp HIF-1alpha was found to have all critical domains known to be important for function. Comparison of the peptide sequence with other species indicated high similarity with other cyprinid fish, but a pronounced variation compared to the salmonid, rainbow trout. Further, we found HIF-1alpha protein to be stabilized during hypoxia. Further, HIF-1alpha was often present in normoxia, and showed marked individual weight-dependent variation. We found no alteration of iNOS mRNA levels during hypoxia exposure. These findings suggest HIF-1alpha involvement in hypoxia-induced change of respiratory surface area in crucian carp gills. However, its activity does not seem to be mediated through iNOS. PMID:16362306

  19. Kinematics, hydrodynamics and energetic advantages of burst-and-coast swimming of koi carps (Cyprinus carpio koi).

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanhao; Yang, Yan; Zeng, Lijiang

    2007-06-01

    Koi carps frequently swim in burst-and-coast style, which consists of a burst phase and a coast phase. We quantify the swimming kinematics and the flow patterns generated by the carps in burst-and-coast swimming. In the burst phase, the carps burst in two modes: in the first, the tail beats for at least one cycle (multiple tail-beat mode); in the second, the tail beats for only a half-cycle (half tail-beat mode). The carp generates a vortex ring in each half-cycle beat. The vortex rings generated during bursting in multiple tail-beat mode form a linked chain, but only one vortex ring is generated in half tail-beat mode. The wake morphologies, such as momentum angle and jet angle, also show much difference between the two modes. In the burst phase, the kinematic data and the impulse obtained from the wake are linked to obtain the drag coefficient (C(d,burst) approximately 0.242). In the coast phase, drag coefficient (C(d,coast) approximately 0.060) is estimated from swimming speed deceleration. Our estimation suggests that nearly 45% of energy is saved when burst-and-coast swimming is used by the koi carps compared with steady swimming at the same mean speed. PMID:17562892

  20. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  1. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  2. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  3. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ≥150 base pairs had a match of ≥95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

  4. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

  5. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

  6. Phase I metabolism of 3-methylindole, an environmental pollutant, by hepatic microsomes from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zlabek, Vladimir; Burkina, Viktoriia; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc; Sakalli, Sidika; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2016-05-01

    We studied the in vitro metabolism of 3-methylindole (3MI) in hepatic microsomes from fish. Hepatic microsomes from juvenile and adult carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were included in the study. Incubation of 3MI with hepatic microsomes revealed the time-dependent formation of two major metabolites, 3-methyloxindole (3MOI) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C). The rate of 3MOI production was similar in both species at both ages. No differences in kinetic parameters were observed (p = 0.799 for Vmax, and p = 0.809 for Km). Production of I3C was detected only in the microsomes from rainbow trout. Km values were similar in juvenile and adult fish (p = 0.957); Vmax was higher in juvenile rainbow trout compared with adults (p = 0.044). In rainbow trout and carp, ellipticine reduced formation of 3MOI up to 53.2% and 81.9% and ketoconazole up to 65.8% and 91.3%, respectively. The formation of I3C was reduced by 53.7% and 51.5% in the presence of the inhibitors ellipticine and ketoconazole, respectively. These findings suggest that the CYP450 isoforms CYP1A and CYP3A are at least partly responsible for 3MI metabolism. In summary, 3MI is metabolised in fish liver to 3MOI and I3C by CYP450, and formation of these metabolites might be species-dependent. PMID:26915592

  7. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 Il10 Inhibits Inflammatory Activities of Carp Macrophages and Promotes Proliferation of Igm+ B Cells and Memory T Cells in a Manner Similar to Carp Il10.

    PubMed

    Piazzon, M Carla; Wentzel, Annelieke S; Tijhaar, Edwin J; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Forlenza, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the causative agent of a lethal disease of carp and encodes for an Il10 homolog (ORF134). Our previous studies with a recombinant ORF134-deleted strain and the derived revertant strain suggested that cyprinid herpesvirus 3 Il10 (CyHV-3 Il10 [cyhv3Il10]) is not essential for viral replication in vitro, or virulence in vivo. In apparent contrast, cyhv3Il10 is one of the most abundant proteins of the CyHV-3 secretome and is structurally very similar to carp Il10 and also human IL10. To date, studies addressing the biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host have not been performed. To address the apparent contradiction between the presence of a structurally conserved Il10 homolog in the genome of CyHV-3 and the lack of a clear phenotype in vivo using recombinant cyhv3Il10-deleted viruses, we used an in vitro approach to investigate in detail whether cyhv3Il10 exerts any biological activity on carp cells. In this study, we provide direct evidence that cyhv3Il10 is biologically active and, similarly to carp Il10, signals via a conserved Stat3 pathway modulating immune cells of its natural host, carp. In vitro, cyhv3Il10 deactivates phagocytes with a prominent effect on macrophages, while also promoting proliferation of Igm(+) B cells and memory T cells. Collectively, this study demonstrates a clear biological activity of cyhv3Il10 on cells of its natural host and indicates that cyhv3Il10 is a true viral ortholog of carp Il10. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first report on biological activities of a nonmammalian viral Il10 homolog. PMID:26371255

  8. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

  9. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  10. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  11. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Jia, Lai-Bing; Yin, Xie-Zhen

    2011-08-01

    Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments. The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming. We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp (carassius auratus). A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well. With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force. Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  12. A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp (Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

    PubMed

    Alam, M G M; Tanaka, A; Allinson, G; Laurenson, L J B; Stagnitti, F; Snow, E T

    2002-11-01

    The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild and cultured fish were accumulating and distributing metals in the same manner and that aquaculture practices are not increasing metal concentrations in these fish. Metal concentrations were lowest in muscle, and did not exceed established quality standards for fish. The differences in metal concentrations between cultivated and wild carp are negligible and should pose no health problems for consumers of either type of fish. PMID:12485577

  13. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  14. Postmortem changes in actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation and endogenous enzyme activities of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Deng, Shaoying; Xu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Liu, Fang

    2016-04-15

    The changes of actomyosin, proteolytic activities and myofibril fragmentation during the postmortem aging of grass carp were studied. The study revealed dramatically increased actomyosin dissociation within 6 h of storage postmortem in grass carp, and it was associated with the drop of pH from 6.9 to 6.7, while liberated actin remained almost unchanged after 6 h postmortem. The myofibril fragmentation also increased significantly with the storage time in 6 h, and a highly positive correlation (P<0.01) existed between MFI and cathepsin B, D, H activities. The study indicated both actomyosin dissociation and cathepsin B, D, H played a role in postmortem tenderization and textural changes in grass carp. PMID:26616958

  15. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  16. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  17. Profilings of MicroRNAs in the Liver of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Infected with Flavobacterium columnare.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Lu, Hong; Meng, Qinglei; Wang, Jinfu; Wang, Weimin; Yang, Ling; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulation of many biological processes in eukaryotes, including pathogen infection and host interactions. Flavobacterium columnare (FC) infection can cause great economic loss of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) which is one of the most important cultured fish in the world. However, miRNAs in response to FC infection in common carp has not been characterized. To identify specific miRNAs involved in common carp infected with FC, we performed microRNA sequencing using livers of common carp infected with and without FC. A total of 698 miRNAs were identified, including 142 which were identified and deposited in the miRbase database (Available online: http://www.mirbase.org/) and 556 had only predicted miRNAs. Among the deposited miRNAs, eight miRNAs were first identified in common carp. Thirty of the 698 miRNAs were differentially expressed miRNAs (DIE-miRNAs) between the FC infected and control samples. From the DIE-miRNAs, seven were selected randomly and their expression profiles were confirmed to be consistent with the microRNA sequencing results using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. In addition, a total of 27,363 target genes of the 30 DIE-miRNAs were predicted. The target genes were enriched in five Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, including focal adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog (ErbB) signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and adherent junction. The miRNA expression profile of the liver of common carp infected with FC will pave the way for the development of effective strategies to fight against FC infection. PMID:27092486

  18. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E.; Chen, Billy; Koch, Stephen R.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew; Davidson, Jeffrey M.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  19. Bioinformatics analysis of organizational and expressional characterizations of the IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiwei; Wan, Quanyuan; Su, Jianguo

    2016-08-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play crucial roles in the immune response of defense against viral infection and bacteria invasion. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized the IFNs, their regulatory factors (Interferon Regulatory Factors, IRFs) and receptors (Cytokine Receptor Family B, CRFBs) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Grass carp IFNs can be classified into type I IFN (IFN-I) and type II IFN (IFN-II) like other teleosts. IFN-I consist of two groups with two (group I) or four (group II) cysteines in the mature peptide and can be further divided into three subgroups (IFN-a, -c and -d), containing four members: IFN1, IFN2, IFN3, IFN4 in grass carp. IFN-II contain two members, IFNγ2 with the similarity to mammalian IFNγ and a cyprinid specific IFNγ1 (IFNγ-rel) molecule. mRNA expression analyses of IFNs discovered that IFN1 and IFN-II were sustainably expressed in many tissues, while other IFN members were transiently expressed in specific tissues and time points. In the immune response, IFN transcriptions are primarily regulated through multiple IRFs after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. IRF family possess thirteen members in grass carp, which can be further divided into four subfamilies (IRF-1, -3, -4 and -5 subfamily), each of them plays different roles in the innate and adaptive immunity via various signaling pathways to interact with IFNs (mainly IFN-I). IFNs have to bind receptors (CRFBs) to perform their functions. CRFBs as IFN receptors contain six members in grass carp. The structure and expression characterizations of IFNs, IRFs and CRFBs were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. These results might provide basic data for the further functional research of IFN system, and deeply understand fish immune mechanisms against virus infection. PMID:27012995

  20. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M

    1991-04-01

    The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

  1. Nanobeads-based rapid magnetic solid phase extraction of trace amounts of leuco-malachite green in Chinese major carps.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jianwen; Wei, Hua; Lai, Weihua; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Xu, Hengyi; Xiong, Yonghua

    2012-08-15

    A proof-of-concept for the use of oleic acid coated magnetic nanobeads (OA-MNBs) for the magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace amounts of leuco-malachite green (LMG) from fish samples was developed. The OA-MNBs were prepared by covalently conjugating oleic acid on amino-modified magnetic polystyrene beads. The OA-MNBs were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta-potential analyzer. The optimized parameters for MSPE with OA-MNBs of LMG from fish muscle involved a combination of pH 10.0 in 10% acetonitrile, 1.5 M sodium chloride as an adsorption solution, and an extraction procedure involving 6 mg OA-MNBs in 18 mL LMG adsorption solution. This was optimized for 0.5 g fish muscles with an incubation period of 10 min using 200 μL acetonitrile for elution. Using the optimized parameters, the performance of MSPE with OA-MNBs was evaluated by analyzing LMG-spiked fish extracts with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The results indicated that recoveries of LMG (from 0.1 to 2 ng/g) ranged from 71.2%-112.6% with relative standard deviations as low as 0.6%. Out of 57 field fish samples, eight LMG positive samples were confirmed using MSPE with OA-MNBs. Compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction methods, the results showed that MSPE with OA-MNBs had a higher sensitivity for samples with low LMG concentration. Furthermore, the MSPE with OA-MNB took only 40 min to perform without the need for time consuming sample-pretreatment process. Therefore, MSPE with OA-MNBs holds promise for rapid, sensitive, and cost effective screening for LMG in fish samples. PMID:22841089

  2. Computational analysis of transcriptome of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) for functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Rashid, Iliyas; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Singh, Mahender; Singh, Shri Prakash; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A total of 1671 ESTs of Labeo rohita were retrieved from dbEST database and analysed for functional annotation using various computational approaches. The result indicated 1387 non-redundant (184 contigs and 1203 singletons) putative transcripts with an average length of 542 bp. These 1387 transcript sequences were matched with Refseq_RNA, UniGene and Swiss-Prot on high threshold cut-off for functional annotation along with help of gene ontology and SSRs markers. We developed extensive Perl programming based modules for processing all alignment files, comparing and extracting common hits from all files on a threshold, evaluating statistics for alignment results and assigning gene ontology terms. In this study, 92 putative transcripts predicted as orthologous genes and among those, 44 putative transcripts were annotated with gene ontology terms. The annotated orthologous gene of our result associated with some very important proteins of L. rohita involved in biotic and abiotic stresses and glucose metabolism of spermatogenic cells etc. The unidentified transcripts, if found important in expression profiling can be vital resource after re-sequencing. The predicted genes can further be used for enhancing productivity and controlling disease of L. rohita. PMID:23275698

  3. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection disrupts the skin barrier of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Adamek, Mikołaj; Syakuri, Hamdan; Harris, Sarah; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Brogden, Graham; Matras, Marek; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2013-03-23

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is recognised as a pathogen which causes mass mortality in populations of carp, Cyprinus carpio. One of the characteristic symptoms of the disease associated with CyHV-3 infection is the occurrence of skin lesions, sloughing off the epithelium and a lack of mucus. Furthermore, fish then seem to be more susceptible to secondary infections by bacterial, parasitic or fungal pathogens which may cause further mortality within the population. The observed pathological alterations lead to the assumption that the carp skin barrier is strongly challenged during CyHV-3 associated disease. Therefore we examined mRNA expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators, type I interferons, and the following skin defence molecules: antimicrobial peptides, claudins, and mucin. In addition, we monitored changes in the bacterial flora of the skin during disease conditions. Our results show that CyHV-3 associated disease in the skin of common carp leads to a reduction in mRNA expression of genes encoding several important components of the mucosal barrier, in particular mucin 5B, beta defensin 1 and 2, and the tight junction proteins claudin 23 and 30. This caused changes in the bacterial flora and the development of secondary bacterial infection among some individual fish. To our knowledge this is the first report showing that under disease conditions associated with virus infection, the mucosal barrier of fish skin is disrupted resulting in a higher susceptibility to secondary infections. The reported clinical signs of CyHV-3 skin infection can now be explained by our results at the molecular level, although the mechanism of a probable virus induced immunomodulation has to be investigated further. PMID:23182910

  4. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296

  5. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis in rainbow trout and common carp with common and alternative therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, Franz; Weismann, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    The goal of this laboratory study was to provide better knowledge about the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis (causative agent: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliate bacteria) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp Cyprinus carpio. The following questions were investigated: (1) the effectiveness of different chemicals (formalin, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, Perotan, Virkon, Aquahumin, Baycox, and Ivomec) and at different concentrations and durations of application, (2) the number of treatments and the time intervals between treatments that were necessary to remove the parasite, and (3) how treatment effectiveness differed between the two species. The most effective treatment was a 37% stock solution of formalin at 110 microL/L of bath water for 1 h in rainbow trout and for 2 h in common carp. Aquahumin (150 microL/L for 2 h) was effective in slightly or moderately infected rainbow trout and at low water temperatures, but it was not effective for common carp. All other tested chemicals were ineffective. With formalin and Aquahumin, five treatments were necessary to remove I. multifiliis infestation. At 10 +/- 1 degrees C, the parasites were eradicated when the treatment was performed at 48-h intervals. At 18 +/- 1 degrees C the infestation was eliminated when treatment was performed at 24-h intervals but not at 48-h intervals. At 25 +/- 1 degrees C, treatment at 24-h intervals was ineffective; however, shorter intervals between treatments might improve treatment efficacy at this temperature. In contrast, the number of treatment repetitions played a minor role, and parasites were eliminated with five treatments in all experiments when the type of chemical and treatment interval were optimal. PMID:18201060

  6. Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have verified the protective role of fish lipids in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of fish lipids on health boost remain undefined. Large amounts of by-products, such as fish brain which contains high level of lipids, are produced with silver carp processing. Fish brain is rich in bioactive lipids which are overwhelmingly effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacological activities of silver carp brain lipids against diseases by inhibiting platelet-activating factor (PAF), suppressing bacterial growth and scavenging free radicals. Methods Total lipids (TL) were extracted from silver carp brain and separated into polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL). The capabilities of the lipid fractions in aggregating washed rabbit platelet or in inhibiting PAF-induced platelet aggregation were tested. Their antibacterial and antiradical activities were studied as well. Results The lipid fractions exhibited strong inhibitory activities, and the activity of TL was mainly attributed to NL. TL exhibited antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, while NL managed to fight against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. PL excelled TL and NL in simultaneously suppressing the growths of Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi besides those of S. aureus and E. coli. The scavenging effect of PL on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was considerably higher than those of TL and NL. Conclusion The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health. PMID:23805935

  7. Obestatin partially suppresses ghrelin stimulation of appetite in "high-responders" grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaochen; Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Su, Hang; Yuan, Yongchao; Li, Aixuan; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gastrointestinal peptides obtained by post-translational processing of a common precursor, preproghrelin. The effect of obestatin on food intake is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ghrelin and obestatin on food intake in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Fish received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of saline, ghrelin (100 ng g(-1)BW), obestatin-like (25 ng g(-1)BW) and ghrelin in combination with obestatin-like. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake varied considerably among individual fish with 70.8% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, food intake was significantly increased by IP ghrelin within 2 h. Co-administration of ghrelin and obestatin-like resulted in a decrease in food intake, indicating that obestatin was able to antagonize the effect of ghrelin. However, IP obestatin-like alone could not regulate food intake in grass carp. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that IP ghrelin peptide led to a significant increase in mRNA abundance of NPY, Y8a and Y8b genes compared to saline injected fish, while in combination with obestatin-like peptide decreased ghrelin-induced gene expressions of these three genes. IP sole obestatin-like peptide did not modify the expression levels of NPY, Y8a, Y8b, CART and POMC compared to the control group. Therefore, IP administration of obestatin-like peptide, partially blocking the ghrelin-induced appetite, investigated the possible involvement of obestatin as a mediator of the ghrelin stimulatory action on food intake, at least in "high-responders" grass carp. PMID:25737031

  8. Mink biomagnification factors for dioxin-like compounds fed Saginaw Bay carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, T.J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Heaton, S.N.; Bursian, S.N.; Giesy, J.P.; Render, J.A.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 40% Saginaw Bay carp were fed to ranch mink to assess reproductive effects. All carp diets adversely affected reproduction. The diets and livers of the adult mink at the end of the study were chemically analyzed for planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHS) that induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)/ethoxyresorufin o-deethylase (EROD). Biomagnification factors (BMFS) from diets to mink livers were calculated. AHH and EROD-active PCB congeners uniformly magnified across diets except for PCB 126, which had higher magnification at lowest carp and control diets. PCB and PCDF congener magnification ranged from incalculable to 60-fold higher and individual PCDDs ranged from incalculable to 165 times the diet. As expected from previous mammalian studies, 2378-TCDD magnified over an order of magnitude more than 2378-TCDF but by 4 to 5-fold less than 23478-PCDF. Based on dioxin equivalents theory and TEFS, PCB 126 ranked first in the liver residues of 2378-TCDD equivalents followed by PCB 105, 23478-PCDF and 2378-TCDD. Magnification factors allow for interpretation of relative exposure risks from certain wild forage species if wild mink liver concentrations are known. Conversely, knowledge of wild mink forage item concentrations allows for calculation of an estimated wild mink liver residue, when the concentration and dietary forage percentage are multiplied by the BMF. Therefore, BMFs can assist in the elucidation of relative risk of a population to these contaminants without necessarily having large numbers of mink samples, especially in habitats such as the Saginaw Bay area where mink and otter populations are presumed to be affected by high PHH contamination.

  9. Deltamethrin is toxic to the fish (crucian carp, Carassius carassius) heart.

    PubMed

    Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-05-01

    Pyrethroids are extensively used for the control of insect pests and disease vectors. Pyrethroids are regarded safe due to their selective toxicity: they are effective against insects but relatively harmless to mammals and birds. Unfortunately, pyrethroids are very toxic to fishes. The high toxicity of pyrethroids to fishes is only partly explained by slow metabolic elimination of pyrethroids, suggesting that some molecular targets in vital organs of the fish body are sensitive to pyrethroids. To this end we tested the effect of deltamethrin (DM) on fish (crucian carp, Carassius carassius) heart function in vitro. In sinoatrial preparations of the crucian carp heart DM (10μM) caused irregularities in rate and rhythm of atrial beating and strong reductions in force of atrial contraction, thus indicating that DM is arrhythmogenic to the fish heart. Consistent with this, DM (10.0μM) induced irregularities in electrical activity (surface electrocardiogram) of spontaneous beating hearts in vitro. In isolated ventricular myocytes, DM (0.1-30.0μM) modified Na(+) current by slowing channel closing and shifting reversal potential and steady-state activation of the current to more negative voltages. Maximally about 48% of the cardiac Na(+) channels were affected by DM with a half-maximal effect occurring at the concentration of 1.3μM. These findings indicate that DM can be cardiotoxic to the crucian carp and that these effects could be due to DM related changes in Na(+) channel function. These findings indicate that in addition to their neurotoxicity effects pyrethroid could also be cardiotoxic to fishes. PMID:27017879

  10. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Gaetani, Sancia; Apreda, Marianna; Bellovino, Diana . E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

    2005-07-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

  11. Monoclonal Antibody Against M Protein of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zeming; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Peixiao; Liu, Guangxin; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    M protein of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and then used to immunize BALB/c mice. One monoclonal antibody (5A1) against M protein was generated by fusion of mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 and spleen lymphocytes from immunized mice. The characterizations of this MAb were confirmed by ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), IFA (immunofluorescent assay), and Western blot analysis. All results indicate that MAb 5A1 was specific to SVCV M protein. PMID:25897611

  12. Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Cold-Responsive Genes in Amur Carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus)

    PubMed Central

    He, XuLing

    2015-01-01

    The adaptation of fish to low temperatures is the result of long-term evolution. Amur carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) survives low temperatures (0-4°C) for six months per year. Therefore, we chose this fish as a model organism to study the mechanisms of cold-adaptive responses using high-throughput sequencing technology. This system provided an excellent model for exploring the relationship between evolutionary genomic changes and environmental adaptations. The Amur carp transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina platform and was assembled into 163,121 cDNA contigs, with an average read length of 594 bp and an N50 length of 913 bp. A total of 162,339 coding sequences (CDSs) were identified and of 32,730 unique CDSs were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO), EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed to classify all CDSs into different functional categories. A large number of cold-responsive genes were detected in different tissues at different temperatures. A total of 9,427 microsatellites were identified and classified, with 1952 identifying in cold-responsive genes. Based on GO enrichment analysis of the cold-induced genes, “protein localization” and “protein transport” were the most highly represented biological processes. “Circadian rhythm,” “protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum,” “endocytosis,” “insulin signaling pathway,” and “lysosome” were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes induced by cold stress. Our data greatly contribute to the common carp (C. carpio) transcriptome resource, and the identification of cold-responsive genes in different tissues at different temperatures will aid in deciphering the genetic basis of ecological and environmental adaptations in this species. Based on our results, the Amur carp has evolved special strategies to survive low temperatures, and these strategies include the system-wide or tissue-specific induction of gene expression during their six-month overwintering period. PMID:26098567

  13. Characterization of interleukin-1? as a proinflammatory cytokine in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Bo, Yun-Xuan; Song, Xue-Hong; Wu, Kang; Hu, Bo; Sun, Bing-Yao; Liu, Zhao-Jun; Fu, Jian-Gui

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a well-characterized cytokine that plays key roles in cellular responses to infection, inflammation, and immunological challenges in mammals. In this study, we identified and analyzed a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) ortholog of IL-1? (gcIL-1?), examined its expression patterns in various tissues in both healthy and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated specimens, and evaluated its proinflammatory activities. The gcIL-1? gene consists of seven exons and six introns. The full-length cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame of 813 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a characteristic IL-1 signature but lacks the typical IL-1? converting enzyme cleavage site that is conserved in mammals. In the phylogenetic tree, IL-1?s from grass carp and other members of the Cyprinidae family clustered into a single group. Expression pattern analysis revealed that gcIL-1? is constitutively expressed in all 11 tissues examined, and LPS stimulation leads to significant up-regulation in muscle, liver, intestine, skin, trunk kidney, head kidney, and gill. Recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) was generated prokaryotically as a fusion protein of Trx-rgcIL-1?. An anti-rgcIL-1? polyclonal antibody (rgcIL-1? pAb) was raised in mice against the purified Trx-rgcIL-1?. Western blot analysis confirmed that rgcIL-1? pAb reacted specifically with gcIL-1? in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Quantitative real-time PCR data indicated that intestinal mRNA expression levels of endogenous IL-1?, IL-1R2, and TNF-? were significantly up-regulated following Trx-rgcIL-1? exposure. The inhibitory activities of rgcIL-1? pAb against the inflammatory response were confirmed in a model of Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal inflammation. Our immunohistochemical study revealed that the degree and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltration are fully consistent with the observed mRNA expression patterns of these key inflammatory genes. Taken together, these data suggest that gcIL-1? plays a critical role in the proinflammatory response in the grass carp intestine. PMID:26235982

  14. XANES spectroscopy sensitivity to small electronic changes. Case of carp azidomethemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Pin, S; Le Tilly, V; Alpert, B; Cortes, R

    1989-01-01

    Spin states equilibrium of hemoglobin-iron varies with external conditions: pH, allosteric effectors, temperature. The small electronic reorganization of the iron caused by the spin state changes has been detected by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at room temperature. The iron K-edge region which is sensitive to spin state is located in 7110-7130 eV. Here are presented the 100% high spin and 100% low spin XANES spectra of carp azido ferric hemoglobin. PMID:2914617

  15. Proteomic analysis of cellular protein expression profiles in response to grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Song, Lang; Wang, Hao; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Tu; Lu, Liqun

    2015-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is emerging as a serious problem in grass carp aquaculture. To better understand the molecular responses to GCRV infection, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectroscopy were performed to investigate altered proteins in C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. Differentially expressed proteins in mock infected CIK cells and GCRV-infected CIK cells were compared. Twenty-three differentially expressed spots were identified (22 upregulated spots and 1 downregulated spot), which included cytoskeleton proteins, macromolecular biosynthesis-associated proteins, stress response proteins, signal transduction proteins, energy metabolism-associated proteins and ubiquitin proteasome pathway-associated proteins. Moreover, 10 of the corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to examine their transcriptional profiles. The T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA1) and Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein1 (G3BP1) of the cellular stress granule pathway from grass carp C. idella (designated as CiTIA1 and CiG3BP1) were upregulated and downregulated during GCRV infection, respectively. The full-length cDNA of CiTIA1 was 2753 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1155bp, which encodes a putative 385-amino acid protein. The 2271 bp full-length cDNA of CiG3BP1 comprised an ORF of 1455 bp that encodes a putative 485-amino acid protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the complete ORFs of CiTIA1 and CiG3BP1 were very similar to zebrafish and well-characterized mammalian homologs. The expressions of the cellular proteins CiTIA1 and CiG3BP1 in response to GCRV were validated by western blotting, which indicated that the GCRV should unlink TIA1 aggregation and stress granule formation. This study provides useful information on the proteomic and cellular stress granule pathway's responses to GCRV infection, which adds to our understanding of viral pathogenesis. PMID:25783000

  16. The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  17. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    PubMed

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. PMID:23415978

  18. Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscle by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Posyniak, Andrzej; Zmudzki, Jan

    2005-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-VIS/FLD method for the analysis of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG) in carp muscle has been described. The method consists in an extraction with acetonitrile-buffer mixture followed by partioning with dichloromethane. Clean up and isolation were performed on SCX solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using phenyl-hexyl column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and acetate buffer (0.05 M, pH 4.5) (60:40, v/v). Liquid chromatography with absorbance detector (lambda = 620 nm) was used for the determination of MG while LMG was detected by fluorescence detector (lambda(ex) = 265 nm and lambda(em) = 360 nm). The both detectors were connected on-line which allowed direct analysis of a sample extract for MG and LMG without the need for any post-column procedure. The whole method has been validated, according to the EU requirements (Commission Decision 2002/657/EC). Specificity, stability, decision limit (CCalpha), detection capability (CCbeta), accuracy and precision were determined. Average recoveries of MG and LMG from muscle fortified at three levels (0.5, 1 and 2 microg/kg) were 62% (range from 60.4 to 63.5%) and 90% (range from 89.0 to 91.5%), respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) of recoveries at all fortification levels were less than 10.9 and 8.6% for MG and LMG, respectively. The calculated CCalpha for MG and LMG were 0.15 and 0.13 microg/kg, and CCbeta were 0.37 and 0.32 microg/kg, complying with the minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of 2 microg/kg (sum of MG and LMG). PMID:16130786

  19. Functional characterisation of UCP1 in the common carp: uncoupling activity in liver mitochondria and cold-induced expression in the brain.

    PubMed

    Jastroch, Martin; Buckingham, Julie A; Helwig, Michael; Klingenspor, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2007-10-01

    Mammalian uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediates nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. We previously reported on the presence of a UCP1 orthologue in ectothermic fish and observed downregulation of UCP1 gene expression in the liver of the common carp. Neither the function of UCP1, nor the mode of UCP1 activation is known in carp liver mitochondria. Here, we compared the proton conductance at 25 degrees C of liver mitochondria isolated from carp either maintained at 20 degrees C (warm-acclimated, WA) or exposed to 8 degrees C (cold-acclimated, CA) water temperature for 7-10 days. Liver mitochondria from WA carp had higher state four rates of oxygen consumption and greater proton conductance at high membrane potential. Liver mitochondria from WA, but not from CA, carp showed a strong increase in proton conductance when palmitate (or 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, HNE) was added, and this inducible proton conductance was prevented by addition of GDP. This fatty acid sensitive proton leak is likely due to the expression of UCP1 in the liver of WA carp. The observed biochemical properties of proton leak strongly suggest that carp UCP1 is a functional uncoupling protein with broadly the same activatory and inhibitory characteristics as mammalian UCP1. Significant UCP1 expression was also detected in our previous study in whole brain of the carp. We here observed a twofold increase of UCP1 mRNA in carp brain following cold exposure, suggesting a role of UCP1 in the thermal adaptation of brain metabolism. In situ hybridization located the UCP1 gene expression to the optic tectum responsible for visual system control, the descending trigeminal tract and the solitary tract. Taken together, this study characterises uncoupling protein activity in an ectotherm for the first time. PMID:17576568

  20. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  1. Cadmium Induces Liver Cell Apoptosis through Caspase-3A Activation in Purse Red Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

  2. Cynatratoside-C efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, and toxicity tests on grass carp and mammal blood cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao-Wu; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Bin; Liang, Jing-Han; Lin, De-Jie

    2015-11-17

    Infection by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a ciliated protozoan parasite, results in high fish mortality and causes severe economic losses in aquaculture. To find new, efficient anti-I. multifiliis agents, cynatratoside-C was isolated from Cynanchum atratum by bioassay-guided fractionation in a previous study. The present study investigated the anti-theront activity, determined the toxicity of cynatratoside-C to grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus and mammalian blood cells, and evaluated the protection of cynatratoside-C against I. multifiliis theront infection in grass carp. Results showed that all theronts were killed by 0.25 mg l-1 of cynatratoside-C in 186.7 ± 5.8 min. Cynatratoside-C at 0.25 mg l-1 was effective in treating infected grass carp and protecting naive fish from I. multifiliis infestation. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of cynatratoside-C to grass carp and 4 h median effective concentration (EC50) of cynatratoside-C to theront were 46.8 and 0.088 mg l-1, respectively. In addition, the hemolysis assay demonstrated that cynatratoside-C had no cytotoxicity to rabbit red blood cells. Therefore, cynatratoside-C could be a safe and effective potential parasiticide for controlling I. multifiliis. PMID:26575152

  3. Extending the Use of Spanish Computer-Assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) in People with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Jose A.; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Buiza, Juan J.; Sage, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To extend the use of the Spanish Computer-assisted Anomia Rehabilitation Program (CARP-2) for anomia from a single case to a group of 15 people with aphasia. To evaluate whether the treatment is active (Phase 1) for this group (Robey & Schultz, 1998), providing potential explanations as to why. Methods: Fifteen participants with chronic…

  4. Lowering Temperature is the Trigger for Glycogen Build-Up and Winter Fasting in Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius).

    PubMed

    Varis, Joonas; Haverinen, Jaakko; Vornanen, Matti

    2016-02-01

    Seasonal changes in physiology of vertebrate animals are triggered by environmental cues including temperature, day-length and oxygen availability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) tolerate prolonged anoxia in winter by using several physiological adaptations that are seasonally activated. This study examines which environmental cues are required to trigger physiological adjustments for winter dormancy in crucian carp. To this end, crucian carp were exposed to changing environmental factors under laboratory conditions: effects of declining water temperature, shortening day-length and reduced oxygen availability, separately and in different combinations, were examined on glycogen content and enzyme activities involved in feeding (alkaline phosphatase, AP) and glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase, GyS; glycogen phosphorylase, GP). Lowering temperature induced a fall in activity of AP and a rise in glycogen content and rate of glycogen synthesis. Relative mass of the liver, and glycogen concentration of liver, muscle and brain increased with lowering temperature. Similarly activity of GyS in muscle and expression of GyS transcripts in brain were up-regulated by lowering temperature. Shortened day-length and oxygen availability had practically no effects on measured variables. We conclude that lowering temperature is the main trigger in preparation for winter anoxia in crucian carp. PMID:26853873

  5. Laminin receptor is an interacting partner for viral outer capsid protein VP5 in grass carp reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Yu, Fei; Li, Jiale; Lu, Liqun

    2016-03-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is responsible for viral hemorrhagic disease in cultured grass carp Ctenopharyngon idellus. Through yeast two-hybrid screen, laminin receptor (LamR) was identified as a potential interacting partner for the outer capsid protein VP5 of GCRV. We cloned and sequenced the gene encoding grass carp LamR. Viral attachment assay demonstrated the involvement of membrane-associated LamR in GCRV infection. Solid-phase overlay assays demonstrated that GCRV interacted with GST-tagged LamR in vitro. In contrast to VP7, GST-tagged VP5 was shown to associate with LamR in both pull-down and solid-phase blot overlay assays. With the reduction of LamR expression in CIK cells achieved by RNAi, remarkably reduced infection efficiency of GCRV was observed. CIK cells pretreated with polyclonal antibody against LamR resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of GCRV infection. These results collectively indicated that grass carp LamR was involved in GCRV infection by interacting with viral outer capsid protein VP5. PMID:26848829

  6. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  7. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  8. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  9. Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

  10. IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF TERT-ALKLYPHENOLS IN CARP FROM THE TRENTON CHANNEL OF THE DETROIT RIVER, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whole carp from the Detroit River were analyzed by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. even tertiary alkyl phenols (tert-pentylphenols, tert-butyl-tert-pentylphenols, a di-tert-pentylphenol and a tri-tert-pentylphenol) and eight chlorinated derivatives of these compounds were ...

  11. ISOMER DEPENDENT BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...

  12. Effects of Atrazine and Chlorpyrifos on Autophagy-Related Genes in the Brain of Common Carp: Health-Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hou-Juan; Wang, Liang-Liang; Yao, Hai-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Long; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and a combined ATR/CPF exposure on the brain of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-days exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-days recovery period to measure autophagy and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxy radical activities decreased upon exposure to ATR, CPF, and the ATR/CPF combination but increased after a subsequent 40-days recovery period. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of LC3B and dynein in common carp decreased significantly after exposure to ATR and CPF alone or in combination. Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of beclin1 gene decreased significantly only in the 116 and 11.3 μg/L treatment groups. However, the mRNA and protein levels of all tested genes increased significantly after a 40-days recovery. Transmission electron microscope demonstrated the occurrence of autolysosomes in the recovery groups but not in the exposure groups. These results suggest that exposure to ATR, CPF, or their combination promotes oxidative stress and autophagic responses in the brain of common carp. PMID:26662364

  13. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

  14. An optical immunosensor for rapid vitellogenin detection in plasma from carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bulukin, E; Meucci, V; Minunni, M; Pretti, C; Intorre, L; Soldani, G; Mascini, M

    2007-04-30

    Vitellogenin (vtg) has proven to be a sensitive and simple biomarker for assessing exposure of fish to environmental estrogens. The aim of this work was to develop a rapid, in the order of minutes, screening method for the detection of fish vtg. The surface plasmon resonance technique (Biacore Xtrade mark) was coupled with immunodetection for the determination of fish vtg in plasma and mucus from carp (Cyprinus carpio). Monoclonal anti-vtg antibodies were linked on the sensor surface through chemical cross-linking via a capturing antibody. A simple regeneration process allowed the reuse of the sensor surface. Sensor optimisation was carried out using carp vtg. The developed immunosensor was tested with vtg spiked samples and with plasma and mucus from fish exposed to 17beta-estradiol (E2). Vitellogenin could be detected in the ppm range in buffer as well as in plasma and mucus. Good discrimination between control and exposed samples was obtained. The results were compared with ELISA and a correlation coefficient of R(2)=0.85 (n=9) between the two methods indicated that the immunochemical biosensor could be used for the analysis of vtg in fish plasma samples. The assay time was 20min hence allowing for rapid sample screening. PMID:19071687

  15. Identification of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate as a potential agent for blocking infection by grass carp reovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Weisha; Yu, Fei; Lu, Liqun

    2016-04-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), the representative strain of the species Aquareovirus C, serves as a model for studying the pathogenesis of aquareoviruses. Previously, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was shown to inhibit orthoreovirus infection. The aim of this study was to test its potential in blocking infection by GCRV. We show that adhesion to the CIK (Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney) cell surface by GCRV particles is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by EGCG, as well as by a crude extract of green tea. We also evaluated the safety of EGCG and green tea extract using CIK cells, and the results suggest that EGCG is a promising compound that may be developed as a plant-derived small molecular therapeutic agent against grass carp hemorrhagic disease caused by GCRV infection. As the ligand for the 37/67-kDa laminin receptor (LamR), EGCG's blocking effect on GCRV attachment was associated with the binding potential of GCRV particles to LamR, which was inferred from a VOPBA assay. PMID:26758731

  16. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on the phagocytic cells of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna; Adaszek, Łukasz

    2015-11-01

    Cylindrospermopsin is a cyanotoxin with cytotoxic activity. It is released into water during and after cyanobacterial water blooms and thus poses a threat to the health of fish. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. In this study, we assessed the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the basic functions of phagocytic cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), including phagocytosis, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, and the structure of microfilaments and selected cytokine expression. Phagocytic cells, isolated from fish head kidneys, were exposed to the toxin at concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 or 1 µg ml(-1), for up to 24 h. Cytotoxicity, detected by lactate dehydrogenase release, was observed at the highest studied concentration. A decrease in phagocytic activity and changes in actin cytoskeletal structures were observed after the cell exposure to the toxin at 0.5 and 1 µg ml(-1). Moreover, at all tested concentrations, cylindrospermopsin increased the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It also evidently influenced the expression of genes of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α and, to a minor extent, anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor-β, but had no effects on interleukin-10. The results indicated that the cyanotoxin cylindrospermopsin is able to modify basic features of carp phagocytic cells, which might result in adverse consequences for fish health. PMID:25639895

  17. Autotetraploid cell Line induced by SP600125 from crucian carp and its developmental potentiality

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yonghua; Wang, Mei; Jiang, Minggui; Peng, Liangyue; Wan, Cong; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Wenbin; Zhao, Rurong; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Hu, Wei; Liu, Shaojun; Xiao, Yamei

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy has many advantages over diploidy, such as rapid growth, sterility, and disease resistance, and has been extensively applied in agriculture and aquaculture. Though generation of new polyploids via polyploidization has been achieved in plants by different ways, it is comparatively rare in animals. In this article, by a chemical compound, SP600125, polyploidization is induced in fish cells in vitro, and a stable autotetraploid cell line has been generated from diploid fibroblast cells of crucian carp. As a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) inhibitor, SP600125 does not function during the induction process of polyploidization. Instead, the p53 signal pathway might be involved. Using the SP600125-induced tetraploid cells and eggs of crucian carp as the donors and recipients, respectively, nuclear transplantation was conducted such that tetraploid embryos were obtained. It suggests that combining polyploidization and the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique (SCNT) is an efficient way to generate polyploidy, and the presented method in this research for generating the tetraploid fish from diploid fish can provide a useful platform for polyploid breeding. PMID:26898354

  18. The primary culture of carp (Cyprinus carpio) macrophages and the verification of its phagocytosis activity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Liu, Shuai; Chen, Jingsi; Hu, Lei; Wu, Minghong; Yang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This study establishes the primary culture method for red carp (Cyprinus carpio) macrophages in vitro and lays the foundation for further research in the fish immune system. The healthy adult red carp was chosen, and mechanical separation and cell adherent culture methods were used to isolate the primary macrophages. Compared to the traditional method of Percoll discontinuous density gradient isolation, the protocol we reported here makes cell isolation steps more concise and obtains more healthy cells with high macrophage purity. The cells were uniform in size with a clearly visible nucleus. Trypan blue staining and non-radioactive cell proliferation assay were used to detect the cell survival rate. Further, we provide optimum culture conditions which include cell density (1 × 10(7) cells/mL), culture medium (Leibovitz's L-15), pH (7.2-7.4), temperature (26°C), and adherent time (24 h). Macrophages have been identified by nonspecific esterase and Wright-Giemsa staining and have shown to grow very well. In addition, the macrophages have a very strong bactericidal activity against three kinds of bacteria, further verifying good growth conditions and proper function. PMID:26427708

  19. MicroRNA-induced negative regulation of TLR-5 in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Yu-Bang; Fu, Jian-Jun; Yu, Hong-Yan; Huang, Wen-Ji; Lu, Li-Qun; Li, Jia-Le

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. However, the role of miRNAs in antibacterial defence in fish has not been fully determined. Here, we identified that nine miRNAs are differentially expressed in kidney between susceptible and resistant grass carp strains. Analysis of spatial and temporal miRNA expression patterns suggests that cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p are potential regulators of anti-bacterial activity. Overexpressing of cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p results in a visible change in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells immune effector activity. Bioinformatics analysis and overexpressing assay shows that cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p directly regulate tlr5 expression. cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p overexpressing leads to a significant decrease in tlr5 expression in CIK, thereby repressing its downstream genes, such as il-1β, il-8 and tnf-α. These findings provide a novel insight into the determination of anti-bacterial compounds in grass carp. PMID:26727169

  20. From aquaculture goals to real social and ecological impacts: carp introduction in rural Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Mónica; Zambrano, Luis

    2003-06-01

    Aquaculture has been seen as a solution to food/protein availability in rural populations of poor countries. It is mainly based on exotic species, that produce changes in host system dynamics once introduced. Aquaculture not only changes the ecology of freshwater systems, but can also lead to modification of social relations. Until now, aquaculture programs have not been adequately analyzed no questioned enough. We evaluate both ecological effects and local social benefits of common carp aquaculture programs in shallow ponds of rural areas, using a municipality in Central Mexico as a case study. Using an "environmental entitlements" approach, our findings suggest that: i) carp aquaculture increases water turbidity and depletes native species reducing the poor people's access to them; ii) aquaculture mainly benefits pond owners rather than poor peasants. This mainly results from changes in fishing rights. We conclude that aquaculture policy goals and assumptions of benefits should be reviewed, if the negative ecological effects are to be decreased and conditions for people in rural areas are to be improved. PMID:12956589

  1. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  2. Bioconcentration and metabolism of ketoconazole and effects on multi-biomarkers in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Yan, Zhenhua; Wang, Yonghua; Wang, Peifang

    2016-05-01

    The tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the antifungal medication ketoconazole were investigated in fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to a series of nominal concentrations (0.2, 2 and 20 μg/L) for 14 days. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy (UPLC/MS/MS) analysis was used to determine the bioconcentration of ketoconazole and its metabolites in fish. The highest tissue concentration of ketoconazole was observed in the liver with the bioconcentration factor of 257.2, which is lower than the estimated BCF value. The ability of crucian carp to metabolize ketoconazole was confirmed and the results pointed out the existence of seven metabolites likely formed via oxidation of imidazole ring and the metabolic alteration of the piperazine rings. In addition, acetylcholinesterase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase changed significantly after 3, 7 and 14 days of exposure (P < 0.05), which indicated that the accumulation and metabolism of ketoconazole in fish tissues may account for the biological effects. PMID:26901470

  3. Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.

    PubMed

    Lian, Hao; Hu, Wei; Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1∶1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

  4. Effect of frying in different culinary fats on the fatty acid composition of silver carp

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mahmood; Abedi, Elahe; Mohammadzadeh, Behrooz; Afsharnaderi, Azam

    2013-01-01

    The influence of frying with four different oils (sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil, and corn oil) on the fatty acid composition of silver carp was evaluated. The fat content of the fillets increased after frying while the moisture content decreased in all evaluated samples. Mean saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, ∑ω3, and ∑ω6 contents of raw fish were 26.1 ± 0.5, 52.1 ± 1.1, 15.1 ± 0.6, 8.9 ± 0.1, and 6.1 ± 0.4%, respectively. Frying led to exchange of fatty acids between the silver carp lipid and frying fats. As a result of interactions, MUFA, PUFA, ∑ω6, and PUFA/SFA ratio of samples fried in sunflower, soybean, and corn oil significantly increased while the amounts of SFA decreased. Frying had a negative effect on the ∑ω3/ω6 ratio but reduction in olive oil-fried samples is the least among the other samples. Except in soybean oil, long-chain ω3-PUFA content of samples was not affected by frying. PMID:24804033

  5. MicroRNA-induced negative regulation of TLR-5 in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Yu-Bang; Fu, Jian-Jun; Yu, Hong-Yan; Huang, Wen-Ji; Lu, Li-Qun; Li, Jia-Le

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. However, the role of miRNAs in antibacterial defence in fish has not been fully determined. Here, we identified that nine miRNAs are differentially expressed in kidney between susceptible and resistant grass carp strains. Analysis of spatial and temporal miRNA expression patterns suggests that cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p are potential regulators of anti-bacterial activity. Overexpressing of cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p results in a visible change in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells immune effector activity. Bioinformatics analysis and overexpressing assay shows that cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p directly regulate tlr5 expression. cid-miRn-115 and miR-142a-3p overexpressing leads to a significant decrease in tlr5 expression in CIK, thereby repressing its downstream genes, such as il-1β, il-8 and tnf-α. These findings provide a novel insight into the determination of anti-bacterial compounds in grass carp. PMID:26727169

  6. Autotetraploid cell Line induced by SP600125 from crucian carp and its developmental potentiality.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yonghua; Wang, Mei; Jiang, Minggui; Peng, Liangyue; Wan, Cong; Liu, Jinhui; Liu, Wenbin; Zhao, Rurong; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Hu, Wei; Liu, Shaojun; Xiao, Yamei

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy has many advantages over diploidy, such as rapid growth, sterility, and disease resistance, and has been extensively applied in agriculture and aquaculture. Though generation of new polyploids via polyploidization has been achieved in plants by different ways, it is comparatively rare in animals. In this article, by a chemical compound, SP600125, polyploidization is induced in fish cells in vitro, and a stable autotetraploid cell line has been generated from diploid fibroblast cells of crucian carp. As a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk) inhibitor, SP600125 does not function during the induction process of polyploidization. Instead, the p53 signal pathway might be involved. Using the SP600125-induced tetraploid cells and eggs of crucian carp as the donors and recipients, respectively, nuclear transplantation was conducted such that tetraploid embryos were obtained. It suggests that combining polyploidization and the somatic cell nuclear transfer technique (SCNT) is an efficient way to generate polyploidy, and the presented method in this research for generating the tetraploid fish from diploid fish can provide a useful platform for polyploid breeding. PMID:26898354

  7. Antioxidant effects of propolis on carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to arsenic: biochemical and histopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Talas, Zeliha Selamoglu; Gulhan, Mehmet Fuat; Erdogan, Kenan; Orun, Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Propolis, a resinous material produced by worker bees from the leaf buds and exudates of plants, is reported to possess various therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of propolis on biochemical parameters and histopathologic findings in carp Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to arsenic. A sublethal concentration of arsenic (0.01 mg l-1) and/or 10 mg l-1 propolis were administered to fish for 1 wk. Catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined in liver, gill and muscle tissues in control, arsenic only, propolis only and arsenic+propolis treatment groups. Results showed that CAT activity decreased in the arsenic group compared to the control and propolis groups. CAT activity in the arsenic+propolis group was significantly higher compared to the arsenic group. MDA levels in fish exposed to 0.01 mg l-1 arsenic significantly increased compared to the control group. However, MDA levels in the arsenic+propolis group were significantly lower compared to the arsenic group. Histopathological changes in the liver, gill and muscle tissues of carp were examined by light microscopy: various changes were observed in all tissues of fish in the arsenic group. Propolis showed important antioxidant effects against arsenic toxicity in all fish tissues. PMID:24695237

  8. Taste response in the facial nerve of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Funakoshi, M; Kawakita, K; Marui, T

    1981-01-01

    The stimulating effect of taste substances on the external chemoreceptors of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., was studied by recording the electrical activity from the facial taste fibers innervating the facial skin surface. The integrated responses from each whole nerve bundle of the trigemino-facial complex nerve revealed that gustatory receptors on the snout of the carp were extremely sensitive to salts, acids and the extract of silk worm pupae. Quinine-HCl and sucrose elicited relatively small responses. Responses occurred to several amino acids, and especially to betaine. The threshold concentration for both mono- and di-valent salts was estimated to be about 5 X 10-3 M and that for acids about 10-4 M. Single fiber analysis was performed on 77 preparations. According to responsiveness to the 4 basic chemicals, the fibers were classified into 5 types: type I, activated by one stimulus (22 fibers out of 77); type II by two (29); type III by three (11); type IV by four (13); and type V showing inhibition by quinine-HCl (2) as their notable feature. Single fibers responsive to several amino acids, and the worm extract were found, among which the last was the most effective stimulus as shown in the whole nerve experiments. PMID:7300043

  9. Hyperplasia and cellularity changes in IGF-1-overexpressing skeletal muscle of crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongliang; Lou, Qiyong; Zhai, Gang; Peng, Xuyan; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Dai, Xiangyan; Zhuo, Zijian; Shang, Guohui; Jin, Xia; Chen, Xiaowen; Han, Dong; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2014-06-01

    The zebrafish skeletal muscle-specific promoter mylz2 was used to cause crucian carp overexpression of the zebrafish IGF-1 cDNA. In stable transgenic germline F1 progenies, a 5-fold increase in the level of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle was observed. Evident skeletal muscle hyperplasia was observed in the transgenic fish through histologic analysis. By analyzing the RNA sequencing transcriptome of the skeletal muscle of IGF-1 transgenic fish and nontransgenic control fish at 15 months of age, 10 966 transcripts with significant expression levels were identified with definite gene descriptions based on the corresponding zebrafish genome information. Based on the results of our RNA sequencing transcriptome profiling analysis and the results of the real-time quantitative PCR analysis performed to confirm the skeletal muscle transcriptomics analysis, several pathways, including IGF-1 signaling, aerobic metabolism, and protein degradation, were found to be activated in the IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish. Intriguingly, our transcriptional expression and protein assays indicated that the overexpression of IGF-1 stimulated a significant shift in the myofiber type toward a more oxidative slow muscle type. Although the body weight was surprisingly decreased by IGF-1 transgenic expression, significantly higher oxygen consumption rates were measured in IGF-1-overexpressing transgenic fish compared with their nontransgenic control fish. These results indicate that the sustained overexpression of IGF-1 in crucian carp skeletal muscle promotes myofiber hyperplasia and cellularity changes, which elicit alterations in the body energy metabolism and skeletal muscle growth. PMID:24617525

  10. Intraspecific mass scaling of metabolic rates in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yurong; Huang, Qingda; Liu, Shuting; He, Dingcong; Wei, Gang; Luo, Yiping

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the intraspecific mass scaling of standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), and erythrocyte size in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), with body masses ranging from 4.0 to 459 g. SMR and MMR scaled with body mass with similar exponents, but neither exponent matched the expected value of 0.75 or 1, respectively. Erythrocyte size scaled with body mass with a very low exponent (0.090), suggests that while both cell number and cell size contribute to the increase in body mass, cell size plays a smaller role. The similar slopes of MMR and SMR in grass carp suggest a constant factorial aerobic scope (FAS) as the body grows. SMR was negatively correlated with FAS, indicating a tradeoff between SMR and FAS. Smaller fish recovered faster from the exhaustive exercises, and the scaling exponent of EPOC was 1.075, suggesting a nearly isometric increase in anaerobic capacity. Our results provide support for the cell size model and suggest that variations of erythrocyte size may partly contribute to the intraspecific scaling of SMR. The scaling exponent of MMR was 0.863, suggesting that the metabolism of non-athletic fish species is less reliant on muscular energy expenditure, even during strenuous exercise. PMID:24481482

  11. Effect of cooking temperatures on protein hydrolysates and sensory quality in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinjie; Yao, Yanjia; Ye, Xingqian; Fang, Zhongxiang; Chen, Jianchu; Wu, Dan; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Yaqin

    2013-06-01

    Cooking methods have a significant impact on flavour compounds in fish soup. The effects of cooking temperatures (55, 65, 75, 85, 95, and 100 °C) on sensory properties and protein hydrolysates were studied in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) soup. The results showed that the soup prepared at 85 °C had the best sensory quality in color, flavour, amour, and soup pattern. Cooking temperature had significant influence on the hydrolysis of proteins in the soup showed by SDS-PAGE result. The contents of water soluble nitrogen (WSN) and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased with the cooking temperature, but the highest contents of total peptides and total free amino acids (FAA) were obtained at the cooking temperature of 85 °C. The highest contents of umami-taste active amino acid and branched-chain amino acids were also observed in the 85 °C sample. In conclusion, a cooking temperature of 85 °C was preferred for more excellent flavor and higher nutritional value of crucian carp soup. PMID:24425950

  12. The Effects of Subchronic Exposure to Terbuthylazine on Early Developmental Stages of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Štěpánová, Stanislava; Plhalová, Lucie; Doleželová, Petra; Prokeš, Miroslav; Maršálek, Petr; Škorič, Miša; Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of terbuthylazine in surface waters on fish under experimental conditions. Subchronic toxic effects on embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated during a 30-day toxicity test. The exposure to terbuthylazin showed no effect on mortality, but significant differences (P < 0.0001) were revealed on weight and growth parameters at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L. The inhibition of specific growth rate at concentrations of 520 and 820 μg/L was 14% compared to the control group. No significant negative effects on total body length and body weight were observed at lower concentrations (0.9 and 160 μg/L). The concentrations 520 and 820 μg/L were associated with a delay in development compared to other experimental groups and controls. On the basis of weight and growth rate evaluation and determination of developmental stages, the No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) of terbuthylazine was estimated at 160 μg/L and the Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) was 520 μg/L. According to these results, the reported environmental concentration of terbuthylazine in Czech rivers does not impact growth, development, morphology, or histology of carp embryos and larvae. PMID:22629165

  13. Betanin attenuates carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Junyan; Gao, Cheng; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Tan, Dehong

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of betanin against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The fish were treated with 1, 2, and 4 % betanin in fodder throughout the experiment. After 20 days of treatment, the fish were intraperitoneally injected with 20 % (v/v in peanut oil) CCl4 at a volume of 0.5 mL/kg body weight. The fish were killed 3 days after CCl4 intoxication, and then, histological and biochemical assays were performed. Results showed that CCl4-induced liver CYP2E1 activity, oxidative stress, and injury, as indicated by the depleted glycogen storage, increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities and liver histological damage. Compared with the CCl4 control group, the betanin-treated groups exhibited reduced CYP2E1 activity, decreased malondialdehyde level, increased liver antioxidative capacity (increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities), increased liver glycogen storage, and reduced serum AST/ALT activities, with significant differences in the 2 and 4 % groups (p < 0.05). Histological assay further confirmed the protective effect of betanin. In conclusion, betanin attenuates CCl4-induced liver damage in common carp. Moreover, the inhibition of CYP2E1 activity and oxidative stress may have significant roles in the protective effect of betanin. PMID:24271879

  14. NSAID-manufacturing plant effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    SanJuan-Reyes, Nely; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Medina, Sandra; Islas-Flores, Hariz; González-González, Edgar David; Cardoso-Vera, Jesús Daniel; Jiménez-Vargas, Juan Manuel

    2015-10-15

    The pharmaceutical industry generates wastewater discharges of varying characteristics and contaminant concentrations depending on the nature of the production process. The main chemicals present in these effluents are solvents, detergents, disinfectants - such as sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) - and pharmaceutical products, all of which are potentially ecotoxic. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the geno- and cytotoxicity induced in the common carp Cyprinus carpio by the effluent emanating from a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-manufacturing plant. Carp were exposed to the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL, 0.1173%) for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, and biomarkers of genotoxicity (comet assay and micronucleus test) and cytotoxicity (caspase-3 activity and TUNEL assay) were evaluated. A significant increase with respect to the control group (p<0.05) occurred with all biomarkers from 24h on. Significant positive correlations were found between NSAID concentrations and biomarkers of geno- and cytotoxicity, as well as among geno- and cytotoxicity biomarkers. In conclusion, exposure to this industrial effluent induces geno- and cytotoxicity in blood of C. carpio. PMID:26026403

  15. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging. PMID:25725347

  16. Purification and molecular cloning of a DNA ADP-ribosylating protein, CARP-1, from the edible clam Meretrix lamarckii

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Matsushima-Hibiya, Yuko; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Enomoto, Shigeki; Matsumoto, Yasuko; Totsuka, Yukari; Watanabe, Masahiko; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    The cabbage butterflies Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae have unique enzymes, named pierisin-1 and -2, respectively, that catalyze the ADP-ribosylation of guanine residues of DNA, which has been linked with induction of apoptosis and mutation in mammalian cell lines. In the present study, we identified ADP-ribosylation activity targeting DNA in six kinds of edible clam. Similar to our observations with pierisin-1 and -2, crude extracts from the clams Meretrix lamarckii, Ruditapes philippinarum, and Corbicula japonica incubated with calf thymus DNA and β-NAD resulted in production of N2-(ADP-ribos-1-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine. The DNA ADP-ribosylating protein in the hard clam M. lamarckii, designated as CARP-1, was purified by column chromatography, and its cDNA was cloned. The cDNA encodes a 182-aa protein with a calculated molecular mass of 20,332. The protein synthesized in vitro from the cDNA in a reticulocyte lysate exhibited the same ADP-ribosylating activity as that of purified CARP-1. Neither the nucleotide nor the deduced amino acid sequence of CARP-1 showed homology with pierisin-1 or -2. However, a glutamic acid residue (E128) at the putative NAD-binding site, conserved in all ADP-ribosyltransferases, was found in CARP-1, and replacement of aspartic acid for this glutamic acid resulted in loss of almost all ADP-ribosylating activity. CARP-1 in the culture medium showed no cytotoxicity against HeLa and TMK-1 cells; however, introduction of this protein by electroporation induced apoptosis in these cells. The finding of clam ADP-ribosylating protein targeting guanine residues in DNA could offer new insights into the biological significance of ADP-ribosylation of DNA. PMID:16945908

  17. Hot atom labeling of myoglobin and hemoglobin and biophysical studies of oxygen and CO binding to carp hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Astatke, M.

    1992-01-01

    Human Hb, the monomeric Hb of Glycera dibranchiata and horse Mb were modified by replacement of the protoheme with 2,4-dibromodeuteroheme. Following neutron capture by [sup 79]Br and [sup 81]Br, the locations of radioactive Br were determined. Although human Hb had approximately four times the mass and volume of the other proteins, about 9% of the activated Br was inserted into each of the three globins. These results suggest that the insertion is short-range (within 15 [angstrom]) and that this method could be used to label target sites in various proteins and other biological structures. Carp Hb's containing proto-, meso-, deutero- and dibromoheme were prepared. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for oxygen and CO binding were determined at Ph 6 (+IHP) (T-state, low-affinity protein) and Ph 9 (R-state, high-affinity protein). Parameters for the binding of oxygen and CO were related to the properties of the four hemes to estimate the inductive and steric factors in the ligation process. The results suggest that the steric factors are more important for the T-state than for the R-state. The T-state carp Hbs were very readily oxidized. Two new procedures were developed for the rapid determination of oxygen equilibrium isotherms for the T-state carp Hbs. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for ligation of oxygen and CO with the isolated carp [alpha]-chains were determined. Carp [alpha]-chains are the only hemoglobin chains isolated to date that can be classified as T-state. The secondary thermodynamic parameter ([delta]H[degrees]) was found to be essential for classifying hemoglobins as T- or R-state.

  18. Effect of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exposure on cytochrome P450 contents and enzyme activities in common carp gills.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Li, Ming; Liu, Ci; Qu, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Xing, Hou-Juan; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu

    2013-08-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and atrazine (ATR) are the most widely used organophosphate insecticides and triazine herbicides, respectively, worldwide. This study aimed at investigating the effects of ATR, CPF and mixture on common carp gills following 40-d exposure and 40-d recovery experiments. Cytochrome P450 content, activities of aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and the mRNA levels of the CYP1 family (CYP1A, CYP1B, and CYP1C) were determined. In total, 220 common carps were divided into eleven groups, and each group was treated with a specific concentration of ATR (4.28, 42.8 and 428 μg/L), CPF (1.16, 11.6 and 116 μg/L) or ATR-CPF mixture (1.13, 11.3 and 113 μg/L). The results showed that P450 content and activities of APND and ERND in fish exposed to ATR and mixture were significantly higher than those in the control group. After the 40-d recovery treatment (i.e., depuration), the P450 content and the activities of APND and ERND in fish decreased to the background levels. A similar tendency was also found in the mRNA levels of the CYP1 family (CYP1A, CYP1B, and CYP1C) in common carp gills. The CPF-treated fish showed no significant difference from the control groups, except for a significant CYP1C induction. These results indicated that CYP enzyme levels are induced by ATR but were only slightly affected by CPF in common carp gills. In addition, the ATR and CPF exposure showed an antagonistic effect on P450 enzymes in common carp gills. PMID:23702303

  19. Improved Methods for Capture, Extraction, and Quantitative Assay of Environmental DNA from Asian Bigheaded Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Cameron R.; Miller, Derryl J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  20. Gonadotropin content of the pituitary gland of gonadal tumor-bearing common carp x goldfish hybrids from the Great Lakes, as assessed by bioassay and radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Down, N E; Peter, R E; Leatherland, J F

    1988-02-01

    The hybrids of carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) collected from the lower Great Lakes between 1978 and 1981 exhibited epizootics of gonadal neoplasm which were rare in the parental species. The pituitary glands of hybrids were, on average, 2.5 times larger than that of carp of similar body size. Histologically, the hypertrophy was due to hyperplasia of proximal pars distalis basophils (the presumptive gonadotropes). Using a carp gonadotropin (GtH) radioimmunoassay it was found that hybrid pituitaries contained more GtH than sympatric carp and that pituitary GtH concentration in hybrids was positively correlated with pituitary weight. Both this and histological evidence suggested that gonadotrope hyperplasia was a progressive event. Two heterologous gonad bioassays indicated that hybrid GtH had biological activity. Whether pituitary hyperplasia in hybrids is a primary problem or secondary to gonadal sterility has not been determined. PMID:3366360

  1. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs. PMID:25194259

  2. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China. PMID:23957862

  3. Metabolic capacities of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following combined exposures to copper and environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Malekpouri, Pedram; Peyghan, Rahim; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Mohammadian, Babak

    2016-05-01

    In aquatic ecosystems, a decline in water O2 level is the main factor that can release heavy metal ions from top sediment layer. Therefore, hypoxia in turn, and in association with heavy metals might provide undesirable environment and impairs physiological functions of aquatic animals. To address this, metabolic capacities, including standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), aerobic scope (AS) and factorial aerobic scope (FAS) of common carp were determined following exposures to different levels of water-borne Cu(2+) as well as hypoxia. Treatments for Cu(2+) were included: 100% (acute), 50% (sub-lethal) and 10% (chronic) of LC50-96h for immediately, 24h and 7 days exposures respectively. Hypoxia treatments were assigned as acute for immediately, sub-lethal for 24h and chronic for 7 days. Combined effects of treatments were also considered as acute Cu(2+)+hypoxia, sub-lethal Cu(2+)+hypoxia and chronic Cu(2+)+hypoxia. While SMR of carp was reduced by chronic hypoxia, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed during acute hypoxia, as compared with control. The MMR and AS were significantly reduced (P<0.05) following all hypoxia treatments. The acute and chronic Cu(2+) treatments showed significant (P<0.05) increases in SMR and MMR values. All acute and sub-lethal combined treatments showed significant (P<0.05) reductions in SMR, MMR and AS values, whilst chronic combined treatments showed generally increasing trends for MMR and AS. PCrit was relatively reduced following all treatments except for acute and sub-lethal Cu(2+)-treated fish that showed higher value (P<0.05) and no change respectively. Although all Cu(2+) treatments increased the number of mucus cell, hypoxia treatments did not show any remarkable differences when compared with control group. In general, the results of present study reveal that hypoxia acts as limiting stressor whilst Cu(2+) do act as loading stressors in the case of common carp metabolism. The interactive exposures mostly showing a synergist effect in all metabolic capacities with an exception for chronic treatments. PMID:26774182

  4. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp. PMID:26150295

  5. Targeted disruption of sp7 and myostatin with CRISPR-Cas9 results in severe bone defects and more muscular cells in common carp.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhaomin; Niu, Pengfei; Wang, Mingyong; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Shuhao; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xiaona; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiaowen; Yan, Yilin; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as one of the most important aquaculture fishes produces over 3 million metric tones annually, approximately 10% the annual production of the all farmed freshwater fish worldwide. However, the tetraploidy genome and long generation-time of the common carp have made its breeding and genetic studies extremely difficult. Here, TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9, two versatile genome-editing tools, are employed to target common carp bone-related genes sp7, runx2, bmp2a, spp1, opg, and muscle suppressor gene mstn. TALEN were shown to induce mutations in the target coding sites of sp7, runx2, spp1 and mstn. With CRISPR-Cas9, the two common carp sp7 genes, sp7a and sp7b, were mutated individually, all resulting in severe bone defects; while mstnba mutated fish have grown significantly more muscle cells. We also employed CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double mutant fish of sp7a;mstnba with high efficiencies in a single step. These results demonstrate that both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 are highly efficient tools for modifying the common carp genome, and open avenues for facilitating common carp genetic studies and breeding. PMID:26976234

  6. Targeted disruption of sp7 and myostatin with CRISPR-Cas9 results in severe bone defects and more muscular cells in common carp

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhaomin; Niu, Pengfei; Wang, Mingyong; Huang, Guodong; Xu, Shuhao; Sun, Yi; Xu, Xiaona; Hou, Yi; Sun, Xiaowen; Yan, Yilin; Wang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as one of the most important aquaculture fishes produces over 3 million metric tones annually, approximately 10% the annual production of the all farmed freshwater fish worldwide. However, the tetraploidy genome and long generation-time of the common carp have made its breeding and genetic studies extremely difficult. Here, TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9, two versatile genome-editing tools, are employed to target common carp bone-related genes sp7, runx2, bmp2a, spp1, opg, and muscle suppressor gene mstn. TALEN were shown to induce mutations in the target coding sites of sp7, runx2, spp1 and mstn. With CRISPR-Cas9, the two common carp sp7 genes, sp7a and sp7b, were mutated individually, all resulting in severe bone defects; while mstnba mutated fish have grown significantly more muscle cells. We also employed CRISPR-Cas9 to generate double mutant fish of sp7a;mstnba with high efficiencies in a single step. These results demonstrate that both TALEN and CRISPR-Cas9 are highly efficient tools for modifying the common carp genome, and open avenues for facilitating common carp genetic studies and breeding. PMID:26976234

  7. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Wenzhu; Feng, Shuaisheng; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene family is considered to be one of the largest gene families in all forms of prokaryotic and eukaryotic life. Although the ABC transporter genes have been annotated in some species, detailed information about the ABC superfamily and the evolutionary characterization of ABC genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are still unclear. In this research, we identified 61 ABC transporter genes in the common carp genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be classified into seven subfamilies, namely 11 ABCAs, six ABCBs, 19 ABCCs, eight ABCDs, two ABCEs, four ABCFs, and 11 ABCGs. Comparative analysis of the ABC genes in seven vertebrate species including common carp, showed that at least 10 common carp genes were retained from the third round of whole genome duplication, while 12 duplicated ABC genes may have come from the fourth round of whole genome duplication. Gene losses were also observed for 14 ABC genes. Expression profiles of the 61 ABC genes in six common carp tissues (brain, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, and gill) revealed extensive functional divergence among the ABC genes. Different copies of some genes had tissue-specific expression patterns, which may indicate some gene function specialization. This study provides essential genomic resources for future studies in common carp. PMID:27058731

  8. Carpe diem, Carpe ampulla: a numerical model as an aid to the design of child-resistant closures.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A; Rodriguez-Falcon, E M; Luxmoore, J

    2013-01-01

    The population of most developed countries is ageing. Despite continuing medical advances, ageing brings with it a host of issues, not least a loss in strength and dexterity. One major area of concern is the ability of elderly consumers to access packaged goods such as food and medicines. In previous studies, the authors developed a numerical model of a human hand that was used to investigate the effect of physical dimensions and choice of grip on joint stresses to aid the understanding between physical effort, ability and discomfort. This previous work was supported by ethnographic studies and led to recommendations for packaging design. In this paper, a small ethnographic study is undertaken which identifies the grip types used to access to a product that is known to cause particular difficulties for the elderly, the "squeeze and turn" child-resistant closure or CRC, commonly used on medicines and cleaning products. One of the grip types used was chosen to be modelled using the numerical model developed in previous studies by the author. Model geometry and loading were adapted to simulate the "squeeze and turn" nature of the initial opening for closures of this type. A series of studies were then undertaken using different hand geometries; an average male hand, an average female hand and a fifth percentile female hand. The prediction from the model here is that female users with smaller hands will experience more discomfort when accessing squeeze and turn CRC's and that the turn process whilst maintaining the squeeze is problematic. PMID:22633561

  9. Identification of grass carp IL-10 receptor subunits: functional evidence for IL-10 signaling in teleost immunity.

    PubMed

    Wei, He; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Du, Linyong; Zhou, Hong

    2014-08-01

    Although the functions of teleost IL-10 have been preliminarily determined, functional evidence for its receptor signaling is lacking. Particularly, the identity of fish IL-10 receptor 2 (IL-10R2) is ambiguous. Cytokine receptor family member b4 (CRFB4) and CRFB5 are likely the ortholog of mammalian IL-10R2. In this study, grass carp CRFB4 (gcCRFB4) and gcCRFB5 cDNAs were isolated and characterized. The relatively high expression levels of grass carp IL10 receptor 1 (gcIL-10R1), gcCRFB4 and gcCRFB5 in immune tissues and cells implied their importance in fish immunity. Accordingly, gcIL-10R1, gcCRFB4 and gcCRFB5 were overexpressed in a grass carp kidney cell line to identify the IL-10 receptor subunits upon grass carp IL-10 (gcIL-10) treatment. Results showed that gcIL-10R1 was essential for gcIL-10 stimulation on STAT3 activation and grass carp suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (gcSOCS3) promoter activity, and also indicated that gcCRFB4 but not gcCRFB5 might be the ortholog of mammalian IL-10R2. Furthermore, mutation of a putative STAT3-binding element in gcSOCS3 promoter attenuated the stimulation of gcIL-10 on gcSOCS3 promoter activity, indicating that gcIL-10 may modulate gcSOCS3 transcription at least partly via STAT3 activation. This notion was further supported by our observation that gcIL-10 was able to induce STAT3 phosphorylation and STAT3 inhibitor could abolish the upregulation of gcSOCS3 mRNA expression by gcIL-10 in grass carp head kidney leukocytes. Taken together, this study for the first time functionally characterized the teleost IL-10 receptor subunits and clarified the conservation of fish IL-10 signaling during evolution, thus laying the ground for further understanding the critical immune events led by IL-10 in teleost. PMID:24690565

  10. Establishing targeted carp TLR22 gene disruption via homologous recombination using CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Recent advances in gene editing techniques have not been exploited in farmed fishes. We established a gene targeting technique, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Labeo rohita, a farmed carp (known as rohu). We demonstrated that donor DNA was integrated via homologous recombination (HR) at the site of targeted double-stranded nicks created by CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease. This resulted in the successful disruption of rohu Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) gene, involved in innate immunity and exclusively present in teleost fishes and amphibians. The null mutant, thus, generated lacked TLR22 mRNA expression. Altogether, this is the first evidence that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a highly efficient tool for targeted gene disruption via HR in teleosts for generating model large-bodied farmed fishes. PMID:27079451

  11. [The seasonal appearance of swim bladder inflammation in the course of Sphaerospora renicola infection in carp].

    PubMed

    Sedlaczek, J; Friede, H; Kluss, P; Vinzelberg, R

    1990-11-01

    In carp during 1st year the course of dynamics of the 3 known stages of Sphaerospora renicola showed an increase of the kidney infection in winter and spring (with inhibited sporulation). The winter/spring-peak was accompanied by an intensive blood-phase (C-stages). After August of the 1st summer the swimbladder-phase (K-stages) was not observed, although SBI occurred between January and April. Under warm water condition this infection was discharged after September/October, the SBI never occurred after this time. In contrast to the 1st summer, affected kidneys were often found during winter and spring. In the period of the second outbreak of SBI, C-stages often occurred in the capillaries of swimbladder and in the kidney. The declining phases of SBI, observed from August to April, were not connected with the temperature conditions. PMID:2085211

  12. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Dongyi; Chu, Wuying; Liu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ruixue; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Jianshe

    2008-11-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 μmol/L resulted in decreased expression of both α- and β-tubulin but γ-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  13. Survival of one- and two-year-old monosex grass carp in small ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, A.E.; Carter, R.R.; Greenland, D.C.

    1979-01-01

    Limited information has become available on the survival of monosex (female) grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reared in earthen ponds. Monosex fish produced in 1975 (Stanley 1976) were reared 27 months in earthen ponds at the Fish Farming Experimental Station, Stuttgart, Arkansas. Periodic transfers of these fish to different ponds afforded the opportunity to obtain survival information. Thomas and Carter (1977) reported first-year survival percentages of 22.9 to 60.2% (average 34%) for fry stocked in six 0.1-ha ponds in June and July 1975 in a test of different stocking densities and pond conditions. Overall, of 31,887 3-mm fry stocked. 10,035 survived to reach the large fingerling stage (80-250 mm) when they were removed from the ponds in April 1976.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Predatory carp Chanodichthys erythropterus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Li, Bo; Zhou, Lizhi; Zhao, Guanghong

    2016-03-01

    Predatory carp Chanodichthys erythropterus is a small-sized economic cyprinid fish distributed in East Asia. We sequenced its complete mitochondrial genome by PCR-based method. The mitochondrial DNA is packaged in a compact 16,629 base pair (bp) circular molecule with A?+?T content of 56.1%. It contains 22 transfer RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the non-coding control region (D-loop). All PCGs are initiated by ATG codons, except for COI, which uses GTG as its start codon. Of the 13 PCGs, 12 stop with TAA and TAG, while Cyt b uses incomplete termination codon T. All tRNAs possess the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which lacks the ''DHU'' stem. PMID:25010069

  15. Kinetics of lymphocyte subpopulations in allogeneic grafted scales of ginbuna crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Yasuhiro; Matsuura, Yuta; Toda, Hideaki; Imabayashi, Nozomi; Nishino, Tatsuyuki; Uzumaki, Kosuke; Hatanaka, Chihiro; Yabu, Takeshi; Moritomo, Tadaaki; Nakanishi, Teruyuki

    2015-09-01

    In mammals the rejection of allografts is primarily accomplished by cell-mediated immunity including T cells. Recently, considerable studies reveal the existence of helper and cytotoxic T cell subsets in fish. Here we investigate the kinetics of CD4(+) and CD8α(+) T cells along with sIgM(+) cells and phagocytic cells in an allogeneic scale graft model using ginbuna crucian carp for understanding the mechanisms of cell-mediated immune response. The results showed that CD4(+) T cells first infiltrated into allogeneic scales followed by CD8α(+) and sIgM(+) cells, and finally phagocytic cells appeared in the graft. Furthermore, most of the CD8α(+) T cells appeared on the border of the allografted scales at the time of rejection. These results suggest that T cells play crucial roles and work together with other cell types for completion of allograft rejection. PMID:25917429

  16. Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (So), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

  17. Effect of relative volume on radio transmitter expulsion in subadult common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penne, C.R.; Ahrens, N.L.; Summerfelt, R.C.; Pierce, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    Expulsion of surgically implanted radio transmitters is a problem in some fish telemetry studies. We conducted a 109-d experiment to test the hypothesis that variation in relative volume of transmitters surgically implanted in subadult common carp Cyprinus carpio would affect transmitter expulsion. We also necropsied fish at the end of the experiment to evaluate histological evidence for the mechanism of expulsion. Survival rate was high during our experiment; all control fish and 88% of the fish subjected to the implantation surgery survived. Expulsion rate was low; of the 23 fish that received transmitters and survived the experiment, only two (9%) expelled the transmitters. One of these expulsions occurred through a rupture of the incision and the other occurred via the intestine. Retained transmitters were all encapsulated by tissue, and most exhibited multiple adhesions to the intestine, gonads, and body wall. Adhesions were more numerous in fish that received larger transmitters. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  18. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon derived from carp with high electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongfang; Song, Huihui; Li, Hao; Wang, Hui; Mao, Xuefeng; Ji, Shan

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a low-cost and nitrogen-containing carbon material with mesopores and high surface area is synthesized by carbonizing carp with SiO2 nanoparticles as template. It is found that pyridinic-N dominates the N species on the surface of obtained carbon material, which can act as active sites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The BET surface area of obtained carbon material is 401.7 m2 g-1 and the pore size is ca. 11.1 nm. Due to its high pyridinic-N content and mesoporous architecture, the ORR activity of obtained carbon material in alkaline media is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. In addition, it shows a higher methanol tolerance than Pt/C catalyst, making it a potential alternative to Pt-based catalysts.

  19. A ribonuclease protection assay can distinguish spring viremia of carp virus from pike fry rhabdovirus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen rhabdovirus isolates from 10 teleost fish species as well as reference strains of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) cross-reacted in an indirect immunofluorescence assay and were thus indistinguishable by this method. A ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) using a super(32)P-labeled RNA probe made from a cloned copy of the full length SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene was able to discriminate clearly between the type strains of SVCV and PFRV and among the 13 rhabdovirus isolates. Results for the RPA were generally in agreement with standard serum neutralisation assays; however, the RPA was also able to detect genomic differences between isolates of SVCV. These results have implications for fish disease control programs for SVCV.

  20. Antioxidative role of cerium against the toxicity of lead in the liver of silver crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qufei; Hong, Fashui

    2010-09-01

    The antioxidative role of cerium was investigated in the liver of silver crucian carp injected with lead. The fish were intraperitoneally injected with 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg wet weight PbCl(2). After a 14-day period of incubation, 35 animals were injected with a solution of 1.5 mg/kg wet weight CeCl(3). After 42 days, the wet weight and the liver weight of the fish were weighed, and the oxidative stress of the fish liver was estimated by assaying lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, ascorbic acid, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results show that Ce(3+) could decrease ROS accumulation, relieve the inhibition of the activities of the antioxidant enzyme and the reduction of antioxidants in fish liver caused by Pb(2+), and decrease the enhancement of hepatosomatic index of fish under various Pb(2+) dosages. PMID:19130280

  1. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species. PMID:25240282

  2. Large-scale tissue-specific and temporal gene expression profiles in Pengze crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Chen, J Z; Wang, H P; Li, M; Liang, H W; Bing, X W; Wang, Z Z

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the tissue-specific and temporal gene expression profiles of four catalogues of gonadal development-related genes (sex differentiation-related, steroid receptor, steroidogenic, and structural genes) were detected in nine tissues and during 11 successive developmental stages in the Pengze crucian carp (Pcc) (a triploid mono-female gynogenic fish). The results showed that these target genes exhibited overlapping distributions in various tissues, with the exception of Pcc-vasa and Pcc-cyp17a1. Gene expression profiling of the developmental stages showed that all of the target genes simultaneously reached peak expression levels at 40 and 48 days post hatching (dph). Both 40 and 48 dph appeared to be two key time points associated with the process of Pcc gonadal development. These data will provide a clear understanding of gene expression patterns associated with the gonadal development-related genes of this gynogenic teleost. PMID:27051032

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies Against G Protein of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Peixiao; Ruan, Xindi; Zhang, Qi; Li, Zeming; Wang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Part of the G protein (3094–4170 bp) of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by dialysis in our study. Two clones of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 1H11 and 4B8) against G protein were generated by fusion of mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 and spleen lymphocytes from part of G protein (3094–4170 bp) immunized mice. The results of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), IFA (indirect immunofluorescent assay), and Western blot assay further demonstrated the characterizations of the two MAbs. Both 1H11 and 4B8 were specific to SVCV G protein. Ten pairs of synthesized overlapping peptides were used to identify the epitope of the MAbs. The MAbs are useful in the development of SVCV diagnostic methods. PMID:25358003

  4. Effects of Bacillus preparations on immunity and antioxidant activities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Weifen, Li; Xiaoping, Zhang; Wenhui, Song; Bin, Deng; Quan, Liang; Luoqin, Fu; Jiajia, Zheng; yue, Wang; Dongyou, Yu

    2012-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of Bacillus preparations on immunity and antioxidant activities in grass carp. A total of 315 grass carp, with similar initial weight (average weight of fish 45 g), were randomly divided into three groups with three replicates. The control group was fed the basal diet without Bacillus; treatment group 1 was added Bacillus preparation no. 1 with 1 × 10(8) cfu/m(3) per 7 days in culture water and also fed the basal diet; treatment group 2 was fed the basal diet mixed with 0.5 % Bacillus preparation no. 2, and the culture water was added 1 × 10(8) cfu/m(3) Bacillus preparation no. 1 per 7 days. After 4 weeks of culture, 12 grass carp from each replicate were taken randomly for the determination of immune response and oxidization resistance indices. The results showed that compared with control, the level of globulin and IgM of treatment group 2 was significantly increased (P < 0.05), which was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of group 1. For the non-specific immunity index, compared with control, the lysozyme activity and complement (C3) content of treatment group 1 significantly increased (P < 0.05), and the level of myeloperoxidase and C3 of treatment group 2 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of control, which was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of group 1. In the serum, compared with the control, the level of total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), antisuperoxide anion free radical (ASAFR) and glutathione (GSH) of two treatment groups was significantly increased (P < 0.05); GSH content of treatment group 2 was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of treatment group 1 and control. There was no significant difference between T-AOC and ASAFR among the two treatment groups; no significant effect was found on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and maleic dialdehyde (MDA) among the three groups. In the liver, T-AOC, SOD, ASAFR, GSH-Px and GSH from two treatment groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of control; T-AOC, SOD and catalase from treatment group 2 were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of treatment group 1; and MDA of two treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as compared with the control. The results indicate that Bacillus preparations added into water can increase serum immunoglobulin levels and most of non-specific immune parameters content and enhance the antioxidant ability of grass carp, while adding Bacillus preparation into the water and feed is much better. PMID:22585415

  5. L-aspartate: evidence for a role in cone photoreceptor synaptic transmission in the carp retina.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, S M; Dowling, J E

    1978-01-01

    A number of putative neurotransmitter substances and their antagonists were applied to the carp retina while intracellular recordings from L-type cone horizontal cells were made. Of all the substances tested, L-aspartate was found to be the most potent agent in depolarizing these horizontal cells in dark-adapted, partially light-adapted, and Co2+-treated retinas. Furthermore, DL-alpha-aminoadipate, an L-aspartate antagonist, blocked the effects of both the endogenous photoreceptor transmitter and exogenously applied L-aspartate on the horizontal cells. The results suggest that L-aspartate and the natural transmitter interact with the same population of postsynaptic receptors in the horizontal cell membrane. PMID:217017

  6. Biogenic amine accumulation in silver carp sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaohua; Zhang, Qilin; Lin, Shengli

    2014-06-15

    The effect of an amine-negative mixed starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum ZY40 plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae JM19) on biogenic amine accumulation in fermented silver carp sausage was studied. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acid and free amino acids were also determined. Putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine were the main amines formed during sausage fermentation. The contents of putrescine and cadaverine were greatly reduced by the addition of L. plantarum ZY40 plus S. cerevisiae JM19, whereas tyramine accumulation was enhanced as compared to the control batch. Histamine and spermidine were not affected by the mixed starter culture, and their levels varied slightly throughout the fermentation. Besides, no positive correction between pH, free amino acid content and biogenic amine accumulation were found. PMID:24491750

  7. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W.; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility. PMID:26768847

  8. Characterizing the In Vitro Hepatic Biotransformation of the Flame Retardant BDE 99 by Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals that are known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 19.4 ?M and 1,120 pmoles hr?1 mg protein?1, respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC50 values of 2.2 ?M, 0.83 ?M, and >1.0 ?M, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

  9. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Öğretmen, F; İnanan, B E

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to test the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp spermatozoa. BHT is widely used in the cryopreservation of the spermatozoa of different animal species and successfully sustains the characteristics of spermatozoa during freezing and thawing, but it has not previously been used with fish. After sampling, common carp spermatozoa were diluted with an extender composed of modified Kurokura's extender, 10% DMSO, and 10% egg yolk containing 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. The post-thaw spermatozoa characteristics (i.e., progressive motility percentage (%), duration of progressive motility (s), fertilization rate (%), and eyed-eggs rate (%)) were evaluated and compared with those of the control group. There were significant increases in the percentage of progressive motility and the duration of progressive motility at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.001mM BHT (P<0.05). The duration of post-thawed spermatozoa progressive motility at 0.001mM BHT was significantly greater than that of the other groups (39.6±0.4s, P<0.05), and the fertilization rates and eyed-eggs rates were also higher following the 0.1 and 1mM BHT treatments. BHT at concentrations of more than 1mM caused sperm immobility during the preparatory stages of the sperm freezing. We concluded that 0.001-0.1mM BHT can be beneficial for the cryopreservation of common spermatozoa. PMID:25459081

  10. Characterizing the in vitro hepatic biotransformation of the flame retardant BDE 99 by common carp.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Pamela D; Kelly, Shannon M; Mitchelmore, Carys L; Stapleton, Heather M

    2010-04-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent K(m) and V(max) values were 19.4microM and 1120pmolesh(-1)mgprotein(-1), respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC(50) values of 2.2microM, 0.83microM, and >1.0microM, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

  11. Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 μm) and large (150-200 μm) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

  12. Immunosuppression of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) to ichthyophthiriasis using the corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Houghton, G; Matthews, R A

    1986-06-01

    The immune response of juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) has been investigated in relation to protective immunity and immunosuppression to the disease ichthyophthiriasis. Protective immunity was induced by exposing juvenile carp to approximately 2,000 theronts per fish for 3 hours at a concentration of approximately 80 theronts cm-3 in dechlorinated water pH 7.0-7.2, 20 +/- 2 degrees C in the dark, on three separate occasions of 14 day intervals. Following each exposure, re-infection was prevented by transferring fish to clean aquaria twice daily from day 5-10. Fish were challenged 4 weeks following exposure to the third immunising infection with a potentially lethal dose of approximately 8,000 theronts per fish for 3 hours at a concentration of approximately 320 theronts cm-3. All immunised fish survived although 19% showed initial signs of invasion, the parasites in these instances being confined to periphery of fins. Mortalities of 100% were recorded in non-immunised controls, first deaths occurring 5 days after challenge. Fourteen days following challenge, immune fish received one of the following treatments; intraperitoneal injection of the corticosteroid triamcinolone acetonide at a dose of 200 micrograms g-1 body weight, intraperitoneal injection of 0.85% saline or left untreated; non-immunised fish were subjected to similar procedures. On challenge 6 days later, all fish developed heavy infection with up to 100% mortalities with the exception of immunised fish administered saline or left untreated. Repeat experiments gave comparable results. The results indicate that immunosuppression can be induced by administration of high levels of synthetic corticosteroid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3094233

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus), an Important Aquaculture and Hypoxia-Tolerant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaolin; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Peng; Lu, Guoqing; Wachholtz, Michael; Sun, Xiaowen; Chen, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO) category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ?50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species. PMID:23630630

  14. Genomic incompatibilities in the diploid and tetraploid offspring of the goldfish × common carp cross.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Luo, Jing; Chai, Jing; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Yubao; Zhang, Chun; Tao, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Guoliang; Mai, Chao; Yuan, Shuo; Wang, Jun; Li, Tao; Qin, Qinbo; Feng, Hao; Luo, Kaikun; Xiao, Jun; Zhong, Huan; Zhao, Rurong; Duan, Wei; Song, Zhenyan; Wang, Yanqin; Wang, Jing; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Ding, Zhaoli; Du, Zhenglin; Lu, Xuemei; Gao, Yun; Murphy, Robert W; Liu, Yun; Meyer, Axel; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Polyploidy is much rarer in animals than in plants but it is not known why. The outcome of combining two genomes in vertebrates remains unpredictable, especially because polyploidization seldom shows positive effects and more often results in lethal consequences because viable gametes fail to form during meiosis. Fortunately, the goldfish (maternal) × common carp (paternal) hybrids have reproduced successfully up to generation 22, and this hybrid lineage permits an investigation into the genomics of hybridization and tetraploidization. The first two generations of these hybrids are diploids, and subsequent generations are tetraploids. Liver transcriptomes from four generations and their progenitors reveal chimeric genes (>9%) and mutations of orthologous genes. Characterizations of 18 randomly chosen genes from genomic DNA and cDNA confirm the chimera. Some of the chimeric and differentially expressed genes relate to mutagenesis, repair, and cancer-related pathways in 2nF1. Erroneous DNA excision between homologous parental genes may drive the high percentage of chimeric genes, or even more potential mechanisms may result in this phenomenon. Meanwhile, diploid offspring show paternal-biased expression, yet tetraploids show maternal-biased expression. These discoveries reveal that fast and unstable changes are mainly deleterious at the level of transcriptomes although some offspring still survive their genomic abnormalities. In addition, the synthetic effect of genome shock might have resulted in greatly reduced viability of 2nF2 hybrid offspring. The goldfish × common carp hybrids constitute an ideal system for unveiling the consequences of intergenomic interactions in hybrid vertebrate genomes and their fertility. PMID:26768847

  15. A mathematical model of the carp heart ventricle during the cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Kochová, Petra; Cimrman, Robert; Štengl, Milan; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Tonar, Zbyněk

    2015-05-21

    The poikilothermic heart has been suggested as a model for studying some of the mechanisms of early postnatal mammalian heart adaptations. We assessed morphological parameters of the carp heart (Cyprinus carpio L.) with diastolic dimensions: heart radius (5.73mm), thickness of the compact (0.50mm) and spongy myocardium (4.34mm), in two conditions (systole, diastole): volume fraction of the compact myocardium (20.7% systole, 19.6% diastole), spongy myocardium (58.9% systole, 62.8% diastole), trabeculae (37.8% systole, 28.6% diastole), and cavities (41.5% systole, 51.9% diastole) within the ventricle; volume fraction of the trabeculae (64.1% systole, 45.5% diastole) and sinuses (35.9% systole, 54.5% diastole) within the spongy myocardium; ratio between the volume of compact and spongy myocardium (0.35 systole, 0.31 diastole); ratio between compact myocardium and trabeculae (0.55 systole, 0.69 diastole); and surface density of the trabeculae (0.095μm(-1) systole, 0.147μm(-1) diastole). We created a mathematical model of the carp heart based on actual morphometric data to simulate how the compact/spongy myocardium ratio, the permeability of the spongy myocardium, and sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium influence stroke volume, stroke work, ejection fraction and p-V diagram. Increasing permeability led to increasing and then decreasing stroke volume and work, and increasing ejection fraction. An increased amount of spongy myocardium led to an increased stroke volume, work, and ejection fraction. Varying sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium showed that an increased sinus volume fraction led to an increased stroke volume and work, and a decreased ejection fraction. PMID:25797310

  16. Immunostimulatory activities of a decapeptide derived from Alcaligenes faecalis FY-3 to crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Wang, G-X; Li, F-Y; Cui, J; Wang, Y; Liu, Y-T; Han, J; Lei, Y

    2011-07-01

    A strain was isolated from a soil sample collected from Weihe river in Shaanxi province (108°03'E 34°14'N), which was identified as Alcaligenes faecalis by 16S rRNA analysis. A compound M showing potent immune activity was isolated from secondary metabolites of the strain through bioassay-guided isolation techniques. The structure of the compound M was elucidated using FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra and identified as cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 which was first time reported as a natural product. We evaluated the immune effects of the cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 on the basis of serum lysozyme activity, bacterial agglutination titre assay, superoxide anion production and phagocytic activity assay, and they were found to be significantly increased by cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5. The effects of cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 on immune-related gene expression were further investigated. The outcomes of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) proved that the transcribing level of interleukin 6β (IL-6β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase 1β (iNOS-1β) mRNA in the blood leucocytes have been augmented by cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5. The challenge experiment showed that crucian carp injected the cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 had significantly (P < 0.05) lower cumulative mortality (13.0%) compared with the control (45.4%) after infection with live Aeromonas hydrophila. These results suggested that cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly)5 is a possible immunostimulant and may strengthen the immune response and protect the heath status of crucian carp against A. hydrophila. PMID:21332568

  17. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  18. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

  19. Potential Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Development in the Mekong River Basin on the Migration of Siamese Mud Carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) Elucidated by Otolith Microchemistry

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409–0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

  20. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-03-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficient source for fish peptone production as a nitrogen source for S. aureus medium. However, the type of the used proteolytic enzyme considerably affected the performance of the resulting peptone despite the same DH. Fish peptone produced by alcalese performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than commercial TSB as a media for the bacteria while the performance of the trypsin peptone was not as good as the commercial medium. PMID:25838893

  1. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-01-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficient source for fish peptone production as a nitrogen source for S. aureus medium. However, the type of the used proteolytic enzyme considerably affected the performance of the resulting peptone despite the same DH. Fish peptone produced by alcalese performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than commercial TSB as a media for the bacteria while the performance of the trypsin peptone was not as good as the commercial medium. PMID:25838893

  2. Diversification of the duplicated Rab1a genes in a hypoxia-tolerant fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Xia; Cao, Ding-Chen; Xu, Jian; Xu, Ru; Li, Jiong-Tang; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2015-10-01

    Common carp is a widely cultivated fish with longer than 2,000 years domestication history, due to its strong environmental adaptabilities, especially hypoxia tolerance. The common carp genome has experienced a very recent whole genome duplication (WGD) event. Among a large number of highly similar duplicated genes, a pair of Ras-associated binding-GTPase 1a (Rab1a) genes were found fast diverging. Four analogous Rab1a genes were identified in the common carp genome. Comparisons of gene structures and sequences indicated Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 was a pair of fast diverging duplicates, while Rab1a-3 and Rab1a-4 was a pair of less diverged duplicates. All putative Rab1a proteins shared conserved GTPase domain, which enabled the proteins serve as molecular switches for vesicular trafficking. Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 proteins varied in their C-terminal sequences, which were generally considered to encode the membrane localization signals. Differential expression patterns were observed between Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 genes. In blood, muscle, spleen, and heart, the mRNA level of Rab1a-1 was higher than that of Rab1a-2. In liver and intestine, the mRNA level of Rab1a-2 was higher. Expression of Rab1a-1 and Rab1a-2 showed distinct hypoxia responses. Under severe hypoxia, Rab1a-1 expression was down-regulated in blood, while Rab1a-2 expression was up-regulated in liver. Compared with the less diverged Rab1a-3/4 gene pair, common carp Rab1a-1/2 gene pair exhibited strong characteristics of sub-functionalization, which might contribute to a sophisticated and efficient Ras-dependent regulating network for the hypoxia-tolerant fish. PMID:26129846

  3. A 425 T>C polymorphism in complement C7 association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y B; Zhang, J B; Fu, J J; Xu, X Y; Li, J L; Wang, R Q; Xuan, Y F

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila, a widespread bacterium in the aquatic environment, causes hemorrhagic septicemia in fish. In the last decade, the disease has caused mass mortalities and tremendous economic loss in cultured fish. The complement component C7 is a terminal component of complement that interacts in a sequence of polymerization reactions with other terminal complement components to form a membrane attack complex. The formation of the membrane attack complex creates a pore in the membranes of certain pathogen that can lead to their death. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the C7 gene and to assess their association with A. hydrophila resistance in grass carp. A resource population consisting of 186 susceptible and 191 resistant grass carp was constructed. We sequenced a total of 7826 bp of the C7 gene and identified 6 SNPs that were genotyped in the resource population. The SNP -1575 A>C was positioned in the promoter region of the gene. The SNP 425 C>T identified in the coding exon was a synonymous substitution in the fourth exon. Statistical analysis showed that SNP 425 C>T was associated with the incidence of hemorrhagic septicemia. The SNPs -1575 A>C, -688 T>C, and -266 A>C were highly linked together (r(2) > 0.85). No haplotypes generated with these 3 SNPs were associated with resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. These findings suggest that the 425 C>T polymorphism in C7 gene may be a significant molecular marker for resistance to A. hydrophila in grass carp. PMID:27050969

  4. Diagnostic SNPs reveal widespread introgressive hybridization between introduced bighead and silver carp in the Mississippi River Basin.

    PubMed

    Lamer, James T; Ruebush, Blake C; Arbieva, Zarema H; McClelland, Michael A; Epifanio, John M; Sass, Greg G

    2015-08-01

    Hybridization among conspecifics in native and introduced habitats has important implications for biological invasions in new ecosystems. Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H.molitrix) are genetically isolated and occur in sympatry within their native range. Following their introduction to North America, however, introgressant hybrids have been reported throughout their expanded range within the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The extent of introgression, both spatially and generationally, is largely unknown. Therefore, we examined mixed-species populations from across the MRB to characterize the extent of interspecific gene flow. We assayed 2798 individuals from nine locations with a suite of species-diagnostic SNPs (57 nuclear and one mitochondrial). Forty-four per cent (n=1244) of individuals displayed hybrid genotypes. Moreover, the composition of hybrid genotypes varied among locations and represented complex hybrid swarms with multiple generations of gene flow. Introgressive hybrids were identified from all locations, were bidirectional and followed a bimodal distribution consisting primarily of parental or parental-like genotypes and phenotypes. All described hybrid categories were present among individuals from 1999 to 2008, with parents and later-generation backcrosses representing the largest proportion of individuals among years. Our mitochondrial SNP (COII), tested on a subset of 730 individuals, revealed a silver carp maternal bias in 13 of 21 (62%) F1 hybrids, in all silver carp backcrosses, and maintained throughout many of the bighead carp backcrosses. The application of this suite of diagnostic markers and the spatial coverage permits a deeper examination of the complexity in hybrid swarms between two invasive, introduced species. PMID:26096550

  5. A new procedure for determining the genetic basis of a physiological process in a non-model species, illustrated by cold induced angiogenesis in the carp

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, John MJ; Buffa, Francesca M; Vorschmitt, Henrik; Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Background Physiological processes occur in many species for which there is yet no sequenced genome and for which we would like to identify the genetic basis. For example, some species increase their vascular network to minimise the effects of reduced oxygen diffusion and increased blood viscosity associated with low temperatures. Since many angiogenic and endothelial genes have been discovered in man, functional homolog relationships between carp, zebrafish and human were used to predict the genetic basis of cold-induced angiogenesis in Cyprinus Carpio (carp). In this work, carp sequences were collected and built into contigs. Human-carp functional homolog relationships were derived via zebrafish using a new Conditional Stepped Reciprocal Best Hit (CSRBH) protocol. Data sources including publications, Gene Ontology and cDNA libraries were then used to predict the identity of known or potential angiogenic genes. Finally, re-analyses of cold carp microarray data identified carp genes up-regulated in response to low temperatures in heart and muscle. Results The CSRBH approach outperformed all other methods and attained 8,726 carp to human functional homolog relationships for 16,650 contiguous sequences. This represented 3,762 non-redundant genes and 908 of them were predicted to have a role in angiogenesis. The total number of up-regulated differentially expressed genes was 698 and 171 of them were putatively angiogenic. Of these, 5 genes representing the functional homologs NCL, RHOA, MMP9, GRN and MAPK1 are angiogenesis-related genes expressed in response to low temperature. Conclusion We show that CSRBH functional homologs relationships and re-analyses of gene expression data can be combined in a non-model species to predict genes of biological interest before a genome sequence is fully available. Programs to run these analyses locally are available from . PMID:19852815

  6. Temperature and species-specific effects on ß3-adrenergic receptor cardiac regulation in two freshwater teleosts: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Petersen, L H; Burleson, M L; Huggett, D B

    2015-07-01

    β₃-adrenergic receptors (AR) are important in teleost cardiovascular regulation. To date, it is unknown whether temperature acclimation changes ß₃-AR functionality and consequently the involvement of this AR subtype in teleost cardiac regulation. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were acclimated at 12 °C or 23 °C (minimum 3 weeks) after which cardiovascular variables (cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (Sv) and heart rate (fH)) were measured upon injection of the ß₃-AR agonist, BRL(37344), and antagonist, SR(59230A). In both 12 °C and 23 °C acclimated carp, BRL(37344) induced significant increases in fH and Q whereas Sv was significantly decreased. While temperature did not affect the change (increase vs. decrease) in cardiac variables, the magnitude and on-set of responses differed. For instance, fH, Sv and Q responded significantly faster to ß₃-AR stimulation in 23 °C carp. In contrast, maximum responses of fH and Q were significantly higher in 23 °C carp whereas the maximum response of Sv was significantly greater in 12 °C carp. These findings suggest that temperature acclimation induced changes in β₃-AR receptor functionality (e.g. density and/or affinity). Stimulation of β₃-ARs in 23 °C acclimated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) caused significant increases in fH, Sv and Q. The increase in Sv was opposite to the decrease observed in 23 °C acclimated common carp. SR(59230A) induced significant decreases in Sv and Q but had no effect in carp (23 °C). Results suggest species diversity in the density and affinity or structure of ß₃-ARs which may explain the different cardiac responses to ß₃-AR ligands. PMID:25882086

  7. Effects of three strains of intestinal autochthonous bacteria and their extracellular products on the immune response and disease resistance of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Chi, Cheng; Jiang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Tian-Qiang; Xia, Lei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-01-01

    The study isolated three strains of intestinal autochthonous bacteria Aeromonas veronii BA-1, Vibrio lentus BA-2, and Flavobacterium sasangense BA-3 from the intestinal tract of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). To reveal the effects of these three strains of bacteria on the innate immunity of carp, the lysozyme, complement C3, total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels, respiratory burst activity, phagocytic activity by blood leucocytes and the expression of IL-1b, lysozyme-C, and TNF-α were examined after feeding with seven different diets for up to 28 days. Also the survival of carp against Aeromonas hydrophila was challenged for 14 days. The carp were fed seven different diets: one control, three diets supplemented with 1 × 10(8) cell g(-1) of carp intestinal bacteria BA-1 (Group D-I), BA-2 (Group D-II) and BA-3 (Group D-III), and three diets supplemented with extracellular products FA-1 (Group E-I), FA-2 (Group E-II) and FA-3 (Group E-III) which were corresponding to the strains BA-1, BA-2, and BA-3, respectively, up to 28 days. For groups D-I, D-III, E-I and E-III, the innate immune parameters of carp were significantly increased, the expression of three immune-related genes in blood was significantly up-regulated examined during 7, 14, and 21 days of feeding, and the survival rate was improved. The study indicates that the two isolated intestinal autochthonous bacteria A. veronii BA-1 and F. sasangense BA-3 could positively influence immune response and enhance disease resistance of carp against A. hydrophila infection. PMID:24161775

  8. Triploid grass carp susceptibility and potential for disease transfer when used to control aquatic vegetation in reservoirs with avian vacuolar myelinopathy.

    PubMed

    Haynie, Rebecca S; Bowerman, William W; Williams, Sarah K; Morrison, John R; Grizzle, John M; Fischer, John M; Wilde, Susan B

    2013-12-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is an often-lethal neurologic disease that affects waterbirds and their avian predators (i.e., bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the southern United States. Feeding trials and field surveys provided evidence that AVM is caused by a toxin-producing, undescribed cyanobacterium (UCB), which grows as an epiphyte on the leaves of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Reservoirs with documented AVM epornitics support dense growth of nonnative SAV. Waterbirds ingest the toxin when feeding on aquatic plants with the epiphytic UCB, and secondary intoxication occurs when raptors consume these birds. Vegetation management has been proposed as a means to reduce waterbird exposure to the putative toxin. We fed aquatic vegetation with and without the UCB to triploid Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in laboratory and field trials. Only Grass Carp that ingested aquatic vegetation with the UCB developed lesions in the central nervous system. The lesions (viewed using light microscopy) appeared similar to those in birds diagnosed with AVM. Grass Carp that received aquatic vegetation without the UCB were unaffected. Grass Carp tissues from each treatment were fed to domestic chickens Gallus domesticus (an appropriate laboratory model for AVM) in a laboratory trial; the chickens displayed no neurologic signs, and histology revealed a lack of the diagnostic lesions in brain tissues. Results from our trials suggest that (1) triploid Grass Carp are susceptible to the AVM toxin, although no fish mortalities were documented; and (2) the toxin was not accumulated in Grass Carp tissues, and the risk to piscivorous avifauna is likely low. However, a longer exposure time and analysis of sublethal effects may be prudent to further evaluate the efficacy and risk of using triploid Grass Carp to manage aquatic vegetation in a system with frequent AVM outbreaks. PMID:24341766

  9. Effect of subacute exposure to silver nanoparticle on some hematological and plasma biochemical indices in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Shaluei, F; Hedayati, A; Jahanbakhshi, A; Kolangi, H; Fotovat, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) is rapidly increasing, but there are limited data on their effects on the aquatic environment. The present study aimed to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of subacute concentrations of Ag-NPs (Nanocid®: average particle size of 61 nm) on hematological and plasma biochemical indices of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, after 3, 7 and 14 days. The 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values of Nanocid for silver carp were estimated at 0.810, 0.648, 0.383 and 0.202 mg/L, respectively; 20% and 10% of the 96-h LC50 values (0.04 and 0.02 mg/L) were selected for subacute study. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) count and hematocrit (Hct) level were significantly reduced at both concentrations tested (p < 0.05). White blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), cortisol and glucose levels in Nanocid-treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Ag-NPs intoxication resulted in erythrocyte reduction, hematological disturbances, leucocytosis and stress response in silver carp and offered a simple tool to evaluate toxicity-derived alterations. PMID:23632006

  10. Molecular Cloning and Expression Determination of p38 MAPK from the Liver and Kidney of Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Junguo; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-05-01

    The sequence of p38MAPK in silver carp (Hm-p38a) was cloned and sequenced. Additionally, the acute toxicity of crude microcystins (MCs) on silver carp and induction expression of Hm-p38a by MCs exposure were also determined in this study. The results reveal that the length of Hm-p38a is 2418 bp and it contains a 1086 bp open reading frame. Hm-p38a could encode 361 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicates that Hm-p38a contains the conserved structures of Thr-Gly-Tyr motif and substrate binding site Ala-Thr-Arg-Trp, and it is highly conserved in fish. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Hm-p38a is more closely related to fish than mammals and it belongs to p38α subfamily. Moreover, Hm-p38a in silver carp is constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. In addition, our results indicate that MCs exposure significantly promotes the transcription of Hm-p38a in fish liver or kidney, suggesting that mitogen-activated protein kinase should also be the signal pathway of MCs hepatotoxicity in fish. PMID:26866509

  11. The existence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D sub 3 -1. alpha. -hydroxylase in the liver of carp and bastard halibut

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Atsuko; Okano, Toshio; Kobayashi, Tadashi )

    1991-01-01

    We have found that carp and bastard halibut contain 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}(25-D{sub 3})-1{alpha}-hydroxylase in the liver besides in the kidney by the following in vivo and in vitro experiments. When ({sup 3}H)-25-D{sub 3} was intraperitoneally injected to vitamin D(D)-deficient carp and normal bastard halibut, the profiles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the plasma lipid extract showed the formation of a peak corresponding to ({sup 3}H)-1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}(1,25-D{sub 3}). When ({sup 3}H)25-D{sub 3} was incubated with liver homogenates of the fish, a peak corresponding to ({sup 3}H)-1,25-D{sub 3} was also observed in the profile of HPLC. The formation of the metabolite was confirmed by the thermal isomerization into the pre-isomer and mass fragmentography. Although the 1{alpha}-hydroxylase was also observed in the kidney, the activity of the enzyme was lower than that in the liver. The results suggest that 25-D{sub 3}-1{alpha}-hydroxylase exists in the liver of carp and bastard halibut and the 25-D{sub 3} formed from D{sub 3} in the liver is immediately metabolized into 1,25-D{sub 3} in the same tissue.

  12. Identification of Deleterious Mutations in Myostatin Gene of Rohu Carp (Labeo rohita) Using Modeling and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rasal, Kiran Dashrath; Chakrapani, Vemulawada; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Mohapatra, Shibani D.; Nayak, Swapnarani; Jena, Sasmita; Sundaray, Jitendra Kumar; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) is a known negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle. The mutated myostatin showed a double-muscular phenotype having a positive significance for the farmed animals. Consequently, adequate information is not available in the teleosts, including farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. In the absence of experimental evidence, computational algorithms were utilized in predicting the impact of point mutation of rohu myostatin, especially its structural and functional relationships. The four mutations were generated at different positions (p.D76A, p.Q204P, p.C312Y, and p.D313A) of MSTN protein of rohu. The impacts of each mutant were analyzed using SIFT, I-Mutant 2.0, PANTHER, and PROVEAN, wherein two substitutions (p.D76A and p.Q204P) were predicted as deleterious. The comparative structural analysis of each mutant protein with the native was explored using 3D modeling as well as molecular-dynamic simulation techniques. The simulation showed altered dynamic behaviors concerning RMSD and RMSF, for either p.D76A or p.Q204P substitution, when compared with the native counterpart. Interestingly, incorporated two mutations imposed a significant negative impact on protein structure and stability. The present study provided the first-hand information in identifying possible amino acids, where mutations could be incorporated into MSTN gene of rohu carp including other carps for undertaking further in vivo studies. PMID:27019850

  13. Transcriptome analysis of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) using 454 pyrosequencing methodology for gene and marker discovery.

    PubMed

    Yu, L Y; Bai, J J; Fan, J J; Ma, D M; Quan, Y C; Jiang, P

    2015-01-01

    Total RNA isolated from the brain, muscle, liver, gonad, and intestinal tissues of grass carp was pooled to construct cDNA libraries. Using 454 pyrosequencing, a total of 738,604 high-quality reads were generated from the normalized cDNAs of the pooled individuals. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced a set of 37,086 all-unigene sequences after BLAST. Of these, 24,010 (64.74%) were annotated in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, and 3715 simple sequence repeats and 2008 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in this EST dataset as potential molecular markers. This study provides new data for functional genomic and biological research on grass carp. The markers identified in this study will enrich the currently used molecular markers and facilitate marker-assisted selection in grass carp-breeding programs. These results also demonstrate that transcriptomic analysis based on 454 sequencing is a powerful tool for gene discovery and molecular marker development in non-model species. PMID:26782578

  14. Involvement of the mitfa gene in the development of pigment cell in Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, J H; Wen, S; Luo, C; Zhang, Y Q; Tao, M; Wang, D W; Deng, S M; Xiao, Y M

    2015-01-01

    A colored phenotype is an important feature of ornamental fish. In mammals, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) was found to regulate the development of melanocytes. In this study, the mitfa cDNA was first cloned from the Japanese ornamental (Koi) carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), an important ornamental freshwater fish. The full-length cDNA of the mitfa gene contains 1634 bp, coding for 412 amino acids in Koi. The identity degree of mitfa amino acid sequences between the Koi carp and zebrafish is 92.9%. We tested the expression of the mitfa gene in several varieties of Koi using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and found that the mitfa gene is highly expressed in the skin tissues of the Taisho sanke and the Procypris merus. Interestingly, the mitfa gene was also expressed in the Kohaku and Yamabaki ogon, although melanocytes were not observed in the skin. Koi carp embryos were transparent and colorless, while after hatching, different types of pigment cells successively emerged in a fixed order. In Taisho sanke, melanocytes first appeared in the trunk at approximately 12 days of age. Subsequently, there was a large area of melanocytes by 30 days of age. The expression level of the mitfa mRNA was low in early embryos and newly hatched larvae, and increased to high levels in 30-day-old fry. The results show that the mitfa gene is involved in regulating fish body color in the development of both melanocytes and pigment cells. PMID:25867426

  15. Effects of Single and Joint Subacute Exposure of Copper and Cadmium on Heat Shock Proteins in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuyang; Guan, Xueting; Yao, Linlin; Zhang, Hong; Jin, Xian; Han, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) are the most common heavy metals that are easily detected in aquatic environments on a global scale. In this paper, we investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of HSPs (HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90) in the liver of the common carp exposed to Cu, Cd, and a combination of both metals by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results indicated that in each exposure group, the mRNA levels of HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 were increased significantly compared to the corresponding controls after 96h of exposure (P<0.05). A significant increase was observed in the HSP70 protein level in the high-dose Cu group and all of the Cd groups. Significant increases were also observed in the protein levels of HSP60 and HSP90 in the high combination group and the low combination group, respectively. These results indicated that the dynamics of HSP expression observed in the common carp support the role of HSPs as biochemical markers in response to environmental pollution and provided valuable insights into the adaptive mechanisms used by the common carp to adapt to the challenges of stressful environments. PMID:26105544

  16. Effects of antalarmin, a CRF receptor 1 antagonist, on fright reaction and endocrine stress response in crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

    PubMed

    Lastein, Stine; Höglund, Erik; Overli, Oyvind; Døving, Kjell B

    2008-12-01

    The corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors show striking homogeneity throughout the vertebrate subphylum. In mammals, the CRF(1) receptor (CRFR(1)) plays an important role in mediating behavioral and endocrine responses to fear and stress. The specific roles of this receptor subtype in fear and stress reactions in non-mammalian vertebrates are largely unknown. Crucian carp displays the olfactory-mediated fright reaction, a stereotypic behavioral response to waterborne cues from damaged skin of conspecifics. This reaction shows several similarities to basic components of avoidance behavior in mammals. In the present study, we applied the non-peptide CRFR(1) antagonist, antalarmin, to crucian carp 1 h before exposure to conspecific skin extract. This treatment resulted in a suppression of the fright reaction. After skin extract exposure, antalarmin treatment also lead to lower plasma cortisol values, as compared to vehicle treatment. This suppression of the behavioral fright reaction and the stress induced rise in plasma cortisol in crucian carp suggests that the functions of the CRFR(1) are conserved by evolution. PMID:18830607

  17. Carp Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a metal-tooling project for his fourth-graders. Giving the students a specific subject with specific features and textures enabled him to guide them step-by-step in the metal-tooling process. This project would be a great practice project for even high-school students before doing other relief work. After

  18. Carpe Diem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, Sheila M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a spur-of-the-moment curriculum development activity involving primary-school students researching the "real" Leonardo, Donatello, Raphael, and Michelangelo behind the names of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Notes that the products of the research were shared during a classroom pizza party. (RS)

  19. Carp Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a metal-tooling project for his fourth-graders. Giving the students a specific subject with specific features and textures enabled him to guide them step-by-step in the metal-tooling process. This project would be a great practice project for even high-school students before doing other relief work. After…

  20. PCR-cloning and gene expression studies in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) insulin-like growth factor-II.

    PubMed

    Tse, Margaret C L; Vong, Queenie P; Cheng, Christopher H K; Chan, King Ming

    2002-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a member of a growth factor family related to fetal growth in mammals but its physiological role has not been clearly identified in fish. In teleosts, the basic mechanism of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF axis is known to be operative but in a different manner. For instance, IGF-I exhibits GH dependence whereas for IGF-II, its GH dependence varies in different fish species. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to obtain a common carp IGF-II (ccIGF-II) cDNA fragment and methods of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) to obtain a full-length ccIGF-II sequence. The ccIGF-II encodes for a predicted amino acid sequence showing identities of 70.6%, 68.7%, 63.4% and 35% in comparison with salmon, barramundi, tilapia and human IGF-II, respectively. The nucleotide identity between the open reading frame (ORF) of the ccIGF-II and ccIGF-I cDNA sequence is only 36.2%. Distribution of ccIGF-II mRNA levels in common carp tissues was also studied; ccIGF-II expressed in hepatopancreas, heart, and many other tissues in adult carps are similar to the levels of ccIGF-I except in gills and testis. ccIGF-II levels were significantly higher than that of ccIGF-I in most juvenile tissues except in hepatopancreas, where ccIGF-I was higher (threefold) than that of ccIGF-II. The levels of ccIGF-I were also higher than ccIGF-II in carp larvae, from pre-hatched stage to day 30 post-hatching. Injection of porcine GH (pGH) increased the IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in the hepatopancreas and brain of juvenile carps. However, hepatic IGF-I mRNA levels were induced more than IGF-II by pGH, whereas ccIGF-II levels gave a higher response than IGF-I in the brain in response to GH induction. PMID:12020820

  1. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382

  2. An ultra-high density linkage map and QTL mapping for sex and growth-related traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenzhu; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Dong, Chuanju; Jiang, Likun; Feng, Jingyan; Chen, Baohua; Gong, Yiwen; Chen, Lin; Xu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    High density genetic linkage maps are essential for QTL fine mapping, comparative genomics and high quality genome sequence assembly. In this study, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map with 28,194 SNP markers on 14,146 distinct loci for common carp based on high-throughput genotyping with the carp 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in a mapping family. The genetic length of the consensus map was 10,595.94 cM with an average locus interval of 0.75 cM and an average marker interval of 0.38 cM. Comparative genomic analysis revealed high level of conserved syntenies between common carp and the closely related model species zebrafish and medaka. The genome scaffolds were anchored to the high-density linkage map, spanning 1,357 Mb of common carp reference genome. QTL mapping and association analysis identified 22 QTLs for growth-related traits and 7 QTLs for sex dimorphism. Candidate genes underlying growth-related traits were identified, including important regulators such as KISS2, IGF1, SMTLB, NPFFR1 and CPE. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism were also identified including 3KSR and DMRT2b. The high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage map provides an important tool for QTL fine mapping and positional cloning of economically important traits, and improving common carp genome assembly. PMID:27225429

  3. Thermophile-fermented compost as a fish feed additive modulates lipid peroxidation and free amino acid contents in the muscle of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Shigeta, Kazuhiro; Kondo, Masakazu; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Matsushita, Teruo

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a compost fermented with marine animals with thermophilic Bacillaceae in a clean and exclusive process at high temperature was reported as a possible feed additive to improve the healthy balance in sea fish and mammals (i.e., pigs and rodents). Here, the effects of the oral administration of the compost on the muscle and internal organs of carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a freshwater fish model were investigated. The fatty acid composition was different in the muscle of the carp fed with or without the compost extract, but there was little difference in the hepatopancreas. The accumulation of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, lipid peroxide and hydroxyl lipids decreased in the muscle after the oral administration of the compost extract in the carps over 12 weeks, but the accumulation did not always decrease in the hepatopancreas. In contrast, free-radical-scavenging activities and the concentrations of free amino acids in the muscle did not always increase and was dependent on the dose of the compost at 12 weeks. The scavenging activities and part of free amino acid levels in the muscle of the carp were improved at 24 weeks after a high dose of compost exposure, and then the survival rates of the carp were maintained. Thus, the oral administration of thermophile-fermented compost can prevent peroxidation and increase the content of free amino acids in the muscle of the freshwater fish, depending on the dose and term of the administration, and may be associated with the viability of the fish. PMID:26702954

  4. Induction of CYP1A mRNA in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Kalamazoo River polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated superfund site and in a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M A; Mehne, C; Means, J C; Ide, C F

    2006-01-01

    The Kalamazoo River Superfund site in Michigan is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which were heavily discharged into the river from several paper companies as part of the deinking process in the 1950s through 1970s. We characterized biomarkers of chronic PCB exposure in a resident fish population using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to examine mRNA expression levels of multiple genes in carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver from PCB contaminated and reference sites in the Kalamazoo River. We also measured these same genes in juvenile carp exposed to dietary PCBs for 4 months. Kalamazoo River carp had significantly increased levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) mRNA as did carp fed PCBs in the laboratory. No significant mRNA upregulation occurred in the specific oxidative stress genes (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and magnesium superoxide dismutase) and metabolic genes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and nucleolin) examined. These data are consistent with the idea that carp from the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site are responding to PCB exposure via upregulation of CYP1A independent of activation of the oxidative stress response genes normally thought to be co-regulated with CYP1A. PMID:16328624

  5. Changes in the microbial communities of air-packaged and vacuum-packaged common carp (Cyprinus carpio) stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuemei; Li, Qian; Li, Dongping; Liu, Xiaochang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    The dominant microbiota of air-packaged (AP) and vacuum-packaged (VP) common carp fillets during storage were systematically identified. Culture-dependent methods were used for microbial enumeration and 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Different packaging conditions affected the growth of microbiota and the shelf life of carp. Shelf-life of AP and VP fillets was 8 and 12 days, respectively. Vacuum packaging delayed the increase of biogenic amines levels compared to air packaging, especially for cadaverine and tyramine levels. In the present study, a total of 13 different genera comprised the microbial communities of fresh carp fillets and Acinetobacter dominated the indigenous flora of carp. However, variability in bacterial community composition was observed in these two packaging conditions. Pseudomonas were the only microbiota found in the spoiled AP carp, whereas Carnobacterium followed by Aeromonas were found mainly in VP samples. Other genera Shewanella, Lactococcus, and Pseudomonas were also found in low numbers at the end of the VP fillets' shelf life. Additional microbial enumeration observed the highest Pseudomonas counts (8.77 log CFU/g on day 8) in AP samples and a relatively high level of lactic acid bacteria (7.74 log CFU/g on day 12) in VP samples. PMID:26338135

  6. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of PKR from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Hu, You-Sheng; Li, Wen; Li, Dong-Ming; Liu, Yong; Fan, Li-Hua; Rao, Ze-Chang; Lin, Gang; Hu, Cheng-Yu

    2013-12-01

    The interferon-induced, dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is considered as an important component of innate immune system and as a representative effector protein of interferon system. In the present study, PKR gene (CiPKR, JX511974) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) was isolated and identified using homology-based PCR. CiPKR shares high sequence identity with the counterparts of goldfish (Crucian carp) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The full-length cDNA of CiPKR was found to be 2436 bp, with an ORF of 2067 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 688 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide CiPKR contains three tandem dsRNA-binding motifs (dsRBMs) at the N-terminus and a conserved Ser/Thr kinase domain at the C-terminus. CiPKR was expressed ubiquitously at a low-level under normal conditions, but it could be up-regulated after intraperitoneal (ip) injection with grass carp haemorrhagic virus (GCHV). CiPKR was dramatically up-regulated at 6 h post-injection and then recovered rapidly to normal levels within 24 h; however, it was obviously up-regulated once again at 48 h or 72 h post-injection. It seemed that CiPKR could respond to GCHV infection in an IFN-independent as well as an IFN-dependent pathway. To further investigate its mechanism of biological actions, we constructed a series of recombinant plasmids including pcDNA3.1/PKR-wt, pcDNA3.1/PKR-K430R, pcDNA3.1/PKR-C (deletion of dsRBD sequence) and pcDNA3.1/PKR-C-K430R, and then each recombinant plasmid was transfected into CIK cells. In comparison with those of controls, a 79% and a 64% decrease of luciferase activities were detected in the tested cells transfected with CiPKR and CiPKR-C, respectively; however, luciferase activities were increased in those cells transfected with PKR-K430R and PKR-C-K430R, with a 160% and 115% up-regulation, respectively. Similarly, MTT colorimetric assay indicated that cell viabilities of CIK cells transfected with pcDNA3.1/PKR-wt, pcDNA3.1/PKR-K430R, pcDNA3.1/PKR-C and pcDNA3.1/PKR-C-K430R were 49%, 90%, 54% and 100%, respectively. Our observations suggested that the expression of CiPKR could be up-regulated following viral infection, and then resulted in the inhibition of protein synthesis and the induction of potential apoptosis. PMID:24084043

  7. Three-dimensional structure and ligand-binding site of carp fishelectin (FEL).

    PubMed

    Capaldi, Stefano; Faggion, Beniamino; Carrizo, Maria E; Destefanis, Laura; Gonzalez, Maria C; Perduca, Massimiliano; Bovi, Michele; Galliano, Monica; Monaco, Hugo L

    2015-05-01

    Carp FEL (fishelectin or fish-egg lectin) is a 238-amino-acid lectin that can be purified from fish eggs by exploiting its selective binding to Sepharose followed by elution with N-acetylglucosamine. Its amino-acid sequence and other biochemical properties have previously been reported. The glycoprotein has four disulfide bridges and the structure of the oligosaccharides linked to Asn27 has been described. Here, the three-dimensional structures of apo carp FEL (cFEL) and of its complex with N-acetylglucosamine determined by X-ray crystallography at resolutions of 1.35 and 1.70 Å, respectively, are reported. The molecule folds as a six-bladed β-propeller and internal short consensus amino-acid sequences have been identified in all of the blades. A calcium atom binds at the bottom of the funnel-shaped tunnel located in the centre of the propeller. Two ligand-binding sites, α and β, are present in each of the two protomers in the dimer. The first site, α, is closer to the N-terminus of the chain and is located in the crevice between the second and the third blades, while the second site, β, is located between the fourth and the fifth blades. The amino acids that participate in the contacts have been identified, as well as the conserved water molecules in all of the sites. Both sites can bind the two anomers, α and β, of N-acetylglucosamine, as is clearly recognizable in the electron-density maps. The lectin presents sequence homology to members of the tachylectin family, which are known to have a function in the innate immune system of arthropods, and homologous genes are present in the genomes of other fish and amphibians. This structure is the first of a protein of this group and, given the degree of homology with other members of the family, it is expected that it will be useful to experimentally determine other crystal structures using the coordinates of cFEL as a search probe in molecular replacement. PMID:25945578

  8. Mechanisms of neuroblastoma cell growth inhibition by CARP-1 functional mimetics.

    PubMed

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory κB (IκB) α and β proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

  9. Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.

    2000-03-01

    The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.

  10. Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Cell Growth Inhibition by CARP-1 Functional Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory κB (IκB) α and β proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

  11. MicroRNA signature in response to nutrient restriction and re-feeding in fast skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, Xin; CHU, Wu-Ying; WU, Ping; YI, Tan; CHEN, Tao; ZHANG, Jian-She

    2014-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most important cultivated fish species in China. Mounting evidences suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) may be key regulators of skeletal muscle among the grass carp, but the knowledge of the identity of myogenic miRNAs and role of miRNAs during skeletal muscle anabolic state remains limited. In the present study, we choose 8 miRNAs previously reported to act as muscle growth-related miRNAs for fasting-refeeding research. We investigated postprandial changes in the expression of 8 miRNAs following a single satiating meal in grass carp juveniles who had been fasting for one week and found that 7 miRNAs were sharply up-regulated within 1 or 3 h after refeeding, suggesting that they may be promising candidate miRNAs involved in a fast-response signaling system that regulates fish skeletal muscle growth. PMID:25297080

  12. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio).

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  13. DNA vaccine protects ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio koi) against North American spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmenegger, E.J.; Kurath, G.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in the United States constitutes a potentially serious alien pathogen threat to susceptible fish stocks in North America. A DNA vaccine with an SVCV glycoprotein (G) gene from a North American isolate was constructed. In order to test the vaccine a challenge model utilizing a specific pathogen-free domestic koi stock and a cold water stress treatment was also developed. We have conducted four trial studies demonstrating that the pSGnc DNA vaccine provided protection in vaccinated fish against challenge at low, moderate, and high virus doses of the homologous virus. The protection was significant (p < 0.05) as compared to fish receiving a mock vaccine construct containing a luciferase reporter gene and to non-vaccinated controls in fish ranging in age from 3 to 14 months. In all trials, the SVCV-G DNA immunized fish were challenged 28-days post-vaccination (546 degree-days) and experienced low mortalities varying from 10 to 50% with relative percent survivals ranging from 50 to 88%. The non-vaccinated controls and mock construct vaccinated fish encountered high cumulative percent mortalities ranging from 70 to 100%. This is the first report of a SVCV DNA vaccine being tested successfully in koi. These experiments prove that the SVCV DNA (pSGnc) vaccine can elicit specific reproducible protection and validates its potential use as a prophylactic vaccine in koi and other vulnerable North American fish stocks.

  14. Gene Expression Variations of Red—White Skin Coloration in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Min; Song, Ying-Nan; Xiao, Gui-Bao; Zhu, Bai-Han; Xu, Gui-Cai; Sun, Ming-Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Li, Jiong-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Teleosts have more types of chromatophores than other vertebrates and the genetic basis for pigmentation is highly conserved among vertebrates. Therefore, teleosts are important models to study the mechanism of pigmentation. Although functional genes and genetic variations of pigmentation have been studied, the mechanisms of different skin coloration remains poorly understood. The koi strain of common carp has various colors and patterns, making it a good model for studying the genetic basis of pigmentation. We performed RNA-sequencing for red skin and white skin and identified 62 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Most of them were validated with RT-qPCR. The up-regulated DEGs in red skin were enriched in Kupffer’s vesicle development while the up-regulated DEGs in white skin were involved in cytoskeletal protein binding, sarcomere organization and glycogen phosphorylase activity. The distinct enriched activity might be associated with different structures and functions in erythrophores and iridophores. The DNA methylation levels of two selected DEGs inversely correlated with gene expression, indicating the participation of DNA methylation in the coloration. This expression characterization of red—white skin along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology. PMID:26370964

  15. Molecular characterization and dietary regulation of aminopeptidase N (APN) in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianzhou; Qu, Fufa; Tang, Xiangbei; Zhao, Qiong; Wang, Yonghong; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Junchang; Lu, Shuangqing; Hou, Dexing; Liu, Zhen

    2016-05-10

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) is a member of the peptidase M1 family and plays an important role in protein digestion. In the present study, an APN gene was cloned from the intestine of Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length cDNA sequence of APN encodes an 892-amino-acid peptide that includes one helix trans-membrane region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the APN sequence clustered with Danio rerio as its closest neighbor, sharing a sequence similarity of 81.5%. APN mRNA was differentially expressed in different tissues, with a gradient expression from high to low in the tissues of the fore-intestine, hind-intestine, liver, mid-intestine, kidney, muscle, spleen and heart. APN expression in grass carp had a circadian pattern, showing time-dependent higher expression between 06:00 and 18:00 and lower expression between 18:00 and 06:00. In addition, the protein levels and resource in the diet-regulated APN expression suggested that low crude protein (CP) level and fish meal stimulated APN gene expression. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of APN in the intestine was significantly suppressed by high concentrations of glutamine and glutamine dipeptides, respectively. This study may provide valuable knowledge on the regulation of APN expression in teleost, which has potential applications for improving fish dietary formulations. PMID:26828613

  16. Interactive effects of selected pharmaceutical mixtures on bioaccumulation and biochemical status in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of fluoxetine (FLU), roxithromycin (ROX) and propranolol (PRP) on the bioaccumulation and biochemical responses in the crucian carp Carassius auratus. After 7 days of binary exposure (ROX + FLU and PRP + FLU), the addition of waterborne FLU at nominal concentrations of 4, 20 and 100 μg L(-1) significantly increased the accumulation of ROX and PRP in fish livers in most cases, although elevated ROX and PRP bioaccumulation levels were not observed in muscles or gills. The inductive response of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) to PRP and that of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin O-dibenzyloxylase (BFCOD) to ROX were inhibited by the co-administration of FLU at all tested concentrations. Correspondingly, marked inhibition of CYP1A and CYP3A mRNA expression levels was observed in the livers of fish co-treated with FLU + PRP and FLU + ROX relative to their PRP- and ROX-only counterparts, respectively. In addition, as reflected by superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, co-exposure to ROX + FLU and PRP + FLU seemed to induce stronger antioxidant responses than single pharmaceutical exposure in fish livers. This work indicated that the interactive effects of pharmaceutical mixtures could lead to perturbations in the bioaccumulation and biochemical responses in fish. PMID:26800487

  17. Susceptibility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a model pathogen, spring viremia of carp virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanders, George E.; Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2003-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of fish disease, we developed a pathogen model, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and spring virema of carp virus (SVCV). Replicate groups of 10 fish were acclimated to 20 or 24°C, then were exposed to SVCV concentrations of 103 to 105 plaque-forming units per milliliter (PFU/ml) of water and observed daily. In a second trial, fish were acclimated to 15°C, and replicate groups of 10 fish were exposed to SVCV at a concentration of 105 PFU/ml; however, the temperature was raised 1°C/wk. Moribund fish were collected for histologic examination, and dead fish were assayed for virus by use of cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Mortality exceeded 50% in fish exposed to 105 PFU of SVCV/ml at the lower temperatures. Clinical signs of disease became evident seven days after viral exposure and were observed most consistently in fish of the 105 PFU/ml groups. Affected zebrafish were anorectic and listless, with epidermal petechial hemorrhages followed by death. Use of plaque assays and RT-PCR analysis confirmed presence of SVCV at titers ≥ 104 PFU/g of tissue. Histologic lesions included multifocal brachial necrosis and melanomacrophage proliferation in gills, liver, and kidneys. These results indicate that zebrafish are susceptible to infection by SVCV under conditions that mimic a natural route of exposure.

  18. Phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals and intersex in wild crucian carp from Hun River, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Binghui; Liu, Ruizhi; Liu, Yue; Jin, Fen; An, Lihui

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the incidence of ovo-testis (intersex) in wild crucian carp (Carassius carassius) sampled from the Hun River. As expected, nonylphenols (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) were detected in all samples, and octylphenols (OP) were found in most samples. NP concentrations ranged from 1290 ± 584 to 3111 ± 2071 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) in July and from 1132 ± 644 to 1556 ± 587 ng g(-1) ww in November; OP ranged from 6 ± 7 to 46 ± 38 ng g(-1) ww in July and from no detection to 22 ± 16 ng g(-1) ww in November; and BPA ranged from 4 ± 9 to 41 ± 24 ng g(-1) ww in July and from 6 ± 5 to 59 ± 24 ng g(-1) ww in November. Moreover, the concentrations of these compounds were higher in fish found down-stream of the sewage treatment plant (STP), and the lowest concentrations were found in fish up-stream of the STP. Concentrations of these EDCs in muscles might be correlated with the prevalence of intersex traits in wild fish, suggesting that these compounds contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of intersex morphology. Thus, phenolic EDCs discharged from the STP pose a risk to the aquatic ecosystem in the Hun River. PMID:25465957

  19. Identification of an aminopeptidase from the skeletal muscle of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Gen; Liu, Bing-Xin; Sun, Le-Chang; Hara, Kenji; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2010-12-01

    Aminopeptidases play important roles in turnover of proteins, metabolism of hormones and neurotransmission, cell maturation and immunological regulations. In the present study, an aminopeptidase was purified to homogeneity from the skeletal muscle of grass carp by ammonium sulfate fractionation and sequential chromatographic steps, including DEAE-Sephacel, Sephacryl S-200, hydroxyapatite and Phenyl-Sepharose. The purified enzyme revealed a molecular mass of approximately 105 kDa both on SDS-PAGE and on gel filtration of Superdex 200. The enzymatic activity toward synthetic substrates was optimal at 40°C and pH 7.0-7.5. Metal-chelating agents such as EDTA and EGTA effectively inhibited the enzyme activity while inhibitors to serine, asparatic and cysteine proteinases did not show much effect, suggesting its belonging to metalloproteinase family. A specific aminopeptidase inhibitor bestatin was most effective in suppressing the enzymatic activity and performed in a competitive fashion. The enzymatic activity was slightly enhanced by metal ions of Mg2+ and Mn2+ while inhibited to different extents by Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+. Sulfhydryl reagent was necessary to maintain its activity. Purified enzyme demonstrated amidolytic activity most effectively against synthetic aminopeptidase substrate Leu-methylcoumarylamide (MCA) while N-terminal-blocked substrates and myofibrillar proteins were not hydrolyzed. The enzyme purified in the present study was quite possibly a leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and functions during muscular protein metabolism. PMID:20020199

  20. On Reaction Order of the Denaturation of Carp Muscle Proteins in KCI solution During Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Fuyuo; Miki, Hidemasa; Nishimoto, Jun-Ichi

    A kinetic analysis was made, in some details, of the published data showing the rates of denaturation of carp muscle actomyosin or myofibrils in the frozen KCI solution. The logarithm of protein solubility or ATPase activity were correlated by two straight lines with different slopes in plotting against storage time. However, the first-order rate constants decreased significantly with the storage time. When the reciprocals of protein solubility or activity were plotted against storage time, a straight line was obtained throughout the almost entire storage period. The second-order rate constants were reasonably constant for the storage period. The reaction order of denaturation was approximately 3/2 to 5/2, as estimated by the differential method from the denaturation curves. The facts indicate that the reaction of freeze-denaturation in KCI solution is not of first-order, but of around second-order. The applicability of the first-order and second-order rate constants as a measure in evaluating the variables effect on denaturation was discussed.

  1. Study on the tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) property of bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) myosin subfragment-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ruichang; Xue, Changhu; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Yongqin; Xue, Yong; Sun, Yan; Feng, Hui

    2007-10-01

    Myosin subfragment-1 was prepared from the myofibrils of bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis). The myosin subfragment-1 was proved to have the activity of tripolyphosphatase (TPPase) responding to the hydrolysis of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). The optimum temperature and pH for the TPPase of myosin subfragment-1 were 30°C and pH 5.0, and at pH 8.0 the TPPase also showed a high activity. Mg2+ was necessary to TPPase. The TPPase activity of myosin subfragment-1 was activated by Mg2+ under low concentrations, but was inhibited when the concentration was over 17 mmolL-1. The TPPase activity was also affected by KCl. The optimum concentration of KCl for TPPase was 0.3 molL-1 under the condition of 17 mmolL-1 Mg2+. The TPPase activity was significantly inhibited by EDTA-Na2. Reagents such as KBr, KI and KIO3 could inhibit the TPPase effectively. K2Cr2O7 as well as KMnO7 and KNO3 exhibited weak inhibiting effects. The TPPase converted STPP to pyrophosphate (PP) and orthophosphate (Pi) stoichiometrically with a K M of 3.2mmolL-1.

  2. Physiological and molecular responses in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) following exposure to tributyltin.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2016-03-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), as antifouling paints, is widely present in aquatic environment, but little is known regarding the toxicity of TBT on fish brain. In this study, the effects of exposure to TBT on the antioxidant defense system, Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase activity, neurological enzymes activity and Hsp 70 protein level in brain of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (5, 10 and 20 μg/L) for 7 days. Based on the results, with increasing concentrations of TBT, oxidative stress was apparent as reflected by the significant higher levels of oxidative indices, as well as the significant inhibition of all antioxidant enzymes activities. Besides, the activities of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Monoamine oxidases (MAO) and Na(+) -K(+) -ATPase were significantly inhibited after exposure to TBT with higher concentrations. In addition, the levels of Hsp 70 protein were evaluated under TBT stress with dose-depended manner. These results suggest that selected physiological responses in fish brain could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual organotin compounds present in aquatic environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 278-284, 2016. PMID:25761124

  3. [Experimental study of 241Am transfer from herbal food to organs and tissues of crucian carp].

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dement'ev, D V; Bolsunovskiĭ, A Ia

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater fishes (Carassius auratus gibelio, crucian carp) were fed through catheter with homogenized biomass of submerged macrophytes labeled with transuranium element 241Am. The intensity of excretion of americium and its accumulation in organs and tissues of fishes were investigated. The highest release of americium (up to 70%) was recorded on the second day after feeding. 94-98% of americium were excreted during 3-4 days; however, americium was also recorded in the excrements after 11 days. Americium was registered in organs and tissues of fishes, including those tissues that had no direct contact with americium (bones and muscles). This implies assimilation of americium via digestive tract. The activity concentration of americium in bones (11 Bq/kg, fresh mass) was twice as high as that in muscles, heads and external tissues and organs (skin, scales and fins). The highest activity concentration of americium was registered in viscera (33 Bq/kg, 48% of the total activity in the body). Accumulation of americium in muscles enhances the probability of the further transfer of americium along a food chain. PMID:21674957

  4. β-Glucan protects neutrophil extracellular traps against degradation by Aeromonas hydrophila in carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Brogden, Graham; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Adamek, Mikołaj; Reuner, Friederike; Jung-Schroers, Verena; Naim, Hassan Y; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2012-10-01

    A novel host innate immune defence mechanism against invading pathogens, namely the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), has recently been discovered. These NETs are described as DNA fibres released by dying neutrophils, which are able to entrap and kill various microbes. Here we studied the effect of the feed additive β-glucan, namely MacroGard(®), on the degradation of NETs by the important fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Therefore, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) head kidney cells consisting of approximately 45% neutrophils were isolated and treated with or without β-glucan. The degradation of NETs after co-incubation with A. hydrophila was analysed by immunofluorescence microscopy. The data show that A. hydrophila is able to degrade NETs and that treatment of cells with β-glucan significantly protects the NETs against bacterial degradation. Control experiments revealed that β-glucan augments nuclease activity of the bacteria at the same time while protecting the NETs against its degradation. In conclusion the data indicate that β-glucan might affect the composition and stabilisation of NETs and thereby protecting them against degradation by A. hydrophila nuclease. PMID:22959188

  5. Chronic Exposure to Tributyltin Induces Brain Functional Damage in Juvenile Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Shi, Ze-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Tributyltin (TBT) on brain function and neurotoxicity of freshwater teleost. The effects of long-term exposure to TBT on antioxidant related indices (MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GR, glutathione reductase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase), Na+-K+-ATPase and neurological parameters (AChE, acetylcholinesterase; MAO, monoamine oxidase; NO, nitric oxide) in the brain of common carp were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 μg/L and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30, and 60 days. Based on the results, a low level and short-term TBT-induced stress could not induce the notable responses of the fish brain, but long-term exposure (more than 15 days) to TBT could lead to obvious physiological-biochemical responses (based on the measured parameters). The results also strongly indicated that neurotoxicity of TBT to fish. Thus, the measured physiological responses in fish brain could provide useful information to better understand the mechanisms of TBT-induced bio-toxicity. PMID:25879203

  6. Influence of carp intestinal mucus molecular size and glycosylation on bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Schroers, V; Van Der Marel, M; Steinhagen, D

    2008-08-27

    The first step of the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases is the colonisation of the mucosal surface by the pathogen. Bacterial colonisation of the mucosal surface is promoted by adherence to high molecular weight mucus glycoproteins. We examined the effect of carp intestinal mucus glycoproteins on the adhesion of different bacteria. The bacteria used were 3 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, and A. salmonicida, Edwardsiella tarda and Yersinia ruckeri. All bacteria adhered to mucus, but at varying intensities. All tested bacteria adhered best to molecules of 670 to 2000 kDa in size, less to molecules larger than 2000 kDa and weakest to molecules of 30 to 670 kDa. In general, bacteria that showed a stronger adhesion to intestinal mucus were cytotoxic to cells in vitro, and bacteria that showed a weaker adhesion to intestinal mucus did not lead to alterations of monolayers of EPC-cells. Furthermore, the involvement of glycan side chains of the glycoproteins for bacterial adhesion was analysed for one A. hydrophila strain. After cleavage of terminal sugar residues by treatment of mucus glycoproteins with different glycosidases, binding of bacteria was modulated. When mannose was cleaved off, adhesion significantly increased. Blocking of glycan receptors by incubation of bacteria with different oligosaccharides had no clear effect on bacterial binding to mucus glycoproteins. Our results suggest that bacteria interact with carbohydrate side chains of mucus glycoproteins, and that the carbohydrates of the core region are involved in bacterial binding. PMID:18924378

  7. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV-Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Ran; Chen, Xiling; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2016-02-01

    The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)-inhibitory bioactivity of silver carp protein (SCP) hydrolysates were investigated, and their containing efficacious DPP-IV-inhibitory peptides were explored by in silico hydrolysis analysis, peptide separation combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification, and chemical synthesis. SCP hydrolysates generated by six proteases all showed efficient DPP-IV-inhibitory activities, and Neutrase-generated hydrolysates had the greatest DPP-IV inhibition (IC50 of 1.12 mg/mL). In silico Neutrase hydrolysis revealed hundreds of fragments released from myosin, actin, and collagen of SCPs, which include different Pro-motif peptides but only three reported peptidic DPP-IV inhibitors with moderate or weak bioactivity. In addition, three new DPP-IV-inhibitory peptides were identified using LC-MS/MS; in particular, LPIIDI and APGPAGP showed high DPP-IV-inhibitory activity with IC50 of 105.44 and 229.14 μM, respectively, and behaved in competitive/non-competitive mixed-type DPP-IV inhibition mode. The results indicate that the SCP-derived DPP-IV-inhibitory peptides could be potential functional ingredients in the diabetic diet. PMID:26758401

  8. Chemical interactions and gel properties of black carp actomyosin affected by MTGase and their relationships.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dan; Huang, Qilin; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-04-01

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to evaluate and correlate chemical interactions (-NH2 content, S-S bonds, four non-covalent interactions) with gel properties (dynamic rheological properties and cooking loss (CL)) of black carp actomyosin affected by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) at suwari and kamaboko stages. The G' and CL were significantly enhanced by MTGase and their values in kamaboko gels were higher than those in suwari gels at the same MTGase concentration. The γ-carboxyamide and amino cross-links, catalyzed by MTGase, were constructed at suwari stage and contributed to the network formation, while disulfide bonds were formed not only in suwari gels but also in kamaboko gels, further enhancing the gel network. PLSR analysis revealed that 86.6-90.3% of the variation of G' and 91.8-94.4% of the variation of CL were best explained by chemical interactions. G' mainly depended on covalent cross-links and gave positive correlation. CL was positively correlated with covalent cross-links, but negatively related to non-covalent bonds, indicating that covalent bonds promoted water extrusion, whereas non-covalent bonds were beneficial for water-holding. PMID:26593605

  9. Characterization of Virulence Properties of Aeromonas veronii Isolated from Diseased Gibel Carp (Carassius gibelio)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingjing; Zhang, Xiaojun; Gao, Xiaojian; Jiang, Qun; Wen, Yi; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a kind of opportunistic pathogen to fish and humans, significantly impending aquaculture production. Recently, we isolated two A. veronii strains, named GYC1 and GYC2, from diseased Gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) in China. Based on gyrB (DNA gyrase B subunit) genes of GYC1 and GYC2, the constructed phylogenetic tree showed that the two strains were clustered with A. veronii. Sixteen virulence genes related to the pathogenicity of Aeromonas spp. were subjected to PCR assay. The genes of ompAI, ompAII, lafA, act, aer, fla, gcaT and acg were detected in the two strains, while genes of hly, ahp, lip, ast and alt were not detected. Additionally, genes eprCAI, ela and exu were only detected in the strain GYC1. Furthermore, the results of extracellular enzyme analysis revealed that the two isolates can produce hemolysin, caseinase, esterase, amylase and lecithinase, which were closely related to the pathogenicity of the two strains. However, the results showed that there was no gelatinase activity in either strain. According to the antibiotic resistant assay, the two strains were sensitive to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides, while they were resistant to penicillins and quinolones. Through this study, the virulence characteristics, including virulence genes and extracellular enzymes, the pathogenicity of A. veronii was clarified, enhancing the understanding about this pathogenic bacterium and providing the theoretical basis in disease control. PMID:27043558

  10. Molecular characterization of Shewanella and Aeromonas isolates associated with spoilage of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Agüeria, Daniela; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Yeannes, Maria I; Figueras, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Storage in ice is a common way of preserving commercial fish species but some microorganisms can still contaminate and participate in the spoilage of the product; therefore, identification of potential harmful microbes is important. Thirteen colonies were isolated from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that had been stored in ice, whose phenotypic identification revealed that they belonged to the genera Aeromonas (n = 5) and Shewanella (n = 8). Molecular genotyping with ERIC-PCR showed clonality only among two of the five Aeromonas isolates and for two groups (n = 3; n = 2) of the eight Shewanella isolates. Sequencing the rpoD gene showed that four Aeromonas isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas salmonicida and one to A. sobria. Of the eight Shewanella, seven isolates cluster with Shewanella putrefaciens and one with Shewanella profunda in the 16S rRNA phylogenetic tree. However, analysis of the gyrB gene showed that these eight isolates could constitute a new species closely related to S. baltica. The Shewanella and A. salmonicida isolates produce off-odours and reduce trimethylamine oxide, indicating that they might contribute to the spoilage of the fish. PMID:25790506

  11. Complex responses to Si quantum dots accumulation in carp liver tissue: Beyond oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Sima, Cornelia; Staicu, Andrea Cristina; Zarnescu, Otilia; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-09-01

    The use of quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical applications is limited due to their inherent toxicity caused by the heavy metal core of the particles. Consequently, silicon-based QDs are expected to display diminished toxicity. We investigated the in vivo effects induced by Si/SiO2 QDs intraperitoneally injected in crucian carp liver. The QDs contained a crystalline Si core encased in a SiO2 shell, with a size between 2.75 and 11.25nm and possess intrinsic fluorescence (Ex 325nm/Em ∼690nm). Tissue fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed the presence of QDs in the liver for at least 2weeks after injection. Although protein and lipid oxidative stress markers showed the onset of oxidative stress, the hepatic tissue exhibited significant antioxidant adaptations (increase of antioxidant enzymes, recovery of glutathione levels), sustained by the activation of Hsp30 and Hsp70 chaperoning proteins. The increased activity of cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) support the idea that Si/SiO2 QDs have a potential to induce inflammatory response, a scenario also indicated by the profile of Hsp60 and Hsp90 heat shock proteins. MMPs profile and the recovery of oxidative stress markers suggested a tissue remodelation phase after 3weeks from QDs administration. PMID:26079203

  12. Dopamine receptor subtypes expressed in vertebrate (carp and eel) retinae: cloning, sequencing and comparison of five D1-like and three D2-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Hirano, J; Archer, S N; Djamgoz, M B

    1998-01-01

    Eight dopamine receptor-like cDNA clones were isolated from the carp (Cyprinus carpio) retina and four dopamine receptor-like cDNA clones were isolated from the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) retina. These cDNA clones show high sequence and structural homology to the known dopamine receptor subtypes. The sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis revealed that five subtypes (D1A3, D1A4, D1B, D1C and D1X) in the carp retina and four subtypes (D1A1, D1A2, D1B and D1C) in the eel retina are D1-like receptor subtypes, and three (D2, D4A and D4B) in the carp retina are D2-like receptor subtypes; no D2-like receptor was found in the eel. Carp D1A3 and D1A4, carp D4A and D4B, and eel D1A1 and D1A2 are highly homologous pairs of receptors which show significant, domain-specific differences to each other and to their species homologues. The structure of the third cytoplasmic loop in the carp D1X receptor was particularly different from the other D1-like receptors. The implications of these structural differences in terms of dopamine receptor activation and signalling are discussed. It is suggested that the known diverse physiological and pharmacological effects of dopamine on the retinal neurones are likely to be mediated through these multiple receptor subtypes which may be coupled to different signal transduction pathways. PMID:9826915

  13. Activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) and immune response in carp lines with different susceptibility to disease.

    PubMed

    Pijanowski, L; Jurecka, P; Irnazarow, I; Kepka, M; Szwejser, E; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Chadzinska, M

    2015-10-01

    The stress response transmitted by the HPA axis is one of the best examples of neuroendocrine-immune interactions that are critical for survival. Analogous to the situation in mammals, the stress response in fish is characterized by the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI). Effects of cortisol on the fish immune system comply with findings in mammals and suggest that the differences in sensitivity to stress will influence the immune response and as a consequence of survival. Therefore, we studied the stress response and its immunity-related effects in four different carp lines (R3, R3xR8, K and R2) that display a differential pathogen susceptibility. Previous studies indicate that R3xR8 and R3 carp are susceptible to bacterial and parasite infection, while R2 and K are relatively resistant to infection. Interestingly, the most striking effect of stress on leukocyte composition and activity was observed in the pathogen-resistant K carp, even though no robust changes in gene expression of stress-involved factors were observed. In contrast, R3 carp showed no spectacular stress-induced changes in their immunological parameters with concurrent significant activation of the HPI axis. Upon stress, the R3 carp showed up-regulation of crf, pomc and gr2 gene expression in the hypothalamus. Furthermore in R3 carp, at all levels of the HPI axis, stress induced the highest up-regulation of il-1? gene expression. Although we are aware of the complexity of the interactions between stress and pathogen susceptibility and of the risk of interpretation based on correlations, it is noteworthy that the fish more susceptible to infection also exhibited the highest response to stress. PMID:26041250

  14. Biological significance of ( sup 14 C)phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J. )

    1990-09-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of ({sup 14}C)phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish.

  15. Effect of water salinity on total protein and electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    PubMed Central

    Peyghan, Rahim; Khadjeh, Gholam Hosain; Enayati, Ala

    2014-01-01

    In this study the effects of water salinity on serum total protein and its components in grass carp were investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of salinity tolerance of fish on total serum protein level and its components as an indicator of liver and kidney activity. One hundred and twenty grass carp were divided into four groups, randomly. The first three groups were reared in concentration of 4, 8 and 12 g L-1 of salt solution, respectively, and the fourth group was reared in freshwater and served as control. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected and after harvesting the blood serum, serum total protein and protein components were measured with Biuret and electrophoresis methods, respectively. Results showed that mean value of serum total protein in the control and three salinities groups were 2.75, 3.28, 2.90 and 3.13 g dL-1, respectively. Five fractions of serum protein were electrophoretically observed as: albumin (Alb), alpha-1 globulin (α1-glu), alpha-2 globulin (α2-glu), beta globulin (β-glu) and gamma globulin (γ-glu). There were not any significant differences between the average mean of serum total protein of experimental and control groups (p > 0.05). However, Alb, α1-glu and β-glu levels in the experimental groups were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). The average of α2-glu and γ-glu revealed no significant difference between the experimental groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that increasing water salinity could have a significant effect on Alb, α1-glu and β-glu levels but not on total serum protein in grass carp. PMID:25568723

  16. Differential in vitro suppressive effects of steroids on leukocyte phagocytosis in two teleosts, tilapia and common carp.

    PubMed

    Law, W Y; Chen, W H; Song, Y L; Dufour, S; Chang, C F

    2001-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential roles of cortisol and gonadal steroids in the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in two teleosts, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. aureus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). An in vitro microtiter plate assay, measuring incorporation of FITC-latex beads into peripheral blood leukocytes, was developed for the first time in teleosts. Peripheral blood leukocytes were cultured in AL medium with tested compounds in a microfluor black plate at 25 degrees C. FITC-latex beads were further incubated for phagocytosis and engulfed fluorescent intensity in phagocytes was detected fluorometrically. Cortisol suppressed leukocyte phagocytosis in a dose (10(-14) to 10(-4) M)- and time (0.5 to 8 h)-dependent manner in tilapia. The glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone had a suppressive effect similar to that of cortisol, while cortisone and the mineralocorticoid aldosterone had only a weak effect in tilapia. High doses of estradiol and ethynylestradiol, but not of estrone, suppressed phagocytosis in tilapia. No suppressive effect on phagocytosis was observed with various concentrations of progesterone, testosterone, and 11-ketotestosterone. Triiodothyronine was also inactive on phagocytosis. A combination of estradiol and cortisol potentiatingly suppressed phagocytosis. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide blocked the suppressive effects of cortisol and estradiol. Cortisol had weaker suppressive effects on the phagocytosis of leukocytes in common carp than tilapia. Other steroids had no suppressive action on phagocytosis in common carp. It is concluded that the suppressive effects of cortisol and estradiol on phagocytosis in tilapia are mediated by specific glucocorticoid receptors and estrogen receptors, respectively. Cortisol would play a main and important role on the down-regulation of phagocytic activity. Sexual steroids, such as estradiol, also could interact with cortisol to further suppress immunity in tilapia. Differential responsiveness of the immune system to suppressive effects of steroids, among teleosts species, has been demonstrated. PMID:11178882

  17. Threonine Affects Intestinal Function, Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression of TOR in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lin; Peng, Yan; Wu, Pei; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of threonine (Thr) on the digestive and absorptive ability, proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes, and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). First, seven isonitrogenous diets containing graded levels of Thr (7.4–25.2 g/kg diet) were fed to the fishes for 60 days. Second, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation were assayed by culturing enterocytes with graded levels of Thr (0–275 mg/l) in vitro. Finally, enterocytes were cultured with 0 and 205 mg/l Thr to determine protein synthesis. The percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate, feed intake, feed efficiency, protein retention value, activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase, weights and protein contents of hepatopancreas and intestine, folds heights, activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP), γ- glutamyl transpeptidase and Na+/K+-ATPase in all intestinal segments, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities in hepatopancreas, and 4E-BP2 gene expression in muscle, hepatopancreas and intestinal segments were significantly enhanced by Thr (p<0.05). However, the plasma ammonia concentration and TOR gene expression decreased (p<0.05). In vitro, Thr supplement significantly increased cell numbers, protein content, the activities of GOT, GPT, AKP and Na+/K+-ATPase, and protein synthesis rate of enterocytes, and decreased LDH activity and ammonia content in cell medium (p<0.05). In conclusion, Thr improved growth, digestive and absorptive capacity, enterocyte proliferation and differentiation, and protein synthesis and regulated TOR and 4E-BP2 gene expression in juvenile Jian carp. The dietary Thr requirement of juvenile Jian carp was 16.25 g/kg diet (51.3 g/kg protein) based on quadratic regression analysis of PWG. PMID:23922879

  18. Effect of a new recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine on the grass carp intestinal microbiota and correlations with immunological responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Gong, Yu-Xin; Zhu, Bin; Liu, Guang-Lu; Wang, Gao-Xue; Ling, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Intestinal microbiota has become an integral component of the fish, and plays a key role in host metabolism, immunity and health maintenance. However, information on the immune responses after vaccine administration in relation to the intestinal microbiota is absent in fish. The present study focused on the effect of a new recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine (Aera) by using a novel functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a delivery vehicle on the intestinal microbiota of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through the bath immunization, and further explored the immunological responses in intestine, kidney and spleen. By performing deep sequencing, a total of 81,979 valid reads and 609 OTUs obtained from 4 intestine samples were analyzed. We detected 141 genuses, most of which belonged to Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria. Of note, the quantity of Aeromonas in library Aera (after 6 h Aera vaccine pretreatment, fish were transferred to tanks without SWCNTs-Aera for 28 d) and Aera-GD (6 h Aera vaccine pretreated prior to the group injected by A. hydrophila) was declined 6.5% and 14.6% compared with the control, respectively. Moreover, the expression of seven immune-related genes (IFN-I, TNF-α, CRP, IL-8, IgM, MHC I and CD8α) in the intestine, kidney and spleen of Aera treated fish was significantly enhanced, which indicated that a better tissue immune response in grass carp was induced by the SWCNTs-Aera vaccine. Therefore, a new recombinant SWCNT-Aera vaccine may represent potentially efficient and immunological role in grass carp intestine to resist A. hydrophila infection. PMID:25862971

  19. Genetic analysis of invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in the Mississippi River Basin: evidence for multiple introductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian Black Carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) have been present in USA aquaculture facilities since the 1980s and wild Black Carp have been found in the Mississippi River Basin since the early 1990s. This study characterizes the genetic diversity and relatedness of the Basin’s Black Carp and clarifies the introduction history. Analyses focused on three mitochondrial markers (control region, cytochrome-b, and 16S) and seven nuclear microsatellite markers (nDNA), using aquaculture and wild-caught samples collected in the upper and lower Mississippi Basin. Of the three mitochondrial haplotypes, two were shared between the aquaculture and wild populations, while a third was only present in upper Mississippi wild-caught specimens. Due to the presence of diploid and triploid fish, microsatellite markers were scored as pseudodominant and revealed low polymorphism (NA = 4.6, NA Ave = 1.5). Nuclear Bayesian clustering analyses identified two genetically distinct groups and four subclusters, each primarily composed of a unique haplotype. Samples from three aquaculture farms were assigned to group 1, while a fourth farm included samples from both groups 1 and 2. Wild-caught fish from the upper Basin were predominantly group 1, whereas wild samples from the lower Mississippi were assigned to both genetic groups. The presence of divergent haplotypes and distinct nDNA groups, along with geographic distribution patterns, indicate that wild populations in the basin likely resulted from multiple introductions. Genetic similarities between wild and captive populations support claims that aquaculture is the introduction source, but a shortage of samples and a history of repeated transfers among facilities obscure the precise pathway.

  20. Seasonal fluctuation of Myxobolus gibelioi (myxosporea) plasmodia in the gills of the farmed allogynogenetic gibel carp in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guitang; Yao, Weijian; Gong, Xiaoning; Wang, Jianguo; Nie, Pin

    2003-06-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of the plasmodia of Myxobolus gibelioi Wu et Wang, 1982 in the gill filaments of the allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) in a fish pond in Hubei Province of China was investigated from August 1999 to July 2000. A total of 445 fish was examined; the overall prevalence of the plasmodium infection in the fish was 64.94% and mean abundance of plasmodia was 11.65±27.85 (mean±SD). Significant seasonal changes in prevalence and mean abundance, with higher levels of the plasmodia infection from late spring to autumn, were observed.

  1. Isomer-dependent bioavailability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from municipal-incinerator fly ash to carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehl, D.W.; Cook, P.M.; Batterman, A.R.; Butterworth, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    The isomer-dependent bioavailability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous-flow exposure readily accumulated select isomers of PCDDs and PCDFs. A preference for greater retention of isomers substituted in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions was observed. The Bioavailability Index (ratio of contaminant level in fish to level in fly ash) decreased with increasing degree of chlorination.

  2. De novo Assembly of the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Transcriptome to Identify miRNA Targets Associated with Motile Aeromonad Septicemia

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianjun; Lu, Liqun; Li, Jiale

    2014-01-01

    Background De novo transcriptome sequencing is a robust method of predicting miRNA target genes, especially for organisms without reference genomes. Differentially expressed miRNAs had been identified previously in kidney samples collected from susceptible and resistant grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) affected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Target identification for these differentially expressed miRNAs poses a major challenge in this non-model organism. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of susceptible and resistant C. idella were sequenced by Illumina Hiseq 2000 technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 199,593 transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequences to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. A BLASTx analysis against a non-redundant protein database revealed that 61,373 unigenes coded for 28,311 annotated proteins. Two cDNA libraries from susceptible and resistant samples showed that 721 unigenes were expressed at significantly different levels; 475 were significantly up-regulated and 246 were significantly down-regulated in the SG samples compared to the RG samples. The computational prediction of miRNA targets from these differentially expressed genes identified 188 unigenes as the targets of 5 conserved and 4 putative novel miRNA families. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of identifying miRNA targets by transcriptome analysis. The transcriptome assembly data represent a substantial increase in the genomic resources available for C. idella and will provide insights into the gene expression profile analysis and the miRNA function annotations in further studies. PMID:25409340

  3. Assessment of silver nanoparticle toxicity for common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish embryos using a novel method controlling the agglomeration in the aquatic media.

    PubMed

    Oprsal, Jakub; Blaha, Ludek; Pouzar, Miloslav; Knotek, Petr; Vlcek, Milan; Hrda, Katerina

    2015-12-01

    Formation of agglomerates and their rapid sedimentation during aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanoparticles is a major issue with a crucial influence on the risk assessment of nanomaterials. The present work is aimed at developing and testing a new approach based on the periodic replacement of liquid media during an ecotoxicological experiment which enabled the efficient monitoring of exposure conditions. A verified mathematical model predicted the frequencies of media exchanges which checked for formation of agglomerates from silver nanoparticles AgNP with 50 nm average size of the original colloid. In the model experiments, embryos of common carp Cyprinus carpio were exposed repeatedly for 6 h to AgNPs (5-50 μm Ag L(-1)) either under semistatic conditions (exchange of media after 6 h) or in variants with frequent media exchanges (varying from 20 to 300 min depending on the AgNP colloid concentration and the desired maximum agglomerate size of 200 or 400 nm). In contrast to other studies, where dissolved free metals are usually responsible for toxic effects, our 144-h experiments demonstrated the importance of AgNP agglomerates in the adverse effects of nanosilver. Direct adsorption of agglomerates on fish embryos locally increased Ag concentrations which resulted in pronounced toxicity particularly in variants with larger 400 nm agglomerates. The present study demonstrates the suitability of the novel methodology in controlling the conditions during aquatic nanomaterial toxicity testing. It further provided insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of AgNP, which rank on a global scale among the most widely used nanomaterials. PMID:26233755

  4. Scale surface microstructure and scale size in the tooth-carp genus Aphanius (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from endorheic basins in Southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Zeinab; Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of species within the tooth-carp Aphanius Nardo, 1827 (Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei) has been recorded from the endorheic drainage systems of Iran, and several isolated populations in these systems may deserve species status. Descriptions of these species and populations have been based mainly on morphological and molecular data; however, the characters related to the fish scales have not up to now been intensively studied and employed for the identification of the species belonging to this genus. The objective of this study is to test as to whether (i) scale surface morphology, (ii) scale surface microstructure, and (iii) scale size can be used to discriminate species and/or populations and, (iv) to discuss the possible causes of the observed differences. To achieve these objectives, scales of three species of the genus Aphanius from endorheic basins in SW Iran, viz. A. sophiae (nine populations from the Kor River Basin), A. farsicus (four populations from the Maharlu Lake Basin) and A. pluristriatus (a single population from the Mond River Basin) have been studied using SEM images, scale measurements, and uni- and multivariate statistics. It is opined that scale surface morphology and microstructure cannot help in distinguishing the species, but can be employed to discriminate certain populations of A. sophiae (those from Safashahr, Kharameh, Tashk, Gol). In addition, scale size and J-indices, respectively, represent a valuable tool for species separation, which corroborates earlier studies for the use of these indices in taxonomy. Major driving forces of the differentiation within A. sophiae probably include habitat fragmentation resulting from the geological history and local adaptations. Thus the differentiation results from a balance between both genetic and environmental effects. PMID:26131487

  5. Characterization of the electrogenic Na+-K+ pump in horizontal cells isolated from the carp retina.

    PubMed

    Shimura, M; Tamai, M; Zushi, I; Akaike, N

    1998-09-01

    The electrogenic Na+-K+ pump current in horizontal cells acutely dissociated from the carp retina was investigated using a nystatin-perforated patch recording configuration under voltage-clamp conditions. In the presence of suitable blockers for known voltage-dependent Na+, K+ and Ca2+ conductances, the pump current was activated in a concentration-dependent manner by adding K+ ions to external solution. The EC50 value and Hill coefficient for the external K+ concentration were 0.66 mM and 1.39, respectively. The pump current did not show any significant voltage dependency at the physiological potential range between -90 and 20 mV either with or without external Na+ ions. In the presence of 120 mM external Na+ concentration, the addition of 3 mM K+ to the external solution induced a steady outward pump current even when the patch-pipette (internal) solution did not contain Na+. A large outward shift of the holding current was observed by removing external Na+. The result thus suggests that continuous Na+ influxes exist across the plasma membrane in the presence of external Na+. When Na+ was removed from both external and internal solutions, a transient outward pump current was observed by adding K+ to the external solution, thus indicating that the transient pump current was activated by the residual intracellular Na+ ions. The pump current was suppressed by ouabain in a concentration-dependent manner, and the ouabain-sensitive inhibition curve was fitted by two components. The IC50 values of high- and low-sensitive pump currents for ouabain were 20 nM and 10.4 microM, respectively, indicating the existence of at least two isoforms of the pump in the horizontal cells. PMID:9692757

  6. Pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xingxing; Zhou, Jianguo; Liu, Xiuhong

    2016-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of sarafloxacin were investigated after single intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in allogynogenetic silver crucian carp at 24-26 °C. The plasma concentrations of sarafloxacin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After i.v. administration, the plasma concentration-time data were described by an open two-compartment model. The elimination half-life (T 1/2β) was estimated to be 22.58 h. The volume of distribution, V d(area), was estimated to be 5.95 L/kg, indicating good tissue penetration of sarafloxacin in the fish. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and total body clearance of sarafloxacin were 56.86 µg·h/mL and 0.18 L/h/kg, respectively. Following p.o. administration, the maximum plasma concentration (C max), T 1/2β, and AUC of sarafloxacin were 0.79 µg/mL, 46.68 h, and 16.58 µg·h/mL, respectively. Absorption of the drug was not good with a bioavailability (F) of 29.15 %. Based on a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.00625 to 0.045 μg/mL for susceptible strains, sarafloxacin p.o. administration at a dose 10 mg/kg could be efficacious against common pathogenic bacteria of fish. PMID:26563280

  7. Habitat-Specific Locomotor Variation among Chinese Hook Snout Carp (Opsariichthys bidens) along a River

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Zuogang; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; He, Xiao-Ke; Xu, Dandan; Zhang, An-Jie

    2012-01-01

    The Wujiang River is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River that shows great variations in i