Sample records for major carp catla

  1. Sublethal toxicological evaluation of methyl parathion on some haematological and biochemical parameters in an Indian major carp Catla catla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhat D. Abhijith; Mathan Ramesh; Rama Krishnan Poopal

    The sublethal toxic potential of an organophosphorus pesticide, methyl parathion (MP), in altering certain haematological\\u000a (Hb, Hct, RBC, WBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC))\\u000a and biochemical (plasma protein and plasma glucose) parameters in an Indian major carp Catla catla was investigated under static conditions. The LC50 (96 h) of MP was found

  2. Genotoxicity evaluation of 1,2 dichlorobenzene in the Indian major carp, Catla catla L. using alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Nirmala; Arunachalam, Kantha Deivi; Sathya, T N

    2013-12-01

    The genotoxic effect of 1,2 dichlorobenzene (1,2 DCB), a volatile organic compound in the Indian Major Carp, Catla catla L. was assessed using the alkaline comet assay in the gills and blood. Fish were exposed to various sub-lethal concentrations of 1,2 DCB in vivo. At 24 h, DNA damage scores (expressed as arbitrary units) increased at 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L whereas at 28 days, there was a statistically significant increase in the DNA damage score at all the doses tested (0.175, 0.23, 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L). When the DNA damage scores were considered in the blood samples, the trend was similar to that observed in the gills - significant increase at 0.35 and 0.7 mg/L at 24 h and at all doses at 28 days. The results indicate that 1,2 DCB induces genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of fish as evidenced by the alkaline comet assay. PMID:24114273

  3. 3D modeling and molecular dynamics simulation of an immune-regulatory cytokine, interleukin-10, from the Indian major carp, Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash R; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Maiti, Nikhil K; Samanta, Mrinal

    2012-05-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic immune-regulatory cytokine that is expressed in various species of fish and higher vertebrates, and is activated during infection. In spite of its important role, IL-10 has not been well characterized either functionally or structurally in fish. To analyze its properties and function, we constructed a 3D model of IL-10 in the Indian major carp, the catla (Catla catla), which is a highly preferred fish species and the most commercially important one in the Indian subcontinent. The catla IL-10 model was constructed by comparative modeling using human IL-10 (2ILK) as the template, and a 5 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out to characterize its structural and dynamical features, which was validated by the SAVES, WHAT IF and MolProbity servers. Analysis using the VAST server revealed a comparatively low level of homology between catla and human IL-10 amino acids at the N-terminal (22.7%) compared to the C-terminal (38.29%). Six conserved domains (A-F) were predicted in catla that threaded well with human IL-10, but their putative interaction sites varied significantly. The amino acid residues in helices A and F differed in length between catla and human IL-10, which may lead to the differences in the IL-10/IL-10R complexes of these two species. The existence of two highly conserved amino acid residues (Cys5 and Cys10) in fish IL-10 but not in higher vertebrate (including human) IL-10 was analyzed in this 3D model. CastP, cons-PPISP and InterProSurf server identified several binding pockets with various probe radii, but Cys5 and Cys10 did not form any significant bonds relating to structural stabilization or protein-protein interactions. PMID:21830101

  4. Impact of exotic carps in the polyculture with indigenous carps: competition for food.

    PubMed

    Siddiquee, M M R; Rahman, M F; Jahan, N; Jalal, K C A; Amin, S M N; Arshad, A

    2012-06-15

    The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp. PMID:24191618

  5. Effect of ice storage on the functional properties of proteins from a few species of fresh water fish (Indian major carps) with special emphasis on gel forming ability.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Naresh Kumar; Elavarasan, K; Reddy, A Manjunatha; Shamasundar, B A

    2014-04-01

    In the present study the effect of ice storage on physico-chemical and functional properties of proteins from Indian major carps with special emphasis on gel forming ability have been assessed for a period of 22 days. The solubility profile of proteins in high ionic strength buffer and calcium adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity reduced significantly (p?major protein fraction showed association-dissociation-denaturation phenomenon during ice storage as revealed by gel filtration profile and viscosity measurements. The gel forming ability of three fish species both in fresh and during different periods of ice storage was assessed by measuring the gel strength of heat induced gel. Among the three species the gel strength of the gel obtained from Catla catla and Cirrhinus mrigala was higher (586 and 561 g.cm) than the gel obtained from Labeo rohita (395 g.cm) in fresh condition. The gel forming ability of three species was significantly affected (p?

  6. Structural conservation and food habit-related liver expression of uncoupling protein 2 gene in five major Chinese carps.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Fang, Ling; Lin, Xiaotao; Bai, Junjie; Jian, Qing

    2006-07-31

    The full-length cDNA of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was obtained from liver. The grass carp UCP2 cDNA was determined to be 1152 bp in length with an open reading frame that encodes 310 amino acids. Five introns (Intron 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7) in the translated region, and partial sequence of Intron 2 in the untranslated region of grass carp UCP2 gene were also obtained. Gene structure comparison between grass carp and mammalian (human and mouse) UCP2 gene shows that, the UCP2 gene structure of grass carp is much similar to that of human and mouse. Partial UCP2 cDNA sequences of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), were further determined. Together with the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) UCP2 sequence from GenBank (AJ243486), multiple alignment result shows that the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the UCP2 gene, were highly conserved among the five major Chinese carps that belong to four subfamilies. Using beta-actin as control, the ratio UCP2/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined to be 149.4 +/- 15.6 (common carp), 127.4 +/- 22.1(mud carp), 96.7 +/- 12.7 (silver carp), 94.1 +/- 26.8 (bighead carp) and 63.7 +/- 16.2 (grass carp). The relative liver UCP2 expression of the five major Chinese carps, shows a close relationship with their food habit: benthos and detritus-eating fish (common carp and mud carp) > planktivorious fish (silver carp and bighead carp) > herbivorous fish (grass carp). We suggest that liver UCP2 might be important for Chinese carps to detoxify cyanotoxins and bacteria in debris and plankton food. PMID:16889676

  7. Post-harvest loss of farm raised Indian and Chinese major carps in the distribution channel from Mymensingh to Rangpur of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Motaleb; Rahman, Mahabubur; Hassan, M Nazmul; Nowsad, A A K M

    2013-06-15

    Post-harvest loss of catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and sarpunti (Puntius sarana) in a single distribution chain from harvest in Mymensingh to retail sale Rangpur town were determined, in order to obtain information on quality deterioration and existing handling and icing conditions so that suggestions for improving such practices can be made. Quality defect points of the fish at different steps of distribution channels were determined using a sensory based quality assessment tool. Percent quality loss of fish at each step of distribution was calculated from the number of cases that crossed sensory quality cut-off points. Neither of the fish lost their quality when they were in the farm gate, during transportation and in wholesale markets in Rangpur but most of the fishes lost their quality at the retail fish shops. The quality loss was 8, 12, 8, 6, 10 and 14% in case of C. catla, C. mrigala, L. rohita, H. molitrix, C. idella and P. sarana respectively in the retail markets. Fishes were not properly handled, bamboo baskets wrapped with polythene sheet were used as carrying container and inadequate ice was used during transportation. Retailers were found to be more proactive in the use of ice. However, most of the fishes were deteriorated during retail sale. The losses of farmed fishes could be minimized by adopting good handling practices like using insulated container and adequate icing. PMID:24494525

  8. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of alpha-class glutathione S-transferase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp, and other major Chinese freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wan-Qin; Liang, Xu-Fang; Wang, Lin; Lei, La-Mei; Han, Bo-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Two full-length cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST) were cloned and sequenced from the hepatopancreas of planktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis). The silver carp and bighead carp GST cDNA were 920 and 978 bp in length, respectively, and both contained an open reading frame that encoding 223 amino acids. Partial GST cDNA sequences were also obtained from the liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), crucian carp (Carassius auratu), mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella), and tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica). All these GSTs could be classified as alpha-class GSTs on the basis of their amino acid sequence identity with other species. The three-dimensional structure of the silver carp GST was predicted using a computer program, and was found to fit the classical two-domain GST structure. Using the genome walker method, a 875-bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GST gene was obtained, and several lipopolysaccharide (LPS) response elements were identified in the promoter region of the phytoplanktivorous fish GST gene, indicating that the GST gene expression of this fish might be regulated by LPS, released from the toxic blue-green algae producing microcystins. To compare the constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene among the six freshwater fishes with completely different tolerance to microcystins, beta-actin was used as control and the ratio GST/beta-actin mRNA (%) was determined as 130.7 +/- 6.6 (grass carp), 103.1 +/- 8.9 (bighead carp), 92.6 +/- 15.0 (crucian carp), 72.3 +/- 7.8 (mud carp), 58.8 +/- 11.5 (silver carp), and 33.6 +/- 13.7 (tilapia). The constitutive expression level of the liver GST gene clearly shows that all the six freshwater fishes had a negative relationship with their tolerance to microcystins: high-resistant fishes (phytoplanktivorous silver carp and tilapia) had the lowest tolerance to microcystins and the high-sensitive fish (herbivorous grass carp) had the highest tolerance to microcystins. Taken together with the reciprocal relationship of constitutive and inducible liver GST expression level in some of the tested fish species to microcystin exposure, a molecular mechanism for different microcystin detoxification abilities of the warm freshwater fishes was discussed. PMID:16788955

  10. Quality changes in fish burger from Catla (Catla Catla) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Vanitha, M; Dhanapal, K; Vidya Sagar Reddy, G

    2015-03-01

    Fish burgers from catla (Catla catla) were assessed for proximate, chemical, microbiological and sensory quality changes over 17 days of refrigerated storage at 4 (±1) °C. The changes in proximate analysis of fish burgers were found to be significant at P?

  11. A comparative study of COI and 16?S rRNA genes for DNA barcoding of cultivable carps in India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Mausumee; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Sahoo, Lakshman; Das, Paramananda

    2013-09-19

    Abstract The 5' region of the mitochondrial DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) is the standard marker for DNA barcoding. However, 16?S rRNA has also been advocated for DNA barcoding in many animal species. Herein, we directly compare the usefulness of COI and 16?S rRNA in discriminating six cultivable carp species: Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo fimbriatus, Labeo bata and Cirrhinus reba from India. Analysis of partial sequences of these two gene fragments from 171 individuals indicated close genetic relationship between Catla catla and Labeo rohita. The results of the present study indicated COI to be more useful than 16?S rRNA for DNA barcoding of Indian carps. PMID:24047160

  12. Effect of waterborne boron and molybdenum on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Adhikari; M. Mohanty

    2012-01-01

    The effect of either boron (B) or molybdenum (Mo) on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton), advanced fry was studied in two separate experiments. Survival rates of C. mrigala fry (2.78±0.14 g) following 50 days’ exposure to B at 0.01 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg·L were 100% at all concentrations except 8.0 mg·L where

  13. Effect of waterborne boron and molybdenum on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Adhikari; M. Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    The effect of either boron (B) or molybdenum (Mo) on survival, growth and feed intake of Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton), advanced fry was studied in two separate experiments. Survival rates of C. mrigala fry (2.78±0.14 g) following 50 days’ exposure to B at 0.01 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg·L were 100% at all concentrations except 8.0 mg·L where

  14. Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This bighead carp was collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp ar...

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation of probiotic and vitamin C on the immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Nayak, S K; Swain, P; Mukherjee, S C

    2007-10-01

    The immunostimulatory effect of probiotics and vitamin C has been established in many systems including fish. An investigation was carried out to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a probiotic bacterium "Bacillus subtilis", vitamin C in the form of ascorbyl polyphosphate and their combination on the immune response of Indian major carp, rohu, (Labeo rohita Ham.) fingerlings fed for a period of 60 days. The total serum protein and globulin content was significantly higher (p<0.05) in probiotic (B. subtilis @ 10(8) CFU/g of the feed) fed group while the respiratory burst activity of blood neutrophils was significantly high in vitamin C (ascorbyl polyphosphate @100 mg per kg diet) fed group. The antibody level was significantly high in Bacillus subtilis treated group followed by the probiotic (B. subtilis @ 10(8) CFU/g of the feed) and ascorbyl polyphosphate (ascorbyl polyphosphate @100 mg per kg diet) combined group. The least percentage of mortality was recorded in B. subtilis treated group (25%) followed by 35 and 40% in ascorbyl polyphosphate treated and B. subtilis and ascorbyl polyphosphate combined groups, respectively. PMID:17434319

  16. Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  17. The first evidence of cholinesterases in skin mucus of carps and its applicability as biomarker of organophosphate exposure.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Ashwini Kumar; Srivastava, Nidhi; Rai, Amita Kumari; Kumari, Usha; Mittal, Ajay Kumar; Mittal, Swati

    2014-05-01

    The presence of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in skin mucus of three carps, Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, and Catla catla and its applicability as biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure were investigated. Biochemical characterization, using specific substrates and inhibitors, indicated that measured esterase activity in skin mucus was mainly owing to ChEs. Significant difference in the proportion of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities was observed in skin mucus of three carps. Enzyme kinetic analysis, using the substrate acetylthiocholine iodide revealed significantly high Vmax value in C. catla compared to that in L. rohita and C. mrigala. In contrast, Vmax value using the substrate butyrylthiocholine iodide was significantly high in C. mrigala than in L. rohita and C. catla. In vitro treatment of skin mucus of three carps, with the organophosphorus insecticide Nuvan®, showed strong inhibition of ChE activities. In vivo experiments conducted using C. mrigala and exposing the fish to the sublethal test concentrations (5 and 15 mg/L) of the insecticide also revealed significant inhibition of ChE activity in mucus. In C. mrigala, exposed to the sublethal test concentrations of the insecticide for 4 days and then kept for recovery for 16 days, mucus ChE activity recovered to the control level. Thus, ChE activity in skin mucus could be considered a good biomarker of the organophosphorus insecticide exposure to fish and a useful tool in monitoring environmental toxicity. PMID:22887814

  18. Interaction between dopamine and neuropeptide Y in the telencephalon of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus.

    PubMed

    Saha, Soham; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Uday; Singh, Omprakash; Singru, Praful S

    2014-06-23

    In teleosts, while neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as one of the potent regulators of GnRH-LH axis, entopeduncular nucleus (EN) in the ventral telencephalon serves as major site for NPY synthesis/storage. Neurons of the EN innervate preoptic area and pituitary, respond to gonadal steroids, undergo reproduction phase-related changes, and are believed to convey sex steroid-borne information to GnRH neurons. In spite of the importance of EN, the neural circuitry associated with the nucleus has not been defined. Aim of the present study is to examine the possibility of the dopaminergic regulation of EN. NPY-immunoreactive cells and fibers were extensively distributed in the forebrain and pituitary of Cirrhinuscirrhosus. NPY immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory receptor neurons, ganglion cells of terminal nerve, and in neurons of area ventralis telencephali/pars lateralis, EN, nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), and nucleus lateralis tuberis. NPY-fibers were observed in the dorsal telencephalon, tuberal area and pituitary. While the area ventralis telencephali/pars intermedialis (Vi) located just above the EN contained a distinct population of tyrosine hydroxylase neurons, their axons seem to innervate NPY neurons in EN. Superfused brain slices containing EN were treated with DA D1- and D2-like receptor agonists. NPY-immunoreactivity in the EN showed significant increase (P<0.001) following DA D1-like receptor agonist, SKF-38393 treatment, but DA D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole was ineffective. DA may regulate NPY neurons in EN via D1-like receptors. DA-NPY interaction in the EN might be important in the central regulation of reproduction in teleosts. PMID:24967949

  19. First evidence of comparative responses of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) to relatively resistant and susceptible Indian farmed carps to Argulus siamensis infection.

    PubMed

    Panda, Rudra Prasanna; Chakrapani, V; Patra, Swagat Kumar; Saha, Jatindra Nath; Jayasankar, Pallipuram; Kar, Banya; Sahoo, Pramoda Kumar; Barman, Hirak Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) is present in teleost but not in mammals. Among Indian farmed carps, Catla catla is relatively more resistant than Labeo rohita to Argulus siamensis lice infection. TLR22 is believed to be associated with innate immunity against ectoparasite infection. To investigate the TLR22 mediated immunity against argulosis, we have cloned and characterized TLR22 genes of L. rohita (rTLR22) and C. catla (cTLR22). The full-length cDNAs of rTLR22 and cTLR22 contained an open reading frame of 2838 and 2841 nucleotides, respectively; bearing the typical structural features. Phylogenetically rTLR22/cTLR22 was most closely related to Cyprinus carpio (common carp) counterpart, having highest sequence identity of 86.0%. The TIR domain remained highly conserved with 90% identity within freshwater fishes. The sequence information of cDNA and genomic DNA together revealed that the rTLR22/cTLR22 genes are encoded by uninterrupted exons. The co-habitation challenge study with A. siamensis infection confirmed that C. catla is comparatively more resistant than L. rohita. Further, comparative mRNA expression profile in immune relevant tissues also suggested about the participatory role of TLR22 during lice infection. However, TLR22 might not solely be involved in conferring relative resistance among carp species against argulosis. PMID:24998226

  20. 75 FR 17755 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel C-ATLAS AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c...issued for the offshore supply vessel C-ATLAS. Full compliance with 72 COLREGS and...

  1. Genetic Divergence Between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as Assessed by Mitochondrial DNA Analysis, with Emphasis on Origin of European Domestic Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Feng Zhou; Qing Jiang Wu; Yu Zhen Ye; Jin Gou Tong

    2003-01-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination

  2. GnIH and GnRH expressions in the central nervous system and pituitary of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita during ontogeny: An immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Saikat; Jadhao, Arun G; Pinelli, Claudia; Palande, Nikhil V; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-06-20

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the major hypothalamic neuropeptide stimulating gonadotropin secretion in vertebrates. In 2000, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brain of other vertebrates. We show for the first time GnIH immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and pituitary during development of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita and compare it with the localization of GnRH. GnIH and GnRH immunoreactivities were observed from the olfactory system to spinal cord throughout development. In the brain, both neuropeptides were localized in the telencephalon, diencephalon including the preoptic area and rhombencephalon. The localization of GnIH and GnRH in the pituitary suggests that these neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of pituitary hormones by an autocrine manner during development. In addition, the presence of GnIH and GnRH in several other brain regions including the olfactory system suggests their involvement in the regulation of other physiological functions. PMID:24955881

  3. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Flesh of Catla catla from Ravi River, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mobeen; Mahboob, Shahid; Sultana, Salma; Sultana, Tayyaba; Alghanim, Khalid Abdullah; Ahmed, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    The levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, carbofuran, and cartap which were estimated in the flesh of Catla catla sampled from ten sites of Ravi River between its stretches from Shahdara to Head Balloki were studied to know the level of contamination of the selected pesticides by GC-ECD method. All fish samples were found contaminated with different concentrations of DDT, DDE, endosulfan, and carbofuran; however, DDT and DDE concentrations were more than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) about food standards, while endosulfan sulfate and cartap were not detected. Pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh were ranged from 3.240 to 3.389 for DDT, 2.290 to 2.460 for DDE, 0.112 to 0.136 for endosulfan, and 0.260 to 0.370??g?g?1 for carbofuran. The findings revealed that the pesticide concentrations in the fish flesh decreased in the order: DDT > DDE > carbofuran > endosulfan. After Degh fall and After Hudiara nulla fall river sampling sites were found severely contaminated. It is proposed that a constant monitoring programs are needed to be initiated to overcome the present alarming situation. PMID:25003148

  4. Effect of Mozart's music (Romanze-Andante of “Eine Kleine Nacht Musik”, sol major, K525) stimulus on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) physiology under different light conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Papoutsoglou; N. Karakatsouli; E. Louizos; S. Chadio; D. Kalogiannis; C. Dalla; A. Polissidis; Z. Papadopoulou-Daifoti

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that music could have relaxing and antidepressant effects on humans, other mammals and birds. The present study aimed to evaluate music effects on common carp Cyprinus carpio growth and physiology, under different light conditions. Therefore, common carp (130.9±0.67g) was reared, in recirculating water system, under constant darkness (D) or normally illuminated conditions (L) for 12 weeks.

  5. Reproduction phase-related variations in the GnRH immunoreactive fibers in the pineal of the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Sakharkar, Amul; Singru, Praful; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2005-04-01

    We studied GnRH immunoreactivity in the pineal gland of the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala during different phases of reproductive cycle. In the resting phase (December-January), GnRH immunoreactive (-ir) fibers were organized as paired fascicles above the posterior commissure that ascend in the stalk and distribute widely in the pineal gland. The GnRH-ir fiber density significantly declined (P<0.001) during the preparatory phase (February-April) and the fibers disappeared thereafter. While no GnRH fibers were seen during the prespawning (May-June) and spawning (July-August), isolated GnRH-ir fibers reappeared in the postspawning phase. Since no GnRH cell bodies were detected in the pineal, these GnRH-ir fibers seem to be of central origin. The results reveal a distinct reciprocal relationship between the GnRH immunoreactivity in the pineal and the status of the ovarian maturity; the fibers appeared in the pineal only during the period of ovarian quiescence. While the functional significance of these cyclic changes in GnRH is yet to be determined, we suggest that the decapeptide may serve as a transmitter of central origin that modulates the activity of the pineal gland. PMID:20035452

  6. Tyrosine hydroxylase in the olfactory system, forebrain and pituitary of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus: organisation and interaction with neuropeptide Y in the preoptic area.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Singh, U; Saha, S; Singru, P S

    2014-06-01

    Dopamine (DA) inhibits, whereas gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates, luteinisiing (LH) cells in the pituitary of some but not all teleosts. A reduction in the hypophysiotropic dopaminergic tone is necessary for the stimulatory effect of GnRH on LH cells. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has emerged as one of the potent, endogenous agent that modulates LH secretion directly or indirectly via GnRH. Involvement of NPY in the regulation of hypophysiotropic DA neurones, however, is not known, but there is good evidence suggesting an interaction in the mammalian hypothalamus. DA neurones, identified by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactivity, were observed widely throughout the brain of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus. The granule cells and ganglion cells of terminal nerve in the olfactory bulb, and cells in ventral telencephalon and preoptic area (POA) showed conspicuous TH immunoreactivity. In the POA, the nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPP), divisible into anterior (NPPa) and posterior (NPPp) components, showed prominent TH-immunoreactivity. The majority of TH neurones in NPPa showed axonal extensions to the pituitary and were closely associated with LH cells. The NPPa also appeared to be the site for intense interaction between NPY and DA because it contains a rich network of NPY fibres and few immunoreactive cells. Approximately 89.7 ± 1.5% TH neurones in NPPa were contacted by NPY fibres. Superfused POA slices treated with a NPY Y2 -receptor agonist, NPY 13-36 resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in TH-immunoreactivity in NPPa. TH neurones in NPPa did not respond to NPY Y1 -receptor agonist, [Leu(31) , Pro(34) ] Neuropeptide Y treatment. We suggest that, by inhibiting DAergic neurones in NPPa via Y2 -receptors, NPY may contribute to the up-regulation of the GnRH-LH cells axis. The microcircuitry of DA and NPY and their interaction in NPPa might be a crucial component in the central regulation of LH secretion in the teleosts. PMID:24750502

  7. Silver Carp Larvae

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of live silver carp larvae was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  8. Silver Carp Larva

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp larva was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  9. Vitellogenin induction and reduced serum testosterone concentrations in feral male carp (Cyprinus carpio) captured near a major metropolitan sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed Central

    Folmar, L C; Denslow, N D; Rao, V; Chow, M; Crain, D A; Enblom, J; Marcino, J; Guillette, L J

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals can potentially alter the reproductive physiology of fishes. To test this hypothesis, serum was collected from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at five riverine locations in Minnesota. Male fish collected from an effluent channel below the St. Paul metropolitan sewage treatment plant had significantly elevated serum egg protein (vitellogenin) concentrations and significantly decreased serum testosterone concentrations compared to male carp collected from the St. Croix River, classified as a National Wild and Scenic River. Carp collected from the Minnesota River, which receives significant agricultural runoff, also exhibited depressed serum testosterone concentrations, but no serum vitellogenin was apparent. These data suggest that North American rivers are receiving estrogenic chemicals that are biologically active, as has been reported in Great Britain. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:8930552

  10. Genetic divergence between Cyprinus carpio carpio and Cyprinus carpio haematopterus as assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis, with emphasis on origin of European domestic carp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian Feng; Wu, Qing Jiang; Ye, Yu Zhen; Tong, Jin Gou

    2003-09-01

    Although common carp is the major fish species in Asian and European aquaculture and many domestic varieties have occurred, there is a controversy about the origination of European domestic common carp. Some scientists affirmed that the ancestor of European domestic common carp was Danube River wild common carp, but others considered it might be Asian common carp. For elucidating origination of European domestic common carp, we chose two representative European domestic common carp strains (German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp) and one wild common carp strain of Cyprinus carpio carpio subspecies (Volga River wild common carp) and two Asian common carp strains, the Yangtze River wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) and traditionally domestic Xingguo red common carp, as experimental materials. ND5-ND6 and D-loop segments of mitochondrial DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing respectively. The results revealed that HaeIII and DdeI digestion patterns of ND5-ND6 segment and sequences of control region were different between European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that German mirror carp and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp belonged to two subspecies, C. carpio carpio and C. carpio haematopterus, respectively. Therefore, there were different ancestors for domestic carp in Europe: German mirror carp was domesticated from European subspecies C. carpio carpio and Russian scattered scaled mirror carp originated from Asian subspecies C. carpio haematopterus. PMID:12903751

  11. Gamma radiation induced cell cycle perturbations and DNA damage in Catla Catla as measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N

    2015-03-01

    Gamma radiation induced cell cycle perturbations and DNA damage in Catla catla were analyzed in erythrocytes at different time points using flow cytometry (FCM). Protracted exposure to radiation induced damage between days 12 and 45. Disturbances in cell cycle machinery, i.e., proportional increase and decrease in Gap0 or quiescent/Gap1 (G0/G1), Synthesis (S) and Gap2/Mitotic (G2/M) phases were observed at both acute and protracted treatments. Both acute and protracted exposures induced apoptosis with a notable significance between days 3 and 6 at protracted and on day 45 at acute doses. Fish exposed protractedly avail some DNA repair mechanisms than acutely exposed. This is the first study to analyze radiation induced DNA damage under laboratory conditions and suggests that flow cytometry can also be an alternate tool to screen genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in fish. PMID:25483367

  12. Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: diVerent immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bugajska-Schretter; M Grote; L Vangelista; P Valent; W R Sperr; H Rumpold; A Pastore; R Reichelt; R Valenta; S Spitzauer

    2010-01-01

    Background—Almost 4% of the popula- tion suVer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underly- ing immunological mechanism. Aims—To characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin. Methods—Tissue and subcellular distri- bution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was puri- fied to homogeneity, analysed

  13. Purification, biochemical, and immunological characterisation of a major food allergen: different immunoglobulin E recognition of the apo- and calcium-bound forms of carp parvalbumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Bugajska-Schretter; M Grote; L Vangelista; P Valent; W R Sperr; H Rumpold; A Pastore; R Reichelt; R Valenta; S Spitzauer

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDAlmost 4% of the population suffer from food allergy which is an adverse reaction to food with an underlying immunological mechanism.AIMSTo characterise one of the most frequent IgE defined food allergens, fish parvalbumin.METHODSTissue and subcellular distribution of carp parvalbumin was analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and cell fractionation. Parvalbumin was purified to homogeneity, analysed by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism

  14. Cytogenotoxicity assessment of monocrotophos and butachlor at single and combined chronic exposures in the fish Catla catla (Hamilton).

    PubMed

    Anbumani, S; Mohankumar, Mary N

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenotoxic effects in the form of micronuclei and deformed nucleus, nuclear buds, binucleated cells, vacuolated nucleus, vacuolated cytoplasm, echinocytes, and enucleus induced by two compounds belonging to two different chemical classes of agrochemicals (monocrotophos and butachlor) at sublethal concentrations (0.625, 1.3, and 2.3 ppm and 0.016, 0.032, and 0.064 ppm) in single and combined chronic exposures were studied under laboratory conditions for a period of 35 days in the economically important Indian fish Catla catla. Statistically significant duration-dependent increases in the frequencies of micronucleus (MN) and other cytological anomalies were observed. Compared to single exposures, a twofold increase in micronuclei frequency was noted at combined exposures indicating the synergistic phenomenon. Binucleated and enucleated cells appeared only in fishes exposed to sublethal concentrations of butachlor. The present study is the first of its kind in exploring a significant positive correlation between micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies suggesting them as new possible biomarkers of genotoxicity after agrochemical exposures. The study highlights the sensitivity of the assay in exploring various predictive biomarkers of genotoxic and cytotoxic events and also elicits the synergistic effects of agrochemicals in apparently healthy fishes. C. catla can be considered as a suitable aquatic biomonitoring sentinel species of contaminated water bodies. PMID:25378033

  15. Silver and Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These silver and bighead carp were collected on the Illinois River to learn more about the anatomy and physiology of Asian carp. This information will guide the development of potential biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. ...

  16. Juvenile Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile silver carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become estab...

  17. Juvenile Bighead Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These juvenile bighead carps are used to find potential physical, biological or chemical controls as part of an integrated pest management approach for natural resource managers. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become esta...

  18. Silver Carp Egg

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This image of a live silver carp egg specimen was taken with a microscope camera at the USGS Columbia Environmental Research Center. Asian carp are invasive species that could pose substantial environmental risks and economic impacts if they become established....

  19. Development of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) genetic maps using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a pseudo-testcross strategy.

    PubMed

    Liao, M; Zhang, L; Yang, G; Zhu, M; Wang, D; Wei, Q; Zou, G; Chen, D

    2007-08-01

    Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are two of the four most important pond-cultured fish species inhabiting the major river basins of China. In the present study, genetic maps of silver carp and bighead carp were constructed using microsatellite and AFLP markers and a two-way pseudo-testcross strategy. To create the maps, 60 individuals were obtained from a cross of a single bighead carp (female) and a single silver carp (male). The silver carp map consisted of 271 markers (48 microsatellites and 223 AFLPs) that were assembled into 27 linkage groups, of which 22 contained at least four markers. The total length of the silver carp map was 952.2 cM, covering 82.8% of the estimated genome size. The bighead carp map consisted of 153 markers (27 microsatellites and 126 AFLPs) which were organized into 30 linkage groups, of which 19 contained at least four markers. The total length of the bighead carp map was 852.0 cM, covering 70.5% of the estimated genome size. Eighteen microsatellite markers were common to both maps. These maps will contribute to discovery of genes and genetic regions controlling traits in the two species of carp. PMID:17614988

  20. High-jumping Silver Carp

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Silver carp are a large a troublesome invasive species from Asia found in the great rivers of the central United States. Silver carp have been observed to jump in response to rocks thrown in the water, passing trains, geese taking off from the water, or just when they unexpectedly find themselves in...

  1. Molecular characterization of glutathione peroxidase gene from the liver of silver carp, bighead carp and grass carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Zhao; Liang, Xu-Fang; Yao, Wei; Liao, Wan-Qin; Zhu, Wei-Feng

    2008-03-31

    The cDNAs encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were cloned and sequenced from the liver of three Chinese carps with different tolerance to hepatotoxic microcystins, phytoplanktivorous silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), and herbivorous grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Using genome walker method, a 750 bp 5'-flanking region of the silver carp GPx gene was obtained, and several potential regulatory elements were identified in the promoter region of the GPx gene. The silver carp GPx gene was widely expressed in all tissues examined. Despite phylogenetic analysis, assigning this newly described carp GPx to the group of mammalian GPx2, the carp GPx seems more similar to GPx1 from a physiological point of view. The constitutive expression pattern of the three carp liver GPx gene, shows a positive relationship with their tolerance to microcystins. PMID:18377723

  2. Lactococcosis in Silver Carp.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Lester H; Austin, Frank W; Quiniou, Sylvie M A; Gaunt, Patricia S; Riecke, Dennis K; Jacobs, Alicia M; Meals, Keith O; Dunn, Arthur W; Griffin, Matt J

    2014-03-01

    An adult Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with a focally extensive skin lesion near the caudal peduncle and mild iridial hemorrhage was submitted to the Aquatic Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, Mississippi, as part of a fish kill investigation. Touch impressions of this musculoskeletal lesion revealed small cocci (?1 ?m) in pairs or chains within an inflammatory milieu. A pure Gram-positive cocci isolate was obtained from the brain, while cultures of the kidney and muscle yielded multiple bacterial colony types, including the Gram-positive cocci seen in the brain. This brain isolate was characterized biochemically and identified as Lactococcus spp. Analysis of the near complete 16S small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) gene sequences revealed the bacterium to be L. lactis subsp. lactis (SSU rDNA: 100% identity, 1,372/1,372 bp; gyrB: 99.7% identity, 1,779/1,785 bp). Comparatively, at the gyrB locus the case isolate shared less than 90% similarity to L. lactis subsp. cremoris (1,599/1,781 bp) and less than 80% homology to L. garvieae (1409/1775 bp). Histopathological examination confirmed a severe meningoencephalitis, a moderate mononuclear myositis, and a mild interstitial nephritis. We believe this represents the first report of a natural infection by L. lactis subsp. lactis in Silver Carp. PMID:24689953

  3. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lei; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2006-01-01

    The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae) and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae) diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed. PMID:17129566

  4. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with their implications for genome duplication and evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lei; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2006-01-01

    The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae) and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae) diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed. PMID:17129566

  5. Black carp growth hormone gene transgenic allotetraploid hybrids of Carassius auratus red var. (?)× Cyprinus carpio (?)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Feng; YongMing Fu; Jian Luo; Hui Wu; Yun Liu; ShaoJun Liu

    Ecological safety is a major consideration in the commercialization of transgenic fish. Development of sterile transgenic\\u000a triploid fish through hybridization of transgenic tetraploid fish and transgenic diploid fish is a feasible way to solve this\\u000a problem. The “all-fish” transgene, pbcAbcGHc, containing the black carp ?-actin gene promoter and the open reading frame (ORF) of the black carp growth hormone (GH)

  6. First Report of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) in Wild Common Carp in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey L. Dikkeboom; Craig Radi; Kathy Toohey-Kurth; Susan Marcquenski; Marty Engel; Andrew E. Goodwin; David M. Stone; Clare Longshaw

    2004-01-01

    In spring 2002, an estimated 1,500 common carp Cyprinus carpio in Cedar Lake, northwestern Wisconsin, died over a 6-week period from late April through the first week in June. Three moribund carp were necropsied and had signs consistent with spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, including petechiae and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the skin, ascites, and edematous kidney and spleen. A

  7. Seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues of farmed bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).

    PubMed

    Hong, Hui; Fan, Hongbing; Wang, Hang; Lu, Han; Luo, Yongkang; Shen, Huixing

    2015-02-01

    Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) is one of the major farmed species of freshwater fish in China. Byproduct volume of bighead carp is significant at up to 60 % of whole fish weight. A better understanding of the nutritional composition is needed to optimize the use of these raw materials. The objective of this research was to characterize seasonal variations of fatty acid profile in different tissues (heads, bones, skin, scales, viscera, muscle and fins) of farmed bighead carp. The fatty acid composition of farmed bighead carp varied significantly with seasons and tissues. The highest lipid content was determined in viscera while the highest EPA and DHA composition were observed in muscle compared to the other tissues. Significantly higher ?EPA+DHA (%) was recorded in all tissues in summer (June) when compared with those of the other three seasons (p?carp caught in summer could better balance the n-3 PUFA needs of consumers. The byproducts of bighead carp can be utilized for the production of fish oil. PMID:25694699

  8. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  9. Aspects of Embryonic and Larval Development in Bighead Carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  10. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    PubMed

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthysnobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region's economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm". Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and "warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river. PMID:23967350

  11. Aspects of embryonic and larval development in bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2013-01-01

    As bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix (the bigheaded carps) are poised to enter the Laurentian Great Lakes and potentially damage the region’s economically important fishery, information on developmental rates and behaviors of carps is critical to assessing their ability to establish sustainable populations within the Great Lakes basin. In laboratory experiments, the embryonic and larval developmental rates, size, and behaviors of bigheaded carp were tracked at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”. Developmental rates were computed using previously described stages of development and the cumulative thermal unit method. Both species have similar thermal requirements, with a minimum developmental temperature for embryonic stages of 12.1° C for silver carp and 12.9° C for bighead carp, and 13.3° C for silver carp larval stages and 13.4° C for bighead carp larval stages. Egg size differed among species and temperature treatments, as egg size was larger in bighead carp, and “warm" temperature treatments. The larvae started robust upwards vertical swimming immediately after hatching, interspersed with intervals of sinking. Vertical swimming tubes were used to measure water column distribution, and ascent and descent rates of vertically swimming fish. Water column distribution and ascent and descent rates changed with ontogeny. Water column distribution also showed some diel periodicity. Developmental rates, size, and behaviors contribute to the drift distance needed to fulfill the early life history requirements of bigheaded carps and can be used in conjunction with transport information to assess invasibility of a river.

  12. Carp-based aquafeeds and market-driven approaches to controlling invasive Asian carp in the Illinois River

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incentivizing ‘overfishing’ through the creation of high value markets for rendered carp products such as fish meal (FM) is a promising strategy to reduce the density of silver carp and bighead carp (collectively referred to as Asian carp) in the Illinois River. However, the nutrient content and dig...

  13. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  14. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  15. Molecular characterization of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), analysis of its inductive expression and associated down-stream signaling molecules following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in the Indian major carp, rohu (Labeo rohita).

    PubMed

    Samanta, Mrinal; Swain, Banikalyan; Basu, Madhubanti; Panda, Padmaja; Mohapatra, Girish B; Sahoo, Bikash R; Maiti, Nikhil K

    2012-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. Among various TLR types, TLR2 is involved in recognizing specific microbial structures such as peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), zymosan etc., and after binding them it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce various cytokines. In this report, TLR2 gene was cloned and characterized in rohu (Labeo rohita), which is highly commercially important fish species in the farming-industry of Indian subcontinent. Full-length rohu TLR2 (rTLR2) cDNA comprised of 2691 bp with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2379 bp encoding a polypeptide of 792 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 90.74 kDa. Structurally, it comprised of one leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) each at N-terminal (LRR-NT; 44-55 aa) and C-terminal (LRR-CT; 574-590 aa), 21 LRRs in between C and N-terminal, one trans-membrane (TM) domain (595-612 aa), and one TIR domain (645-790 aa). Phylogenetically, rohu TLR2 was closely related to common carp and exhibited significant similarity (93.1%) and identity (88.1%) in their amino acids. During embryogenesis, rTLR2 expression was detected as early as ?7 h post fertilization indicating its importance in embryonic innate immune defense system in fish. Basal expression analysis of rTLR2 showed its constitutive expression in all the tissues examined, highest was in the spleen and the lowest was in the eye. Inductive expression of TLR2 was observed following zymosan, PGN and LTA exposure and Streptococcus uberis and Edwardsiella tarda infections. Expression of immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8, in various organs was significantly enhanced by ligands exposure and bacterial infections, and was correlated with inductive expression of TLR2. In vitro studies showed that PGN treatment induced TLR2, MyD88 and TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6) expression, NF-?B (nuclear factor kappa B) activation and IL-8 expression. Blocking NF-?B resulted in down-regulation of PGN mediated IL-8 expression indicating the involvement of NF-?B in IL-8 induction. Together, these findings highlighted the important role of TLR2 in immune surveillance of various organs, and in augmenting innate immunity in fish in response to pathogenic invasion. This study will be helpful in developing preventive measures against infectious diseases in fish. PMID:22173272

  16. Intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and its origin as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan-Gong; Tian, Jing-Yun; Gatesoupe, François-Joël; Li, Wen-Xiang; Zou, Hong; Yang, Bao-Juan; Wang, Gui-Tang

    2013-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota has received increasing attention, as it influences growth, feed conversion, epithelial development, immunity as well as the intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestinal tract. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to explore the bacterial community of the intestine in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), and the origin of these microorganisms. The results disclosed great bacterial diversities in the carp intestines and cultured environments. The gibel carp harbored characteristic intestinal microbiota, where Proteobacteria were predominant, followed by Firmicutes. The analysis on the 10 most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) revealed a majority of Firmicutes in the intestinal content (by decreasing order: Veilonella sp., Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus sp., and Lactobacillus sp.). The second most abundant OTU was Rothia sp. (Actinobacteria). The most likely potential probiotics (Lactobacillus sp., and Bacillus sp.) and opportunists (Aeromonas sp., and Acinetobacter sp.) were not much abundant. Bacterial community comparisons showed that the intestinal community was closely related to that of the sediment, indicating the importance of sediment as source of gut bacteria in gibel carp. However, 37.95 % of the OTUs detected in feed were retrieved in the intestine, suggesting that food may influence markedly the microbiota of gibel carp, and therefore may be exploited for oral administration of probiotics. PMID:23515964

  17. APPLICATIONS OF FACTOR-CRITERIA SYSTEM RECONSTRUCTION ANALYSIS IN THE REPRODUCTION RESEARCH ON GRASS CARP, BLACK CARP, SILVER CARP AND BIGHEAD IN THE YANGTZE RIVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUOHUA ZHANG; JTANBO CHANG; GUANGFU SHU

    2000-01-01

    The natural reproduction of grass carp, black carp, silver carp, and bighead will be affected adversely by the Three Gorges Project in the Yangtze River. One of the methods to save the fish is to regulate the water levels, keeping them suited for the species to spawn. Nine factors associated with the scale of larvae-flood of the four species are

  18. Brain Na+/K+-ATPase activity in two anoxia tolerant vertebrates: crucian carp and freshwater turtle.

    PubMed

    Hylland, P; Milton, S; Pek, M; Nilsson, G E; Lutz, P L

    1997-10-10

    The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta) are among the very few vertebrates that can survive extended periods of anoxia. The major problem for an anoxic brain is energy deficiency. In the brain, the Na+/K+-ATPase is the single most ATP consuming enzyme, being responsible for maintaining ion gradients. We here show that the Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the turtle brain is reduced by 31% in telencephalon and by 34% in cerebellum after 24 h of anoxia. Both changes were reversed upon reoxygenation. By contrast, the Na+/K+-ATPase activities were maintained in the anoxic crucian carp brain. These results support the notion that crucian carp and turtles use divergent strategies for anoxic survival. The fall in Na+/K+-ATPase activities displayed by the turtle is likely to be related to the strong depression of brain electric and metabolic activity utilized as an anoxic survival strategy by this species. PMID:9389603

  19. Uptake and Tissue Distribution of Dietary and Aqueous Cadmium by Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Kraal; M. H. S. Kraak; C. J. Degroot; C. Davids

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether contaminated prey can be a major source of Cd for fish. For this purpose, the uptake and tissue distribution of dietary and aqueous cadmium by the carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied. The fish were exposed to either Cd-contaminated food or Cd-contaminated water for 4 weeks in laboratory experiments. When exposed to

  20. Comparative distribution and invasion risk of snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leif-Matthias Herborg; Nicholas E. Mandrak; Becky C. Cudmore; Hugh J. MacIsaac

    2007-01-01

    As nonindigenous species are a major threat to global biodiversity, cost-effective management requires iden- tification of areas at high risk of establishment. Here we predict suitable environments of 14 high-profile species of nonindigenous snakehead (Channidae) and Asian carp (Cyprinidae) species in North America based upon ecological niche modelling and compare the driving environmental variables for the two fish groups. Snakeheads

  1. LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER

    E-print Network

    LINKING SILVER CARP HABITAT SELECTION TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER TO PHYTOPLANKTON CONSUMPTION IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER by Heather Ann Calkins B.S., University of Missouri IN THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER MAJOR PROFESSOR: Dr. James Garvey Since their introduction to the United States in the 1970s

  2. The mystery of the curious Crucian carp

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2004-10-01

    Most animals can only live for minutes without oxygen -- just try holding your breath and see how long you can go. But, the crucian carp, which is related to the goldfish, can survive for several days with almost no oxygen.

  3. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ermeng; Xie, Jun; Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Deguang; Gong, Wangbao; Li, Zhifei; Wang, Haiying; Xia, Yun; Wei, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp. PMID:25525591

  4. Can Soft Water Limit Bighead Carp and Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) Invasions?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is concern that the non-native bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), now found in many large rivers of the Mississippi River Basin, may spread to other regions. However, evidence suggests that their eggs may not be able to survive in soft ...

  5. Relationships among invasive common carp, native fishes and physicochemical characteristics

    E-print Network

    ). Common carp Cyprinus carpio are distributed worldwide and considered one of the most wide- spread of Freshwater Fish 2011. � 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread

  6. 571Tempero et al.--Age, growth and reproduction of koi carp Age composition, growth, and reproduction of koi carp

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    , and reproduction of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the lower Waikato region, New Zealand GrAnT W. Tempero nichol, new Zealand email: nling@waikato.ac.nz Abstract A total of 566 koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) from; age; growth; invasive species; maturity; fecundity INTRODUCTION common carp (Cyprinus carpio l

  7. Characterization and Comparative Profiling of MiRNA Transcriptomes in Bighead Carp and Silver Carp

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large ‘hairpin’ precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  8. Characterization and comparative profiling of MiRNA transcriptomes in bighead carp and silver carp.

    PubMed

    Chi, Wei; Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that are processed from large 'hairpin' precursors and function as post-transcriptional regulators of target genes. Although many individual miRNAs have recently been extensively studied, there has been very little research on miRNA transcriptomes in teleost fishes. By using high throughput sequencing technology, we have identified 167 and 166 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 108 families) in bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), respectively. We compared the expression patterns of conserved miRNAs by means of hierarchical clustering analysis and log2 ratio. Results indicated that there is not a strong correlation between sequence conservation and expression conservation, most of these miRNAs have similar expression patterns. However, high expression differences were also identified for several individual miRNAs. Several miRNA* sequences were also found in our dataset and some of them may have regulatory functions. Two computational strategies were used to identify novel miRNAs from un-annotated data in the two carps. A first strategy based on zebrafish genome, identified 8 and 22 novel miRNAs in bighead carp and silver carp, respectively. We postulate that these miRNAs should also exist in the zebrafish, but the methodologies used have not allowed for their detection. In the second strategy we obtained several carp-specific miRNAs, 31 in bighead carp and 32 in silver carp, which showed low expression. Gain and loss of family members were observed in several miRNA families, which suggests that duplication of animal miRNA genes may occur through evolutionary processes which are similar to the protein-coding genes. PMID:21858165

  9. Significant genetic differentiation between native and introduced silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) inferred from mtDNA analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Cyprinidae) is native to China and has been introduced to over 80 countries. The extent of genetic diversity in introduced silver carp and the genetic divergence between introduced and native populations remain largely unknown. In this study, 241 silver carp sampled from three major native rivers and two non-native rivers (Mississippi River and Danube River) were analyzed using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial COI gene and D-loop region. A total of 73 haplotypes were observed, with no haplotype found common to all the five populations and eight haplotypes shared by two to four populations. As compared with introduced populations, all native populations possess both higher haplotype diversity and higher nucleotide diversity, presumably a result of the founder effect. Significant genetic differentiation was revealed between native and introduced populations as well as among five sampled populations, suggesting strong selection pressures might have occurred in introduced populations. Collectively, this study not only provides baseline information for sustainable use of silver carp in their native country (i.e., China), but also offers first-hand genetic data for the control of silver carp in countries (e.g., the United States) where they are considered invasive.

  10. Rapid growth and sterility of growth hormone gene transgenic triploid carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fan Yu; Jun Xiao; XiangYang Liang; ShaoJun Liu; GongJian Zhou; KaiKun Luo; Yun Liu; Wei Hu; YaPing Wang; ZuoYan Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Triploid carp (100%) with 150 (3n=150) chromosomes were obtained by crossing the females of improved tetraploid hybrids (?,\\u000a 4n=200) of red crucian carp (?)×common carp (?) with the males of diploid yellow river carp (?, 2n=100). The crosses yielded\\u000a transgenic triploid carp (positive triploid fish, 44.2% of the progeny) and non-transgenic triploid carp (negative triploid\\u000a fish). Histological examination of the

  11. Lactococcosis in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adult silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was submitted to the Aquatic Research & Diagnostic Laboratory (ARDL) in Stoneville, MS, as part of an investigation of a fish kill event in September 2011, at the Tunica Cutoff, Tunica county, Mississippi. Gross lesions included a focally extensive...

  12. Cadmium-binding protein (metallothionein) in carp

    SciTech Connect

    Kito, H.; Ose, Y.; Sato, T.

    1986-03-01

    When carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to 5 and 30 ppm Cd in the water, the contents of Cd-binding protein, which has low molecular weight, increased in the hepatopancreas, kidney, gills and gastrointestinal tract with duration of exposure. This Cd-binding protein was purified from hepatopancreas, kidney, gills, and spleen of carp administered 2 mg/kg Cd (as CdCl/sub 2/), intraperitoneally for 6 days. Two Cd-binding proteins were separated by DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column chromatography. These proteins had Cd-mercaptide bond, high cysteine contents (ca. 29-34%), but no aromatic amino acids or histidine. From these characteristics the Cd-binding proteins were identified as metallothionein. By using antiserum obtained from a rabbit to which carp hepatopancreas MT-II had been administered, immunological characteristics between hepatopancreas MT-I, II and kidney MT-II were studied, and a slight difference in antigenic determinant was observed among them. By immunological staining techniques with horseradish peroxidase, the localization of metallothionein was investigated. Carp were bred in 1 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Zn solution, and tap water for 14 days, following transfer to 15 ppm Cd solution, respectively. The survival ratio was the highest in the Zn group followed by Cd-treated and control groups.

  13. Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Xu, N; Ai, X; Liu, Y; Yang, Q

    2014-11-27

    Comparative pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin nicotinate (NFXNT) was investigated in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). Analyses of plasma samples were performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with fluorescence detection. After oral dose, plasma concentration-time curves of common carp and crucian carp were best described by a two-compartment open model with first-order absorption. The pharmacokinetic parameters of common carp were similar to those of crucian carp. The distribution half-life (t1/2? ), elimination half-life (t1/2? ), peak concentration (Cmax ), time-to-peak concentration (Tmax ), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of common carp were 1.58 h, 26.33 h, 6069.79 ?g/L, 1.08 h, and 103072.36 h·?g/L, respectively, and those corresponding to crucian carp were 1.36 h, 26.55 h, 9586.06 ?g/L, 0.84 h, and 126604.4 h·?g/L, respectively. These studies demonstrated that 10 mg NFXNT/kg body weight in common carp and crucian carp following oral dose presented good pharmacokinetic characteristics. PMID:25427758

  14. Models of seasonal growth of the equatorial carp Labeo dussumieri in response to the river flood cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. K. Smith

    1991-01-01

    The phenology of Labeo dussumieri, an omnivorous carp common to South Asia, was investigated in a population inhabiting a flood plain anabranch of the Mahaweli Ganga, Sri Lanka. The Mahaweli Ganga exhibited a bimodal discharge pattern typical of many equatorial rivers, with a minor peak during the S.W. monsoon and a major peak during the N.E. monsoon. Seasonal changes in

  15. Predator-induced morphology enhances escape locomotion in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, Paolo; Turesson, Håkan; Brodersen, Jakob; Brönmark, Christer

    2007-01-01

    Fishes show a remarkable diversity of shapes which have been associated with their swimming abilities and anti-predator adaptations. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) provides an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity in body shape which makes it a unique model organism for evaluating the relationship between body form and function in fishes. In crucian carp, a deep body is induced by the presence of pike (Esox lucius), and this results in lower vulnerability to gape-limited predators, such as pike itself. Here, we demonstrate that deep-bodied crucian carp attain higher speed, acceleration and turning rate during anti-predator responses than shallow-bodied crucian carp. Therefore, a predator-induced morphology in crucian carp enhances their escape locomotor performance. The deep-bodied carp also show higher percentage of muscle mass. Therefore, their superior performance in escape swimming may be due to a combination of higher muscle power and higher thrust. PMID:17971327

  16. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  17. Experimental Hydrodynamics of Turning Maneuvers in Koi Carps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. H.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L. J.

    Experimental hydrodynamics of two types of turning maneuvers in koi carps (cyprinus carpio koi) are studied. The flow patterns generated by koi carps during turning are quantified by using digital particle image velocimetry. Based on the velocity fields measured, the momentums in the wake and the impulsive moments exerted on the carps are estimated. On the other hand, turning rates and radii, and moments of inertia of the carps including added mass during turning are obtained by processing the images recorded. Comparisons of the impulsive moments and moments of inertia show good agreements.

  18. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellites in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and cross-amplification in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Liu, L; Yu, X; Tong, J

    2008-05-01

    A (GT)(n) enriched partial genomic library of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) was constructed by employing the (fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats) FIASCO protocol. Sixteen loci exhibited polymorphism with two to seven alleles/locus (mean 3.263) in a test population and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.100 to 0.690 (mean 0.392). Eleven of the 16 bighead carp microsatellites were found to be also polymorphic in silver carp. These polymorphic loci should provide sufficient level of genetic diversity to evaluate population structure of bighead carp. PMID:21585862

  19. Use of eyeballs for establishing ploidy of Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Thomas, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead carp H. nobilis are now established and relatively common in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. Commercial fishers of Louisiana's large rivers report recurrent catches of grass carp, and the frequency of bighead carp and silver carp catch is increasing. Twelve black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus were recently captured from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River system, and 10 were analyzed for ploidy. By using the methods described herein, all 10 fish were determined to be diploid. Such correct identifications of ploidy of feral Asian carp species, as well as other species, would provide science-based information constructive for meeting reporting requirements, tracking fish movements, and forecasting expansion of species distribution. To investigate the postmortem period for sample collection and to lessen demands on field operations for obtaining samples, a laboratory study was performed to determine the length of time for which eyeballs from postmortem black carp could be used for ploidy determinations. Acquiring eyes rather than blood is simpler and quicker and requires no special supplies. An internal DNA reference standard with a documented genome size, including erythrocytes from diploid black carp or Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, was analyzed simultaneously with cells from seven known triploid black carp to assess ploidy through 12 d after extraction. Ploidy determinations were reliable through 8 d postmortem. The field process entails excision of an eyeball, storage in a physiological buffer, and shipment within 8 d at refrigeration temperatures (4??C) to the laboratory for analysis by flow cytometry. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  20. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  1. The carp-goldfish nucleocytoplasmic hybrid has mitochondria from the carp as the nuclear donor species.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guangfu; Zou, Guiwei; Liu, Xiangjiang; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Zhong; Hu, Shaona

    2014-02-25

    It is widely accepted that mitochondria and its DNA (mtDNA) exhibit strict maternal inheritance, with sperm contributing no or non-detectable mitochondria to the next generation. In fish, nuclear transfer (NT) through the combination of a donor nucleus and an enucleated oocyte can produce fertile nucleocytoplasmic hybrids (NCHs) even between different genera and subfamilies. One of the best studied fish NCHs is CyCa produced by transplanting the nuclei plus cytoplasm from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) into the oocytes of the wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), which has been propagated by self-mating for three generations. These NCH fish thus provide a unique model to study the origin of mitochondria. Here we report the complete mtDNA sequence of the CyCa hybrid and its parental species carp and goldfish as nuclear donor and cytoplasm host, respectively. Interestingly, the mtDNA of NCH fish CyCa is 99.69% identical to the nuclear donor species carp, and 89.25% identical to the oocyte host species goldfish. Furthermore, an amino acid sequence comparison of 13 mitochondrial proteins reveals that CyCa is 99.68% identical to the carp and 87.68% identical to the goldfish. On an mtDNA-based phylogenetic tree, CyCa is clustered with the carp but separated from the goldfish. A real-time PCR analysis revealed the presence of carp mtDNA but the absence of goldfish mtDNA. These results demonstrate--for the first time to our knowledge--that the mtDNA of a NCH such as CyCa fish may originate from its nuclear donor rather than its oocyte host. PMID:24365595

  2. Growth hormone gene transfer in common carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Wu; Yonghua Sun; Zuoyan Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The first successful case of transgenic fish was achieved in 1984. It is in a model system that the integration and expression of recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) in host red common carp (Cyprinus carpio, red var.) have been thoroughly studied. Recently, the integration sites have been recovered and characterized. Compared with non-transgenic peers, hGH-transgenic fish are prior in dietary

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Common Carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Twomey, Katie

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability (HIS) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  4. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis for body weight in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) compared with mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ying; Lu, Cuiyun; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Li, Chao; Yu, Juhua; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-01-01

    We report the genetic linkage map of Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). An F1 population comprising 94 Jian carp individuals was mapped using 254 microsatellite markers. The genetic map spanned 1 381.592 cM and comprised 44 linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 6.58 cM. We identified eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for body weight (BW) in seven linkage groups, explaining 12.6% to 17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Comparative mapping was performed between Jian carp and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), which both have 50 chromosomes. One hundred and ninety-eight Jian carp marker loci were found in common with the mirror carp map, with 186 (93.94%) showing synteny. All 44 Jian carp linkage groups could be one-to-one aligned to the 44 mirror carp linkage groups, mostly sharing two or more common loci. Three QTLs for BW in Jian carp were conserved in mirror carp. QTL comparison suggested that the QTL confidence interval in mirror carp was more precise than the homologous interval in Jian carp, which was contained within the QTL interval in Jian carp. The syntenic relationship and consensus QTLs between the two varieties provide a foundation for genomic research and genetic breeding in common carp.

  5. Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Postprandial metabolic changes in larval and juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio). S. J. KAUSHIK K of the model were affected by body weight. Introduction. Attempts to feed carp (Cyprinus carpio) larvae and methods. Eggs of Cyprinus carpio obtained by artificial spawning were hatched in the laboratory (20 °C

  6. Impact of the Gezhouba and Three Gorges Dams on habitat suitability of carps in the Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yujun; Wang, Zhaoyin; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe Gezhouba Dam and Three Gorges Project are the two largest hydraulic projects in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. Although these projects have yielded benefits to local communities by providing flood control, water supply, and safe navigation, they also have changed the physical habitat of the Yangtze River. As a consequence, aquatic organisms, including rare species and fishes with economic value, have been affected. The Yangtze River's four major carp species (YFMCS)—black carp ( Mylopharyngodon piceus), grass carp ( Ctenop haryngodon idellus), silver carp ( Hypoph thal michthys molitrix), and big-head carp ( Aristichyths nobilis)—have significant importance to the fresh water fishery in China. According to field surveys, the percentage of the YFMCS in the total catch of fish from Tongting Lake has gradually reduced. The percentages were 22%, 14.1%, 11.84%, and 8.5% in 1963, 1980-1982, 1997, and 2002, respectively. These reductions in species population are mainly attributed to the loss of spawning ground caused by dam construction. Considering the spawning characteristics of the YFMCS, a habitat suitability index model (HSI) has been established. A one-dimensional (1-D) mathematical model was also developed to simulate and predict aspects of the physical habitat situation for the YFMCS. By coupling the habitat suitability curves and the 1-D mathematical model, a HSI model for the YFMCS was established. The HSI model was validated by comparing measured data with predictions from the model. These comparisons show that the computed results agree well with the measured results. The HSI model for the YFMCS is used to suggest a minimum instream flow and suitable daily discharge increase during the reproduction season for the carp species. The minimum discharge needed for the YFMCS in the middle reach of the Yangtze River is 3000 m 3/s. Different daily discharge increases are required for different initial discharges, too small or too large of an increase in daily discharge is not good for carps spawning. Therefore, adjusting reservoir operations to create reasonable water level fluctuations is a key method to improve the habitat suitability of carps spawning sites.

  7. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  8. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Reovirus (GCRV) in Grass Carp

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease.

  9. Factors influencing fatty acid composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) muscle.

    PubMed

    Mráz, Jan; Pickova, Jana

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for human health, especially for the cardiovascular system. The sources of n-3 HUFA, including EPA and DHA, are scarce in diet consumed by the Czech population. Thus, it would be beneficial to generally increase fish consumption and also to increase the content of the beneficial fatty acids (FA) in locally produced fish and other products. Therefore the overall aim of this paper was to review factors influencing lipid content and composition in common carp, which is the major cultured fish in the Czech Republic, and to identify long term sustainable ways for increasing the beneficial fatty acids in the carp flesh. We conclude that there are several ways to improve the FA composition of common carp in the traditional pond production. High amount of natural food, good supplemental diet containing high level of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and suitable processing and cooking were identified as the most important ones. PMID:22101873

  10. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone.

    PubMed

    Amberg, Jon J; Schreier, Theresa M; Gaikowski, Mark P

    2012-10-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL(-1) g(-1)) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone. PMID:22447502

  11. Molecular responses differ between sensitive silver carp and tolerant bighead carp and bigmouth buffalo exposed to rotenone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Some species of fish are more tolerant of rotenone, a commonly used non-specific piscicide, than others. This species-specific tolerance to rotenone has been thought to be associated with the uptake and the efficiency at which the chemical is detoxified. However, rotenone stimulates oxidative stress and superoxides, which are also toxic. Understanding the modes in which fish physiologically respond to rotenone is important in developing improved protocols for its application in controlling aquatic nuisance species. Using a molecular approach, we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rotenone resistance. Species-specific responses were observed when rotenone-sensitive silver, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and both rotenone-resistant bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and bigmouth buffalo, Ictiobus cyprinellus, were exposed to rotenone. Rotenone levels in plasma were highest 90 min after exposure in both silver carp and bigmouth buffalo, but bigmouth buffalo tolerated over twice the burden (ng mL-1 g-1) than silver carp. Expression of genes related with detoxification (cyp1a and gst) increased in silver carp, but either decreased or remained the same in bighead carp. Genes linked with oxidative stress in the cytosol (gpx, cat and sod1) and hsp70 increased only in silver carp after a 6-h exposure. Expression of genes associated with oxidative stress in the mitochondria (sod2 and ucp2) differed between silver carp and bighead carp. Expression of sod2 changed minimally in bighead carp, but expression of ucp2 linearly increased to nearly 85-fold of the level prior to exposure. Expression of sod2 and ucp2 did not change until 6 h in silver carp. Use of sod1 and sod2 to combat oxidative stress results in hydrogen peroxide production, while use of ucp2 produces nitric oxide, a chemical known to inhibit apoptosis. We conclude that the mechanism at which a fish handles oxidative stress plays an important role in the tolerance to rotenone.

  12. PCBs and other xenobiotics in raw and cooked carp

    SciTech Connect

    Zabik, M.E.; Merrill, C.; Zabik, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of cooking on PCBs and DDT compounds was determined in fillets from carp ranging from 3.0 to 4.9 Kg. Cooking methods included were: poaching, roasting, deep fat frying, charbroiling and cooking by microwave. (JMT)

  13. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of the S661 bridge, mile 7.5, shall open on signal if at least four...

  14. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of the S661 bridge, mile 7.5, shall open on signal if at least four...

  15. 33 CFR 117.460 - La Carpe Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.460 La Carpe Bayou. The draw of the S661 bridge, mile 7.5, shall open on signal if at least four...

  16. Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscle by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamila Mitrowska; Andrzej Posyniak; Jan Zmudzki

    2005-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-VIS\\/FLD method for the analysis of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG) in carp muscle has been described. The method consists in an extraction with acetonitrile-buffer mixture followed by partioning with dichloromethane. Clean up and isolation were performed on SCX solid phase extraction (SPE) column. Chromatographic separation was achieved by using phenyl-hexyl column with

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TELEMETRY A CASE STUDY EXAMINING COMMON CARP

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    . During the winters of 1998 and 1999, the response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to fluctuating thermal study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Studies of thermal discharges employing continuously monitored

  18. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

    PubMed

    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. PMID:23942340

  19. Hormonal replacement therapy in fish:human growth hormone gene function in hypophysectomized carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zongbin Cuil; Zuoyan Zhu

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic common carp,Cyprinus carpio, produced by the microinjection of fertilized eggs with a linearized chimeric plasmid pMThGH, a human growth hormone (hGH)\\u000a gene with a mouse metallothionein-1 (MT) gene promoter in pBR322, were used to produce F1 and F2 transgenics. Following hypophysectomy of the transgenic F2 common carp, non-transgenic common carp and non-transgenic crucian carp, growth was monitored for up

  20. Relations between and among contaminant concentrations and biomarkers in black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from large U.S. rivers, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental contaminant and biomarker monitoring data from major U.S. river basins were summarized for black bass (Micropterus spp.) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled over a nine year period. Cumulative frequency distributions revealed taxon differences for many organochlorine residue concentrations, elemental contaminant concentrations, and biomarkers, but few gender differences were evident for chemical concentrations. Concentrations of dacthal, pentachloroanisole, p,p???-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, barium, cadmium, copper, manganese, lead, selenium, vanadium, and zinc were greater in carp than bass, but concentrations of mercury and magnesium were greater in bass. Gender differences were evident in bass for mercury and in carp for zinc, but the differences were small compared to taxon differences. Greater vitellogenin concentrations, 17??-estradiol concentrations, 17??-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, and percent oocyte atresia in female carp compared to female bass may be related to the sequential spawning of carp. Regression analyses indicated that as much as 78% of biomarker variation was explained by chemical contaminant concentrations. Sites grouped consistently by river basin in the chemical contaminant principal components analysis (PCA) models and were driven by mercury, magnesium, barium, mirex, and oxychlordane. PCA models for the biomarkers did not group the sites by basin for either bass or carp. Statistical analyses and data interpretation were limited by the study design. The implications of these limitations are discussed. Recommendations to be considered during the planning of future monitoring studies include the exclusion of gender- and species-specific sampling for certain chemical contaminants considering analytical methods with appropriate sensitivities; and allowing for the addition of new chemical and biological variables as methods and information needs evolve. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. A Tale of Four ``Carp'': Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon C. Devaney; Kristina M. McNyset; Justin B. Williams; A. Townsend Peterson; Edward O. Wiley; Ross Thompson

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundInvasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological

  2. First year growth and survival of common carp in two glacial lakes

    E-print Network

    University, Brookings, SD, USA Abstract Cohorts of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, were monitored from the previous autumn. K E Y W O R D S : Common carp, Cyprinus carpio, overwinter survival, recruitment. Introduction Management strategies for common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, tend to differ for native

  3. Spatial variability of common carp populations in relation to lake morphology and physicochemical

    E-print Network

    , often by mediating nutrient flow and species interactions. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is listed 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract ­ Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread invasive species, SD, USA Key words: common carp; Cyprinus carpio; autecology; spatial distribution; abiotic factors

  4. Size and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emili García-Berthou

    2001-01-01

    The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyoles (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant species offshore and used more the littoral in spring and deep bottoms in winter. The diet of carp was based on detritus, amphipods (Echinogammarus sp.), phantom midge larvae (Chaoborus flavicans), diatom mucilages, and plant debris. Amphipods

  5. Do physicochemical variables regulate the distribution of zooplankton communities in reservoirs dominated by filter-feeding carp?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Menghong; Yang, Lili; Liu, Qigen

    2014-03-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton communities in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Xin'anjiang Reservoir, Zhejiang, China, were investigated monthly, between 2009 and 2010. Silver carp ( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp ( Aristichthys nobilis) dominated the pelagic fish community of this large, deep reservoir. Cladocerans were distributed evenly throughout the reservoir. Rotifers were mainly found in the upper reaches, while copepods tended to assemble in the lower reaches. The Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression were used to identify the major physicochemical gradients influencing community variations. Zooplankton community distributions were influenced by water temperature, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and silicon. Excess nutrients, in particular silicon, stimulated rotifer growth. Based on these findings, it is possible to use rotifer density as a bioindicator of eutrophic status in deep reservoir ecosystems.

  6. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short settling zone upstream of the Grafton Dam, whereas the St. Joseph and Maumee Rivers both had extensive settling zones (>5 km) behind major dams. These longer settling zones are likely to capture more eggs than shorter settling reaches. All four rivers exhibited settling zones at their river mouths, with the Lake Erie tributaries having much larger settling zones extending more than 10 km up the tributaries. While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

  7. Spring Viremia of Carp1 Barbara D. Petty, Ruth Francis-Floyd, and Roy P.E. Yanong2

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    significant mortality in several carp species including the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). These species infections with the virus have been reported in common carp (or koi), (Cyprinus carpio), goldfish (Carassius? Spring viremia of carp is an infection caused by Rhabdo- virus carpio, a bullet-shaped RNA virus. Natural

  8. Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps.

    PubMed

    Chattoraj, Asamanja; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Basu, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Bhattacharya, Samir; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1 microg/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500 pg/ml), and (c) both melatonin and MIH, but at different time intervals. In the latter group, melatonin was added to the incubating medium either (i) 4 h before addition of MIH, (ii) 2 h before addition of MIH, (iii) co-administered with MIH (0 h interval) or (iv) 2 h after addition of MIH. In each case, oocytes were further incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h post- administration of MIH, and the effects of treatment on oocyte maturation were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Incubation of oocytes in a medium containing only melatonin did not result in GVBD of any oocyte. Nearly all the oocytes underwent GVBD when incubated with MIH for 16 h. Administration of melatonin along with MIH (at 0 h interval) or 2 h after addition of MIH did not result in any significant change in the rate of GVBD compared to that in a medium containing only MIH. However, it was quite interesting to observe that incubation of oocytes with melatonin especially 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD in the oocytes. Experiments with the oocytes of another major carp Cyprinus carpio following an identical schedule depicted similar results except a difference in the optimum melatonin dose. In L. rohita, 50 pg/ml melatonin had maximum acceleratory effect on MIH-induced GVBD of oocytes, while it was 100 pg/ml in C. carpio. Further study revealed that pre-incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on the formation of a complex of two proteins (MPF), a regulatory component called cyclin B and the catalytic component protein kinase known as cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdk1. Densitometric analysis of the immunoblot data collected from the melatonin pre-treated MIH incubated oocytes showed that cyclin B level continued to increase even after 4 h of incubation, and reached the peak after 12 h. Moreover, determination of H1 kinase activity as an indicator of MPF activity in oocytes revealed that melatonin pre-incubation considerably increased MIH stimulation of histone H1 phosphorylation as compared to MIH alone. Thus, the present study demonstrates for the first time that prior incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on carp oocyte maturation. PMID:15639142

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of Skin Color Variation in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanliang; Zhang, Songhao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Jianxin; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Sun, Xiaowen; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background The common carp is an important aquaculture species that is widely distributed across the world. During the long history of carp domestication, numerous carp strains with diverse skin colors have been established. Skin color is used as a visual criterion to determine the market value of carp. However, the genetic basis of common carp skin color has not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing on two common carp strains: the reddish Xingguo red carp and the brownish-black Yellow River carp. A total of 435,348,868 reads were generated, resulting in 198,781 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of skin transcriptome files revealed 2,012 unigenes with significantly different expression in the two common carp strains, including 874 genes that were up-regulated in Xingguo red carp and 1,138 genes that were up-regulated in Yellow River carp. The expression patterns of 20 randomly selected differentially expressed genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR. Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that melanin biosynthesis, along with the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, is highly likely to affect the skin pigmentation process. Several key genes involved in the skin pigmentation process, including TYRP1, SILV, ASIP and xCT, showed significant differences in their expression patterns between the two strains. Conclusions In this study, we conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis of Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp skins, and we detected key genes involved in the common carp skin pigmentation process. We propose that common carp skin pigmentation depends upon at least three pathways. Understanding fish skin color genetics will facilitate future molecular selection of the fish skin colors with high market values. PMID:25255374

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) and its implication for the history of koi.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Kohji; Song, Hayeun

    2014-02-01

    Complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences were determined for two individuals of Japanese ornamental koi carp. Interestingly, the obtained mitogenomes (16,581 bp) were both completely identical to the recently reported mitogenome of Oujiang color carp from China. Control region (CR) sequences in DNA database demonstrated that more than half (65%) of the koi carp individuals so far reported had partial or complete CR sequences identical to those from Oujiang color carp. These results might suggest that the Japanese koi carp has been originated from Chinese Oujiang color carp, contrary to the belief in Japan that the koi carps have been developed directly from carp stocks in Japan. In any case, the present results emphasize the importance of analyzing Oujiang color carp when studying the origin of koi carp. PMID:23607478

  11. Scale and bone type I collagens of carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Kimura, S; Miyauchi, Y; Uchida, N

    1991-01-01

    1. Soluble Type I collagens were isolated from the scale and bone (skull) of lathyritic carp. Each tissue collagen was assumed to consist of two different molecular forms, (alpha 1)2 alpha 2 as a main component and alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 as a minor one. 2. The possible coexistence of these two forms in soluble Type I collagen of carp was previously observed for skin and muscle, but not for the swim bladder in which only the form of (alpha 1)2 alpha 2 was found. 3. These composite results suggest the wide distribution of alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha 3 heterotrimers in collagenous tissues of carp. PMID:1764927

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Glycophorin from Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Nakao, Nobuhiro; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes following extraction using the lithium diiodosalicylate (LIS)-phenol method and streptomycin treatment. The main carp glycophorin was observed to locate at the position of the carp and human band-3 proteins on an SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Only the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) form of sialic acid was detected in the carp glycophorin. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. We observed bacteriostatic activity against five strains of bacteria, including two known fish pathogens. Fractions from the carp erythrocyte membrane, the glycophorin oligosaccharide and the P-1 also exhibited bacteriostatic activity; whereas the glycolipid fraction and the glycophorin fraction without sialic acid did not show the activity. The carp glycophorin molecules attach to the flagellum of V. anguillarum or the cell surface of M. luteus and inhibited bacterial growth. PMID:25110961

  13. Toxicity of trihalomethanes to common carp embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Mattice, J.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Tsai, S.C.; Burch, M.B.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    Trihalomethanes recently have been identified in real and simulated effluents from power plants where chlorine is used for biofouling control. Toxicity of the four chlorine- or bromine-containing trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) to developing common carp (Cyprinus carpio) embryos was determined under conditions of intermittent (8-hour) toxicant renewal, based on percent hatch as the end point. Nominal median lethal concentrations (LC50) ranged from 161 mg/liter for chloroform to 53 mg/liter for dibromochloromethane. Decay studies conducted under conditions similar to those used for the toxicity studies, but in distilled water, indicated that (1) half-lives of the trihalomethanes ranged from 4.4 to 6.9 hours; (2) decay was due primarily to volatilization; (3) higher relative toxicity of dibromochloromethane probably was due to formation of a degradation product (likely Br/sub 2/). Correction of the nominal LC50 values to time-weighted mean concentrations over the period between toxicant changes gave weighted LC50 values of 97.2, 67.4, 33.5, and 52.3 mg/liter for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, respectively. In addition, the period of water-hardening of fertilized eggs was not critical for expression of toxicity of dibromochloromethane. Comparison of these and other published data on effluent and toxic concentrations, persistence, and bioaccumulation of water-chlorination products suggests that trihalomethanes are not as environmentally critical as other chlorinated organic compounds or residual chlorine.

  14. Dynamics of carp growth and biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Evtushenko, N.Y.; Romanenko, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    When carp are reared in containers in heated waste water from thermal power stations their growth is most intensive in July - 1st half of August and is dependent on the initial mass of the fish stocked. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of the carp reared in containers is directly correlated with the growth rate of the fish. The rate of biosynthetic processes in the liver of carp yearlings reared in natural water bodies and in containers in warm water is higher than in the liver of carp of 1+ reared under similar conditions.

  15. Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Comprised of numerous scientific and advocacy partners, and funded by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), CARPE seeks to help identify and establish conditions and practices which will reduce deforestation and biodiversity loss in the Congo Basin. CARPE arose in response to both local and international concern about the consequences of the current pattern of unsustainable resource use in the region. Main sections at this site include: Briefing Sheet, Partners, Activities, Products, Donor Coordination and related sites. Users can join a discussion group or link to related sites.

  16. Phytoplankton, especially diatoms, in the gut contents and feces of two plantivorous cyprinids—Silver carp and bighead carp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ping; Liu, Jiankang

    1994-12-01

    In order to clarify whether the planktivorous silver carp and bighead carp can collect phytoplankton as small as Cyclotella(<20 ?m) in Donghu Lake, studies on phytoplankton in their gut contents and feces were made in 1990. The fish were cultured in both net cage in Donghu Lake and aquaria with the lake water. Past the intestine, the average valve diameter of Cyclotella changed little. The average ratio of empty frustule of Cyclotella to total Cyclotella in the foregut contents of the fishes were 1.8 1.9 times higher than that in the lake water, but changed little from foregut to feces. The aquarium experiment showed that both carps could collect particles as small as 8 10 ?m, which was obviously narrower than the distance between their gill rakers. Probably, secretion of mucus plays an important role in collecting such small particles.

  17. Academic Majors Undergraduate Majors

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    Community Nutrition/Health Promotion · Food Science Food Allergy · Human/Athletic Performance NutritionAcademic Majors Undergraduate Majors Food & Nutrition Sciences Dietetics Exercise Science Athletic Training Masters Majors Nutrition & Food Sciences Exercise Physiology Sports Sciences Doctoral Majors

  18. Do wild fish species contribute to the transmission of koi herpesvirus to carp in hatchery ponds?

    PubMed

    Fabian, M; Baumer, A; Steinhagen, D

    2013-05-01

    The koi herpesvirus (KHV) has spread worldwide since its discovery in 1998 and causes disease and mortality in koi and common carp populations with a high impact on the carp production industry. Many investigations have been conducted to examine ways of distribution and to identify possible transmission vectors. The answers, however, raise many new questions. In the present study, different wild fish species taken from carp ponds with a history of KHV infection were examined for their susceptibility to the virus. In the tissue of these fish, the virus load was determined and it was tested whether a release of the virus could be induced by stress and the virus then could be transferred to naive carp. Wild fish were gathered from carp ponds during acute outbreaks of virus-induced mortality in summer and from ponds stocked with carp carrying a latent KHV infection. From these ponds, wild fish were collected during the harvesting process in autumn or spring when the ponds were drained. We found that regardless of season, temperature variation, age and infection status of the carp stock, wild fish from carp ponds and its outlets could be tested positive for the KHV genome using real-time PCR with a low prevalence and virus load. Furthermore, virus transfer to naive carp was observed after a period of cohabitation. Cyprinid and non-cyprinid wild fish can therefore be considered as an epidemiological risk for pond carp farms. PMID:23121232

  19. GRASS CARP IN THE UNITED STATES: 1963 TO THE PRESENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On November 16, 1963, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) at Stuttgart, Arkansas, became the first institution to import grass carp into the United States. This introduction was the result of at least seven years of effort to find an effective biological control for problematic aquatic weed...

  20. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), a ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.

  1. A Robotic System for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Pratap Tokekar

    E-print Network

    Isler, Ibrahim Volkan

    in Minnesota's 10,000+ lakes. These lakes vary in size and some are interconnected, forming complexA Robotic System for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Pratap Tokekar Department of Computer transmitters across Minnesota lakes. We describe the design and architecture of the robotic raft

  2. [Effect of substrates of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle on the level of oxidative processes in spermatozoa of grass carp and carp].

    PubMed

    Gosh, R I

    1983-01-01

    Endogenic respiration of grass carp and carp spermatozoids is rather low. Oxidation rate of metabolites is different--malate is oxidized more intensively, it is followed by lactate, pyruvate, succinate. Sperm storage lowers the respiration level and oxidation rate of metabolites. PMID:6845449

  3. Interspecific differences in hypoxia-induced gill remodeling in carp.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Rashpal S; Yao, Lili; Matey, Victoria; Chen, Bo-Jian; Zhang, An-Jie; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Brauner, Colin J; Wang, Yuxiang S; Richards, Jeffrey G

    2013-01-01

    The gills of many fish, but in particular those of crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and goldfish (Carassius auratus), are capable of extensive remodeling in response to changes in oxygen (O2), temperature, and exercise. In this study, we investigated the interspecific variation in hypoxia-induced gill modeling and hypoxia tolerance in 10 closely related groups of cyprinids (nine species, with two strains of Cyprinus carpio). There was significant variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as the O2 tension (P(O2)) at which fish lost equilibrium (LOEcrit), among the 10 groups of carp. In normoxia, there was a significant, phylogenetically independent relationship between mass-specific gill surface area and LOEcrit, with the more hypoxia-tolerant carp having smaller gills than their less hypoxia-tolerant relatives. All groups of carp, except the Chinese bream (Megalobrama pellegrini), increased mass-specific gill surface area in response to 48 h of exposure to hypoxia (0.7 kPa) through reductions in the interlamellar cell mass (ILCM) volume. The magnitude of the hypoxia-induced reduction in the ILCM was negatively correlated with LOEcrit (and thus positively correlated with hypoxia tolerance), independent of phylogeny. The hypoxia-induced changes in gill morphology resulted in reduced variation in mass-specific gill surface area among species and eliminated the relationship between LOEcrit and mass-specific gill surface area. While behavioral responses to hypoxia differed among the carp groups, there were no significant relationships between hypoxia tolerance and the Po2 at which aquatic surface respiration (ASR) was initiated or the total number of ASR events observed during progressive hypoxia. Our results are the first to show that the extent of gill remodeling in cyprinids is associated with hypoxia tolerance in a phylogenetically independent fashion. PMID:24241069

  4. Genome-Wide SNP Discovery from Transcriptome of Four Common Carp Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Ji, Peifeng; Zhao, Zixia; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Jian; Li, Jiongtang; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Liu, Guangzan; Xu, Peng; Sun, Xiaowen

    2012-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used as genetic marker for genome-wide association studies in many species. Gene-associated SNPs could offer sufficient coverage in trait related research and further more could themselves be causative SNPs for traits. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is one of the most important aquaculture species in the world accounting for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production. There are various strains of common carp with different economic traits, however, the genetic mechanism underlying the different traits have not been elucidated yet. In this project, we identified a large number of gene-associated SNPs from four strains of common carp using next-generation sequencing. Results Transcriptome sequencing of four strains of common carp (mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp, Yellow River carp) was performed with Solexa HiSeq2000 platform. De novo assembled transcriptome was used as reference for alignments, and SNP calling was done through BWA and SAMtools. A total of 712,042 Intra-strain SNPs were discovered in four strains, of which 483,276 SNPs for mirror carp, 486,629 SNPs for purse red carp, 478,028 SNPs for Xingguo red carp and 488,281 SNPs for Yellow River carp were discovered, respectively. Besides, 53,893 inter-SNPs were identified. Strain-specific SNPs of four strains were 53,938, 53,866, 48,701, 40,131 in mirror carp, purse red carp, Xingguo red carp and Yellow River carp, respectively. GO and KEGG pathway analysis were done to reveal strain-specific genes affected by strain-specific non-synonymous SNPs. Validation of selected SNPs revealed that 48% percent of SNPs (12 of 25) were tested to be true SNPs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis of common carp using RNA-Seq is a cost-effective way of generating numerous reads for SNP discovery. After validation of identified SNPs, these data will provide a solid base for SNP array designing and genome-wide association studies. PMID:23110192

  5. Evaluation of Electrofishing and Fyke Netting for Collecting Black Carp in Small Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Basler; Harold L. Schramm Jr

    2006-01-01

    The introduced black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus has the potential of depredating many imperiled native mussel and snail populations in U.S. waterways. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for detecting and assessing the abundance of black carp in warmwater systems. We electrofished and fyke-netted 0.1- and 0.3-ha aquaculture ponds stocked with triploid black carp at densities of 39–373

  6. Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ether-99 (BDE99) in carp ( Cyprinus carpio) microflora and microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rae T. Benedict; Heather M. Stapleton; Robert J. Letcher; Carys L. Mitchelmore

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous findings in dietary studies with carp (Cyprinus carpio), we investigated the mechanism of 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) debromination to 2,2?,4,4?-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) using liver and intestinal components. In vitro aerobic and anaerobic experiments tested the ability of carp intestinal microflora to debrominate BDE-99. No debromination of BDE-99 to BDE-47 was observed in microfloral samples; therefore, carp enzymatic pathways

  7. Downstream movement of lampreys and fish in the Carp Lake River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.

    1961-01-01

    An inclined-screen trap was installed on the Carp River, Emmett County, Michigan, in the spring of 1948 and has been in almost continuous operation since that time. The major goal of this project--a precise determination of the length of the larval life of sea lamprey--was not attained because of the contamination of the stream above the dam with spawning lampreys. The lampreys and other fishes collected in the trap did, however, provide extensive and valuable biological information. The present report documents much of the information, largely in tabular form, accumulated over the operating seasons, 1948-49 through 1957-58; the amount of detail has been varied according to the importance of the topic under consideration or the amount required to bring out a particular point.

  8. Tolrance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) un choc acide appliqu au cours

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Tolérance physiologique de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) à un choc acide appliqué au Corzent 74203 Thonon-les-Bains, France. Summary. Physiological tolerance of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggs

  9. Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise un jene total et prolong

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Les vitesses de renouvellement des ARN du foie de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) soumise à un jeûne in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) after prolonged total starvation. 1. Turnover rate and half-life of hepatic

  10. Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV) Rule and the Importation of Susceptible Fish General Information and Suggested Procedural Checklist for

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    (Carassius auratus) Tench (Tinca tinca) Sheatfish (Silurus glanis) If yes, then go to step 2. 2. Do you have (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Goldfish

  11. Plasma biochemical responses of the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) to prolonged toxic cyanobacterial blooms in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Tong; Xie, Ping; Guo, Longgen; Zhang, Dawen

    2009-05-01

    The planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) are the attractive candidates for bio-control of plankton communities to eliminate odorous populations of cyanobacteria. However, few studies focused on the health of such fishes in natural water body with vigorous toxic blooms. Blood parameters are useful and sensitive for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of the physiological status of fish exposed to toxicants. To evaluate the impact of toxic cyanobacterial blooms on the planktivorous fish, 12 serum chemistry variables were investigated in silver carp and bighead carp for 9 months, in a large net cage in Meiliang Bay, a hypereutrophic region of Lake Taihu. The results confirmed adverse effects of cyanobacterial blooms on two phytoplanktivorous fish, which mainly characterized with potential toxicogenomic effects and metabolism disorders in liver, and kidney dysfunction. In addition, cholestasis was intensively implied by distinct elevation of all four related biomarkers (ALP, GGT, DBIL, TBIL) in bighead carp. The combination of LDH, AST activities and DBIL, URIC contents for silver carp, and the combination of ALT, ALP activities and TBIL, DBIL, URIC concentrations for bighead carps were found to most strongly indicate toxic effects from cyanobacterial blooms in such fishes by a multivariate discriminant analysis. PMID:21783964

  12. Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Nicholas B D; Armién, Aníbal G; Mor, Sunil K; Goyal, Sagar M; Warg, Janet V; Bhagyam, Ranjit; Monahan, Tim

    2012-12-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) causes a highly contagious and serious disease of freshwater cyprinid fishes, generating significant economic and ecological impacts throughout the world. The SVCV is therefore listed as a notifiable pathogen by the International Organization for Animal Health. In June 2011, a significant mortality event of wild common carp Cyprinus carpio occurred in Minnehaha Creek near its confluence with Mississippi River Pool 2 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Clinical signs of moribund fish included hemorrhagic lesions in the skin, eyes, and internal adipose tissue. The SVCV was isolated from pooled kidney and spleen of the fish. Rhabdovirus particles were seen upon examination of infected cell culture fluid by electron microscopy. The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. PMID:23072656

  13. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 55: 11891197 (1998). 1998 NRC Canada Predictions on the effect of common carp

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion on water quality, zooplankton, and submergent macrophytes a study to examine the relationship between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exclusion, water quality étudié la relation entre l'exclusion des carpes (Cyprinus carpio), la qualité de l'eau, le zooplancton et

  14. Size-and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    E-print Network

    García-Berthou, Emili

    Size- and depth-dependent variation in habitat and diet of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Emili, Cyprinus carpio, diet, Lake Banyoles, Spain. ABSTRACT The habitat and diet variation of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were studied in Lake Banyo- les (Catalonia, Spain). Carp was the second most abundant

  15. Influence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    after the start of the particular feeding regime. b) Trials with carp. - Three carp (Cyprinus carpio LInfluence of nutritional status on the daily patterns of nitrogen excretion in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) S. J. KAUSHIK Denise BLANC Laboratoire de Nutrition

  16. A review of genetic improvement of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and other cyprinids by crossbreeding, hybridization and selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gideon Hulata

    1995-01-01

    Genetic research and application have mainly focused on the common carp, while little attention has been given to Chinese and Indian carps. The only exceptions are interspecific and intergeneric hybridization involving the latter species. The common carp is the only species for which distinct varieties exist. Several of these have been used for crossbreeding, and heterosis for growth was shown

  17. Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids or a protein-free diet

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrogen and energy utilization in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed casein, amino acids and energy metabolism during the early life history of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, we followed changes, Academy of Agriculture and Techno%gy Olsztyn-Kortowo, Poland. Summary. Juvenile carp (Cyrpinus carpio

  18. Effects of Introduced Common Carp and Invading Zebra Mussels on Water Quality and the Native Biological Community of Clear Lake,

    E-print Network

    Koford, Rolf R.

    Effects of Introduced Common Carp and Invading Zebra Mussels on Water Quality and the Native success evaluating the impacts of ongoing lake restoration and invasive common carp and zebra mussels and effects of introduced common carp, invading zebra mussels, and the native biological community on water

  19. A Robotic Sensor Network for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Deepak Bhadauria, Volkan Isler, Andrew Studenski and Pratap Tokekar

    E-print Network

    Isler, Ibrahim Volkan

    . These lakes vary in size and some are interconnected, forming complex interactions. The common carpA Robotic Sensor Network for Monitoring Carp in Minnesota Lakes Deepak Bhadauria, Volkan Isler to monitor common carp tagged with radio transmitters across Minnesota lakes. We describe the design

  20. Breeding Behaviour and Embryonic Development of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Haniffa; P. S. Allen Benziger; A. Jesu Arockiaraj; M. Nagarajan; P. Siby

    Induced breeding experiments of Nikishigoi (koi carp), Cyprinus carpio were conducted in mature males and females by administrating a single intramuscular injection of ovaprim at a dosage of 0.3 mL\\/kg weight. Spawning was observed six hrs after the injection at ambient temperature (26-28oC). The fertilized eggs were adhesive and transparent with diameter ranging between 0.9 mm and 1.10 mm. Incubation

  1. Essentiality of dietary phospholipids for carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inge Geurden; João Radünz-Neto; Pierre Bergot

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the essentiality of phospholipid (PL) addition to semi-purified diets for first-feeding carp larvae. In Experiment I (25 days), a casein-based diet was supplemented with 0, 2 or 4% of a purified PL source (PL level in source: 98%) and with 0 or 4% of peanut oil (PO). One casein-based diet without

  2. The development of a radioimmunoassay for carp, Cyprinus carpio , vitellogenin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Tyler; John P. Sumpter

    1990-01-01

    The development of an easily — performed and robust radioimmunoassay (RIA) to carp, Cyprinus carpio, vitellogenin (c-VTG) is described. Purified c-VTG was iodinated using Iodogen. The resulting c-VTG label was useful for\\u000a up to 60 days. High titre antibodies were raised in rabbits to the purified c-VTG. The practical operating range of the c-VTG\\u000a RIA was between 2 and 200

  3. Purification and characterization of grass carp mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wing-Ping Fong; Ka-Fai Choy

    2001-01-01

    The molecular biology and enzymology of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) have been extensively investigated. However, most of the studies have been confined to the mammalian forms, while the sub-mammalian vertebrate ALDHs are relatively unexplored. In the present investigation, an ALDH was purified from the hepatopancreas of grass carp (Ctenopharygodon idellus) by affinity chromatographies on ?-cyanocinnamate-Sepharose and Affi-gel Blue agarose. The 800-fold

  4. Energetic consequences of an inducible morphological defence in crucian carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars B. Pettersson; Christer Brönmark

    1999-01-01

    Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) increases in body depth in response to chemical cues from piscivores and the deeper body constitutes a morphological defence\\u000a against gape-limited piscivores. In the field, deep-bodied individuals suffer a density-dependent cost when competing with\\u000a shallow-bodied conspecifics. Here, we use hydrodynamic theory and swimming respirometry to investigate the proposed mechanism\\u000a underlying this effect, high drag caused by

  5. HIRA is essential for the development of gibel carp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng-Yu; Guo, Qiu-Hong; Du, Xin-Zheng; Zhou, Li; Luo, Qian; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zhao, Hao-Bin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2014-02-01

    HIRA is one of the chaperones of histone H3.3. Mutation of Hira results in embryonic lethality in mice, suggesting a critical role in embryogenesis. However, Hira-mutated Drosophila may survive to adults, indicating that it is dispensable in Drosophila development. The role of Hira in fish development is unknown. In this study we first investigated the expression of Hira during embryogenesis of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) by whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found that Hira signal appeared ubiquitously in the early embryos. After gastrulation, it appeared mainly along the anterior-posterior axis, including the tail bud. In hatching period, the signal was detected in head, heart, and the endoderm region on the back of yolk. Then by microinjection with morpholino-HIRA at the beginning of development, we observed delayed gastrulation and abnormal somitogenesis in gibel carp embryos. The HIRA morphants exhibited short trunk, limited yolk extension, and twisted tail. Most of the mutants died during embryogenesis or shortly after hatching. The rest of the HIRA morphants could survive to larvae but with severe defects in organogenesis. These data suggest that HIRA may be essential for the development of gibel carp, and this function is conserved in vertebrates. PMID:23912483

  6. Identification and characterization of MAVS from black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Jujun; Lv, Ying; Qu, Yixiao; Chi, Mengdie; Li, Jun; Feng, Hao

    2015-04-01

    MAVS (mitochondria antiviral signaling protein) plays an important role in the host cellular innate immune response against microbial pathogens. In this study, MAVS has been cloned and characterized from black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp MAVS (bcMAVS) consists of 2352 nucleotides and the predicted bcMAVS protein contains 579 amino acids. Structural analysis showed that bcMAVS is composed of functional domains including an N-terminal CARD, a central proline-rich domain, a putative TRAF2-binding motif and a C-terminal TM domain, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. bcMAVS is constitutively transcribed in all the selected tissues including gill, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin and spleen; bcMAVS mRNA level in intestine, liver, muscle increased but decreased in spleen right after GCRV or SVCV infection. Multiple bands of bcMAVS were detected in western blot when it was expressed in tissue culture, which is similar to mammalian MAVS. Immunofluorescence assay determined that bcMAVS is a mitochondria protein and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that bcMAVS could induce zebrafish IFN and EPC IFN expression in tissue culture. Data generated in this manuscript has built a solid foundation for further elucidating the function of bcMAVS in the innate immune system of black carp. PMID:25655327

  7. Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebrash, ectothermic vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    Short sequence-paper Uncoupling protein 2 from carp and zebra¢sh, ectothermic vertebrates J on their potential roles in thermogenesis. Here we report the amino acid sequences of two new UCPs from ectothermic% identical to mammalian UCP1s. Carp and zebrafish are ectotherms ^ they do not raise their body temperatures

  8. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1.?Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2.?We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3.?Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4.?Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  9. Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effects of triiodothyronine and of some gonadotropic and steroid hormones on the maturation of carp) and of gonadotropic and steroid hormones on carp oocyte maturation in vitro were investigated using ovarian fragments greater in the subgroups incubated with T3 + steroid hormone, or with T3 + gonadotropic hormone, than

  10. Effects of Triploid Grass Carp on Aquatic Vegetation in Two South Dakota Lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daryl L. Bauer; David W. Willis

    1990-01-01

    Triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were stocked at a mean length of 229 mm (total length) into two small South Dakota lakes in 1985. Chara sp. was the predominant aquatic macrophyte in both lakes. Prior Lake contained a fish community in which the largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was the only top-level predator. An introduction of 49 grass carp per hectare

  11. Temperature acclimation in crucian carp, Carassius carassius L., morphometric analyses of muscle fibre ultrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Johnston; B. Maitland

    1980-01-01

    Carp show a partial compensation in metabolic rate and activity following temperature acclimation. In the present study crucian carp, Carassius carassius, were acclimated for eight weeks to either 2. Cor 28. C. The effects of temperature acclimation on muscle fibre ultrastructure has been investigated. The fractional volume (%) of each fibre type occupied by mitochondria and myofibrils was determined using

  12. Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.),

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Protein digestion and amino acid absorption along the intestine of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio amino acids and the apparent absorption of amino acids (AAaa) were evaluated in different segments of carp intestine. The AAaa analysed using Crz03 as a marker indicated that 73.2 % of the amino acids were

  13. Effectiveness of an Electrical Barrier and Lake Drawdown for Reducing Common Carp and Bigmouth Buffalo Abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONOVAN D. VERRILL; CHARLES R. BERRY

    1995-01-01

    An overabundance of common carp Cyprinus carpio and bigmoulh buffalo \\/ctiobus cyprinellus in North and South Heron lakes, Minnesota, has hindered production of food plants for waterfowl. These shallow (maximum depth, 1.5 m), turbid lakes are partially drawn down each winter. Common carp were radio-tracked in both lakes during the winters of 1991 and 1992 to monitor their movements and

  14. 76 FR 15857 - Injurious Wildlife Species; Listing the Bighead Carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) as Injurious Fish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...October 2002, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...bighead, silver, and black carp to the list of injurious...v) Any live fish, gametes, viable eggs...Mylopharyngodon piceus (black carp). * * * * * Dated...Schmidt. Acting Director, Fish and Wildlife...

  15. The annual reproduction cycle in adult carp in Poland : ovarian state and serum gonadotropin level

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The annual reproduction cycle in adult carp in Poland : ovarian state and serum gonadotropin level, 30-059 Krakow, Poland * Laboratoire de Physiologie des Poissons, LN.R.A. 78350 Jouy en Josas, France. Summary. In environmental conditions in Poland, new vitellogenesis began in carp just after the spawning

  16. Organophosphate Effects on Antioxidant System of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio) and Catfish ( Ictalurus nebulosus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do Quy Hai; Sz. Ilona Varga; B Matkovics

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the organophosphate insecticide Dichlorvos on antioxidant enzymes and other oxidative and redox parameters of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and catfish (Ictalurus nebulosus) were studied. Changes in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and in the case of carp acetylcholinesterase activities were studied in tissue homogenates. Other parameters studied: changes of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and the amounts of

  17. Genetic variability of German and foreign common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten

    1999-01-01

    In order to describe their genetic variability the polymorphisms of 8 enzymatic systems representing 23 gene loci were studied in 11 German and 5 foreign common carp lines using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The highest variability measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and the percentage of polymorphic loci was observed in Vietnamese wild carp (1.9 and 50%,

  18. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 112 NOTE Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Cyprinus carpio). In order for fish to transfer the #12;Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 31(3) 2011, 113 virus Cook University, Queensland, Australia Abstract Goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus

  19. Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene K. Balon

    1995-01-01

    Paleogeographical, morphological, ecological, physiological, linguistic, archeological and historical evidence is used to explain the origin and history of the domestication of the wild carp. The wild ancestor of the common carp originated in the Black, Caspian and Aral sea drainages and dispersed east into Siberia and China and west as far as the Danube River. It is represented today by

  20. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Biomass-dependent effects of age-0 common carp on aquatic

    E-print Network

    in structuring aquatic ecosystems through top-down and bottom-up processes. Adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio, although effects may be accrued through different pathways. Keywords Early life history Á Cyprinus carpio Á common carp (Cypri- nus carpio) populations are often associated with the degradation of shallow aquatic

  1. Influence of the Moran Effect on Spatiotemporal Synchrony in Common Carp Recruitment

    E-print Network

    on a regionwide scale may further our understanding of fish population dynamics. Common carp Cyprinus carpio geographical scale (i.e., the Moran effect) would induce synchrony in recruitment for common carp Cyprinus carpio among 18 glacial lakes across a 175-km2 area in eastern South Dakota. Cross-correlation analysis

  2. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio

    E-print Network

    Ladich, Friedrich

    Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae). PLoS ONE 9(9): e

  3. Pathological and Biochemical Characterization of Microcystin-Induced Hepatopancreas and Kidney Damage in Carp ( Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Fischer; D. R. Dietrich

    2000-01-01

    Mass occurrences of cyanobacteria, due to their inherent capacity for toxin production, specifically of microcystins (MC), have been associated with fish kills worldwide. The uptake of MC-LR and the sequence of pathological and associated biochemical changes was investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio) in vivo over 72 h. Carp were gavaged with a single sublethal bolus dose of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa

  4. Cryopreservation of Sperm in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio: Sperm Motility and Hatching Success of Embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otomar Linhart; Marek Rodina; Jacky Cosson

    2000-01-01

    In this study, fish sperm cryopreservation methods were elaborated upon for ex situ conservation of nine strains of Bohemian common carp. Common carp sperm were diluted in Kurokura medium and chilled to 4°C and dimethyl sulfoxide was added. Cryotubes of sperm with media were then cooled from +4 to ?9°C at a rate of 4°C min?1 and then from ?9

  5. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 2733 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a

    E-print Network

    Kwak, Thomas J.

    J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 51: 27­33 High-density grass carp stocking effects on a reservoir invasive are fish stocking density, regional climate, abundance and species composition of the aquatic plant (Vell) Verdc.], an invasive aquatic plant that is not preferentially consumed by grass carp

  6. Managing invasive carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) for habitat enhancement at Botany Wetlands, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Pinto; N. Chandrasena; J. Pera; P. Hawkins; D. Eccles; R. Sim

    2005-01-01

    In Australia, the carp Cyprinus carpio L. is regarded as a threat to the native fish and the aquatic environment. In recent years, Botany Wetlands, a significant coastal wetland in the Sydney region, has been invaded by the undesirable cyprinids, carp and goldfish (Carrasius auratus L.). 2. In 1996 a cyprinid removal programme commenced at Botany Wetlands with the objective

  7. Interactions of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) with benthic crayfish decapods in shallow ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Demián Hinojosa-Garro; Luis Zambrano

    2004-01-01

    Introduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) for aquaculture increased in recent decades. This fish is now established in many new water systems creating interactions with native species. Some of these interactions have been partly understood, but most of them remain unknown. For instance, in shallow ponds of central Mexico, populations of crayfish (Cambarellus montezumae) are reduced with high carp densities,

  8. Reproductive Requirements and Likelihood for Naturalization of Escaped Grass Carp in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon G. Stanley; W. Woodard Miley II; David L. Sutton

    1978-01-01

    Information on reproductive requirements of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) was obtained from published accounts, from a visit to rivers in the USSR where introduced grass carp have reproduced, and from discussions with Soviet fishery workers. Turbulent areas at the confluence of rivers or below dams are the focal points for reproduction. Successful spawning occurs only in large rivers or

  9. Z .Aquaculture 160 1998 317328 Initiation of carp spermatozoa motility and early

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    , the volume of carp semen, the osmolality of seminal plasma and the capacity of spermatozoa to move are highly. In this study, carp Z .milt mixed with urine 0.5­7.5% of volume was studied in order to evaluate the changes of undiluted semen could be motile spontaneously in the Z .collecting tube Billard, personal communication

  10. The effects of cooking on residues of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscles.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Posyniak, Andrzej; Zmudzki, Jan

    2007-03-14

    The effects of various cooking methods (boiling, baking and microwaving) on residues of malachite green (MG) and its major metabolite, leucomalachite green (LMG), in incurred carp muscles were investigated. Moreover, the stability of MG and LMG standard solutions under boiling in water and in oil was examined. The MG and LMG residues in cooked meat were determined by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detectors. The results showed that in muscles cooked by boiling or baking MG concentration was reduced by 54% in 15 min while LMG was stable in these conditions. By microwave cooking MG residues were reduced by 61% after 1 min. Microwaving was the only method of cooking when a loss of LMG was observed (40% in 1 min). Both MG and LMG standard solutions were stable in boiling water at 100 degrees C. In cooking oil, MG was reduced by 49% after 10 min and less than 3% of the original MG remains after 90 min at 150 degrees C. No losses of LMG were observed over a time period of 120 min in cooking oil at 150 degrees C. Upon increasing the temperature to 210 degrees C and holding for 120 min, MG was rapidly reduced by 97% after 10 min. LMG under the same conditions was reduced by 18% after 10 min. No further loses of MG and LMG were observed after 120 min. The findings of this investigation show that the high temperature does not guarantee a full breakdown of residue of MG and LMG which may occur in carp muscles. PMID:17386743

  11. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornanen, Matti; Asikainen, Juha; Haverinen, Jaakko

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2-10 times higher in winter (0.68-18.20% of tissue wet weight) than in summer (0.12-4.23%). In scale, bone and brain glycogen stores were strongly dependent on body mass (range between 0.6 and 785 g), small fish having significantly more glycogen than large fish ( p < 0.05). In fin and skin, size dependence was evident in winter, but not in summer, while in other tissues (ventricle, atrium, intestine, liver, muscle, and spleen), no size dependence was found. The liver was much bigger in small than large fish ( p < 0.001), and there was a prominent enlargement of the liver in winter irrespective of fish size. As a consequence, the whole body glycogen reserves, measured as a sum of glycogen from different tissues, varied from 6.1% of the body mass in the 1-g fish to 2.0% in the 800-g fish. Since anaerobic metabolic rate scales down with body size, the whole body glycogen reserves could provide energy for approximately 79 and 88 days of anoxia in small and large fish, respectively. There was, however, a drastic difference in tissue distribution of glycogen between large and small fish: in the small fish, the liver was the major glycogen store (68% of the stores), while in the large fish, the white myotomal muscle was the principal deposit of glycogen (57%). Since muscle glycogen is considered to be unavailable for blood glucose regulation, its usefulness in anoxia tolerance of the large crucian carp might be limited, although not excluded. Therefore, mobilization of muscle glycogen under anoxia needs to be rigorously tested.

  12. Influence of methisoprinol on the replication of rhabdoviruses isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and catfish (Ictalurus melas): in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, A K; Pozet, F; Morand, M; Kazu?, B; Trapkowska, S; Ma?aczewska, J

    2003-01-01

    Rhabdoviruses constitute one of the most pathogenic viruses isolated from rainbow trout and carp culture. Several viruses were also isolated from other species of fish. These viruses are mostly associated with epizootics and heavy losses. Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and pike fry rhabdovirus (PFRV) have been the most extensively studied, due to their significant economic impact. Significant progress has been made towards controlling the major bacterial fish diseases using vaccines, but this approach has not yet been successful in preventing viral diseases in fish culture. However, for an effective therapeutic approach, specific drugs should be developed to selectively inhibit virus replication and/or stimulate antiviral protection. In this investigation we examined the in vitro influence of methisoprinol on the SVCV and virus isolated from catfish (Ictalurus melas) replication by measuring their RNA synthesis. The viruses were propagated in EPC cells and cell cultures containing methisoprinol were followed by infection with SVCV or catfish rhabdovirus suspension containing 10(7) TCID50/ml. Methisoprinol (Polfa, Poland) at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 microg/ml of medium (Glasgow MEM) was used in this study. The results of this study show the strong inhibition of incorporation (cpm) of [3H]-uridine into SVCV and catfish rhabdovirus RNA in cell culture exposed to methisoprinol at various concentrations. The highest percent of inhibition of viral RNA at 72 h after infection with two rhabdoviruses were observed in doses of 400 and 500 microg/ml of methisoprinol in medium. The results of this in vitro study showed that methisoprinol inhibits the rhabdoviruses isolated from carp and catfish. PMID:12675468

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of domesticated and wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingxue; Zou, Jixing; Wang, Chenghui

    2014-01-17

    Abstract Glass red common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wananensis) were occasionally found among wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 50 years ago. In this paper, we determined the complete sequences of Glass red common carp and wild common carp mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes exhibited the same length of 16,581?bp, order in 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The sequence similarity between them reached 99.62% and 100% in 21 tRNA genes (excluding tRNA(Ser)) and 2 protein-coding genes (ATP8 and ND4L), respectively. The two mitogenomes will be useful in elucidating the evolutional relationship of the common carp. PMID:24438270

  14. Morphological changes of silver and bighead carp in the Yangtze River over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong-Xia; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Si-Fa

    2010-12-01

    Multivariate analysis was adopted to analyze 30 morphometrical characteristics of 121 one-year-old juvenile silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) bred during the 1950s ("the former population") and 2008 ("the current population") and collected from the middle reach of the Yangtze River. The average discriminant accuracies of the former and current silver and bighead carp population were 94.2% and 98.0%, respectively. Discriminant analysis also revealed that significant differences in morphology occurred between the former and current populations of both carp in overall characteristics. One-way analysis of variance indicated that between former and current populations, silver carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in twelve of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics, while bighead carp showed highly significant differences (P<0.01) in eight of their characteristics and significant differences (P<0.05) in eight of their characteristics. Six head morphology variables of the current silver and bighead carp were significantly or highly significantly larger than the former populations; fourteen characteristics of silver carp and ten characteristics of bighead carp of the current populations, mainly reflecting truck and tail morphology, were significantly or very significantly smaller than the former populations. Our results indicate that silver and bighead carp have developed a larger head and smaller truck and tail during the last 50 years. Due to such morphological changes, it seems apparent that the heads of these fish species need to be considered in regards to human diets, particularly in relation to economic and nutritious value. PMID:21174356

  15. Age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of adult bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, in the lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, S.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Bighead carp were introduced into Arkansas in 1973 to improve water clarity in production ponds. Bighead carp subsequently escaped aquaculture facilities in the early 1980's and dispersed into the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The first documentation of bighead carp reproduction in the Mississippi River system was in 1989. The population has increased in the Missouri River as is evident in their increased proportion in the commercial harvest since 1990. The effect of this exotic planktivore on native ecosystems of the U.S. has not been examined. Basic biological data on bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis in the Missouri River are needed to predict potential ecological problems and provide a foundation for manipulative studies. The objectives of this study were to assess age, growth, and gonadal characteristics of bighead carp in the Missouri River. Adult bighead carp in our sample varied from age 3 to age 7 and length varied from 475 to 1050 mm. There was a large variation in length at age, and overall bighead carp exhibited fast growth. For example, mean back-calculated length at age 3 was 556 mm. The sample was dominated by bighead carp from the 1994 year class. There was no difference in gonad development (i.e., gonadal somatic index, egg diameter) between winter and spring samples. Length of male bighead carp and GSI were not significantly correlated; however, females exhibited a positive linear relationship between length and GSI. In each ovary, egg diameter frequencies exhibited a bimodal distribution, indicating protracted spawning. Mean fecundity was 226 213, with a maximum fecundity of 769 964. Bighead carp in the Missouri River have similar life history characteristics to Asian and European populations. They have become well established in the Missouri River and it is likely that dispersal and population density will increase.

  16. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp ( Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) and allogynogenetic crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ? ×  Cyprinus carpio ?) fed different carbohydrate diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Fang Cai; Yuan Tu Ye; Li Qiao Chen; Jian Guang Qin; Yong Ling Wang

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of black carp (Mylopharyngdon piceus Richardson) (4.6 ± 0.3 g) and allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio ? × Cyprinus carpio ?) (5.7 ± 0.5 g) were examined when fish fed two types of carbohydrate (dextrin and glucose) at two levels (20 and 40%) each.\\u000a The diets were isonitrogenous (40% dry matter) and isocaloric at 18.5 kJ g?1 (dry matter) by adjusting the oil content

  17. A comparative study of accumulated total mercury among white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of common carp and silver carp from the Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khoshnamvand, Mehdi; Kaboodvandpour, Shahram; Ghiasi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir (SGR) is a mercury polluted lake that is located in the West of Iran. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are the most abundant fishes in the SGR. A total of 48 common and silver carps (24 each) were captured randomly, using 50×6 m gill net (mesh size: 5×5 cm) during July to December 2009. Each month, the levels of accumulated total mercury (T-Hg) in white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of these fishes were measured using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Model; Leco 254 AMA, USA) on the dry weight basis. There were no statistically significant differences between T-Hg concentrations in white muscle, red muscle and liver in common carp in comparison with similar tissues in silver carp (P>0.05). The content of T-Hg in liver tissue of both species was lower than of white and red muscle tissues. Higher levels of accumulated T-Hg were observed during summer. Results showed that T-Hg concentrations in common and silver carps target tissues were strongly dependent on age, length and weight (P<0.05). The results indicated that the levels of accumulated T-Hg in tissues of all samples with weights of over 850 g were greater than those limits established by WHO and FAO (500 ng g(-1)). PMID:23107055

  18. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  19. First detection of pike fry-like rhabdovirus in barbel and spring viraemia of carp virus in sturgeon and pike in aquaculture in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Vicenova, Monika; Reschova, Stanislava; Pokorova, Dagmar; Hulova, Jana; Vesely, Tomas

    2011-06-16

    Rapid antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing of cell cultures with organ homogenate from fish, collected from farms with a predominance of common carp or in natural aquaculture in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2008, identified piscine vesiculovirus in 27 of 178 samples. Using reverse transcription semi-nested PCR, targeting a 550 nucleotide region of the glycoprotein (G) gene, piscine vesiculovirus was confirmed in 23 of the 27 organ samples diagnosed by ELISA as infected. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from 18 isolates from common carp Cyprinus carpio (family Cyprinidae), 2 isolates from northern pike Esox lucius (family Esocidae), and 1 isolate each from Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii (family Acipenseridae), common barbel Barbus barbus (family Cyprinidae), and koi carp Cyprinus carpio koi (family Cyprinidae). The sequences (based on 401 nucleotides) clustered into 2 genogroups. The majority of isolates (n = 22), including those from sturgeon and pike, grouped with the spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) Genogroup I and Subgroup Id. The 22 isolates could be further subdivided into 2 groups: Id1 (n = 20) and Id2 (n = 2). A marker (a non-conservative nucleotide substitution) for the Id1 SVCV group was identified. It was specifically found in all sequences of Id1 isolates when testing SVCV originating from different countries. The remaining isolate from barbel, was classified in the pike fry-like rhabdovirus Genogroup IV. This is the first confirmation of natural SVCV infection in sturgeon and pike, and pike fry-like rhabdovirus infection in barbel. In the case of the pike fry-like rhabdovirus, this is also its first identification in the Czech Republic. According to the presence/absence of evident clinical signs of rhabdoviral disease in the 3 infected hosts, only the sturgeon seemed to be susceptible to the monitored rhabdovirus. PMID:21848117

  20. Effects of growth hormone over-expression on reproduction in the common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mengxi; Chen, Ji; Peng, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; Trudeau, Vance L; Zhu, Zuoyan; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interaction between growth and reproduction we have established lines of transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio) carrying a grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) growth hormone (GH) transgene. The GH-transgenic fish showed delayed gonadal development compared with non-transgenic common carp. To gain a better understanding of the phenomenon, we studied body growth, gonad development, changes of reproduction related genes and hormones of GH-transgenic common carp for 2years. Over-expression of GH elevated peripheral gh transcription, serum GH levels, and inhibited endogenous GH expression in the pituitary. Hormone analyses indicated that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary and serum level of luteinizing hormone (LH). Among the tested genes, pituitary lh? was inhibited in GH-transgenic fish. Further analyses in vitro showed that GH inhibited lh? expression. Localization of ghr with LH indicates the possibility of direct regulation of GH on gonadotrophs. We also found that GH-transgenic common carp had reduced pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by co-treatments with a salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a dopamine antagonist. Together these results suggest that the main cause of delayed reproductive development in GH transgenic common carp is reduced LH production and release. PMID:24184869

  1. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonar, Scott A.; Bolding, B.; Divens, M.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated effects of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella on aquatic macrophyte communities, water quality, and public satisfaction for 98 lakes and ponds in Washington State stocked with grass carp between 1990 and 1995. Grass carp had few noticeable effects on macrophyte communities until 19 months following stocking. After 19 months, submersed macrophytes were either completely eradicated (39% of the lakes) or not controlled (42% of the lakes) in most lakes. Intermediate control of submersed macrophytes occurred in 18% of lakes at a median stocking rate of 24 fish per vegetated surface acre. Most of the landowners interviewed (83%) were satisfied with the results of introducing grass carp. For sites where all submersed macrophytes were eradicated, average turbidity was higher (11 nephelometric turbidity units, NTU) than at sites where macrophytes were controlled to intermediate levels (4 NTU) or unaffected by grass carp grazing (5 NTU). Chlorophyll a was not significantly different between levels of macrophyte control; therefore, we concluded that most of this turbidity was abiotic and not algal. Triploid grass carp were a popular control option and effectively grazed most submersed macrophytes in Washington State. However, calculating stocking rates based on landowner estimates of aquatic plant coverage rarely resulted in intermediate levels of aquatic plant control. Additionally, the effects of particular stocking rates varied considerably. We recommend against using grass carp in Washington lakes where eradication of submersed vegetation cannot be tolerated.

  2. Elements of concern in fillets of bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River, Illinois.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Sass, Gregory G; Dickinson, Amy; Epifanio, John M

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to control invasive bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) may include harvest for human consumption. We measured concentrations of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se) in fillets from silver and bighead carp collected from the lower Illinois River, Illinois, USA, to determine whether concentrations were of health concern and differed by species, size, and location. Concentrations of total As were below detection limits in most bighead (92%) and silver (77%) carp fillets, whereas inorganic As was below detection limits in all samples. Mean Hg concentrations were greater in bighead (0.068 mg kg(-1)) than in silver carp (0.035 mg kg(-1)), and were smallest in carp from the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers. Mercury concentrations in fillets were positively correlated with body mass in both species. Concentrations of Hg were below the US Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) action level (1 ppm as methyl-Hg); however, concentrations in some bighead (70%) and silver (12%) carp fell within the range that would invoke a recommendation to limit meals in sensitive cohorts. Mean Se concentrations were greater in silver (0.332 mg kg(-1)) than in bighead (0.281 mg kg(-1)) carp fillets, and were below the 1.5 mg kg(-1) limit for an unrestricted number of meals/month. The mean molar ratio of Se:Hg in fillets was lower in bighead (14.0) than in silver (29.1) carp and was negatively correlated with mass in both species Concentrations of Hg in bighead and silver carp fillets should be considered when assessing the risks associated with the use of these species as a protein source. PMID:24300421

  3. Microcystin kinetics (bioaccumulation and elimination) and biochemical responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) exposed to toxic cyanobacterial blooms.

    PubMed

    Adamovský, Ondrej; Kopp, Radovan; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Palíková, Miroslava; Pasková, Veronika; Navrátil, Stanislav; Marsálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Ludek

    2007-12-01

    Two species of common edible fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), were exposed to a Microcystis spp.-dominated natural cyanobacterial water bloom for two months (concentrations of cyanobacterial toxin microcystin, 182-539 microg/g biomass dry wt). Toxins accumulated up to 1.4 to 29 ng/g fresh weight and 3.3 to 19 ng/g in the muscle of silver carp and common carp, respectively, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent immunoassay. Concentrations an order of magnitude higher were detected in hepatopancreas (up to 226 ng/g in silver carp), with a peak after the initial four weeks. Calculated bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.6 to 1.7 for muscle and from 7.3 to 13.3 for hepatopancreas. Microcystins were completely eliminated within one to two weeks from both muscle and hepatopancreas after the transfer of fish with accumulated toxins to clean water. Mean estimated elimination half-lives ranged from 0.7 d in silver carp muscle to 8.4 d in common carp liver. The present study also showed significant modulations of several biochemical markers in hepatopancreas of fish exposed to cyanobacteria. Levels of glutathione and catalytic activities of glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were induced in both species, indicating oxidative stress and enhanced detoxification processes. Calculation of hazard indexes using conservative U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology indicated rather low risks of microcystins accumulated in edible fish, but several uncertainties should be explored. PMID:18020691

  4. [Evaluation of 4 vermifuges against Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in carp].

    PubMed

    Flores-Crespo, J; Flores-Crespo, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F; Vera-Montenegro, Y

    1994-01-01

    With the aim to evaluate the efficacy of four vermicides, praziquantel, mebendazole, nitroscanate and triclorfon in the control of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in carps, one hundred and sixty, two year-old carps (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) with an average weight of 120 g and a mean parasitic burden of 115.5 parasites/fish were used. Five groups of 30 fish each were randomly formed. Each group was then subdivided in three groups, each of 10 individuals/pond. The three subgroups of group A received 30, 50 and 70 mg/Kg of praziquantel, respectively. Groups B and C received 2.2, 4.4, and 6.8 mg/Kg of mebendazole suspension and mebendazole solution respectively; groups D and E received 10, 30, 50 mg/Kg; and 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 mg/Kg of nitroscanate and trichlorfon respectively. Group F of 10 fish remained as non-treated control. Praziquantel showed 100% of efficacy for all doses, therefore it was excluded from the statistical analysis. The subgroups B, C, D and E compared with the non-treated control were statistically significant (P < 0.01); showing in all treatments an additive effect, the higher the dose the better efficacy, except trichlorfon which showed a different tendency, having no explanation on that matter. PMID:7709095

  5. Experimental Infection of Koi Carp with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVb.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, Emily R; Labuda, Sandra L; Groocock, Geoffrey H; Getchell, Rodman G; Bowser, Paul R

    2013-03-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) type IVb has a wide host range that includes at least three cyprinid species: Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides, and Bluntnose Minnow P. notatus. To date, VHSV IVb has only been found in wild fish. However, the possibility of infection in culture facilities remains. Koi Carp Cyprinus carpio are a major ornamental aquaculture species in the United States; however, their potential to become infected with VHSV IVb has not yet been examined. In this study, we exposed Koi to 3 × 10(6) PFU VHSV Great Lakes isolate MI03 by intraperitoneal injection. While we observed low mortality (0-5%), VHSV was isolated in cell culture from the majority of fish up to 28 d postexposure (DPE) and was detected by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay up to 90 DPE, when the trial was terminated. The results of this study strongly suggest that Koi are at risk for VHSV infection, although their susceptibility by intraperitoneal injection appears to be low. This study also provides more evidence of the sensitivity of qRT-PCR for detection of VHSV IVb. PMID:23289973

  6. QTL mapping for economically important traits of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Laghari, Muhammad Younis; Lashari, Punhal; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Peng; Narejo, Naeem Tariq; Xin, Baoping; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Xiaowen

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed for three economically important traits, i.e., body weight (BW), body length (BL), and body thickness (BT), in an F1 family of common carp holding the 190 progeny. A genetic linkage map spanning 3,301 cM in 50 linkage groups with 627 markers and an average distance of 5.6 cM was utilized for QTL mapping. Sixteen QTLs associated with all three growth-related traits were scattered across ten linkage groups, LG6, LG10, LG17, LG19, LG25, LG27, LG28, LG29, LG30, and LG39. Six QTLs for BW and five each for BL and BT explained phenotypic variance in the range 17.0-32.1%. All the nearest markers of QTLs were found to be significantly (p???0.05) related with the trait. Among these QTLs, a total of four, two (qBW30 and qBW39) related with BW, one (qBL39) associated with BL, and one (qBT29) related to BT, were found to be the major QTLs with a phenotypic variance of >20%. qBW30 and qBW39 with the nearest markers HLJ1691 and HLJ1843, respectively, show significant values of 0.0038 and 0.0031, correspondingly. QTLs qBL39 and qBT29 were found to have significant values of 0.0047 and 0.0015, respectively. Three QTLs (qBW27, qBW30, qBW39) of BW, two for BL (qBL19, qBL39), and two for BT (qBT6, qBT25) found in this study were similar to populations with different genetic backgrounds. In this study, the genomic region controlling economically important traits were located. These genomic regions will be the major sources for the discovery of important genes and pathways associated with growth-related traits in common carp. PMID:25078056

  7. Quantitative trait loci for morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis).

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yang, G; Zhou, G

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 morphometric body measurements of the hybrids of silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) including body weight (BW), standard length (SL), body depth (BD), body thickness (BT), head length (HL), head depth (HD), length of ventral keel (LVK), length of pectoral fin (Lpec), length of pelvic fin (Lpel), length of caudal fin (Lcau) and space between pectoral and pelvic fins (SPP) were located on the sex average microsatellite linkage map constructed using the hybrids of a female bighead and a male silver carp, on which 15 microsatellites were newly mapped. One locus was found to be responsible for BW, LV K and SPP, respectively. As many as 6 loci were found to be responsible for HD. The variances of remaining traits were partitioned by different numbers of loci varying between 2 and 5. The variance explained each locus ranged from 9.1% to 23.8% of the total. The variance explained by all loci responsible for each measurement ranged from 17.7% to 75.1%. It was noted that multiple measurements were mapped on the same locus. For example, a region bounded by Hym435 and Hym145 was found to be responsible for all the measurements analyzed. PMID:23739886

  8. Sequence of the growth hormone (GH) gene from the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and evolution of GH genes in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y; Schartl, M

    1993-09-23

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) growth hormone (GH) gene was isolated and sequenced following amplification from genomic DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. The gene spans a region of approx. 2.5 kb nucleotides (nt) and consists of five exons. The sequence predicts a polypeptide of 210 amino acids (aa) including a putative signal peptide of 22 hydrophobic aa residues. The arrangement of exons and introns is identical to the GH genes of common carp, grass carp, and very similar to mammals and birds, but quite different from that for the GH genes of tilapia and salmonids. The silver carp GH gene shares a high homology at the nt and aa levels with those of grass carp (95.3% nt, 99.5% aa) and of common carp (81% nt, 95.7% aa). PMID:8373806

  9. Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs from Skeletal Muscle of the Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunchao; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Liang, Yang; Sun, Xiaowen; Teng, Chun-Bo

    2012-01-01

    The common carp is one of the most important cultivated species in the world of freshwater aquaculture. The cultivation of this species is particularly productive due to its high skeletal muscle mass; however, the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle development in the common carp remain unknown. It has been shown that a class of non-coding ?22 nucleotide RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vertebrate development. They regulate gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3? untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and thereby cause translational repression or mRNA destabilization. Intriguingly, the role of miRNAs in the skeletal muscle development of the common carp remains unknown. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from the skeletal muscle of the common carp, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis identified 188 conserved miRNAs and 7 novel miRNAs in the carp skeletal muscle. The miRNA expression profiling showed that, miR-1, miR-133a-3p, and miR-206 were specifically expressed in muscle-containing organs, and that miR-1, miR-21, miR-26a, miR-27a, miR-133a-3p, miR-206, miR-214 and miR-222 were differentially expressed in the process of skeletal muscle development of the common carp. This study provides a first identification and profiling of miRNAs related to the muscle biology of the common carp. Their identification could provide clues leading towards a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of carp skeletal muscle development. PMID:22303472

  10. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent. PMID:18850294

  11. Concentration Effects of Selected Insecticides on Brain Acetylcholinesterase in the Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Korami Dembélé; Eric Haubruge; Charles Gaspar

    2000-01-01

    The differential inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) is followed by the distinct duration of exposure effect on common carp AChE. Hence, in the present study in vivo exposure period effect and in vitro concentration–response of chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos diazinon, and carbofuran were investigated on Cyprinus carpio L. AChE. Individuals of 1-year-old carp were exposed for 96

  12. Chemoprotection of lipoic acid against microcystin-induced toxicosis in common carp ( Cyprinus carpio, Cyprinidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lílian L. Amado; Márcia L. Garcia; Talita C. B. Pereira; João S. Yunes; Maurício R. Bogo; José M. Monserrat

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid (LA) against microcystin (MC) toxicity in carp Cyprinus carpio. To determine the LA dose and the time necessary for the induction of three different classes (alpha, mu and pi) of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene transcription, carp were i.p. injected with 40mg\\/kg lipoic acid solution. A group was killed 24h after the

  13. The biology of free-ranging grass carp in East Texas river and bay systems

    E-print Network

    Elder, Howard Stanton

    1994-01-01

    : Dr. Brian R. Murphy Recent confirmation of grass carp spawning in the river systems entering Galveston Bay is a serious concern to many fisheries ecologists. Between 1950 and 1989, decreases of over 70'/o in submersed vegetation and 21'/o in marsh... fish were primarily diploids and represented a broad range of cohorts, providing strong evidence that naturally spawned grass carp are being recruited to adult sizes in the Trinity River. Seasonal movement and gonadosomatic indices indicated spawning...

  14. The complete nucleotide sequence and gene organization of carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) mitochondrial genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yea-sha Chang; Fore-lien Huang; Tung-bin Lo

    1994-01-01

    The complete sequence of the carp mitochondrial genome of 16,575 base pairs has been determined. The carp mitochondrial genome encodes the same set of genes (13 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs) as do other vertebrate mitochondrial DNAs. Comparison of this teleostean mitochondrial genome with those of other vertebrates reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The codon

  15. Invasive potential of common carp (*Cyprinus carpio*) and Nile tilapia (*Oreochromis niloticus*) in American freshwater systems

    E-print Network

    Zambrano, Luis; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Menezes, Naercio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2006-07-25

    Invasive potential of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)in American freshwater systems Luis Zambrano, Enrique Martínez-Meyer, Naercio Menezes, and A. Townsend Peterson Abstract: Nonnative fish introductions... disrupt ecosystem processes and can drive native species to local extinction. Two of the most widespread, introduced species are the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Eurasia and the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Africa. In North and South...

  16. Body composition of transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Chatakondi; R. T. Lovell; P. L. Duncan; M. Hayat; T. T. Chen; D. A. Powers; J. D. Weete; K. Cummins; R. A. Dunham

    1995-01-01

    F1 transgenic common carp, Cyprinus carpio, containing rainbow trout growth hormone gene, pRSVrtGH1 cDNA were compared to non-transgenic full-siblings for body composition. Percent protein was higher (P < 0.05), for transgenic individuals than for controls (19.5 vs. 18.1). Percent fat was lower (P < 0.05) for transgenic common carp (3.3), than for non-transgenic controls, (3.8). Transgenic individuals had lower (P

  17. Difference in the gain in the phototransduction cascade between rods and cones in carp.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Naoto; Kawamura, Satoru

    2014-10-29

    In the vertebrate retina, there are two types of photoreceptors, rods and cones. Rods are highly light-sensitive and cones are less light-sensitive. One of the possible mechanisms accounting for the lower light-sensitivity in cones would be lower signal amplification, i.e., lower gain in the phototransduction cascade in cones. In this study, we compared the difference in the gain between rods and cones electrophysiologically in carp. The initial rising phases of the light responses were analyzed to determine an index of the gain, G, a parameter that can be used to compare the gain among cells of varying outer segment volumes. G (in fL · sec(-2)) was 91.2 ± 14.8 (n = 5) in carp rods and 25.3 ± 3.2 (n = 4) in carp red cones, so that the gain in carp red cones is ?1/4 of that in carp rods. G was also determined in bullfrog rods and was 81.0 ± 17.2 (n = 3) which was very similar to that in carp rods. The difference in the gain between rods and cones in carp determined in this study (?1/4 in cones compared with rods) is consistent with that we recently determined biochemically (?1/5 in cones compared with rods). Together with the result obtained in bullfrog rods in this study and the results obtained by others, we concluded that the gain in the cascade is several-fold lower in cones than in rods in carp and probably in other animal species also. PMID:25355220

  18. Nitrite Intoxication of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at Different Water Temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kroupová; J. Máchová; V. Pia?ková; M. Flajšhans; Z. Svobodová; G. Poleszczuk

    2006-01-01

    Kroupová H., J. Máchová, V. Piaãková, M. Flaj‰hans, Z. Svobodová, G. Poleszczuk: Nitrite Intoxication of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) at Different Water Temperatures. Acta Vet Brno 2006, 75: 561-569. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were exposed to nitrite (1.45 mmol·l -1 NO 2 - ) for 48 hours at 14 °C and 20 °C, in order to investigate the

  19. Biochemical changes and sensory assessment on tissues of carp ( Cyprinus carpio , Linnaeus 1758) during sale conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Duran; Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

    2009-01-01

    In this study, some biochemical changes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) tissues were investigated. Studies have been carried out on carp which have regional economical importance.\\u000a Storage temperature and time are the most important factors that affect the quality of fish during sales. It was observed\\u000a that the temperature varied between 9 and 12°C in sale conditions. In addition,

  20. Diet overlap among two Asian carp and three native fishes in backwater lakes on the Illinois and Mississippi rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schuyler J. Sampson; John H. Chick; Mark A. Pegg

    2009-01-01

    Bighead and silver carp are well established in the Mississippi River basin following their accidental introduction in the\\u000a 1980s. Referred to collectively as Asian carp, these species are filter feeders consuming phytoplankton and zooplankton. We\\u000a examined diet overlap and electivity of Asian carp and three native filter feeding fishes, bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad,\\u000a and paddlefish, in backwater lakes of the

  1. Transcriptome analysis reveals the time of the fourth round of genome duplication in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is thought to have undergone one extra round of genome duplication compared to zebrafish. Transcriptome analysis has been used to study the existence and timing of genome duplication in species for which genome sequences are incomplete. Large-scale transcriptome data for the common carp genome should help reveal the timing of the additional duplication event. Results We have sequenced the transcriptome of common carp using 454 pyrosequencing. After assembling the 454 contigs and the published common carp sequences together, we obtained 49,669 contigs and identified genes using homology searches and an ab initio method. We identified 4,651 orthologous pairs between common carp and zebrafish and found 129,984 paralogous pairs within the common carp. An estimation of the synonymous substitution rate in the orthologous pairs indicated that common carp and zebrafish diverged 120 million years ago (MYA). We identified one round of genome duplication in common carp and estimated that it had occurred 5.6 to 11.3 MYA. In zebrafish, no genome duplication event after speciation was observed, suggesting that, compared to zebrafish, common carp had undergone an additional genome duplication event. We annotated the common carp contigs with Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways. Compared with zebrafish gene annotations, we found that a set of biological processes and pathways were enriched in common carp. Conclusions The assembled contigs helped us to estimate the time of the fourth-round of genome duplication in common carp. The resource that we have built as part of this study will help advance functional genomics and genome annotation studies in the future. PMID:22424280

  2. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor-7 cDNA from common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Tanekhy; Tomoya Kono; Masahiro Sakai

    2010-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is activated by single strand RNA and RNA-like compounds (imidazoquinoline), and it induces interferon production. We identified and described carp TLR7 cDNA and its mRNA expression. The full-length cDNA of carp TLR7 gene is 3427bp, encoding 1049 amino acids (AB553573). The similarities of carp TLR7 with zebrafish, rainbow trout, fugu, and human TLR7 were 89.6,

  3. The Economic Impact of Restricting Use of Black Carp for Snail Control on Hybrid Striped Bass Farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Suhk Wui; Carole R. Engle

    2007-01-01

    Black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus have been used in the U.S. for several decades for snail control in fish ponds. Recent concerns over the potential environmental effects of escaped fish have resulted in proposals to list black carp as an injurious species. A mixed-integer programming model was extended to evaluate the farm-level economic effects of restricting access to black carp for

  4. Demasculinisation of sexually mature male common carp, Cyprinus carpio, exposed to 4- tert-pentylphenol during spermatogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Gimeno; Hans Komen; Susan Jobling; John Sumpter; Tim Bowmer

    1998-01-01

    Sexually mature male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed for a 3-month period to sublethal concentrations of 4-tert-pentylphenol (TPP) and to 17?-estradiol (E2) during spermatogenesis. This was part of a broad research programme investigating the effects of TPP on the life stages of the carp which might prove susceptible to endocrine disruption. Exposure of adult male carp to the pseudo-estrogen

  5. Oxygen Consumption Rates for Bighead and Silver Carp in Relation to Life-Stage and Water Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Hogue; M. A. Pegg

    2009-01-01

    We measured bighead carp (Hypophthalmythys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalrnythys molitnx) oxygen consumption rates (M02) at several water temperatures (5—25°C) and life stages (juvenile and adult). The relation between M02 and body mass for both species was allometric, with body mass correlated to M02. The mass exponent used to correct mass-related bias (b) for bighead carp was 0.70, while the

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in gut length in the planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Ke, Zhixin; Ping, Xie; Guo, Longgen

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity widely exists in the external morphology of animals as well as the internal traits of organs. In the present study, we studied the gut length plasticity of planktivorous filter-feeding silver carp under different food resources in large-net cage experiments in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu in 2004 and 2005. There was a significant difference in stocking density between these 2 years. Under a low stocking density and abundant food resources, silver carp increased their energy intake by feeding on more zooplankton. Meanwhile, silver carp adjusted their gut length to match the digestive requirements of food when exposed to different food resources. In the main growth seasons (from April to October), silver carp significantly increased their relative gut length when feeding on more phytoplankton in 2005 (p < 0.01, 9.23 +/- 1.80 in 2004 and 10.77 +/- 2.05 in 2005, respectively). There was a nearly significant negative correlation between zooplankton proportion in the diet and the relative gut length when silver carp were stocked in a high density (p = 0.112). It appears that silver carp might have evolved plasticity to change their gut length rapidly to facilitate efficient utilization of food resources. Such resource polymorphisms in the gut may be a good indication of temporal adaptation to resource conditions. Our work provided field evidence for understanding the functional basis of resource polymorphisms and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in planktivorous filter-feeding fish. PMID:18301818

  7. Fasting goldfish, Carassius auratus, and common carp, Cyprinus carpio, use different metabolic strategies when swimming.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2012-11-01

    Fish need to balance their energy use between digestion and other activities, and different metabolic compromises can be pursued. We examined the effects of fasting (7 days) on metabolic strategies in goldfish and common carp at different swimming levels. Fasting had no significant effect on swimming performance (U(crit)) of either species. Feeding and swimming profoundly elevated total ammonia (T(amm)) excretion in both species. In fed goldfish, this resulted in increased ammonia quotients (AQ), and additionally plasma and tissue ammonia levels increased with swimming reflecting the importance of protein contribution for aerobic metabolism. In carp, AQ did not change since oxygen consumption (MO(2)) and T(amm) excretion followed the same trend. Plasma ammonia did not increase with swimming suggesting a balance between production and excretion rate except for fasted carp at U(crit). While both species relied on anaerobic metabolism during exhaustive swimming, carp also showed increased lactate levels during routine swimming. Fasting almost completely depleted glycogen stores in carp, but not in goldfish. Both species used liver protein for basal metabolism during fasting and muscle lipid during swimming. In goldfish, feeding metabolism was sacrificed to support swimming metabolism with similar MO(2) and U(crit) between fasted and fed fish, whereas in common carp feeding increased MO(2) at U(crit) to sustain feeding and swimming independently. PMID:22884681

  8. Zinc transferrin stimulates red blood cell formation in the head kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hua; Fang, Szu-Wei; Jeng, Sen-Shyong

    2013-09-01

    The common carp is one of the few fish able to tolerate extremely low oxygen levels. These fish store zinc in their digestive tract tissue and head kidney at concentrations of 300-500?g/g of fresh tissue, which is 5-10 times higher than in other fish. Previous studies have indicated a link between the high zinc levels in the common carp and stress erythropoiesis. In this report, using suspension-cultured common carp head kidney cells with or without ZnCl2 supplementation, we found that zinc stimulated the proliferation of immature red blood cells; however, this effect was only observed when the culture was supplemented with carp serum. We identified the active component of carp serum to be transferrin. The zinc-transferrin complex interacts with the transferrin receptor and stimulates the proliferation of immature red blood cells. In addition, the growth rate of the immature red blood cells was regulated by the supplied ZnCl2 concentration. Under stress, the zinc in the common carp digestive tract tissue was released and used as a signal to induce red blood cell formation in the head kidney. This cell culture system might provide a means for exploring the regulatory role of zinc in hematopoietic cell growth. PMID:23665074

  9. Hippocampal CARP over-expression solidifies consolidation of contextual fear memories.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Geert J; Vreugdenhil, Erno; Hubens, Chantal J Y; Veldhuisen, Barbera; de Kloet, E Ron; Oitzl, Melly S

    2011-03-01

    The Doublecortin-Like Kinase (DCLK) gene is involved in neuronal migration during development. Through alternative splicing the DCLK gene also produces a transcript called Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)-related peptide (CARP) that is expressed exclusively during adulthood in response to neuronal activity. The function of CARP, however, is poorly understood. To study CARP function, we have generated transgenic mice with over-expression of the CARP transcript in, amongst other brain areas, the hippocampus. We aimed to characterize possible behavioral adaptations of these mice by using a Pavlovian fear conditioning approach. This type of fear conditioning, in which both the hippocampus and amygdala are critically involved, allows studying the formation and extinction of fear related memories. We here report on the behavioral adaptations of two distinct transgenic lines: one with high levels of CARP in the hippocampus and amygdala, whilst the other has high levels of CARP in the hippocampal formation, but not in the amygdala. We tested both mouse lines separately by comparing them to their wild-type littermate controls. We provide evidence suggesting consolidation of contextual fear memories is strengthened in mice of both transgenic lines. PMID:21130104

  10. Characterization of two thymosins as immune-related genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhangang; Shen, Jing; Feng, Hong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Yaping; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qionglin

    2015-05-01

    Prothymosin alpha (ProT?) and thymosin beta (T?) belong to thymosin family, which consists of a series of highly conserved peptides involved in stimulating immune responses. ProT? b and T? are still poorly studied in teleost. Here, the full-length cDNAs of ProT? b and T?-like (T?-l) were cloned and identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The expressions of carp ProT? b and T?-l exhibited rise-fall pattern and then trended to be stable during early development. After spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection, the carp ProT? b and T?-l transcripts were significantly up-regulated in some immune-related organs. When transiently over-expressed carp ProT? b and T?-l in zebrafish, these two proteins up-regulated the expressions of T lymphocytes-related genes (Rag 1, TCR-?, CD4 and CD8?). These results suggest that carp ProT? b and T? may ultimately enhance the immune response during viral infection and modulate the development of T lymphocytes in teleost. PMID:25596145

  11. Sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval carp Cyprinus carpio to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The copper sensitivity of adult, embryonic, and larval stages of carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using flow-through bioassay methods. Carp adults, embryos, and larvae were exposed continuously to copper concentrations that ranged from those producing an immediate effect to those producing none. Carp embryos were obtained after we induced adults to spawn. Exposure of embryos began at 4 to 6, 8 to 10, and 20 to 24 h after fertilization and continued until hatching. Exposure of larvae began 6 to 8 h after hatching and continued until yolk sac absorption. From the family of curves of cumulative mortality versus duration of exposure, median lethal times were determined and used to construct comparative toxicity curves. The 24-h LC50s show the order of acute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages, measured in micrograms per liter, as; larvae (180 ..mu..g/L) > embryos (240 ..mu..g/L) > adults (540 ..mu..g/L). Estimated incipient lethal concentrations give the order of subacute copper sensitivity of carp life-history stages as: larvae (110 ..mu..g/L) > adult (120 ..mu..g/L) > embryo (230 ..mu..g/L). The sensitivity of carp embryos to copper changed as embryogenesis progressed; for example, embryos were approximately twice as sensitive before as after blastopore closure. 70 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. In-depth proteomic analysis of carp (Cyprinus carpio L) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Arnold, Georg J; Fröhlich, Thomas; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of protein fractionation by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, we identified 348 proteins in carp spermatozoa, most of which were for the first time identified in fish. Dynein, tubulin, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, adenosylhomocysteinase, NKEF-B, brain type creatine kinase, mitochondrial ATP synthase, and valosin containing enzyme represent high abundance proteins in carp spermatozoa. These proteins are functionally related to sperm motility and energy production as well as the protection of sperm against oxidative injury and stress. Moreover, carp spermatozoa are equipped with functionally diverse proteins involved in signal transduction, transcription, translation, protein turnover and transport. About 15% of proteins from carp spermatozoa identified here were also detected in seminal plasma which may be a result of leakage from spermatozoa into seminal plasma, adsorption of seminal plasma proteins on spermatozoa surface, and expression in both spermatozoa and cells secreting seminal plasma proteins. The availability of a catalog of carp sperm proteins provides substantial advances for an understanding of sperm function and for future development of molecular diagnostic tests of carp sperm quality, the evaluation of which is currently limited to certain parameters such as sperm count, morphology and motility or viability. The mass spectrometry data are available at ProteomeXchange with the dataset identifier PXD000877 (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6019/PXD000877). PMID:25305539

  13. Spatial and interspecific patterns in persistent contaminant loads in bighead and silver carp from the Illinois River.

    PubMed

    Levengood, Jeffrey M; Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Sass, Gregory G; Epifanio, John M

    2013-09-01

    We measured concentrations of selected organohalogens, fluorinated compounds and mercury in whole, ground silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp from the Illinois River, Illinois, in 2010 and 2011 to characterize spatial and interspecific patterns of contaminant burdens. Silver carp, which had greater lipid content, tended to have greater concentrations of lipophilic compounds. Concentrations of organohalogens were generally greater in carp from the upper reaches of the river. The halogenated compounds were associated with length and lipid content in silver carp. Bighead carp had greater mercury concentrations than did silver carp; total mercury concentrations were negatively associated with lipid content of bighead carp. Perfluorinated compounds, comprised predominantly of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, did not vary by species or river reach. Chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls were of potential concern with regard to the use of these carp as animal feed additives. Our results indicated that, even though they occupy a lower trophic level than many similarly-sized fish, these carp may accumulate measureable concentrations of organic contaminants. PMID:23887862

  14. Profile of metal-binding proteins and heme oxygenase in red carp treated with heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyoshi, Toshihiko; Shiiba, Seiichi; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki; Arizono, Koji (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    A family of hemoproteins known as cytochrome P-450, which is known to perform a major role in the metabolism of various agents, has been investigated in fish as a criterion for monitoring water pollution. This enzyme is well known to be induced by various chemicals in fish as well as mammals. However, very little information is available concerning the effects of environmental pollutants on the activity of heme oxygenase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. To investigate the nature of heme oxygenase is of particular interest in that if heme oxygenase activity is altered by contaminants, that may contribute to the effect on physiological changes of heme and hemoprotein P-450. In this study the authors investigated the effects of heavy metals, pesticides and surfactants on the MBP and the heme oxygenase in the hepatopancreas and kidney of a fresh water red carp (Cyprinus carpio Linne).

  15. Population subdivision in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis in the Mekong River basin: implications for management.

    PubMed

    Adamson, E A S; Hurwood, D A; Baker, A M; Mather, P B

    2009-10-01

    A molecular approach was employed to investigate stock structure in Siamese mud carp Henicorhynchus siamensis populations collected from 14 sites across mainland south-east Asia, with the major focus being the lower Mekong River basin. Spatial analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment (ATPase 6 and 8) identified four stocks in the Mekong River basin that were all significantly differentiated from a population in the nearby Khlong River, Thailand. In the Mekong River basin, populations in northern Lao People's Democratic Republic and northern Thailand represent two independent stocks, and samples from Thai tributaries group with those from adjacent Mekong sites above the Khone Falls to form a third stock. All sites below the Khone Falls constituted a single vast stock that includes Cambodia and the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. While H. siamensis is considered currently to undertake extensive annual migrations across the Mekong River basin, the data presented here suggest that natural gene flow may occur over much more restricted geographical scales within the basin, and hence populations may need to be managed at finer spatial scales than at the whole-of-drainage-basin level. PMID:20738620

  16. Une forme exceptionnelle de la luxation perilunaire du carpe

    PubMed Central

    Elouakili, Issam; Ouchrif, Younes; Najib, Abdeljaouad; Ouakrim, Redouane; Lamrani, Omar; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Ismael, Farid; Lahlou, Abdo; Elouadghiri, Mohammed; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; Berrada, Mohammed Saleh; El Yaccoubi, Mouradh

    2014-01-01

    Les luxations périlunaires (LPL) du carpe sont des lésions extrêmement rares, qui peuvent passer inaperçue en raison d'un tableau clinique souvent trompeur, des radiographies en profil non strict ou d'interprétation difficile. Nous rapportons l'observation d'une luxation périlunaire stade III selon la classification de Witvoët et Allieu chez un patient de 32 ans, il s'agit d'une forme encore plus rare voire exceptionnelle et qui peut induire de sérieux problèmes en raison de la sévérité des dommages ligamentaires et du risque de nécrose du semilunaire plus important dans ce type de lésions. Le traitement est toujours chirurgical et doit être réalisé dans les plus brefs délais afin d’éviter les complications. PMID:25404968

  17. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 is Expressed inOsteoblasts and Regulated by PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sonali; Mahalingam, Chandrika D.; Das, Varsha [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Jamal, Shazia [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)] [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Levi, Edi [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Rishi, Arun K. [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States) [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); VA Medical Center, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Datta, Nabanita S., E-mail: ndatta@med.wayne.edu [Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •CARP-1 is identified for the first time in bone cells. •PTH downregulates CARP-1 expression in differentiated osteoblasts. •PTH displaces CARP-1 from nucleus to the cytoplasm in differentiated osteoblasts. •Downregulation of CARP-1 by PTH involves PKA, PKC and P-p38 MAPK pathways. -- Abstract: Bone mass is dependent on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and life-span of osteoblasts. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) controls osteoblast cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppresses mature osteoblasts apoptosis. Intermittent administration of PTH increases bone mass but the mechanism of action are complex and incompletely understood. Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP)-1 (aka CCAR1) is a novel transducer of signaling by diverse agents including cell growth and differentiation factors. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism, we investigated involvement of CARP-1 in PTH signaling in osteoblasts. Immunostaining studies revealed presence of CARP-1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while a minimal to absent levels were noted in the chondrocytes of femora from 10 to 12-week old mice. Treatment of 7-day differentiated MC3T3-E1 clone-4 (MC-4) mouse osteoblastic cells and primary calvarial osteoblasts with PTH for 30 min to 5 h followed by Western blot analysis showed 2- to 3-fold down-regulation of CARP-1 protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the respective vehicle treated control cells. H-89, a Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, suppressed PTH action on CARP-1 protein expression indicating PKA-dependent mechanism. PMA, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) agonist, mimicked PTH action, and the PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, partially blocked PTH-dependent downregulation of CARP-1, implying involvement of PKC. U0126, a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Kinase (MEK) inhibitor, failed to interfere with CARP-1 suppression by PTH. In contrast, SB203580, p38 inhibitor, attenuated PTH down-regulation of CARP-1 suggesting that PTH utilized an Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK)-independent but p38 dependent pathway to regulate CARP-1 protein expression in osteoblasts. Immunofluorescence staining of differentiated osteoblasts further revealed nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of CARP-1 protein following PTH treatment. Collectively, our studies identified CARP-1 for the first time in osteoblasts and suggest its potential role in PTH signaling and bone anabolic action.

  18. Quantification of eDNA shedding rates from invasive bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers can more easily mitigate the effects of invasive species if action takes place before a population becomes established. Such early detection requires sensitive survey tools that can detect low numbers of individuals. Due to their high sensitivity, environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys hold promise as an early detection method for aquatic invasive species. Quantification of eDNA amounts may also provide data on species abundance and timing of an organism’s presence, allowing managers to successfully combat the spread of ecologically damaging species. To better understand the link between eDNA and an organism’s presence, it is crucial to know how eDNA is shed into the environment. Our study used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and controlled laboratory experiments to measure the amount of eDNA that two species of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) shed into the water. We first measured how much eDNA a single fish sheds and the variability of these measurements. Then, in a series of manipulative lab experiments, we studied how temperature, biomass (grams of fish), and diet affect the shedding rate of eDNA by these fish. We found that eDNA amounts exhibit a positive relationship with fish biomass, and that feeding could increase the amount of eDNA shed by ten-fold, whereas water temperature did not have an effect. Our results demonstrate that quantification of eDNA may be useful for predicting carp density, as well as densities of other rare or invasive species.

  19. Using ecological niche-based modeling techniques to predict the establishment, abundance1 and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2

    E-print Network

    Leung, Brian

    and relative impacts of introduced species: application to the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)2 3 Stefanie A as well as the32 abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the recipient systems.45 46 Keywords: Non-indigenous species, impact, Cyprinus carpio, common carp, ecological

  20. Isolation of innate immune response genes, expression analysis, polymorphism identification and development of genetic marker for linkage analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp are economically important foodfish worldwide. Over the past few years, carp aquaculture has suffered from enormous losses to a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). A recent study reported that common carp strains/crossbreds have differential resistance to CyHV-3, suggest...

  1. Digestion par la trypsine de la coque de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) et incubation des embryons sans coque

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Digestion par la trypsine de la coque de l'œuf de carpe (Cyprinus carpio L.) et incubation digestion of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) eggshell and incubation of shell-free embryos. The present work reports an experiment to eliminate the shell of carp eggs before the 2-cell stage and to incubate

  2. An experimental investigation into electromyography, constitutive relationship and morphology of crucian carp for biomechanical "digital fish"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Yin, Xiezhen; Tong, Binggang

    2011-05-01

    Currently, the integrated biomechanical studies on fish locomotion come into focus, so it is urgent to provide reliable and systematic experimental results, and to establish a biomechanical "digital fish" database for some typical fish species. Accordingly, based on the control framework of "Neural Control — Active Contraction of Muscle — Passive Deformation", the electromyography (EMG) signals, the mechanical properties and the constitutive relationship of skin, muscle, and body trunk, as well as morphological parameters of crucian carp, are investigated with experiments, from which a simplified database of biomechanical "digital fish" is established. First, the EMG signals from three lateral superficial red muscles of crucian carp, which was evolving in the C-start movement, were acquired with a self-designing amplifier. The modes of muscle activity were also investigated. Secondly, the Young's modulus and the reduced relaxation function of crucian carp's skin and muscle were determined by failure tests and relaxation tests in uniaxial tensile ways, respectively. Viscoelastic models were adopted to deduce the constitutive relationship. The mechanical properties and the angular stiffness of different sites on the crucian carp's body trunk were obtained with dynamic bending experiments, where a self-designing dynamic bending test machine was employed. The conclusion was drawn regarding the body trunk of crucian carp under dynamic bending deformation as an approximate elastomer. According to the above experimental results, a possible benefit of body effective stiffness increasing with a little energy dissipation was discussed. Thirdly, the distribution of geometric parameters and weight parameters for a single experimental individual and multiple individuals of crucian carp was studied with experiments. Finally, considering all the above results, generic experimental data were obtained by normalization, and a preliminary biomechanical "digital fish" database for crucian carp was established.

  3. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of other large fish species while minimizing the number of common carp to be handled. We tested different sizes and shapes of grates in experimental tanks in the laboratory to determine the best design for testing in the field. We also tested northern pike (Esox lucius) because lack of access to wetland spawning habitat has greatly reduced their populations in western Lake Erie. Based on our results, vertical bar grates were chosen for installation because common carp were able to pass through circular grates smaller than body height by compressing their soft abdomens; they passed through rectangular grates on the diagonal. Vertical bar grates with 5-cm spacing that were installed across much of the control structure should limit access of common carp larger than 34 cm total length (TL) and northern pike larger than 70 cm. Vertical bar grates selected for initial field trials in the fish passageway had spacings of 5.8 and 6.6 cm, which increased access by common carp to 40 and 47 cm TL and by northern pike to 76 and 81 cm, respectively. The percentage of potential common carp biomass (fish seeking entry) that must be handled in lift baskets in the passageway increased from 0.9 to 4.8 to 15.4 with each increase in spacing between bars. Further increases in spacing would greatly increase the number of common carp that would have to be handled. The results of field testing should be useful in designing selective fish-control systems for other wetland restoration sites adjacent to large water bodies.

  4. Effects of water hardness on size and hatching success of silver carp eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, Jeff J.; Sass, Greg G.; Luoma, James A.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Eggs of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix absorb water after release from the female, causing them to become turgid and to increase substantially in size. The volume of water that diffuses within an egg is most likely determined by (1) the difference in ionic concentration between the egg and the water that surrounds it and (2) the elasticity of the egg membrane. Prior observations suggest that silver carp eggs may swell and burst in soft waters. If water hardness affects silver carp reproductive success in nonnative ecosystems, this abiotic factor could limit silver carp distribution or abundance. In this study, we tested the effect of water hardness on silver carp egg enlargement and hatching success. Groups of newly fertilized silver carp eggs were placed in water at one of five nominal water hardness levels (50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 mg/L as CaCO3) for 1 h to harden (absorb water after fertilization). Egg groups were then placed in separate incubation vessels housed in two recirculation systems that were supplied with either soft (50 mg/L as CaCO3) or hard (250 mg/L as CaCO3) water to evaluate hatching success. Tests were terminated within 24 h after viable eggs had hatched. Eggs that were initially placed in 50-mg/L water to harden were larger (i.e., swelled more) and had a greater probability of hatch than eggs hardened in other water hardness levels. Unlike the effect of water hardness during egg hardening, the water hardness during incubation appeared to have no effect on egg hatching success. Our research suggests that water hardness may not be a limiting factor in the reproduction, recruitment, and range expansion of silver carp in North America.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of head kidney in grass carp and discovery of immune-related genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most economically important freshwater fish, but its production is often affected by diseases that cause serious economic losses. To date, no good breeding varieties have been obtained using the oriented cultivation technique. The ability to identify disease resistance genes in grass carp is important to cultivate disease-resistant varieties of grass carp. Results In this study, we constructed a non-normalized cDNA library of head kidney in grass carp, and, after clustering and assembly, we obtained 3,027 high-quality unigenes. Solexa sequencing was used to generate sequence tags from the transcriptomes of the head kidney in grass carp before and after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection. After processing, we obtained 22,144 tags that were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold between the uninfected and infected groups. 679 of the differentially expressed tags (3.1%) mapped to 483 of the unigenes (16.0%). The up-regulated and down-regulated unigenes were annotated using gene ontology terms; 16 were annotated as immune-related and 42 were of unknown function having no matches to any of the sequences in the databases that were used in the similarity searches. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed four unknown unigenes that showed significant responses to the viral infection. Based on domain structure predictions, one of these sequences was found to encode a protein that contained two transmembrane domains and, therefore, may be a transmembrane protein. Here, we proposed that this novel unigene may encode a virus receptor or a protein that mediates the immune signalling pathway at the cell surface. Conclusion This study enriches the molecular basis data of grass carp and further confirms that, based on fish tissue-specific EST databases, transcriptome analysis is an effective route to discover novel functional genes. PMID:22776770

  6. Microsatellite-centromere mapping in common carp through half-tetrad analysis in diploid meiogynogenetic families.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiu; Wang, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Lu, Cuiyun; Sun, Xiaowen; Tong, Jingou

    2015-03-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into the understanding of the composition, structure, and evolution of vertebrate genomes. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is an important aquaculture fish and has been proposed to undertake tetraploidization. In this study, we selected 214 informative microsatellite markers across 50 linkage groups of a common carp genetic map to perform gene-centromere mapping using half-tetrad analysis. A total of 199 microsatellites were segregated under the Mendelian expectations in at least one of the three gynogenetic families and were used for G-C distance estimation. The G-C recombination frequency (y) ranged from 0 to 0.99 (0.43 on average), corresponding to a fixation index (F) of 0.57 after one generation of gynogenesis. Large y values for some loci together with significant correlation between G-C distances and genetic linkage map distances suggested the presence of high interference in common carp. Under the assumption of complete interference, 50 centromeres were localized onto corresponding linkage groups (LGs) of common carp, with G-C distances of centromere-linked markers per LG ranging from 0 to 10.3 cM (2.9 cM on average). Based on the information for centromere positions, we proposed a chromosome formula of 2n?=?100?=?58 m/sm?+?42 t/st with 158 chromosome arms for common carp, which was similar to a study observed by cytogenetic method. The examination of crossover distributions along 10 LGs revealed that the proportion of crossover chromatids was overall higher than that of non-crossover chromatids in gynogenetic progenies, indicating high recombination levels across most LGs. Comparative genomics analyses suggested that the chromosomes of common carp have undergone extensive rearrangement after genome duplication. This study would be valuable to elucidate the mechanism of genome evolution and integrate physical and genetic maps in common carp. PMID:25171918

  7. A Tale of Four “Carp”: Invasion Potential and Ecological Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    DeVaney, Shannon C.; McNyset, Kristina M.; Williams, Justin B.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Wiley, Edward O.

    2009-01-01

    Background Invasive species are a serious problem in ecosystems, but are difficult to eradicate once established. Predictive methods can be key in determining which areas are of concern regarding invasion by such species to prevent establishment [1]. We assessed the geographic potential of four Eurasian cyprinid fishes (common carp, tench, grass carp, black carp) as invaders in North America via ecological niche modeling (ENM). These “carp” represent four stages of invasion of the continent (a long-established invader with a wide distribution, a long-established invader with a limited distribution, a spreading invader whose distribution is expanding, and a newly introduced potential invader that is not yet established), and as such illustrate the progressive reduction of distributional disequilibrium over the history of species' invasions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ENM to estimate the potential distributional area for each species in North America using models based on native range distribution data. Environmental data layers for native and introduced ranges were imported from state, national, and international climate and environmental databases. Models were evaluated using independent validation data on native and invaded areas. We calculated omission error for the independent validation data for each species: all native range tests were highly successful (all omission values <7%); invaded-range predictions were predictive for common and grass carp (omission values 8.8 and 19.8%, respectively). Model omission was high for introduced tench populations (54.7%), but the model correctly identified some areas where the species has been successful; distributional predictions for black carp show that large portions of eastern North America are at risk. Conclusions/Significance ENMs predicted potential ranges of carp species accurately even in regions where the species have not been present until recently. ENM can forecast species' potential geographic ranges with reasonable precision and within the short screening time required by proposed U.S. invasive species legislation. PMID:19421314

  8. Molecular and functional characterization of an IL-1? receptor antagonist in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Yao, Fuli; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Xinyan; Wei, He; Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Hong

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we discovered a novel IL-1 family member (nIL-1F) from grass carp that possessed the ability to bind with grass carp IL-1? receptor type 1 (gcIL-1R1) and attenuate grass carp IL-1? activity in head kidney leukocytes (HKLs), suggesting that it may function as an IL-1? receptor antagonist. Grass carp nIL-1F transcript was constitutively expressed with the highest levels in some lymphoid organs, including head kidney, spleen and intestine, implying its potential in grass carp immunity. In agreement with this notion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that nIL-1F mRNA was inductively expressed in grass carp with a rapid kinetics, indicating that it may be an early response gene during immune challenges. In addition, recombinant grass carp IL-1? (rgcIL-1?) induced nIL-1F mRNA expression via NF-?B and MAPK (JNK, p38 and p42/44) signaling pathways in HKLs. Particularly, the orthologs of nIL-1F found in other fish species, including zebrafish, pufferfish and rainbow trout are not homologous to mammalian IL-1? receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), indicating that fish nIL-1F and mammalian IL-1Ra may not share a common evolutionary ancestor. Taken together, our data suggest the existence of a naturally occurring fish nIL-1F, which may function like mammalian IL-1Ra, being beneficial to understand the auto-regulatory mechanism of IL-1? activity in fish immunity. PMID:25475961

  9. EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS IN VITRO

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECT OF PESTICIDES (ATRAZINE AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS AND LINDANE) ON THE REPLICATION OF SPRING VIREMIA OF CARP VIRUS IN VITRO - L'atrazine et le lindane, les savoir si ces pesticides avaient un effet dépresseur sur la replication du virus de la virémie

  10. Preferential feeding on high quality diets decreases methyl mercury of farm-raised common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Schultz, Sebastian; Vallant, Birgit; Kainz, Martin J

    2012-03-29

    This study on aquaculture ponds investigated how diet sources affect methyl mercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation of the worldwide key diet fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We tested how MeHg concentrations of one and two year-old pond-raised carp changed with different food quality: a) zooplankton (natural pond diet), b) cereals enriched with vegetable oil (VO ponds), and c) compound feeds enriched with marine fish oils (FO ponds). It was hypothesized that carp preferentially feed on supplementary diets with the highest biochemical quality (FO diet over VO diets over zooplankton). Although MeHg concentrations were highest in zooplankton of FO ponds, MeHg concentrations of carp were clearly lower in FO ponds (17-32 ng g(- 1) dry weight) compared to the reference (40-46 ng g(- 1) dry weight) and VO ponds (55-86 ng g(- 1) dry weight). Stable isotope mixing models (?(13)C, ?(15)N) indicated selective feeding of carp on high quality FO diets that caused MeHg concentrations of carp to decrease with increasing dietary proportions of supplementary FO feeds. Results demonstrate that carp selectively feed on diets of highest biochemical quality and strongly suggest that high diet quality can reduce MeHg bioaccumulation in farm-raised carp. PMID:23564978

  11. Effects of Primary Exposure to Environmental and Natural Estrogens on Vitellogenin Production in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Rouhani Rankouhi; I. van Holsteijn; R. Letcher; J. P. Giesy; M. van den Berg

    2002-01-01

    Vitellogenin (vtg) is a precursor of the yolk proteins lipovitelline and phosvitin and is synthesized as a consequence of estrogen-depen- dent gene expression in female and male hepatocytes of egg-laying vertebrates. Freshly isolated carp hepatocytes of a genetically uni- form strain of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used to inves- tigate the effects of primary exposure to estrogenic compounds

  12. Validation of eDNA Surveillance Sensitivity for Detection of Asian Carps in Controlled and Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Andrew R.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Lodge, David M.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Nico, Leo G.

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure inferred from the partially duplicated genome of domesticated carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed Central

    David, Lior; Rosenberg, Noah A; Lavi, Uri; Feldman, Marcus W; Hillel, Jossi

    2007-01-01

    Genetic relationships among eight populations of domesticated carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), a species with a partially duplicated genome, were studied using 12 microsatellites and 505 AFLP bands. The populations included three aquacultured carp strains and five ornamental carp (koi) variants. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was used as an outgroup. AFLP-based gene diversity varied from 5% (grass carp) to 32% (koi) and reflected the reasonably well understood histories and breeding practices of the populations. A large fraction of the molecular variance was due to differences between aquacultured and ornamental carps. Further analyses based on microsatellite data, including cluster analysis and neighbor-joining trees, supported the genetic distinctiveness of aquacultured and ornamental carps, despite the recent divergence of the two groups. In contrast to what was observed for AFLP-based diversity, the frequency of heterozygotes based on microsatellites was comparable among all populations. This discrepancy can potentially be explained by duplication of some loci in Cyprinus carpio L., and a model that shows how duplication can increase heterozygosity estimates for microsatellites but not for AFLP loci is discussed. Our analyses in carp can help in understanding the consequences of genotyping duplicated loci and in interpreting discrepancies between dominant and co-dominant markers in species with recent genome duplication. PMID:17433244

  14. Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in north Croatia after the Chernobyl accident

    E-print Network

    Franic, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term investigations of radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps in the Republic of Croatia are presented. The radiocaesium levels in carps decreased exponentially and the effective ecological half-life of 137Cs in carps was estimated to be about 1 year for 1987-2002 period and 5 years for 1993-2005 period. The observed 134Cs:137Cs activity ratio in carps has been found to be similar to the ratio that has been observed in other environmental samples. Concentration factor for carps (wet weight) was roughly estimated to be 128 +/- 74 Lkg-1, which is in reasonable agreement with model prediction based on K+ concentrations in water. Estimated annual effective doses received by 134Cs and 137Cs intake due to consumption of carps for an adult member of Croatian population are small, per caput dose for the 1987 - 2005 estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.2 microSv. Due to minor freshwater fish consumption in Croatia and low radiocaesium activity concentrations in carps, it can be concluded that carps consumption was no...

  15. Validation of eDNA surveillance sensitivity for detection of Asian carps in controlled and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Andrew R; Jerde, Christopher L; Galaska, Matthew; Bergner, Jennifer L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Lodge, David M; Hunter, Margaret E; Nico, Leo G

    2013-01-01

    In many North American rivers, populations of multiple species of non-native cyprinid fishes are present, including black carp (Mylpharyngodon piceus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis), silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). All six of these species are found in the Mississippi River basin and tracking their invasion has proven difficult, particularly where abundance is low. Knowledge of the location of the invasion front is valuable to natural resource managers because future ecological and economic damages can be most effectively prevented when populations are low. To test the accuracy of environmental DNA (eDNA) as an early indicator of species occurrence and relative abundance, we applied eDNA technology to the six non-native cyprinid species putatively present in a 2.6 river mile stretch of the Chicago (IL, USA) canal system that was subsequently treated with piscicide. The proportion of water samples yielding positive detections increased with relative abundance of the six species, as indicated by the number of carcasses recovered after poisoning. New markers for black carp, grass carp, and a common carp/goldfish are reported and details of the marker testing to ensure specificity are provided. PMID:23472178

  16. A comparison of trace element concentrations in cultured and wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio) of Lake Kasumigaura, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. M Alam; A Tanaka; G Allinson; L. J. B Laurenson; F Stagnitti; E. T Snow

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of 13 elements were determined in the muscle, liver, intestine, kidney, and gonads of cultured and wild carp caught at two sites in Lake Kasumigaura, Japan, between September 1994 and September 1995. Despite having a reputation for being heavily polluted, the carp were not heavily burdened with metals. Our results suggest that despite their dietary differences, the wild

  17. Precision of Five Structures for Estimating Age of Common Carp QUINTON E. PHELPS,* KRIS R. EDWARDS, AND DAVID W. WILLIS

    E-print Network

    been validated as an accurate structure for estimating age of common carp Cyprinus carpio. However be time consuming, and fish sacrifice may not be feasible in certain situations. The common carp Cyprinus carpio was among the first fish species for which age estimation techniques were used (Carlander 1987

  18. LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND DISPERSAL POTENTIAL

    E-print Network

    LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX OF ESTABLISHMENT AND DISPERSAL POTENTIAL by Adam M. Lohmeyer A Thesis University Carbondale. TITLE: LARVAL ASIAN CARP IN THE UPPER AND MIDDLE MISSISSIPPI RIVER: AN INDEX

  19. Effect of cadmium chloride on secretion of 17?-estradiol by the ovarian follicles of common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumana; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2013-01-15

    Cadmium (Cd(2+)) is a common environmental pollutant present in wastes associated with mining, smelting and electroplating. It is a major constituent of the tobacco smoke. Exposure of this heavy metal has been linked to wide range of detrimental effects on mammalian reproduction particularly on ovarian steroidogenesis. Low doses of Cd(2+) are reported to stimulate ovarian luteal progesterone synthesis whereas high doses inhibited it. Cd(2+) exposure is also reported to inhibit gonadal function in fish. In the present study the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) on the secretion of gonadotropin-induced 17?-estradiol was examined in female common carp Cyprinus carpio. Vitellogenic stage fish were exposed to physiological safe dose of CdCl(2) for 0, 24, 48 and 96 h and serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels were estimated. In the in vitro experiments, vitellogenic follicles were incubated with CdCl(2) and a dose- and time-dependent effects on steroid production were estimated induced by LH. Exposure of fish with CdCl(2) gradually attenuated serum and ovarian 17?-estradiol levels with increasing time and maximum inhibition was noticed after 96 h. Administration of CdCl(2) to the incubations significantly inhibited LH-induced release of 17?-estradiol in vitro. To clarify the mechanism of attenuated production of 17?-estradiol, in vitro effects of CdCl(2) on LH induced P450 aromatase activity (conversion of testosterone to 17?-estradiol) and cytochrome P450arom gene expression in carp ovarian follicles were evaluated. Results show that LH-stimulated P450 aromatase activity and P450arom gene expression in ovarian follicles were significantly inhibited by CdCl(2). The present study further demonstrated that LH-induced stimulation of ovarian steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) which activates aromatase enzyme, is strongly inhibited by cadmium chloride treatment. PMID:23146792

  20. Tissue-specific fatty acids response to different diets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  1. Risk assessment of microcystins in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from eight eutrophic lakes in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawen; Deng, Xuwei; Xie, Ping; Chen, Jun; Guo, Longgen

    2013-09-01

    Bioaccumulation and risk assessment of microcystins (MCs) in muscle of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from eight eutrophic lakes along the Yangtze River of China were examined by using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. MCs contents in seston collected from these eutrophic lakes ranged from 0.02 to 21.7 ?g/L. MCs concentrations in silver carp muscle samples varied from 0.014 to 0.036 ?g/g DW with an average of 0.028 ?g/g DW. The total length of silver carp showed a significant negative correlation with MCs concentrations in their muscle (r=-0.85, p<0.05), suggesting that MCs accumulation in silver carp muscle seems to be size dependent. EDI values of MCs in fish muscle from these eight eutrophic lakes varied from 0.0027 to 0.0071 ?g/kg day, which was much lower than the TDI value of 0.04 ?g/kg day previously established by WHO, indicating that it is safe to consume silver carp muscle from eutrophic lakes in China. PMID:23578609

  2. Immune-relevant thrombocytes of common carp undergo parasite-induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fink, Inge R; Ribeiro, Carla M S; Forlenza, Maria; Taverne-Thiele, Anja; Rombout, Jan H W M; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-06-01

    Common carp thrombocytes account for 30-40% of peripheral blood leukocytes and are abundant in the healthy animals' spleen, the thrombopoietic organ. We show that, ex vivo, thrombocytes from healthy carp express a large number of immune-relevant genes, among which several cytokines and Toll-like receptors, clearly pointing at immune functions of carp thrombocytes. Few studies have described the role of fish thrombocytes during infection. Carp are natural host to two different but related protozoan parasites, Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii, which reside in the blood and tissue fluids. We used the two parasites to undertake controlled studies on the role of fish thrombocytes during these infections. In vivo, but only during infection with T. borreli, thrombocytes were massively depleted from the blood and spleen leading to severe thrombocytopenia. Ex vivo, addition of nitric oxide induced a clear and rapid apoptosis of thrombocytes from healthy carp, supporting a role for nitric oxide-mediated control of immune-relevant thrombocytes during infection with T. borreli. The potential advantage for parasites to selectively deplete the host of thrombocytes via nitric oxide-induced apoptosis is discussed. PMID:25681740

  3. Carp edema virus/Koi sleepy disease: an emerging disease in Central-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Lewisch, E; Gorgoglione, B; Way, K; El-Matbouli, M

    2015-02-01

    Koi sleepy disease (KSD), also known as carp edema virus (CEV), was first reported from juvenile colour carp in Japan in the 1970s. Recently, this pox virus was detected in several European countries, including Germany, France and the Netherlands. In England, in addition to colour carp, outbreaks in common carp are reported. KSD/CEV is an emerging infectious disease characterized by a typical sleepy behaviour, enophthalmia, generalized oedematous condition and gill necrosis, leading to hypoxia. High mortality, of up to 80-100%, is seen in juvenile koi collected from infected ponds. In Austria, this disease had not been detected until now. In spring 2014, diagnostic work revealed the disease in two unrelated cases. In one instance, a pond with adult koi was affected; in the other, the disease was diagnosed in adult common carp recently imported from the Czech Republic. A survey was carried out on recent cases (2013/2014), chosen from those with similar anamnestic and physical examination findings, revealing a total of 5/22 cases positive for KSD/CEV. In this study, two paradigmatic cases are presented in detail. Results together with molecular evidence shaped the pattern of the first diagnosis of KSD/CEV in fish from Austrian ponds. In the light of the positive cases detected from archived material, and the spread of the disease through live stock, imported from a neighbouring country, the need for epidemiological investigations in Austria and surrounding countries is emphasized. PMID:25382453

  4. Feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting lifespan of grass carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, R.M.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous cyprinid stocked to control undesirable aquatic vegetation. However, stocking grass carp presents several problems including complete eradication of submersed aquatic vegetation, dispersal out of the target area, adverse effects on fish communities, and damage to waterfowl habitat and native vegetation. The purpose of this research was to consider the feasibility of an implantable capsule for limiting the lifespan of grass carp. Stainless steel dowel pins were inserted into 49 fish to identify the most appropriate site to implant the capsule. The throat region along the body's longitudinal axis was identified as the most suitable location because it resulted in minimal loss over an 8-month holding period. Rotenone solutions were injected into the ventral surface between the pelvic fins to determine the lethal dosage to 95% of the population (LD 95). The LD95 for grass carp increased curvilin-early with fish weight. Four polymers that merit further evaluation in constructing the capsule are poly[bis(p-carboxyphenoxy) propane anhydride], poly[bis(p- carboxyphenoxy) hexane anhydride], poly-1-lactide, and poly(??-caprolactone) . Implants are commonly used to deliver pharmaceutical products in medical and veterinarian applications, and have been used in fish. Developing a bioerodible capsule could increase the safety and flexibility of stocking grass carp for control of aquatic plants, and may also be applicable for management of other exotic species.

  5. Tissue-Specific Fatty Acids Response to Different Diets in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Markus; Schultz, Sebastian; Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Kainz, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish depend on dietary fatty acids (FA) to support their physiological condition and health. Exploring the FA distribution in common carp (Cyprinus carpio), one of the world's most consumed freshwater fish, is important to understand how and where FA of different sources are allocated. We investigated diet effects on the composition of polar and neutral lipid fatty acids (PLFA and NLFA, respectively) in eight different tissues (dorsal and ventral muscle, heart, kidney, intestine, eyes, liver and adipose tissue) of common carp. Two-year old carp were exposed to three diet sources (i.e., zooplankton, zooplankton plus supplementary feeds containing vegetable, VO, or fish oil, FO) with different FA composition. The PLFA and NLFA response was clearly tissue-specific after 210 days of feeding on different diets. PLFA were generally rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated FA and only marginally influenced by dietary FA, whereas the NLFA composition strongly reflected dietary FA profiles. However, the NLFA composition in carp tissues varied considerably at low NLFA mass ratios, suggesting that carp is able to regulate the NLFA composition and thus FA quality in its tissues when NLFA contents are low. Finally, this study shows that FO were 3X more retained than VO as NLFA particularly in muscle tissues, indicating that higher nutritional quality feeds are selectively allocated into tissues and thus available for human consumption. PMID:24733499

  6. Studies on resistance characteristic and cDNA sequence conservation of transferrin from crucian carp, Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Long, Hua; Yu, Qi-Xing

    2007-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a kind of non-heme beta-globulin with two iron ions (Fe(3+))-binding sites. To prove Tf's physiological functions, Fe(3+)-proteins, serum iron contents, and total iron-binding capabilities were tested for Tfs of crucian carps (Carassius auratus) and sliver carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). The above results demonstrated that sliver carps shared 1/3 Tf alleles with crucian carps; Tf of crucian carps had stronger Fe(3+)-binding ability and transportation ability in plasma than that of sliver carps. In addition, the results of oxygen consumption experiments indicated that crucian carps had the higher oxygen utility rate than sliver carps. For acute hypoxia exposure assay, normoxic gas mixture, hypoxic gas mixture A, and hypoxic gas mixture B were used to induce oxygen-regulated gene expression of crucian carps in acute hypoxia. The results of quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA levels of Tf gene, Tfr gene and ATPase gene were down-regulated in acute hypoxia but mRNA level of LDHa gene was up-regulated in acute hypoxia. The results of crucian carp Tf-cDNA sequence analysis showed that cDNA regions of two Fe(3+)-binding sites were T(747)-T(1026) and T(1737)-A(1884) based on the principle of bioinformatics. The sequence conservation of two Fe(3+)-binding sites was higher than that of the other five regions, which were confirmed according to the subregion model of Tf-cDNA sequence. PMID:17646932

  7. Mortalities induced by the copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus in farmed silver and bighead carp in a reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui T; Li, Wen X; Yao, Wei J; Nie, P

    2002-04-01

    The frequency distributions of the parasitic copepod Sinergasilus polycolpus were examined in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis during a disease outbreak of the 2 species of fish in a reservoir in China. The mean abundance of the copepod was positively related with host length and age, and the overdispersion of the copepod in both silver and bighead carp was fitted well with negative binomial distribution. Although parasite-induced host mortality was observed, a peaked age-parasite abundance curve was not detected in the present parasite-host system. It is also proposed that this peaked age-abundance curve is unlikely to be observed in its natural host populations. PMID:12033711

  8. Assessment of synthetic organic compounds, and endocrinology and histology of carp in Lake Mead

    SciTech Connect

    Bevans, H.; Goodbred, S.; Miesner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigated the presence and biologic effects of synthetic organic compounds transported by Las Vegas Wash to Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Water, bottom sediment, and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were analyzed for synthetic organic compounds. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample the water column. Blood samples were collected from Carp for analysis of sex steroid hormones and vitellogenin. Samples of external abnormalities and organs (liver, gill, kidney, small intestine, and gonad) were collected for histologic analysis. Compounds known to affect endocrine systems (PAHs, phthalate esters, PCBs, dioxins and furans) were detected in SPMD, bottom-sediment, and/or carp samples. The number and concentrations of compounds generally were greater in samples from Las Vegas Wash and Bay, than in samples from Callville Bay, a reference site in Lake Mead. High levels of PAHs detected in SPMDs from Callville Bay could indicate the existence of contaminant sources other than Las Vegas Wash.

  9. Autoradiographic localization of gonadotrophin receptors in ovaries of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniarz, K.; Kime, D.E.

    1986-10-01

    Binding sites for carp gonadotrophin have been located in carp ovaries using (/sup 125/I)labeled gonadotrophin and autoradiography. The radioactive gonadotrophin was displaced from tissue by unlabeled gonadotrophin or carp hypophysial homogenate in a dose-dependent fashion. No binding of gonadotrophin was found in previtellogenic oocytes but binding appeared with the first indications of vitellogenesis. In the smaller vitellogenic oocytes binding was uniformly distributed in the follicular envelope, but in the largest oocytes binding was restricted to the interstitial tissue. In these more mature oocytes gonadotrophin was also found within the oocyte and appeared to migrate toward the nucleus. The relationship between binding location, steroidogenesis, and oocyte maturation is discussed. We found no evidence for specific binding of (/sup 125/I)thyroxine under comparable conditions.

  10. Gene structure, recombinant expression and functional characterization of grass carp leptin.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Gui; Liang, Xu-Fang; Xie, Qiuling; Li, Guangzhao; Yu, Ying; Lai, Kaaseng

    2010-03-01

    Leptin is an important hormone for the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and reproduction in mammals, but information regarding its role in teleosts remains scant. In the present study, the gene structures of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) leptins were characterized. Recombinant grass carp leptin (rgc-LEP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified, and identified by mass spectrometric analysis. A strong anorexic effect on food intake was observed in grass carp on the first day after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of rgc-LEP, but not during the following days. Body weight of the leptin group (LEP group) and the pair-fed group (PF group) showed no difference throughout the experimental period. The acute and chronic effects on the expression of key genes correlating to food intake, energy expenditure, lipid metabolism and digestion were further characterized by real-time PCR. Accordingly, the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were significantly reduced whereas the mRNA levels of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), bile salt-activated lipase (BSAL) and fatty acid elongase (ELO) were significantly elevated on the first day after injection. No effect on the expression of these genes (except LPL) was observed on day 13. In contrast to the down-regulation by exogenous leptin in mammals, the mRNA level of grass carp leptin was elevated 5.76-fold on the first day after rgc-LEP treatment. Our results suggest that leptin has an acute effect on the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure and lipid metabolism in grass carp, but the effect can be rapidly counteracted through mechanisms that are currently unknown. PMID:19857495

  11. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  12. Cytosolic CARP Promotes Angiotensin II- or Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy through Calcineurin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ci; Shen, Liang; Cao, Shiping; Li, Xixian; Xuan, Wanling; Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Xiaobo; Bin, Jianping; Xu, Dingli; Li, Guofeng; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Liao, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    The gene ankyrin repeat domain 1 (Ankrd1) is an enigmatic gene and may exert pleiotropic function dependent on its expression level, subcellular localization and even types of pathological stress, but it remains unclear how these factors influence the fate of cardiomyocytes. Here we attempted to investigate the role of CARP on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs), angiotensin II (Ang II) increased the expression of both calpain 1 and CARP, and also induced cytosolic translocation of CARP, which was abrogated by a calpain inhibitor. In the presence of Ang-II in NRVCs, infection with a recombinant adenovirus containing rat Ankrd1 cDNA (Ad-Ankrd1) enhanced myocyte hypertrophy, the upregulation of atrial natriuretic peptide and ?-myosin heavy chain genes and calcineurin proteins as well as nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. Cyclosporin A attenuated Ad-Ankrd1-enhanced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Intra-myocardial injection of Ad-Ankrd1 in mice with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) markedly increased the cytosolic CARP level, the heart weight/body weight ratio, while short hairpin RNA targeting Ankrd1 inhibited TAC-induced hypertrophy. The expression of calcineurin was also significantly increased in Ad-Ankrd1-infected TAC mice. Olmesartan (an Ang II receptor antagonist) prevented the upregulation of CARP in both Ang II-stimulated NRVCs and hearts with pressure overload. These findings indicate that overexpression of Ankrd1 exacerbates pathological cardiac remodeling through the enhancement of cytosolic translocation of CARP and upregulation of calcineurin. PMID:25089522

  13. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marion E; Cooke, Roger M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M; Lodge, David M

    2015-02-01

    Identifying which nonindigenous species will become invasive and forecasting the damage they will cause is difficult and presents a significant problem for natural resource management. Often, the data or resources necessary for ecological risk assessment are incomplete or absent, leaving environmental decision makers ill equipped to effectively manage valuable natural resources. Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is a mathematical and performance-based method of eliciting, weighting, and aggregating expert judgments. In contrast to other methods of eliciting and aggregating expert judgments (where, for example, equal weights may be assigned to experts), SEJ weights each expert on the basis of his or her statistical accuracy and informativeness through performance measurement on a set of calibration variables. We used SEJ to forecast impacts of nonindigenous Asian carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in Lake Erie, where it is believed not to be established. Experts quantified Asian carp biomass, production, and consumption and their impact on 4 fish species if Asian carp were to become established. According to experts, in Lake Erie Asian carp have the potential to achieve biomass levels that are similar to the sum of biomasses for several fishes that are harvested commercially or recreationally. However, the impact of Asian carp on the biomass of these fishes was estimated by experts to be small, relative to long term average biomasses, with little uncertainty. Impacts of Asian carp in tributaries and on recreational activities, water quality, or other species were not addressed. SEJ can be used to quantify key uncertainties of invasion biology and also provide a decision-support tool when the necessary information for natural resource management and policy is not available. PMID:25132396

  14. G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) inhibits final oocyte maturation in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Suravi; Das, Sumana; Moulik, Sujata Roy; Mallick, Buddhadev; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2015-01-15

    GPR-30, now named as GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) was first identified as an orphan receptor and subsequently shown to be required for estrogen-mediated signaling in certain cancer cells. Later studies demonstrated that GPER has the characteristics of a high affinity estrogen membrane receptor on Atlantic croaker and zebra fish oocytes and mediates estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation in these two distantly related teleost. To determine the broad application of these findings to other teleost, expression of GPER mRNA and its involvement in 17?-estradiol mediated inhibition of oocyte maturation in other cyprinid, Cyprinus carpio was investigated. Carp oocytes at pre-vitellogenic, late-vitellogenic and post-vitellogenic stages of development contained GPER mRNA and its transcribed protein with a maximum at late-vitellogenic oocytes. Ovarian follicular cells did not express GPER mRNA. Carp oocytes GPER mRNA was essentially identical to that found in other perciformes and cyprinid fish oocytes. Both spontaneous and 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P)-induced oocyte maturation in carp was significantly decreased when they were incubated with either E2, or GPER agonist G-1. On the other hand spontaneous oocyte maturation was significantly increased when carp ovarian follicles were incubated with an aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, GPER antagonist, G-15 and enzymatic removal of the ovarian follicle cell layers. This increase in oocyte maturation was partially reversed by co-treatment with E2. Consistent with previous findings with human and fish GPR30, E2 treatment in carp oocytes caused increase in cAMP production and simultaneously decrease in oocyte maturation, which was inhibited by the addition of 17,20?-P. The results suggest that E2 and GPER play a critical role in regulating re-entry in to meiotic cell cycle in carp oocytes. PMID:25485460

  15. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  16. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix.

    PubMed

    Alam, M M; Khan, M A; Hussain, M A; Moumita, D; Mazlan, A G; Simon, K D

    2012-12-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November-February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  17. Intensity of parasitic infestation in silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix *

    PubMed Central

    Alam, M. M.; Khan, M. A.; Hussain, M. A.; Moumita, D.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp, Hypopthalmichthys molitrix is one of the most economically valuable fish species in Bangladesh. However, its production is often hindered by parasite-induced mortality. The present study reports the intensity of parasitic infestation in 216 specimens of H. molitrix collected from different fish markets in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Nine different parasite species (Trichodina pediculatus, Dactylogyrus vastator, Ichthyophthirius multifilis, Gyrodactylus elegans, Lernaea sp., Apiosoma sp., Myxobolus rohitae, Camallanus ophiocephali, and Pallisentis ophiocephali) were recovered from the gill, skin, stomach, and intestine of host fish. The highest level of infection was observed for host skin, while lower levels were observed for host gill, stomach, and intestine. The results also revealed that the intensity of parasite infection in different organs of H. molitrix varied with the season. In particular, the highest levels of infection were recorded during the winter period (November–February), when fish are most susceptible to parasites. The findings of the study will help in the management and conservation of H. molitrix. PMID:23225858

  18. Effects of cylindrospermopsin on a common carp leucocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Sieroslawska, Anna; Rymuszka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cytotoxin produced by different cyanobacterial species, increasingly detected in water reservoirs worldwide. There is very little information available concerning the effects of the toxin on fish immune cells. The aim of the study was to elucidate the potential impact of cylindrospermopsin on the selected parameters of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) leucocyte cell line (CLC). The cells were incubated with the cyanotoxin at concentrations of 10, 1 or 0.1?µg?ml(-1) for up to 48?h. Cell viability and proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis induction, cell morphology and phagocytic activity were determined. The two higher toxin concentrations occurred to be evidently cytotoxic in a time-dependent manner and influenced all studied parameters. The lowest used concentration had no effects on cell viability and cell number; however, a strong reduction of bacteria uptake after 24-h exposure was detected. The obtained results indicate that cylindrospermopsin may interfere with the basic functions of fish phagocytic cells and as a consequence influence the fish immunity. PMID:24477983

  19. Variability of the magnetic moment of carbon monoxide hemoglobin from carp.

    PubMed Central

    Cerdonio, M; Morante, S; Vitale, S; De Young, A; Noble, R W

    1980-01-01

    Deionized carp carbon monoxide hemoglobin in distilled water or in bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino-tris(hydroxymethyl)methane or Tris buffer exhibits a slight but significant paramagnetism. This is most clearly demonstrated by the decrease in this paramagnetism that is caused by the addition of inositol hexaphosphate to this protein in the former buffer at pH 6.3-6.4. No such effect is seen when inositol hexaphosphate is added to carp cyanomethemoglobin, demonstrating that the change observed with carbon monoxide derivative is not due to a modification in the diamagnetic properties of the protein. PMID:6929497

  20. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  1. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon; Chapman, Duane; Gaikowski, Mark; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-03-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish's major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9-22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13-4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP. PMID:24132079

  2. Fish gut microbiota analysis differentiates physiology and behavior of invasive Asian carp and indigenous American fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ye, Lin; Amberg, Jon J.; Chapman, Duane C.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota of invasive Asian silver carp (SVCP) and indigenous planktivorous gizzard shad (GZSD) in Mississippi river basin were compared using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of more than 440?000 quality-filtered sequences obtained from the foregut and hindgut of GZSD and SVCP revealed high microbial diversity in these samples. GZSD hindgut (GZSD_H) samples (n=23) with >7000 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices followed by SVCP foregut (n=15), GZSD foregut (n=9) and SVCP hindgut (SVCP_H) (n=24). UniFrac distance-based non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis showed that the microbiota of GZSD_H and SVCP_H were clearly separated into two clusters: samples in the GZSD cluster were observed to vary by sampling location and samples in the SVCP cluster by sampling date. NMDS further revealed distinct microbial community between foregut to hindgut for individual GZSD and SVCP. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were detected as the predominant phyla regardless of fish or gut type. The high abundance of Cyanobacteria observed was possibly supported by their role as the fish’s major food source. Furthermore, unique and shared OTUs and OTUs in each gut type were identified, three OTUs from the order Bacteroidales, the genus Bacillariophyta and the genus Clostridium were found significantly more abundant in GZSD_H (14.9–22.8%) than in SVCP_H (0.13–4.1%) samples. These differences were presumably caused by the differences in the type of food sources including bacteria ingested, the gut morphology and digestion, and the physiological behavior between GZSD and SVCP.

  3. Comparison of the polymerases (L genes) of spring viremia of carp virus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of the polymerases (L genes) of spring viremia of carp virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus HV Björklund* EJ Emmenegger, G Kurath National Biological Service, Northwest virus (SVCV) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). At this point we have deduced the amino

  4. Transcriptome analysis of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by paired-end RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

    2012-04-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85,759 sequences were obtained. There were 23,044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38,200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) by Paired-End RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Beide; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is among the most intensively pond-cultured fish species and is used in the wild to counteract water bloom in China. However, little genomic information is available for this species, especially regarding its ability to grow rapidly in water, even water contaminated with high concentrations of poisonous microcystin. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of the 17.10 million short-read sequences produced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Using an improved multiple k-mer contig assembly method coupled with further scaffolding, 85 759 sequences were obtained. There were 23 044 sequences annotated with 3423 gene ontology terms for 104 196 term occurrences and the three corresponding organizing principles. A total of 38 200 assembled sequences were involved in 218 predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes metabolic pathways. We also recovered 41 of 44 genes involved in the biosynthesis of glutathione. Of these, five genes were identified as experienced positive selection between silver carp and zebrafish, as determined by the likelihood ratio test. This report is the first annotated review of the silver carp transcriptome. These data will be of interest to researchers investigating the evolution and biological processes of the silver carp. This work also provides an archive for future studies of recent speciation and evolution of Cyprinidae fishes and can be used in comparative studies of other fishes. PMID:22279088

  6. THE PUBLIC SECTOR ROLE IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GRASS CARP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of Federal, State, and University personnel in the introduction, spawning, nationwide stocking, promotion, and accidental release to the environment of grass carp is given. Many have considered the commercial fish producer as having a primary role in the introduction and spread of all four...

  7. THE PUBLIC SECTOR ROLE IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GRASS CARP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Federal, state, and university personnel played key roles in the establishment of the grass carp (GC) in the United States. Researchers at the USFWS laboratory, Stuttgart, Arkansas and Auburn University (AU), Alabama imported GC from Asia in 1963 and spawned them in 1966. Biologists with the Arkan...

  8. Carp Exclusion, Food-web Interactions, and the Restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    dominated state. INDEX WORDS: Carp exclusion, coastal wetlands, restoration, food web. J. Great Lakes Res. 30(1):44­57 Internat. Assoc. Great Lakes Res., 2004 INTRODUCTION Since the time of European settlement, heavily settled areas of the lower Laurentian Great Lakes basin have lost a large proportion

  9. Carp exclusion, food-web interactions and the restoration of Cootes Paradise Marsh.

    E-print Network

    McMaster University

    -1115 Submitted to: Journal of Great Lakes Research Running title: Carp exclusion, food-web and marsh restoration of European settlement, heavily settled areas of the lower Laurentian Great Lakes' basin have lost a large of nutrients. Many Great Lakes coastal wetlands, which were formerly clear-water, plant- dominated systems

  10. Toxicity of crude oil to the metabolism of freshwater minor carp, Puntius sophore

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.S.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of crude oil on the rate of metabolism in freshwater fishes have been little investigated. In the present investigation, the respiration rate in vitro and overall QO/sub 2/ in vivo of a freshwater minor carp Puntius sophore has been measured after exposing the fish to the lethal and sublethal doses of crude oil extracts for varying periods.

  11. NONYLPHENOL AND NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES IN CARP, WATER, AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES FROM CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study of the occurrence of alkylphenol and alkylphenol ethoxylates in the Cuyahoga, Ohio, river system revealed that high levels of total APEs (NP 0 to 2 EO) occur in carp starting at the Akron WWTP and continues to the river mouth near Cleveland, e.g., 0.9 to 0.46 ppm wet weight, respectively. T...

  12. A Comparison of Black Carp, Redear Sunfish, and Blue Catfish as Biological Controls of Snail Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan J. Ledford; Anita M. Kelly

    2006-01-01

    Redear sunfish Lepomis microlophus and blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus were compared with black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus as potential biological controls for rams-horn snails Planorbella spp. Comparisons were made with regard to snail size selection, total consumption, and the effects of alternative prey and temperature on consumption rates of two size-classes for each species, small (?100 mm total length [TL]) and

  13. Evoked potentials to electrical stimulation of the facial nerve in the carp tectum mesencephali

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Vasilevskaya; L. N. Stankevich

    1976-01-01

    Tectal evoked potentials to stimulation of the facial nerve, containing afferent fibers of nonolfactory chemoreception, in the carp are positive evoked potentials with a latent period of 5 to 25 msec which show no phase shift as the microelectrode is advanced to a depth of 600 µ. Depending on the amplitude and latency of evoked potentials seven active zones differing

  14. Light microscopic characterization of glycoconjugates in secretory cells of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) gill epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hidalgo; A. Velasco; I. Sánchez Aguayo; P. Amores

    1987-01-01

    Secretory products of granular and mucous cells in the gill epithelium of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, were distinguished by their cytochemical reactions with peroxidase-labelled lectins and with the galactose oxidase (GO)-Schiff reagents. Secretory products of granular cells reacted with lectins from Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (SAB), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA). They also reacted

  15. Effects of gas supersaturation on lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Li, Ke-feng; Du, Jun; Li, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation on acute lethality and avoidance responses in juvenile rock carp (Procypris rabaudi Tchang). The juvenile rock carp were exposed to water with different levels of supersaturation (105%, 115%, 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145%) and depth of 0.20 m at 25 °C for 60 h. Median lethal time (LT50) was used to assess the lethal responses corresponding to different levels of gas supersaturation. The results show that half of the juvenile rock carp died at the 120%, 125%, 130%, 135%, 140%, and 145% levels of supersaturation, and the LT50 corresponding to different levels of supersaturation was 18.7, 15.4, 8.2, 6.6, 3.5, and 1.7 h. When the level of supersaturated water is below 115%, the mortality is negligible. Avoidance responses were observed 5 min after the fish were put into equilibrated water (99%, 0.08 m deep) and water with different supersaturated levels (105%, 115%, 125%, 135%, and 145%, 0.08 m deep) at 25 °C. The fish exhibited strong avoidance responses in supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was above 135%. However, they exhibited an obvious preference to supersaturated water when the gas supersaturation was below 115%. Thus, the juvenile rock carp can likely survive in water with a supersaturated level of 115%. PMID:20872989

  16. COMPUTER-ASSISTED MOTION ANALYSIS OF SPERM FROM THE COMMON CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) technology was applied to the measurement of sperm motility parameters in the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Activated sperm were videotaped at 200 frames s-1 and analysed with the CellTrak/S CASA research system. The percentage of motile cel...

  17. Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Comparative study of carp otolith hardness: Lapillus and asteriscus Dongni Ren a , Marc André nano- and micro-indentation: asteriscus and lapillus. The hardness, modulus, and creep of asteriscus (vaterite crystals) and lapillus (aragonite crystals) are compared. The hardness and modulus of lapillus

  18. SNP discovery and marker development for disease resistance candidate genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers of susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpes virus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp. With the aim to investigate the gene...

  19. Fat absorption by the enterocytes of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Noaillac-Depeyre; N. Gas

    1974-01-01

    In the carp, the absorption of fat from the food occurs at the level of the enterocytes of the proximal region of the intestine. The absorbed fat gives rise to the presence of two forms of inclusions: lipid particles and lipid droplets. These two forms, whose precise significance is unknown, definitely play different roles in fat absorption. Only lipid particles

  20. Gill infection model for columnaris disease in common carp and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Declercq, A M; Chiers, K; Haesebrouck, F; Van den Broeck, W; Dewulf, J; Cornelissen, M; Decostere, A

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Challenge models generating gill lesions typical for columnaris disease were developed for the fry of both Common Carp Cyprinus carpio and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by means of an immersion challenge and Flavobacterium columnare field isolates were characterized regarding virulence. Carp inoculated with highly virulent isolates revealed diffuse, whitish discoloration of the gills affecting all arches, while in trout mostly unilateral focal lesions, which were restricted to the first two gill arches, occurred. Light microscopic examination of the gills of carp exposed to highly virulent isolates revealed a diffuse loss of branchial structures and desquamation and necrosis of gill epithelium with fusion of filaments and lamellae. In severe cases, large parts of the filaments were replaced with necrotic debris entangled with massive clusters of F. columnare bacterial cells enwrapped in an eosinophilic matrix. In trout, histopathologic lesions were similar but less extensive and much more focal, and well delineated from apparently healthy tissue. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of the affected gills showed long, slender bacterial cells contained in an extracellular matrix and in close contact with the destructed gill tissue. This is the first study to reveal gill lesions typical for columnaris disease at macroscopic, light microscopic, and ultrastructural levels in both Common Carp and Rainbow Trout following a challenge with F. columnare. The results provide a basis for research opportunities to examine pathogen-gill interactions. Received January 10, 2014; accepted July 27, 2014. PMID:25488182

  1. Genetic variability in reared stocks of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) based on allozymes and microsatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean François Desvignes; Jean Laroche; Jean Dominique Durand; Yvette Bouvet

    2001-01-01

    The genetic variability of cultured stocks of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was studied using two types of genetic markers: allozymes and microsatellites. A comparative analysis was investigated between six strains from extensive aquaculture in two French regions (Dombes and Forez) and five strains from the Czech Republic stemming from artificial selection and maintained in the Research Center of Vodnany. Observed

  2. MONTHLY VARIATION IN SPERM MOTILITY IN COMMON CARP ASSESSED USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm motility variables from the milt of the common carp Cyprinus carpio were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system across several months (March-August 1992) known to encompass the natural spawning period. Two-year-old pond-raised males obtained each mo...

  3. Biological Control of Aquatic Pest Snails by the Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frida Ben-Ami; Joseph Heller

    2001-01-01

    Some freshwater snail species are severe pests to human health or agriculture. We tested the hypothesis that the fish Mylopharyngodon piceus, the black carp, may serve as a biological control agent of two pest snails, Physella acuta (a bank-dwelling snail) and Melanoides tuberculata (a substratum-dwelling snail). Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and under controlled field conditions. In the

  4. The Public Sector Role in the Establishment of Grass Carp in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Mitchell; Anita M. Kelly

    2006-01-01

    On 16 November 1963, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fish Farming Experimental Station at Stuttgart, Arkansas, became the first institution to import grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) into the United States. This introduction was the result of at least seven years of effort to find an effective biological control for problematic aquatic weeds. The introduction was in keeping with

  5. BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM CONTAMINATED WISCONSIN RIVER SEDIMENT TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from sediment to freshwater fish was studied in laboratory exposures. Carp (10g) exposed to Wisconsin River sediment (39pg/g) for 55 days accumulated 7.5 pg/g. Maintaining exposured fish in clean water for an additional 205 days resulted in dep...

  6. Atrazine and chlorpyrifos exposure induces liver autophagic response in common carp.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Zhilei; Gao, Xuejiao; Chen, Dechun; Wang, Liangliang; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-03-01

    Under normal conditions, autophagy occurs at basal levels but can be induced rapidly in response to stress conditions and extracellular signals. Increasing experimental evidence indicates that the expression of autophagy-related genes play very important roles in toxicology. Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are the most common agrochemical in the freshwater ecosystems of the world. This study assessed the effects of ATR, CPF and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the liver of common carp. Carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to ATR and CPF, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the mRNA and protein levels of autophagy-related genes in the liver. In addition, we also investigated the change in ultrastructure in the liver. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 B (LC3B) and dynein were significantly induced in the treated groups compared to the solvent control group. Transmission electron microscope assays indicated that autolysosomes were observed in the exposure and recovery groups. These results indicated that ATR and CPF could induce autophagy in carp liver. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to study the autophagy effects caused by sub-chronic exposure to ATR, CPF and the ATR/CPF combination in common carp. The information presented in the present study may provide new insights into the mechanisms used by fish to adapt to stressful environments. PMID:25483372

  7. Nutritional Composition and Use of Common Carp Muscle in Yellow Perch Diets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis W. Schaeffer; Matthew J. Hennen; Michael L. Brown; Kurt A. Rosentrater

    2012-01-01

    High market demand for marine fish meals coupled with increasing costs and questionable sustainability of wild stocks have led researchers to investigate a variety of alternative plant and animal protein sources for aquaculture feeds. Our objective was to evaluate the use of common carp Cyprinus carpio, a locally abundant, nonnative fish species, to offset the cost of marine fish meal

  8. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  9. Candidate gene markers for selective breeding of CyHV-3-resistant common carp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common carp and koi producers around the world have suffered financial losses for a disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This disease is highly contagious and causes massive mortality to infected fish. Efforts to identify genetic resistance to the ...

  10. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  11. Analysis of the Skin Transcriptome in Two Oujiang Color Varieties of Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenghui; Wachholtz, Michael; Wang, Jun; Liao, Xiaolin; Lu, Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Body color and coloration patterns are important phenotypic traits to maintain survival and reproduction activities. The Oujiang color varieties of common carp (Cyprinus carpio var. color), with a narrow distribution in Zhejiang Province of China and a history of aquaculture for over 1,200 years, consistently exhibit a variety of body color patterns. The molecular mechanism underlying diverse color patterns in these variants is unknown. To the practical end, it is essential to develop molecular markers that can distinguish different phenotypes and assist selective breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In this exploratory study, we conducted Roche 454 transcriptome sequencing of two pooled skin tissue samples of Oujiang common carp, which correspond to distinct color patterns, red with big black spots (RB) and whole white (WW), and a total of 737,525 sequence reads were generated. The reads obtained in this study were co-assembled jointly with common carp Roche 454 sequencing reads downloaded from NCBI SRA database, resulting in 43,923 isotigs and 546,676 singletons. Over 31 thousand (31,445; 71.6%) isotigs were found with significant BLAST matches (E<1e-10) to the nr protein database, which corresponds to 12,597 annotated zebrafish genes. A total of 70,947 isotigs and singletons (transcripts) were annotated with Gene Ontology, and 60,221 transcripts were found with corresponding EC numbers. Out of 145 zebrafish pigmentation genes, orthologs for 117 were recovered in Oujiang color carp transcriptome, including 18 found only among singletons. Our transcriptome analysis revealed over 52,902 SNPs in Oujiang common carp, and identified 63 SNP markers that are putatively unique either for RB or WW. Conclusions The transcriptome of Oujiang color varieties of common carp obtained through this study, along with the pigmentation genes recovered and the color pattern-specific molecular markers developed, will facilitate future research on the molecular mechanism of color patterns and promote aquaculture of Oujiang color varieties of common carp through molecular marker assisted-selective breeding. PMID:24603653

  12. Centromere Localization for Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) through Half-Tetrad Analysis in Diploid Gynogenetic Families

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuankun; Sun, Yanhong; Yu, Xiaomu; Tong, Jingou

    2013-01-01

    Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N?=?48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species. PMID:24376614

  13. Temperature alters the respiratory surface area of crucian carp Carassius carassius and goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Sollid, Jørund; Weber, Roy E; Nilsson, Göran E

    2005-03-01

    We have previously found that the gills of crucian carp Carassius carassius living in normoxic (aerated) water lack protruding lamellae, the primary site of O(2) uptake in fish, and that exposing them to hypoxia increases the respiratory surface area of the gills approximately 7.5-fold. We here examine whether this morphological change is triggered by temperature. We acclimated crucian carp to 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C for 1 month, and investigated gill morphology, oxygen consumption and the critical oxygen concentration at the different temperatures. As expected, oxygen consumption increased with temperature. Also at 25 degrees C an increase in the respiratory surface area, similar to that seen in hypoxia, occurred. This coincided with a reduced critical oxygen concentration. We also found that the rate of this transformation increased with rising temperature. Goldfish Carassius auratus, a close relative to crucian carp, previously kept at 25 degrees C, were exposed to 15 degrees C and 7.5 degrees C. At 7.5 degrees C the respiratory surface area of its gills was reduced by development of an interlamellar cell mass as found in normoxic crucian carp kept at 10-20 degrees C. Thus, both species alter the respiratory surface area in response to temperature. Rather than being a graded change, the results suggest that the alteration of gill morphology is triggered at a given temperature. Oxygen-binding data reveal very high oxygen affinities of crucian carp haemoglobins, particularly at high pH and low temperature, which may be prerequisites for the reduced gill respiratory surface area at low temperatures. As ambient oxygen and temperature can both induce the remodelling of the gills, the response appears primarily to be an adaptation to the oxygen demand of the fish. PMID:15767311

  14. Alteration in the cytokine levels and histopathological damage in common carp induced by glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-06-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most frequently used herbicides, and it has been demonstrated to generate a series of toxicological problems in animals and humans. However, relatively little is known about the effects of glyphosate on the immune system of fish. In the present study, the acute toxicity of glyphosate on common carp was first determined; then, the contents of interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and tumor necrosis factor -? (TNF-?) and histopathological alterations in the liver, kidneys, and spleen of common carp exposed to 52.08 or 104.15mgL(-1) of glyphosate for 168h were also determined and evaluated. The results of the acute toxicity tests showed that the 96h LC50 of glyphosate for common carp was 520.77mgL(-1). Moreover, sub-acute exposure of glyphosate altered the contents of IFN-?, IL-1?, and TNF-? in fish immune organs. For example, there was a remarkable increase in the IFN-? content in the kidneys, while there was a decrease in the liver and spleen. The IL-1? content increased in liver and kidneys, but it decreased in the spleen, and TNF-? mainly increased in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. In addition, glyphosate-exposure also caused remarkable histopathological damage in the fish liver, kidneys, and spleen. These results suggest that glyphosate-caused cytokine alterations may result in an immune suppression or excessive activation in the treated common carp as well as may cause immune dysfunction or reduced immunity. In conclusion, glyphosate has immunotoxic effects on common carp. PMID:25747155

  15. Genome Wide Identification, Phylogeny and Expression of Zinc Transporter Genes in Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shuaisheng; Sun, Jinsheng; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Background Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT), and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP). Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. Conclusions To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc in teleost. PMID:25551462

  16. Sequence, genomic organization and expression of ghrelin receptor in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-jing; Yuan, Xiao-chen; Yuan, Yong-chao; Xie, Shou-qi; Gong, Yuan; Su, Hang; Qiao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R) is an endogenous receptor for the gut hormone ghrelin. Here we report the identification and characterization of GHS-R1a in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. The full-length GHS-R1a cDNA contained a 1803-bp coding domain sequence which encoded a peptide of 360 amino acid residues. Comparison analysis revealed that the amino acid sequences of GHS-R1a were highly conserved in vertebrates and shared 97% amino acid identity with zebrafish (Danio rerio), 96% with jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) and 93% with goldfish (Carassius auratus). The GHS-R1a showed the highest level of mRNA expression in the pituitary, followed by the brain and liver, and the lowest expression was observed in the hindgut. Intraperitoneally injected with grass carp ghrelin (50, 100 and 150ng/g body weight (BW)), grass carp showed greater mRNA expression of GHS-R1a in the pituitary compared with saline injected at 0.5h postinjection. It was observed that food deprivation could promote the expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary, demonstrating that nutritional status can influence the expression of both ghrelin and GHS-R1a in the pituitary. After a 2- or 4-week fast, plasma growth hormone (GH) increased, was positively correlated with ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA expression levels in the pituitary. These results suggested that the involvement of ghrelin/GHS-R1a systems in mediating the effects of nutritional status and ghrelin on growth processes in grass carp. PMID:25242546

  17. Effect of different river flow rates on biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Lon?ari?, Zeljka; Hackenberger, Davorka K; E?imovi?, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated effects of different river flow rates on basal activities of selected biomarkers and the occurrence of oxidative stress in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Juvenile carp were exposed to different river flow rates (5-120 cm/s) by caging for 3 weeks. After this period, one half of the fish were sacrificed and used for analysis. The other half received a single intraperitoneal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and after 6 days were sacrificed and used for analysis. In order to investigate whether the physical activity of carp in the environment will influence the condition status of carp, following biomarkers were measured - activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and concentration of protein carbonyls (PC). The results showed that different flow rates significantly influenced biochemical biomarkers. The basal activity of GST did not change significantly after exposure to different river flow rates, whereas the activity of CAT increased with increasing river flow rates. The application of 3-MC caused significant increases in GST and CAT activities, but there were no difference between 3-MC control and 3-MC different flow rates. The occurrence of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to increased physical activity, i.e. increased river flow rates, was confirmed by measurement of PC levels - the level of PC increased with increasing river flow rates. Measurement of EROD basal activity showed that at lower river flow rates the EROD activity increased and at higher river flow rates decreased towards control levels demonstrating a close relationship between oxidative stress, PC levels and EROD activity. Obviously, biomarker responses in carp of different condition status can differ substantially. It can be concluded that flow rate may be an important factor in biomonitoring of rivers using biomarkers and since at different locations river water flow rate can vary significantly, the site selection is extremely important for proper design of river biomonitoring studies involving caging. PMID:25463866

  18. The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake

    PubMed Central

    Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Bajer, Przemyslaw G.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  19. The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake.

    PubMed

    Eichmiller, Jessica J; Bajer, Przemyslaw G; Sorensen, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or 'carp'), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p?0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart. PMID:25383965

  20. Intraspecific Scaling of the Resting and Maximum Metabolic Rates of the Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingda; Zhang, Yurong; Liu, Shuting; Wang, Wen; Luo, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    The question of how the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass (M) is achieved in animals is unresolved. Here, we tested the cell metabolism hypothesis and the organ size hypothesis by assessing the mass scaling of the resting metabolic rate (RMR), maximum metabolic rate (MMR), erythrocyte size, and the masses of metabolically active organs in the crucian carp (Carassius auratus). The M of the crucian carp ranged from 4.5 to 323.9 g, representing an approximately 72-fold difference. The RMR and MMR increased with M according to the allometric equations RMR?=?0.212M0.776 and MMR?=?0.753M0.785. The scaling exponents for RMR (br) and MMR (bm) obtained in crucian carp were close to each other. Thus, the factorial aerobic scope remained almost constant with increasing M. Although erythrocyte size was negatively correlated with both mass-specific RMR and absolute RMR adjusted to M, it and all other hematological parameters showed no significant relationship with M. These data demonstrate that the cell metabolism hypothesis does not describe metabolic scaling in the crucian carp, suggesting that erythrocyte size may not represent the general size of other cell types in this fish and the metabolic activity of cells may decrease as fish grows. The mass scaling exponents of active organs was lower than 1 while that of inactive organs was greater than 1, which suggests that the mass scaling of the RMR can be partly due to variance in the proportion of active/inactive organs in crucian carp. Furthermore, our results provide additional evidence supporting the correlation between locomotor capacity and metabolic scaling. PMID:24376588

  1. Microbial succession of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) filets during storage at 4°C and its contribution to biogenic amines' formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang; Huang, Heping; Xu, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Investigation on the microbial succession of grass carp filets during storage at 4°C was carried out. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of the isolated pure strains were sequenced and analyzed. Acinetobacter was dominant in fresh grass carp. Species from the genera Brevundimonas, Empedobacter, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Flavobacterium, Moraxella, Shewanella and Soonwooa were also detected at the initial day. The communities were dominated by Aeromonas and Acinetobacter after 6days. Aeromonas followed by Pseudomonas was the predominant genera at the end of shelf-life of grass carp, while other genera such as Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Flavobacteriaceae and Psychrobacter were present in smaller numbers. We investigated biogenic amines' (BAs) production by six strains isolated from spoiled grass carp filets. Shewanella putrefaciens showed significantly higher abilities to produce putrescine, than those from other genera. Aeromonas veronii revealed a strong ability to produce putrescine and cadaverine. However, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter showed little ability to produce BAs. PMID:25194259

  2. Effects of nitrite exposure on blood respiratory properties, acid-base and electrolyte regulation in the carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank B. Jensen; Niels A. Andersen; Norbert Heisler

    1987-01-01

    Adult carp were subjected to 1 mM environmental nitrite for 48 h and nitrite uptake and changes in blood respiratory properties, extracellular electrolyte composition and acid-base status were examined.

  3. The primary culture of mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues and the isolation of Koi herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingxiang; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming

    2013-10-01

    The explosive Koi herpesvirus (KHV) epidemic has caused the deaths of a large number of carp and carp variants and has produced serious economic losses. The mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis) exhibits strong environmental adaptability and its primary cells can be used to isolate KHV. This study utilized the tissue explant method to systematically investigate primary cell culture conditions for mirror carp snout and caudal fin tissues. We demonstrated that cells from these two tissue types had strong adaptability, and when cultured in Medium 199 (M199) containing 20% serum at 26 to 30°C, the cells from the snout and caudal fin tissues exhibited the fastest egress and proliferation. Inoculation of these two cell types with KHV-infected fish kidney tissues produced typical cytopathic effects; additionally, identification by electron microscopy, and PCR indicated that KHV could be isolated from both cell types. PMID:23893087

  4. Influences of traditional Chinese medicine on non-specific immunity of Jian Carp ( Cyprinus carpio var . Jian)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jichang Jian; Zaohe Wu

    2004-01-01

    The influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulation from Astragalus Root (Radix astragalin seu Hedysari) and Chinese Angelica Root (R. Angelicae Sinensis) at a ratio of 5:1 (w\\/w) on non-specific immunity of Jian carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Jian was investigated. The number of NBT-positive cells in the blood and lysozyme and complement activities in the serum of Carp fed with

  5. Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides in Agricultural Waters and Cholinesterase (ChE) Inhibition in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Gruber; M. D. Munn

    1998-01-01

    .   Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal\\u000a Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of\\u000a the irrigation system. Results indicated that

  6. Major Programs

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

  7. Antagonists of anaphase-promoting complex (APC)-2-cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 interaction are novel regulators of cell growth and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Puliyappadamba, Vineshkumar Thidil; Wu, Wenjuan; Bevis, Debra; Zhang, Liyue; Polin, Lisa; Kilkuskie, Robert; Finley, Russell L; Larsen, Scott D; Levi, Edi; Miller, Fred R; Wali, Anil; Rishi, Arun K

    2011-11-01

    CARP-1/CCAR1, a perinuclear phosphoprotein, is a regulator of cell growth and apoptosis signaling. Although CARP-1 is a regulator of chemotherapy-dependent apoptosis, it is also a part of the NF-?B proteome and a co-activator of steroid/thyroid nuclear receptors as well as ?-catenin signaling. Our yeast two-hybrid screen revealed CARP-1 binding with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome E3 ubiquitin ligase component APC-2 protein. CARP-1 also binds with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1. Following mapping of the minimal epitopes involved in CARP-1 binding with APC-2, a fluorescence polarization assay was established that indicated a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 480 nm for CARP-1/APC-2 binding. Fluorescence polarization assay-based high throughput screening of a chemical library yielded several small molecule antagonists of CARP-1/APC-2 binding, termed CARP-1 functional mimetics. CFM-4 (1(2-chlorobenzyl)-5'-phenyl-3'H-spiro[indoline-3,2'-[1,3,4]thiadiazol]-2-one), a lead compound, binds with and stimulates CARP-1 expression. CFM-4 prevents CARP-1 binding with APC-2, causes G(2)M cell cycle arrest, and induces apoptosis with an IC(50) range of 10-15 ?m. Apoptosis signaling by CFM-4 involves activation of caspase-8 and -9 and caspase-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-independent loss of cyclin B1 and Cdc20 proteins. Depletion of CARP-1, however, interferes with CFM-4-dependent cell growth inhibition, activation of caspases, and apoptosis. Because CFM-4 also suppresses growth of drug-resistant human breast cancer cells without affecting the growth of human breast epithelial MCF-10A cells, elevating CARP-1 by CFM-4 and consequent apoptosis could in principle be exploited to further elucidate, and perhaps effectively target, often deregulated cell cycle pathways in pathological conditions, including cancer. PMID:21903591

  8. [Correlation and path analyses of phenotypic traits and body mass of transgenic carp with growth hormone gene of salmon].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-lei; Chang, Yu-mei; Liang, Li-qun; Xu, Li-hua; Liu, Jin-liang; Chi, Bing-jie; Wu, Xue-gong

    2011-07-01

    Thirty 2-year old transgenic carp individuals with growth hormone gene of salmon were randomly selected to study the affecting degree of their phenotypic traits on their body mass by the methods of correlation and path analyses, with 30 individuals of non-transgenic carp as the control, aimed to ascertain the main phenotypic parameters affecting the body mass of the transgenic and non-transgenic carps. The test phenotypic traits were total length, body length, body height, least height of caudal peduncle, length of caudal peduncle, length of head, snout length, eyes horizontal diameter, inter-orbital distance, and body depth. Correlation analysis showed that for both of the transgenic and non-transgenic carps, most of the test phenotypic parameters were significantly correlated to body mass (P<0.01). Path analysis indicated that for transgenic carp, its body length and body height were the main predictable factors affecting body mass, with the path coefficient being 0.572 and 0.415, respectively, while for non-transgenic carp, its body depth and tail length were the main predictable factors affecting body mass, with the path coefficient being 0.610 and 0.377, respectively. PMID:22007470

  9. Analysis of Genome Survey Sequences and SSR Marker Development for Siamese Mud Carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Using 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Iranawati, Feni; Jung, Hyungtaek; Chand, Vincent; Hurwood, David A.; Mather, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Siamese mud carp (Henichorynchus siamensis) is a freshwater teleost of high economic importance in the Mekong River Basin. However, genetic data relevant for delineating wild stocks for management purposes currently are limited for this species. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing to generate a partial genome survey sequence (GSS) dataset to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from H. siamensis genomic DNA. Data generated included a total of 65,954 sequence reads with average length of 264 nucleotides, of which 2.79% contain SSR motifs. Based on GSS-BLASTx results, 10.5% of contigs and 8.1% singletons possessed significant similarity (E value < 10?5) with the majority matching well to reported fish sequences. KEGG analysis identified several metabolic pathways that provide insights into specific potential roles and functions of sequences involved in molecular processes in H. siamensis. Top protein domains detected included reverse transcriptase and the top putative functional transcript identified was an ORF2-encoded protein. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven sequences containing SSR motifs were identified, of which 422 qualified for primer design and eight polymorphic loci have been tested with average observed and expected heterozygosity estimated at 0.75 and 0.83, respectively. Regardless of their relative levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, microsatellite loci developed here are suitable for further population genetic studies in H. siamensis and may also be applicable to other related taxa. PMID:23109823

  10. Biological effects and bioaccumulation of pharmaceutically active compounds in crucian carp caged near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Zhang, Zhenghua; Bao, Yijun; Liu, Fuli; Wu, Donghai; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been universally detected in rivers, lakes and coastal waters that are affected by effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this study, the biological effects and bioaccumulation of PhACs were assessed in crucian carp (Carassius auratus) caged in an effluent-receiving river for 21 days. Compared with control fish in the laboratory and at a reference site, a significant reduction in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and increase in the biotransformation enzymes ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were observed in the fish that was caged downstream from the STP outfall. In general, the total concentrations of PhACs detected in fish tissues were in the order as follows: liver > brain > gill > muscle > bile. The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for PhACs were between 195 and 2782 in the major storage tissue liver. The corresponding results for both risk quotient (RQ) and enhanced integrated biomarker response (EIBR) based on laboratory and field studies, respectively, indicated that environmental risk for adverse effects to aquatic organisms were clearly higher at the downstream of the STP outfall than at the upstream. PMID:25406643

  11. Analysis of Genome Survey Sequences and SSR Marker Development for Siamese Mud Carp, Henicorhynchus siamensis, Using 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Iranawati, Feni; Jung, Hyungtaek; Chand, Vincent; Hurwood, David A; Mather, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Siamese mud carp (Henichorynchus siamensis) is a freshwater teleost of high economic importance in the Mekong River Basin. However, genetic data relevant for delineating wild stocks for management purposes currently are limited for this species. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing to generate a partial genome survey sequence (GSS) dataset to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from H. siamensis genomic DNA. Data generated included a total of 65,954 sequence reads with average length of 264 nucleotides, of which 2.79% contain SSR motifs. Based on GSS-BLASTx results, 10.5% of contigs and 8.1% singletons possessed significant similarity (E value < 10(-5)) with the majority matching well to reported fish sequences. KEGG analysis identified several metabolic pathways that provide insights into specific potential roles and functions of sequences involved in molecular processes in H. siamensis. Top protein domains detected included reverse transcriptase and the top putative functional transcript identified was an ORF2-encoded protein. One thousand eight hundred and thirty seven sequences containing SSR motifs were identified, of which 422 qualified for primer design and eight polymorphic loci have been tested with average observed and expected heterozygosity estimated at 0.75 and 0.83, respectively. Regardless of their relative levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity, microsatellite loci developed here are suitable for further population genetic studies in H. siamensis and may also be applicable to other related taxa. PMID:23109823

  12. Recombinant outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda, a potential vaccine candidate for fish, common carp.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Biswajit; Shetty, Mahesh; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2011-12-20

    Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) is a component of the outer membrane of Edwardsiella tarda and is wildly distributed in Enterobacteriaceae family. The gene encoding the OmpA protein was cloned from E. tarda and expressed in Escherichia coli M15 cells. The recombinant OmpA protein containing His(6) residues was estimated to have a molecular weight of ~38kDa. In Western blot the native protein showed expression at ~36kDa molecular weight which was within the range of major outer membrane proteins (36-44kDa) observed in this study. All E. tarda isolates tested harbored the ompA gene and the antibody raised to this protein was seen to cross react with other Gram negative bacteria. The OmpA protein characterized in this study was observed to be highly immunogenic in both rabbit and fish. In Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, rabbit antisera showed an antibody titer of 1: 128,000. Common carp vaccinated with recombinant OmpA protein elicited high antibody production and immunized fish showed a relative percentage survival of 54.3 on challenge. PMID:21482086

  13. The binding spectra of carp C3 isotypes against natural targets independent of the binding specificity of their thioester.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Satoko; Kato-Unoki, Yoko; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2012-09-01

    The central component of complement, C3, plays a versatile role in innate immune defense of vertebrates and some invertebrates. A notable molecular characteristic of this component is an intra-chain thioester site that enables C3 to bind covalently to its target. It has been reported that the binding preference of the thioester to hydroxyl or amino groups is primarily defined by presence or absence of the catalytic histidine residue at position 1126 in human C3. In teleosts, a unique C3 (non-His type) has been found, in addition to the common His type C3. These distinct C3 isoforms may provide diversity in the target-binding attributable to the different binding specificities of their thioesters. In the present study, we examine the hypothesized correlation of the catalytic histidine with the binding spectra of two major C3 isotypes of carp towards various model and natural targets. The results reveal that non-His type C3, rather than His type C3, has a wider range of binding spectrum, despite the binding specificity of its thioester being limited to amino groups. It is therefore hypothesized that the binding spectra of C3 isotypes are not defined by the binding specificity of the thioester but is more affected by differences in microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate complement. Overall, the present data imply that non-His type C3 plays a significant role against bacterial infections in the fish defense system. PMID:22561425

  14. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  15. Creating an Optimal Environment for Fish in Space - A Study Involving KOI CARP in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, B. G. B.; Pettersson, M.

    Through the course of two ESA parabolic flight campaigns, koi carps (Cyprinus carpio) have been observed and tested in microgravity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on how to create the best possible environment for fish in microgravity. We are at a stage in history where the thought of longer human space flights, to Mars and beyond, are starting to seem possible. Before this can happen, extensive knowledge is needed of which species function well in this environment. For space flights lasting several years, all food needed cannot be brought onboard, but rather will have to be grown or bred during flight. Fish have a mechanism called the dorsal light response that have the effect of working as a pseudo night. We have also investigated whether the lateral line system, functioning as a sort of remote sensing system, in addition to information from tactile stimuli, can be taken advantage of. During two flights a physical rod structure was placed inside the aquarium. Two groups of fish accustomed to living in an environment with a rod structure, for a period of five days before flight, were compared to two similar groups never exposed to a rod structure before flight. There was a significant difference in behaviour, the group "trained" with rods showing much less abnormal, stressed behaviour. It was also observed that considerable variations in light sensitivity exists among the fish, but fish "trained" with rod structure were much less dependent on a given light level. When visual information was no longer available, they used the rods for orientation. Observations also confirm that light reflections from within the aquarium, as well as multiple light sources from different angles, have a clear negative effect causing rolling behaviour. Contrary to other experiments, we observed rolling both towards the left and right in most fish, although dominant in one direction. When the majority of light reflections were removed, rolling almost completely disappeared. A few occasions of looping were also observed, but only backwards. This variety of looping has only been observed in one other experiment before.

  16. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-10-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1-2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. PMID:25044130

  17. Endocrine effects of sublethal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Zhang, J; Li, W; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A

    2002-01-01

    Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) samples were collected from five selected sites that represent diverse levels of downgraded persistent organic pollutants (POPs) contamination in Ya-Er Lake in October 1999. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activities, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic retinoids, serum thyroid hormones were measured. It was found that hepatic retinol and serum free 3,5,3'- tetraiodothyronine (FT3) significantly increased (P < 0.01) when both hepatic EROD and UDPGT activities significantly declined (P < 0.01) from pond 1 to 5 with decrease in the degree of pollution. This significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) suggests that the persistent organochlorinated contaminants could induce hepatic EROD and UDPGT activities, alter retinoid and thyroid hormone homeostasis, and finally lead to the reduction of retinol and FT3, the two biologically active forms of retinoids and thyroid hormone in silver carp of Ya-Er Lake. PMID:12442791

  18. Effects of prometryne on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Velisek, Josef; Stara, Alzbeta; Koutnik, Dalibor; Machova, Jana

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of prometryne to early life stages of common carp was assessed. On the basis of accumulated mortality in the experimental groups lowest observed-effect concentration (LOEC) was estimated as 1100?µg/l; and no observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was 850?µg/l. Fulton's condition factor was significantly lower than in controls in fish exposed to 4000?µg/l after 7, 14, and 21 days. By day 14, fish exposed to 4000?µg/l prometryne showed significantly lower mass and total length compared to controls. Fish exposed the 1200 and 4000?µg/l showed delay in development, severe hyperaemia in gill, liver, and caudal and cranial kidney. Subchronic prometryne exposure of early-life stages of common carp at concentrations of 1200 and 4000?µg/l affected their survival, growth rate, early ontogeny, and histology. PMID:25752431

  19. Toxicity of phthalate esters exposure to carp (Cyprinus carpio) and antioxidant response by biomarker.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Gao, Ying; Qi, Mingliang

    2014-05-01

    To study the toxic effects of phthalate esters on the aquatic creatures, carps were exposed to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) of six different concentrations for 96 h-LC50 measurements. It shows that the 96 h-LC50 is 16.30 and 37.95 mg L(-1), thus the safe concentration (1/10LC(50)) is 1.63 mg L(-1). The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in liver to carp exposure for single or combinations of DBP and DEHP. The quantity of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) was also measured in the same way. XOD, CAT and MDA had shown an evident change while exposure time and concentration increased, combined exposure can aggravate this change. They might be used as early warning indicators and monitors, and have potentials in the ecological risk assessment. PMID:24468924

  20. Magnetic Alignment in Carps: Evidence from the Czech Christmas Fish Market

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Vlastimil; Kušta, Tomáš; N?mec, Pavel; Bláhová, Veronika; Ježek, Miloš; Nováková, Petra; Begall, Sabine; ?ervený, Jaroslav; Hanzal, Vladimír; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Štípek, Kamil; Vole, Christiane; Burda, Hynek

    2012-01-01

    While magnetoreception in birds has been studied intensively, the literature on magnetoreception in bony fish, and particularly in non-migratory fish, is quite scarce. We examined alignment of common carps (Cyprinus carpio) at traditional Christmas sale in the Czech Republic. The sample comprised measurements of the directional bearings in 14,537 individual fish, distributed among 80 large circular plastic tubs, at 25 localities in the Czech Republic, during 817 sampling sessions, on seven subsequent days in December 2011. We found that carps displayed a statistically highly significant spontaneous preference to align their bodies along the North-South axis. In the absence of any other common orientation cues which could explain this directional preference, we attribute the alignment of the fish to the geomagnetic field lines. It is apparent that the display of magnetic alignment is a simple experimental paradigm of great heuristic potential. PMID:23227241

  1. Structure of a Sialo-Oligosaccharide from Glycophorin in Carp Red Blood Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiko; Chimura, Kenji; Sugiura, Hikaru; Mizuno, Yasuko

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes and prepared the oligosaccharide fraction from glycophorin by ?-elimination [1]. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. These O-linked oligosaccharides (P-1 and P-2) were composed of glucose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc). The P-1 and P-2 contained one and two NeuGc residues, respectively, and the P-1 exhibited bacteriostatic activity [1]. Using NMR and GC-MS, we determined that the structure of the bacteriostatic P-1 was NeuGc?2?6 (Fuc?1?4) (Glc?1?3) Gal?1?4GalNAc-ol. This O-linked oligosaccharide was unique for a vertebrate with respect to the hexosamine and hexose linkages and its non-chain structure. PMID:25402951

  2. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the metabolome of the freshwater carp, Cyprinus Carpio.

    PubMed

    Kokushi, Emiko; Uno, Seiichi; Pal, Sandipan; Koyama, Jiro

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of waterborne chlorpyrifos with concentrations of 1 and 100 µg/L for L and H-groups, respectively, on metabolome profiles of carp plasma using (1) H-NMR. Principal component analysis suggests that chlorpyrifos exposure firstly affected in L and H-groups on day 2 or 4, and followed a second effect in both exposure groups on day 14. Levels of metabolites related to the energy production in the body, such as glucose, glycerol, valine, leucine, isoleucine, lactate, alanine, 3-D-hydroxybutyrates and acetoacetate, significantly changed by exposures of chlorpyrifos. Those results suggest that energy production was severely affected in carp. The exposure could also be highly elevated ammonia levels especially in H-group due to severe convulsion in muscle caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 253-260, 2015. PMID:23997021

  3. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of triploid pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2014-09-18

    Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of triploid pengze crucian carp was 16,580?bp in length. The mitochondrial genome contains 22 transfer RNAs, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding regions (control region and origin of light-strand replication). All genes were encoded on the heavy strain except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes. The overall base composition is A 31.53%, T 26.23%, G 16.15%, C 26.09%, with an A?+?T bias of 57.76%. The complete mtDNA sequence of the geographic triploid pengze crucian carp was reported in this study for the first time. PMID:25231717

  4. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92?mg?L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21?mg?L(-1) ?NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE® accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. PMID:22724455

  5. Multimarker approach analysis in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three freshwater sites.

    PubMed

    Tlili, Sofiene; Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; Haouas, Zohra; Mlayah, Ammar; Helal, Ahmed Noureddine; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the response of a multimarker approach in common carp Cyprinus carpio sampled from three Tunisian dam lakes selected according to different environmental and ecological characteristics. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was analyzed in carp liver and used as a phase II detoxification enzyme, hepatic metallothionein content (MTs) was used as a metallic stress indicator, and cholinesterase activities were analyzed in muscle and brain and used as neurotoxicity biomarker. Micronucleus frequency test (MN) as a genotoxicity marker. GST and MT levels showed an increase in fish from the Bir Mcherga site and a decrease in Sidi Saâd site with respect to fish from Nebhana site. Results showed a strong inhibition of cholinesterase activities in fish from Bir Mcherga and Sidi Saâd sites compared to Nebhana site. Relatively high level of MN is reported specially in fish blood from the Bir Mcherga site. PMID:19728127

  6. Invasive Species Fact Sheets: Carp, Snail, Aphid, Comb Jelly, Chocolate Vine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive species which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The species described here are the big head carp, the giant African snail, the balsam wooly aphid, the comb jelly and the chocolate vine. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.

  7. Direct evidence for interaction between lead ions and kidney DNA from silver crucian carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fashui Hong; Cheng Wu; Chao Liu; Ling Wang; Fengqing Gao; Fan Yang; Jianhua Xu; Tao Liu; Yaning Xie; Xiangzhen Li

    2007-01-01

    A direct interaction of lead (Pb) with kidney DNA from silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) has been systematically studied in vitro using multi-techniques, including UV–vis absorption, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism spectral methods and gel electrophoresis. We find that Pb is bound with four oxygen or nitrogen atoms of DNA in its fresh shell at

  8. Rapid growth cost in “all-fish” growth hormone gene transgenic carp: Reduced critical swimming speed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DeLiang Li; CuiZhang Fu; Wei Hu; Shan Zhong; YaPing Wang; ZuoYan Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that there is a trade-off between benefits and costs associated with rapid growth. A trade-off between\\u000a growth rates and critical swimming speed (U\\u000a crit) had been also reported to be common in teleost fish. We hypothesize that growth acceleration in the F3 generation of “all-fish” growth hormone gene (GH) transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) would reduce

  9. Insulin alone can lead to a withdrawal of meiotic arrest in the carp oocyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dasgupta; D. Basu; L. Ravi Kumar; S. Bhattacharya

    2001-01-01

    Meiotic arrest of oocyte in an Indian carp,Labeo rohita Ham. has been found for the first time to be withdrawn by insulin only. Addition of insulin to oocytesin vitro caused germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), one of the first visual markers to determine initiation of the final maturational\\u000a process. Under the influence of insulin the germinal vesicle (GV) of the oocyte

  10. Sinoatrial tissue of crucian carp heart has only negative contractile responses to autonomic agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Vornanen; Mervi Hälinen; Jaakko Haverinen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius) cardiac activity varies according to the seasons. To clarify the role of autonomic nervous control in modulation of cardiac activity, responses of atrial contraction and heart rate (HR) to carbacholine (CCh) and isoprenaline (Iso) were determined in fish acclimatized to winter (4°C, cold-acclimated, CA) and summer (18°C, warm-acclimated, WA) temperatures. RESULTS: Inhibitory

  11. Seasonality of ATPase activities in crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.) heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Aho; M. Vornamen

    1997-01-01

    The effects of seasonal acclimatization, thermal acclimation and anoxic exposure on total cation-activated ATPase and sarcolemmal\\u000a Na-K-ATPase activities of crucian carp heart were measured. The total cation-activated ATPase showed a positive correlation\\u000a with environmental temperature: activity was highest in mid summer and lower in early spring and late autumn. The decline\\u000a of total ATPase activity during cold seasons suggests that

  12. Body mass dependence of glycogen stores in the anoxia-tolerant crucian carp ( Carassius carassius L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Vornanen; Juha Asikainen; Jaakko Haverinen

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen is a vital energy substrate for anaerobic organisms, and the size of glycogen stores can be a limiting factor for\\u000a anoxia tolerance of animals. To this end, glycogen stores in 12 different tissues of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.), an anoxia-tolerant fish species, were examined. Glycogen content of different tissues was 2–10 times higher in winter\\u000a (0.68–18.20% of

  13. High-pressure treatment with silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) protein and its allergic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Liu; Wentong Xue

    2010-01-01

    The allergenicity and structural changes of silver carp allergens influenced by high-pressure treatment were studied. We treated the allergens at 100, 200 and 300 MPa for 10, 30 and 60 min at 20° C, used SDS–PAGE to separate the proteins and recognized the allergens by western blotting. Circular dichroism analysis was performed to characterize the structural change. From our study, we can determine

  14. Convective Drying Kinetics and Physical Properties of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Fillets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingqiang Wang; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate drying kinetics of silver carp fillets at the temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70°C for two air velocities (0.5 and 1.5 m\\/s) and to evaluate the effect of drying temperature on the physical properties of the products. From regression analysis of the experimental data, a Two-term model was found to adequately

  15. Effects of thermal acclimation on ventricle size, protein composition, and contractile properties of crucian carp heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pelouch; M. Vornanen

    1996-01-01

    1.1. The aim of the study was to find out how thermal adaptation affects ventricular size, protein composition and functional properties of the contractile machinery of the fish heart. For that purpose crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.) were acclimated in laboratory to 2° and 22°C for three months.2.2. Long-term acclimation to 2° increased the relative ventricular mass by 86% in

  16. Soybean meal induces intestinal inflammation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Urán, P A; Gonçalves, A A; Taverne-Thiele, J J; Schrama, J W; Verreth, J A J; Rombout, J H W M

    2008-12-01

    The development of soybean meal (SBM) induced enteritis in the hindgut of the omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The developed condition was assessed when carp, continuously fed on animal protein, were transferred to a diet in which 20% of the protein was replaced by SBM. After week 1, most of the inflammation parameters were already present, but at week 3, a strong aggravation of the condition was observed which included a shortening of the mucosal folds, the disappearance of the supranuclear vacuoles, an increased number of goblet cells, a thickened lamina propria and sub-epithelial mucosa with increased numbers of basophilic granulocytes as well as a decreased uptake capacity of enterocytes (impaired endocytosis and microvilli). Contrary to previous observations made with respect to Atlantic salmon, common carp start to recover from the fourth to the fifth week after switching to SBM feeding. At this stage, the supranuclear vacuoles refill and most of the parameters revert to basal levels. During the enteritis process, a real-time quantitative PCR analysis was conducted to measure the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in the isolated intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). The pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumour necrosis factor alpha1 (TNF-alpha1) genes were up-regulated during the inflammation process while the anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10) was down-regulated after an initial up-regulation at week 1. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) expression showed an up-regulation from week 3 onwards despite the high Ct value and the low primer efficiency shown. This study confirms the contribution of IEL (mainly T-like cells) and basophils in the enteritis process. In addition, the results show a clear involvement of up- and down-regulated cytokine genes in both the onset and recovery of the SBM-induced enteritis in the hindgut of carp. PMID:18954997

  17. Genetic characterization of wild and domesticated common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) populations from Uzbekistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asiya Murakaeva; Klaus Kohlmann; Petra Kersten; Bakhtiyar Kamilov; Damir Khabibullin

    2003-01-01

    One domesticated and five wild common carp populations from Uzbekistan have been genetically characterized by examining variability at 22 allozyme loci. The observed level of polymorphism was high (1.4–1.7 alleles per locus, 26.3–42.1% polymorphic loci and expected heterozygosities from 0.098 to 0.146) and similar to that previously found in German or East Asian populations. The Uzbek wild populations, with the

  18. Suitability of genetically modified soybean meal in a dietary ingredient for common carp Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indra Suharman; Shuichi Satoh; Yutaka Haga; Toshio Takeuchi; Ikuo Hirono; Takashi Aoki

    2010-01-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) soybean meal (SBM) in a feed ingredient on growth performance of common carp was investigated\\u000a in comparison to nonGM SBM. GM SBM was included at 34 and 48% in two experimental diets that were formulated with fish meal\\u000a (FM) to obtain approximately 38% protein in diet. Two other experimental diets were formulated to contain

  19. Biosynthesis of fatty acids by the carp, Cyprinus carpio L., in relation to environmental temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tibor Farkas; ISTVAN CSENGERI

    1976-01-01

    Incorporation in vivo of sodium 1-14C-acetate into different lipid classes and fatty acids of total lipids and phospholipids of warm adapted and cold adapted\\u000a carp livers was studied at 5 C and 22 C, respectively. The fatty acid composition of total lipids and phospholipids was also\\u000a determined. The level of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both total lipid and

  20. Purification and Characterization of Myofibril-bound Serine Proteinase from Carp Cyprinus carpio Ordinary Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoshi Osatomi; Hiroshi Sasai; Minjie Cao; Kenji Hara; Tadashi Ishihara

    1997-01-01

    1. A novel myofibril-bound serine proteinase (MBP) has been purified from ordinary muscle of the carp Cyprinus carpio. 2. It was solubilized from the myofibril fraction with acid treatment (under the conditions of 0.6 M KCl, pH 4.0), then purified by column chromatographic steps on Ultrogel AcA 54, and Arginine-Sepharose 4B. 3. The purified enzyme revealed a single protein band

  1. Characterization, expression and antibacterial properties of apolipoproteins A from carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Mariola A; Adamek, Miko?aj; Bili?ska, Barbara; Hejmej, Anna; Steinhagen, Dieter; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Apolipoproteins A are multifunctional proteins that, in addition to contributing to lipid metabolism and transport, are associated with the innate immune system in fish. Using a three step isolation procedure consisting of affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose, delipidation and reverse phase HPLC we isolated apolipoproteins from carp seminal plasma and identified them as ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa. Moreover, we provided the full-length cDNA sequence of ApoA-I encoding 257 amino acids including a 18 amino acid signal peptide and a 4 amino acid propeptide. Apolipoproteins corresponded to the most abundant proteins in carp seminal plasma. Both ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa were represented by several proteoforms that differ both in molecular mass and isoelectric point. The proteoforms of ApoA-I characteristic for seminal plasma were distinguished from those of blood. Carp seminal plasma ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa showed a high immunologic similarity to their counterparts in carp blood and seminal plasma of other Cyprinid species. The mRNA expression analysis and immunohistochemical study suggest synthesis and secretion of ApoA-I and Apo-14 kDa in the fish reproductive tract and suggest a role in spermatogenesis and the stabilization of sperm membrane. Moreover, ApoA-I displayed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and bacteriostatic activity against Aeromonas hydrophila which suggests that ApoA-I is associated with innate immune system of the fish reproductive tract. PMID:25251775

  2. Molecular analysis of silver crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) clones by SCAR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Zhou; Yang Wang; Jian-Fang Gui

    2001-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers specific for one, two or three clones have been identified from five gynogenetic clones of silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) using RAPD markers developed earlier. In this study, three RAPD markers (RA1-PA, RA2-EF and RA4-D) produced by Opj-1, and two RAPD DNA fragments (RA3-PAD and RA5-D) produced by Opj-7, were selected

  3. Characterization of oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Yi; Feng, Junchang; Lu, Shuangqing; Zhao, Qiong; Zhang, Jianshe

    2013-03-01

    The oligopeptide transporter (PepT1) is located on the brush-border membrane of the intestinal epithelium, and plays an important role in dipeptide and tripeptide absorptions from protein digestion. In this study, we cloned the PepT1 cDNA from grass carp and characterized its expression profile in response to dietary protein and feed additives (sodium butyrate) treatments. The PepT1 gene encodes a protein of 714 amino acids with high sequence similarity with other vertebrate homologues. Expression analysis revealed highest levels of PepT1 mRNA expression in the foregut of grass carp. In addition, PepT1 mRNA expression exhibited diurnal variation in all three bowel segments of intestine with lower levels of expression in daytime than nighttime. During embryonic development, PepT1 showed a dynamic pattern of expression reaching maximal levels of expression in the gastrula stage and minimal levels in the organ stage. The PepT1 expression showed constant levels from 14 to 34 day post-hatch. To determine whether fish diet of different protein contents may have any effect on PepT1 expression, we extended our research to dietary regulation of PepT1 expression. We found that dietary protein levels had a significant effect on PepT1 gene expression. In addition, PepT1 mRNA levels were higher after feeding with fish meal than with soybean meal. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo sodium butyrate treatments increased PepT1 expression in the intestine of grass carp. The results demonstrate for the first time that PepT1 mRNA expression is regulated in a temporal and spatial pattern during development, and dietary protein and feed additives had a significant effects on PepT1 gene expression in grass carp. PMID:23219926

  4. Sexually disrupting effects of nonylphenol and diethylstilbestrol on male silver carp ( Carassius auratus) in aquatic microcosms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Yang; Li Lina; Shaoping Weng; Zhiqin Feng; Tiangang Luan

    2008-01-01

    Based on detected nonylphenol (NP) levels in aquaculture water, this study investigated sexually disrupting effects in mature male silver carp (Carassius auratus) exposed to NP and a positive control diethylstilbestrol (DES). The combined evidences of steroid hormone (17?-estradiol, estrone and testosterone) levels and hispathological pictures showed that NP (?10?g\\/L) and DES could exert estrogenic effects through indirect mechanisms [i.e. increased

  5. Passing of northern pike and common carp through experimental barriers designed for use in wetland restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. P. French; Douglas A. Wilcox; S. Jerrine Nichols

    1999-01-01

    Restoration plans for Metzger Marsh, a coastal wetland on the south shore of western Lake Erie, incorporated a fish-control\\u000a system designed to restrict access to the wetland by large common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Ingress fish passageways in the structure contain slots into which experimental grates of varying size and shape can be\\u000a placed to selectively allow entry and transfer of

  6. CARP-1 Functional Mimetics: A Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Medulloblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Cheryan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Zoheir, Khairy M. A.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Levi, Edi; Tarca, Adi L.; Polin, Lisa A.; Rishi, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) constitute an aggressive class of intracranial pediatric tumors. Current multimodality treatments for MBs include surgery, ionizing radiation, and chemotherapy. Toxic side effects of therapies coupled with high incidence of recurrence and the metastatic spread warrant development of more effective, less toxic therapies for this disease. CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFMs and found that CFM-4 inhibits growth of MB cells in part by inducing CARP-1 expression, promoting PARP cleavage, activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK) p38 and JNK, and apoptosis. Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. Moreover, CFM-4 treatment stimulated expression of a number of molecules such as neurotrophin (NTF)3, and NF-?B signaling inhibitors ABIN1 and 2 proteins. Overexpression of NTF3 resulted in reduced MB cell viability while knock-down of NTF3 interfered with CFM-4-dependent loss of viability. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Together our data support anti-MB properties of CFM-4, and provide a proof-of-concept basis for further development of CFMs as potential anti-cancer agents for MBs. PMID:23826121

  7. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: Grass carp in large systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Bain

    1993-01-01

    Introduced species have created environmental benefits and unanticipated disasters so a priori assessments of species introductions\\u000a are needed for environmental management. A checklist for assessing impacts of introduced species was developed from studies\\u000a of introduced species and recommendations for planning introductions. Sterile, triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) are just beginning to be used as a biocontrol agent for the management

  8. Enhanced bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in carp in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongwen; Ruan, Yuefei; Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yanwei; Yu, Li

    2014-02-01

    The impact of suspended particles on the bioavailability of pollutants has long been a controversial topic. In this study, adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) onto a natural suspended particulate matter (SPM) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied. Facilitated transports of PCP into carp by SPM and MWCNTs were evaluated by bioaccumulation tests exposing carp (Carassius auratus red var.) to PCP-contaminated water in the presence of SPM and MWCNTs, respectively. Desorption of PCP on SPM and MWCNTs in simulated digested fluids was also investigated. The results demonstrate that MWCNTs (K F?=?7.99?×?10(4)) had a significantly stronger adsorption capacity for PCP than the SPM (K F?=?19.0). The presence of SPM and MWCNTs both improved PCP accumulation in the carp during the 21 days of exposure, and the 21 days PCP concentration in the carp was enhanced by 25.9 and 12.8 % than that without particles, respectively. The enhancement in bioaccumulation by MWCNTs was less than that by the SPM. Considerably more PCP was accumulated in the viscera of the fish (BCF?=?519495 for SPM and 148955 for MWCNTs), and the difference in PCP concentrations between different tissues became greater with particles. PCP desorption in the simulated digestive fluids was faster than that in the background solution. Compared to MWCNTs-bound PCP, more SPM-bound PCP was desorbed, and K F of desorption for SPM was at least 4 orders of magnitude higher than that for MWCNTs, which can explain the greater enhancement in bioaccumulation in the presence of SPM. Particle-bound pollutants might pose more risk than pollutants alone. PMID:24151027

  9. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  10. Integrated Assessment of Biomarker Response in Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Silver Catfish (Rhamdia quelen) Exposed to Clomazone.

    PubMed

    Murussi, Camila R; Costa, Maiara; Menezes, Charlene; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Guerra, Luciana; Lópes, Thais; Severo, Eduardo; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2015-05-01

    Clomazone is considered a potential contaminant of groundwater and is persistent in the environment. To verify the effects of clomazone in Cyprinus carpio and Rhamdia quelen, a method that combines biomarker responses into an index of "integrated biomarker response" (IBR) was used for observed biological alterations in these species. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in liver of carp and silver catfish decreased at both concentrations tested. However, in muscle it increased in carp at 3 mg/L and silver catfish at 6 mg/L. Protein carbonyl increased in liver (3 and 6 mg/L) and muscle (6 mg/L) of carp. In carp, superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased at 3 mg/L and catalase at 6 mg/L. In silver catfish, SOD in liver decreased at 3 mg/L. Glutathione-S-transferase increased at 3 mg/L in muscle of carp. Nonprotein thiol levels decreased at both concentrations in liver of silver catfish and muscle of carp. In silver catfish, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) decreased in brain at 6 mg/L. Nevertheless, AChE in muscle of both species increased at 3 and 6 mg/L. IBR was standardized scores of biomarker responses and was visualized using star plots. The IBR values shown that in carp there was predominantly an induction of parameters, whereas in silver catfish there was inhibition of these responses. In this way, IBR may be a practical tool for the identification of biological alterations in fish exposed to pesticides. In the present study, IBR was efficient for comparisons of fish species using clomazone. This study may serve as a base for evaluation of other pesticides in the rice field, environment, or laboratory experiment. PMID:25779373

  11. Effects of carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase activity in brain and muscle of the common carp.

    PubMed

    Ensibi, Cherif; Hernández-Moreno, David; Míguez Santiyán, M Prado; Daly Yahya, Mohamed Néjib; Rodríguez, Francisco Soler; Pérez-López, Marcos

    2014-04-01

    This work investigated the effect from exposure to insecticides carbofuran and deltamethrin on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain and muscle of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Both pesticides were evaluated through two separate experiments, and carp were exposed in a semi-static system to three different concentrations of carbofuran (10, 50, and 100 ?g/L) and deltamethrin (0.08, 0.4, and 0.8 ?g/L) during a month with sampling times at 0, 4, 15, and 30 days (n = 7 from each aquarium). AChE activity was significantly inhibited in both organs of carps exposed to carbofuran at all sampling times depending on dose and time, reaching inhibition values of 73.5 and 67.1%, in brain and muscle tissues respectively, after 30 days with the highest concentration. On the contrary, AChE activity was not significantly affected after deltamethrin exposure at all concentrations and times of the assay. This study shows that the measurement of brain and muscle AChE activity in Cyprinus carpio is a useful biomarker of carbamates exposure and/or effects, but has no application with pyrethroids. PMID:22422543

  12. Aluminum-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in grass carp (Cyprinidae--Ctenopharingodon idella).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Dávila, María Lourdes; Razo-Estrada, Amparo Celene; García-Medina, Sandra; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel; Piñón-López, Manuel Jesús; Ibarra, Rocio Guzmán; Galar-Martínez, Marcela

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum is used in a large number of anthropogenic processes, leading to aquatic ecosystems pollution. Diverse studies show that in mammals this metal may produce oxidative stress, is neurotoxic, and is involved in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzhaimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Nevertheless, there are only few studies with respect to Al-induced neurotoxicity on aquatic fauna, particularly on fishes of economical interest, such as the grass carp (Ctenopharingodon idella). This study evaluates Al-induced toxicity on the grass carp C. idella. Specimens were exposed to the maximum concentration allowed in order to protect aquatic life (0.1 mg L?¹), for 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. After the exposure time, lipid peroxidation degree, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, as well as dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline levels were evaluated. Al concentration in organisms and water was also measured, in order to determine the bioconcentration factor. Results show that Al bioconcentrates in grass carp inducing oxidative stress (increment of 300 and 455 percent on lipid peroxidation degree and SOD activity, and decrement of 49 percent on CAT activity) and neurotoxicity (increment of 55 and 155 percent on dopamine and adrenaline levels and decrement of 93 percent on noradrenaline level). PMID:21993346

  13. Effects of cyhalothrin-based pesticide on early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Richterová, Zuzana; Máchová, Jana; Stará, Alžb?ta; Tumová, Jitka; Velíšek, Josef; Sev?íková, Marie; Svobodová, Zde?ka

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Nexide (a.i. gamma-cyhalothrin 60?g L(-1)) on cumulative mortality, growth indices, and ontogenetic development of embryos and larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were studied. Levels of oxidative stress parameters glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation were determined. Eggs of newly fertilised common carp were exposed to Nexide at concentrations 5, 25, 50, 100, and 250? ? g?L(-1) (0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15? ? g?L(-1) gamma-cyhalothrin). All organisms exposed to concentrations higher than 50? ? g?L(-1) died soon after hatching; at 25? ? g?L(-1), 95% mortality was recorded. Larvae exposed to 5? ? g?L(-1) showed significantly lower growth and retarded ontogenetic development compared to control. Histological examination of the livers of larvae from the exposed group revealed dystrophic changes. The value of detoxification enzyme GST of organisms from the exposed group was significantly higher compared to the control and the value of defensive enzyme GPx was significantly lower compared to the control. The results of our investigation confirmed that contamination of aquatic environment by pesticides containing cyhalothrin may impair growth and development of early life stages of carp and cause disbalance of defensive enzymes. PMID:24860807

  14. Primary structures of multiple forms of urotensin II in the urophysis of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, T; Lederis, K; Kobayashi, H

    1984-07-01

    Multiple forms of urotensin II (UII), one of the hormonal peptides of the caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, were purified from the urophyses of the carp, Cyprinus carpio. Three distinct peaks with UII activity (classified as UII-alpha, -beta and -gamma) were separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Edman degradation as well as digestion with carboxypeptidase A revealed the primary structures of these peptides as UII-alpha: Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Asp-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Val UII-beta: Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Thr-Glu-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Val UII-gamma: Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Asp-Cys-Phe-Trp-Lys-Tyr-Cys-Ile The results of thin-layer chromatography, HPLC, amino acid analysis, and sequencing indicate that UII-alpha and -gamma are homogeneous. UII-beta appears, however, to be a mixture of two components, differing only at position 2. Thus, in the carp urophysis, four forms of UII appear to be present, although the separation of two components in UII-beta has not been obtained. Sequence of positions 6-11 is common to all forms of UII isolated from the carp, sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and goby (Gillichthys mirabilis). PMID:6745627

  15. Biomarker Benchmarks: Reproductive and Endocrine Biomarkers in Largemouth Bass and Common Carp from United States Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Smith, Stephen B.; Greene, Patricia S.; Rauschenberger, Richard H.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a national database and report on endocrine and reproductive condition in two species of fish collected in U.S. streams and rivers. This information provides scientists with a national basis for comparing results of endocrine measurements in fish from individual sites throughout the country, so that scientists can better ascertain normal levels of biomarkers. The database includes information on several measures of reproductive and endocrine condition for common carp and largemouth bass. Data summaries are provided by reproductive season and geographic region. A national-scale reconnaissance investigation was initiated in 1994 by the USGS that utilized a suite of biological assays (biomarkers) as indicators of reproductive health, and potentially, endocrine disruption in two widely distributed species of teleost (bony) fish, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and common carp (Cyrinus carpio). The suite of assays included plasma sex-steroid hormones, stage of gonadal development, and plasma vitellogenin, an egg protein that indicates exposure to estrogenic compounds when found in male fish. More than 2,200 common carp and 650 largemouth bass were collected at 119 rivers and streams (fig. 1).

  16. Spring viraemia of carp virus induces autophagy for necessary viral replication.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyue; Zhu, Bibo; Wu, Shusheng; Lin, Li; Liu, Guangxin; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Weimin; Asim, Muhammad; Yuan, Junfa; Li, Lijuan; Wang, Min; Lu, Yuanan; Wang, Huanling; Cao, Jianbo; Liu, Xueqin

    2015-04-01

    Outbreaks of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) in several carp species and other cultivated fish can cause significant mortality and jeopardize the billion-dollar worldwide fish industry. Spring viraemia of carp virus, also known as Rhabdovirus carpio, is a bullet-shaped RNA virus that enters and amplifies in gill epithelium and later spreads to internal organs. Young fish under stressed conditions (spring cold water, etc.) are more vulnerable to SVCV-induced lethality because of their lack of a mature immune system. Currently, the host response of SVCV remains largely unknown. Here, we observed that autophagy is activated in SVCV-infected epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells. We demonstrated that the SVCV glycoprotein, rather than viral replication, activates the autophagy pathway. In addition, SVCV utilized the autophagy pathway to facilitate its own genomic RNA replication and to enhance its titres in the supernatants. Autophagy promoted the survival of SVCV-infected cells by eliminating damaged mitochondrial DNA generated during viral infection. We further showed that SVCV induces autophagy in EPC cells through the ERK/mTOR signalling pathway. Our results reveal a connection between autophagy and SVCV replication and propose autophagy suppression as a novel means to restrict SVCV viral replication. PMID:25376386

  17. Ontogeny of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Huttenhuis, Heidi B T; Taverne-Thiele, Anja J; Grou, Cláudia P O; Bergsma, Jorrit; Saeij, Jeroen P J; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rombout, Jan H W M

    2006-01-01

    The ontogeny of the teleost innate immune system was studied in carp using cellular, histological and quantitative molecular techniques. Carp myeloid cells first appeared ventro-lateral of the aorta at 2 days post fertilization (the start of hatching), and subsequently around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis (or posterior blood islet), head kidney and trunk kidney. In addition, the hematopoietic tissue around the sinuses of the vena cardinalis transformed into that of the trunk kidney, which is the first description of the ontogeny of the trunk kidney hematopoietic tissue in teleosts. The mAb's used in this study reacted with carp myeloid surface molecules that are already transcribed and processed from the first appearance of myeloid cells, and thus serve a significant role in unraveling ontogenetic processes of teleost immunology. Finally, this study associated the first appearance of myeloid cells with an immune response on the molecular level: 2 days post fertilization embryos responded to LPS injection with upregulation of interleukin 1-beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and serum amyloid A, and down-regulation of complement factor 3 and alpha2-macroglobulin, implying a functional embryonic innate defense system. PMID:16406121

  18. An in vivo study of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) liver during prolonged hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Poon, W L; Hung, C Y; Nakano, K; Randall, D J

    2007-12-01

    Hypoxia induced apoptosis has been studied extensively in many mammalian cell lines but there are only a few studies using whole animal models. We investigated the response of the intact liver to hypoxia in a hypoxia tolerant fish, the carp (Cyprinus carpio, L). We exposed carp to hypoxia for up to 42 days, using oxygen level (0.5 mgO(2)/L) that were slightly higher than the critical oxygen level of carp. There was extensive DNA damage in liver cells, especially during the first week of exposure, indicated by a massive TUNEL signal. However there was no change in cell proliferation, cell number or size, no increase in caspase-3 activity, no increase in single stranded DNA and this, combined with a number of other observations, led us to conclude there was no increase in apoptosis in the liver during hypoxia. There was up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes and proteins (Bcl-2, HSP70, p27) and down-regulation of some pro-apoptotic genes (Tetraspanin 5 and Cell death activator). The cells appeared to enter cell cycle arrest, presumably to allow repair of damaged DNA. As there was no change in cell proliferation and cell number, the damaged cells were not entering apoptosis and must have recovered during prolonged hypoxia. PMID:20483301

  19. Out-of-sample validation for structured expert judgment of Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Roger M; Wittmann, Marion E; Lodge, David M; Rothlisberger, John D; Rutherford, Edward S; Zhang, Hongyan; Mason, Doran M

    2014-01-01

    Structured expert judgment (SEJ) is used to quantify the uncertainty of nonindigenous fish (bighead carp [Hypophthalmichthys nobilis] and silver carp [H. molitrix]) establishment in Lake Erie. The classical model for structured expert judgment model is applied. Forming a weighted combination (called a decision maker) of experts' distributions, with weights derived from performance on a set of calibration variables from the experts' field, exhibits greater statistical accuracy and greater informativeness than simple averaging with equal weights. New methods of cross validation are applied and suggest that performance characteristics relative to equal weighting could be predicted with a small number (1–2) of calibration variables. The performance-based decision maker is somewhat degraded on out-of-sample prediction, but remained superior to the equal weight decision maker in terms of statistical accuracy and informativeness. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2014;10:522–528. © 2014 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. Key Points Structured expert judgment is applied to quantify uncertainty in Asian carp establishment in Lake Erie Calibration variables from the experts' field are used to enable performance-based combination In sample validation is applied to the combination of expert judgments and to the experts Out-of-sample validation is applied to the performance-based combination method PMID:25044130

  20. Protective effect of shrimp carotenoids against ammonia stress in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Rama, Sowmya; Manjabhat, Sachindra N

    2014-09-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of shrimp carotenoids on ammonia stress in common carp. Crude carotenoid extract from shrimp exoskeleton, astaxanthin and astaxanthin ester fractionated from crude extract was fed to the common carp fingerlings at 100 and 200ppm concentration by incorporating carotenoids into feed. Experimental and control fish were then exposed to sublethal dose of ammonia. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were measured to determine the effect of dietary carotenoid on defense status of fish. Activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured to determine the protective effect of carotenoids against tissue damage caused by the ammonia stress. TAS, catalase and SOD activity was higher in tissues from fish fed with the diet containing astaxanthin rich and astaxanthin ester rich extract compared to fish fed with control diet. TAS reduced in the tissues considerably after exposure to ammonia. However, TAS was still higher in tissues from fish fed with carotenoid containing diet than in tissues from fish fed with control diet. Eventhough there was an increase in the activities of ALT and AST due to stress by ammonia toxicity in all groups, fish fed with astaxanthin extract had lower activities and also prevented lipid peroxidation in the tissues. In conclusion, shrimp carotenoid increased the resistance of common carp fingerlings to ammonia induced stress. PMID:25011116

  1. Characterization of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) IL-17D: molecular cloning, functional implication and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Du, Linyong; Qin, Lei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Anying; Wei, He; Zhou, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Although the roles of IL-17 family members during inflammation have been extensively studied in mammals, their knowledge in lower vertebrates is limited. In particular, the biological activities of fish IL-17 and their functional roles are largely unknown. In this study, we cloned grass carp IL-17D (gcIL-17D) and found that its putative protein possessed the conserved features of IL-17 family members. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gcIL-17D was preferentially expressed in the mucosal tissues, including skin, gill and intestine. Subsequently, the involvement of gcIL-17D in inflammatory response was demonstrated by examining the expression profiles of gcIL-17D in head kidney and head kidney leukocytes following in vivo bacterial infection and in vitro LPS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, recombinant gcIL-17D (rgcIL-17D) was prepared in grass carp kidney cells and was able to promote the gene expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-? and CXCL-8) in grass carp primary head kidney cells, revealing gcIL-17D can function as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, rgcIL-17D appeared to activate NF-?B signaling by modulating the phosphorylation of I?B? and up-regulated CXCL-8 mRNA expression possibly through NF-?B pathway. Our data shed new light on the functional role of teleost IL-17D in inflammatory response. PMID:24120974

  2. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis: implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Li, S F; Xu, J W; Yang, Q L; Wang, C H; Chen, Q; Chapman, D C; Lu, G

    2009-05-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98.8%), lowest in the control region (89.4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94.2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. PMID:20735671

  3. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  4. A comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of silver carp hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp hypophthalmichthys nobilis: Implications for their taxonomic relationship and phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, S.-F.; Xu, J.-W.; Yang, Q.-L.; Wang, C.H.; Chen, Q.; Chapman, D.C.; Lu, G.

    2009-01-01

    Based upon morphological characters, Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (or Aristichthys nobilis) have been classified into either the same genus or two distinct genera. Consequently, the taxonomic relationship of the two species at the generic level remains equivocal. This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. As with other cyprinid fishes, the mitogenomes of the two species were structurally conserved, containing 37 genes including 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNAs) genes and a putative control region (D-loop). Sequence similarity between the two mitogenomes varied in different genes or regions, being highest in the tRNA genes (98??8%), lowest in the control region (89??4%) and intermediate in the protein-coding genes (94??2%). Analyses of the sequence comparison and phylogeny using concatenated protein sequences support the view that the two species belong to the genus Hypophthalmichthys. Further studies using nuclear markers and involving more closely related species, and the systematic combination of traditional biology and molecular biology are needed in order to confirm this conclusion. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Assessment of environmental quality and inland water pollution using biomarker responses in caged carp ( Cyprinus carpio): Use of a bioactivation:detoxication ratio as a Biotransformation Index (BTI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. van der Oost; S. C. C. Lopes; H. Komen; K. Satumalay; Bosch van den R; H. Heida; N. P. E. Vermeulen

    1998-01-01

    In the present study the bioaccumulation of poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the responses of a suite of biochemical parameters were investigated in a standardized carp (Cyprinus carpio) fish line. Carps were caged for 2 to 8 weeks at two Amsterdam freshwater sites: the relatively unpolluted Outer IJ and the heavily polluted Volgermeerpolder. The

  6. Changes in the fish community of the Ömerli Reservoir (Turkey) following the introduction of non-native gibel carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and other human impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özcan Gaygusuz; Ali Serhan Tarkan; Gürsoy Gaygusuz

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the relative density (catch per unit effort; CPUE) of introduced gibel carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) and native fish species were monitored over four years in the Ömerli Reservoir, a temperate drinking-water reservoir in northwestern Turkey. Following the species' introduction, the CPUE of gibel carp increased significantly with the decrease in CPUE of large- bodied native fish species.

  7. Polymorphism in ornamental and common carp strains ( Cyprinus carpio L.) as revealed by AFLP analysis and a new set of microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. David; P. Rajasekaran; J. Fang; J. Hillel; U. Lavi

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven new microsatellite markers were generated and applied, together with the AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique using two different enzyme combinations, to the genetic analysis of two carp species, Cyprinus carpio L. and Ctenopharyngodon idella. The extent of polymorphism and the genetic relationships between nine carp populations were studied. The incidence of microsatellites containing CA and CT motifs was

  8. BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 27 Tho demand for carp in the State is far beyond our present ability to

    E-print Network

    BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSION. 27 Tho demand for carp in the State is far beyond many ponds throughout the State. From many sources I learn that dams have broken, and that the carp command. The dams should be packed down and built at least two feet above the level of the water

  9. Complete genomic sequence of a reovirus isolated from grass carp in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-yuan; Deng, Guo-cheng; Chi, Yan-yan; Jiang, Xiao-yan

    2012-01-01

    A reovirus was isolated from sick grass carp in Guangdong, China in 2009, and tentatively named 'grass carp reovirus Guangdong 108 strain' (GCRV-GD108). This reovirus was propagated in grass carp snout fibroblast cell line PSF with no obvious cytopathic effects. Its genome was 24,703bp in length with a 50% G+C content and 11 dsRNA segments encoding 11 proteins instead of 12 proteins. It has been classified as an Aquareovirus (AQRV). Sequence comparisons showed that it possessed only 7 homologous proteins to grass carp reovirus (GCRV) (with 17.6-45.8% identities), but 9 homologous proteins to mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRV) (with 15-46% identities). GCRV-GD108 lacked homology to VP7, NS4&NS5 and NS3 of GCRV, while it had sigma1 and sigma NS homology to MRV. VP2 of GCRV-GD108 shared high amino acid sequence identity (44-47%) with AQRVs, whereas VP5 did not exhibit much identity (24-25%) to AQRVs. Conserved terminal sequences, 5'-GUAAUUU and UUCAUC-3', were found in all of the 11 genomic segments of GCRV-GD108 at the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) of the segments. The 5' NCRs of GCRV-GD108 was similar to GCRV, but differed from other species of AQRV or Orthoreoviruses (ORV). Phylogenetic analysis of coat proteins belonging to Reoviridae, VP1-VP6, showed that GCRV-GD108 clustered with AQRVs and grouped with ORVs, suggesting that GCRV-GD108 belonged to the genus Aquareovirus but was distinctive from any known species of AQRV. Morphological and pathological analyses, and genetic characterization of GCRV-GD108 suggested that it may be a new species of AQRV and it was more closely related with ORVs than other AQRVs. In addition, RT-PCR analysis of diseased grass carp samples collected from different regions of China indicated that these viruses displayed high similarities to each other (95.3-99.4%). They also shared high sequence similarities to GCRV-GD108 (96.7-99.4%), indicating that GCRV-GD108 is representative of the prevalence strain in southern China. PMID:22044618

  10. Molecular and functional characterization of the scavenger receptor CD36 in zebrafish and common carp.

    PubMed

    Fink, Inge R; Benard, Erica L; Hermsen, Trudi; Meijer, Annemarie H; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2015-02-01

    CD36 is a scavenger receptor which has been studied closely in mammals where it is expressed by many different cell types and plays a role in highly diverse processes, both homeostatic and pathologic. It is among other things important in the innate immune system, in angiogenesis, and in clearance of apoptotic cells, and it is also involved in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis. Recently, in the cephalochordate amphioxus a primitive CD36 family member was described, which was present before the divergence of CD36 from other scavenger receptor B family members, SCARB1 and SCARB2. Not much is known on the Cd36 molecule in teleost fish. We therefore studied Cd36 in both zebrafish and common carp, two closely related cyprinid fish species. Whereas a single cd36 gene is present in zebrafish, carp has two cd36 genes, and all show conserved synteny compared to mammalian CD36. The gene expression of carp cd36 is high in brain, ovary and testis but absent in immune organs. Although in mammals CD36 expression in erythrocytes, monocytes and macrophages is high, gene expression studies in leukocyte subtypes of adult carp and zebrafish larvae, including thrombocytes and macrophages provided no indication for any substantial expression of cd36 in immune cell types. Surprisingly, analysis of the cd36 promoter region does show the presence of several binding sites for transcription factors known to regulate immune responses. Overexpression of carp cd36 locates the receptor on the cell surface of mammalian cell lines consistent with the predicted topology of cyprinid Cd36 with a large extracellular domain, two transmembrane domains, and short cytoplasmic tails at both ends. Gene expression of cd36 is down-regulated during infection of zebrafish with Mycobacterium marinum, whereas knockdown of cd36 in zebrafish larvae led to higher bacterial burden upon such infection. We discuss the putative role for Cd36 in immune responses of fish in the context of other members of the scavenger receptor class B family. PMID:25306962

  11. Ovarian development and related changes in steroid hormones in female wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio), from the south-eastern Caspian Sea.

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, A; Mojazi Amiri, B; Fostier, A

    2014-12-01

    Wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a native valuable but threatened species from the south-eastern Caspian Sea in which the endocrine control of its reproduction has not been studied. The objectives of this research were to study the reproductive strategy and changes in steroid hormones during ovarian development. From October 2009 to June 2010, 65 adult females were caught from the Golestan coast (Iran) and the ovarian histology, and gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI and HSI) were studied. Also, the plasma profiles of steroid hormones including testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-, 20?-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The GSI increased gradually during sampling times and reached maximum value at the peak of reproduction season, but the HSI decreased during spawning season. All stages of ovarian development, except the stage of Balbiani bodies, were recorded macro- and microscopically. Spent fish were caught at six of nine sampling times. The peaks of spawning were at late winter and early spring. The results of this study showed that the majority of wild carp collected during the sampling period displayed asynchronous oocyte development. Plasma T showed no significant differences during sampling times or at different stages of ovarian development. The level of E2 decreased gradually during sampling times reached minimum value at the spawning season, and highest value was recorded at tertiary vitellogenesis stage. The plasma levels of DHP during late winter and early spring were significantly higher than those of other sampling periods and its maximum level associated with oocyte maturation stage. PMID:24621281

  12. Compositional characteristics of materials recovered from whole gutted silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) using isoelectric solubilization/precipitation.

    PubMed

    Taskaya, Latif; Chen, Yi-Chen; Beamer, Sarah; Tou, Janet C; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2009-05-27

    Isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) at acidic and basic pH was applied to whole carp, yielding proteins, lipids, and insolubles. The objective was to characterize composition of recovered materials. Crude protein was concentrated to 89-90% in proteins recovered at acidic pH and to 94-95% at basic pH. Basic pH yielded proteins with more (P < 0.05) essential amino acids (EAAs). EAA content in recovered proteins met FAO/WHO/UNO requirements. ISP did not affect fatty acid (FA) composition. Lipids recovered at acidic pH contained 88-89% of total fat and at basic pH, 94-97%. Total fat in recovered proteins was low, with EPA and DHA at the highest (P < 0.05) percentage for pH 11.5. ISP, particularly basic pH, effectively removed impurities such as bones and scales from whole carp. This is indicated by 3.8-5.8% of ash in recovered proteins compared to 11.2% for whole carp and 5.4% for boneless/skinless carp fillets. Basic pH yielded less (P < 0.05) Ca, P, and Mg in recovered proteins. These minerals were more (P < 0.05) concentrated in insolubles recovered with basic pH. This study indicates that materials recovered from whole carp using ISP have high nutritional value and may be useful in the development of human food and animal feeds. PMID:19368395

  13. Feeding and swimming modulate iono-and-hormonal regulation differently in goldfish, Carassius auratus and common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Mauro, Nathalie; Diricx, Marjan; Darras, Veerle M; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2013-05-01

    Feeding and swimming can influence ion balance in fish. Therefore we investigated their impact on ionoregulation and its hormonal control in goldfish and common carp. As expected due to the osmorespiratory compromise, exhaustive swimming induced increases in gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) activity in both species, resulting in stable levels of plasma ions. In contrast to our expectations, this only occurred in fed fish and feeding itself increased NKA activity, especially in carp. Fasting fish were able to maintain ion balance without increasing NKA activity, we propose that the increase in NKA activity is related to ammonia excretion rather than ion uptake per se. In goldfish, this increase in NKA activity coincided with a cortisol elevation whilst no significant change was found in carp. In goldfish, high conversion of plasma T4 to T3 was found in both fed and fasted fish resulting in low T4/T3 ratios, which increased slightly due to exhaustive swimming. In starved carp the conversion seemed much less efficient, and high T4/T3 ratios were observed. We propose that thyroid hormone regulation in carp was more related to its role in energy metabolism rather than ionoregulation. The present research showed that both species, whether fed or fasted, are able to sufficiently adapt their osmorepiratory strategy to minimise ions losses whilst maintaining gas exchange under exhaustive swimming. PMID:23422918

  14. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers.

    PubMed

    George, Amy E; Chapman, Duane C

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  15. Embryonic and Larval Development and Early Behavior in Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: Implications for Recruitment in Rivers

    PubMed Central

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one “cold” and one “warm”, and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi’s (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers. PMID:25822837

  16. Assessment of pesticide residues and gene expression in common carp exposed to atrazine and chlorpyrifos: Health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Zhilei; Wu, Hongda; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Tao; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed the impacts of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on the kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the expression levels of heat shock proteins genes (HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90) and pesticide residues in the kidney tissue. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 were induced in the kidney of common carp by ATR, CPF, and ATR/CPF mixture. The accumulated amounts of ATR, CPF, and their metabolites in the kidney tissues exhibited dose-dependency. These results exhibited that increasing concentration of ATR and CPF in the environment causes considerable stress for common carp, suggesting that the expression levels of HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 may act as potential biomarkers for assessing the environmental ATR and CPF risk for carp. PMID:25568939

  17. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruber, S.J.; Munn, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) activity was used as a biomarker for assessing exposure of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to organophosphate and carbamate insecticides from irrigated agricultural waters. Carp were collected from a lake (Royal Lake) that receives most of its water from irrigation return flows and from a reference lake (Billy Clapp Lake) outside of the irrigation system. Results indicated that the mean whole-brain ChE activity of carp from Royal Lake (3.47 ??mol/min/g tissue) was 34.2% less than that of carp from Billy Clapp Lake (5.27 ??mol/min/g tissue) (p = 0.003). The depressed ChE activity in brain tissue of Royal Lake carp was in response to ChE- inhibiting insecticides detected in water samples in the weeks prior to tissue sampling; the most frequently detected insecticides included chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and ethoprop. Neither sex nor size appears to be a covariable in the analysis; ChE activity was not correlated with fish length or weight in either lake and there was no significant difference in ChE activity between the two sexes within each lake. Although organophosphate and carbamate insecticides can break down rapidly in the environment, this study suggests that in agricultural regions where insecticides are applied for extended periods of the year, nontarget aquatic biota may be exposed to high levels of ChE-inhibiting insecticides for a period of several months.

  18. Embryonic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.

    2015-01-01

    With recent findings of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in tributaries of the Great Lakes, information on developmental rate and larval behavior is critical to efforts to assess the potential for establishment within the tributaries of that region. In laboratory experiments, grass carp were spawned and eggs and larvae reared at two temperature treatments, one "cold" and one "warm", and tracked for developmental rate, egg size, and behavior. Developmental rate was quantified using Yi's (1988) developmental stages and the cumulative thermal units method. Grass carp had a thermal minimum of 13.5°C for embryonic stages and 13.3°C for larval stages. Egg size was related to temperature and maternal size, with the largest eggs coming from the largest females, and eggs were generally larger in warmer treatments. Young grass carp larvae exhibited upward and downward swimming interspersed with long periods of lying on the bottom. Swimming capacity increased with ontogeny, and larvae were capable of horizontal swimming and position holding with gas bladder emergence. Developmental rates, behavior, and egg attributes can be used in combination with physical parameters of a river to assess the risk that grass carp are capable of reproduction and recruitment in rivers.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): evidence for its involvement in antiviral innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiaobao; Xu, Dan; Lu, Liqun

    2013-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF), which participates in innate immune response and regulates TNF-? transcription, has been identified and characterized in various organisms. In a study to screen interacting cellular proteins with grass carp reovirus using yeast two-hybrid system, a grass carp homologue of LITAF was identified to bind the NS26 protein encoded by the S11 genomic fragment of Grass carp reovirus (GCRV). In this study, grass carp LPS-induced TNF-? factor gene (designated as CiLITAF) was cloned and sequenced from the cDNA library constructed for the yeast two-hybrid screening. The CiLITAF cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 483 bp encoding a polypeptide of 161 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 17.0 kDa. In CIK cells infected with GCRV or treated with poly (I:C), transiently stimulated transcription of CiLITAF mRNA was noticed at 8 h post infection or poly (I:C) treatment. Grass carp TNF-? (CiTNF?) transcriptional level was also transiently induced to a high level following the stimulation of CiLITAF in these in vitro tests. In vivo analysis further showed that, significantly up-regulated transcriptional expression of both CiLITAF and CiTNF? were detected in the spleen tissue as early as 48 h post challenge with GCRV. This study thus characterized CiLITAF as an inducible gene responding to viral infection. PMID:23253491

  20. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    PubMed

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five ?-helixes, eight ?-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  1. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

  2. Organic Chemical Concentrations and Reproductive Biomarkers in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Collected from Two Areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, May 1999-May 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Leiker, Thomas J.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Jenkins, Jill A.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Orsak, Erik; Rosen, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and Nevada Department of Wildlife, collected and assessed data to determine the general health and reproductive status of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at two study areas in Lake Mead, Nevada, during May 1999-May 2000. These data will form the basis of interpretations and provide a comparison for continuing studies on the health of the ecosystem in Lake Mead. One study area, Las Vegas Bay, is in the western part of Lake Mead. Las Vegas Bay receives inflows from Las Vegas Wash, which is predominantly tertiary-treated wastewater effluent, and to a lesser extent stormwater runoff from Las Vegas, Henderson, and other nearby communities, and from ground water underlying Las Vegas Valley. The other study area, Overton Arm, is in the northern extent of Lake Mead. Overton Arm receives inflow from the Virgin and Muddy Rivers, which historically are not influenced by wastewater effluent. Both sexes of common carp were collected bimonthly for 12 months using boat-mounted electrofishing gear (a direct electric current is used to temporarily immobilize fish for capture) to determine their health and reproductive status and any relation between these factors and environmental contaminants. This report presents fish tissue chemistry, organic chemical compound concentrations, and biomarker data for 83 male common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, similar organic chemistry results for 15 male common carp, and similar biomarker measures for 80 male common carp collected from Overton Arm. Tissue chemistry results also are presented for 16 female common carp and biomarker measures for 79 female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay, and tissue chemistry results for 15 female common carp and biomarker measures for 81 female common carp collected from Overton Arm. Thirty-three organic chemical compounds plus total concentrations for four groups of compounds (chlordanes, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], brominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs], and triclosans) were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay during May 1999 through May 2000. All 33 compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from male common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay. In Overton Arm, 37 organic compounds plus total concentrations of three groups of compounds (PCBs, BDEs, and triclosans) were analyzed in male common carp where 20 (54 percent) of the compounds were detected. Sixteen of the 33 compounds detected in male common carp from Las Vegas Bay and 10 compounds detected in males from Overton Arm have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system in fish in Lake Mead. During May and June 1999, the mean concentration of all organic compounds detected in male common carp was 670 micrograms per kilogram from Las Vegas Bay and 109 micrograms per kilogram from Overton Arm. Twenty-seven organic compounds plus total PCBs were analyzed from extracts of whole-body tissue in female common carp collected in Las Vegas Bay and Overton Arm during May 1999. Twenty-four (86 percent) of these compounds were detected in at least one sample of whole-body tissue from female common carp collected from Las Vegas Bay while 10 (36 percent) chemical compounds were detected in female common carp from Overton Arm during that same period. Median concentrations of all chemical compounds were higher in female common carp from Las Vegas Bay compared to those collected from Overton Arm except Dacthal (DCPA), which was similar between sites. Biomarker measures obtained for male and female common carp include gonadosomatic index (percentage of gonad weight to total body weight), plasma vitellogenin (a phospholipid protein normally produced by female common carp and other oviparous fish), and condition factor [body weight/(fork length)3]. Biomarker measures for male c

  3. Detection of environmental DNA of Bigheaded Carps in samples collected from selected locations in the St. Croix River and in the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amberg, Jon J.; McCalla, S. Grace; Miller, Loren; Sorensen, Peter; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of molecular methods, such as the detection of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA), have become an increasingly popular tool in surveillance programs that monitor for the presence of invasive species in aquatic systems. One early application of these methods in aquatic systems was surveillance for DNA of Asian carps (specifically bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp H. molitrix) in water samples taken from the Chicago Area Waterway System. The ability to identify DNA of a species in an environmental sample presents a potentially powerful tool because these sensitive analyses can presumably detect the presence of DNA in water even when the species is not abundant or are difficult to catch or monitor with traditional gear. Prior to research presented in this report, an initial eDNA surveillance effort was completed in selected locations in the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers in 2011 after the capture of a bighead carp in the St. Croix River near Prescott, WI. Data presented in this report were developed to duplicate the 2011 monitoring results from the Upper Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers and to provide critical insight into the technique to inform future work in these locations. We specifically sought to understand the potential confounding effects of other pathways of eDNA movement (e.g., fish-eating birds, watercraft) on the variation in background DNA by collecting water samples from (1) sites within the St. Croix River and the upper Mississippi River where the DNA of silver carp was previously detected, (2) sites considered to be free of Asian carp, and (3) a site known to have a large population of Asian carp. We also sought to establish a baseline Asian carp eDNA signature to which future eDNA sampling efforts could be compared. All samples taken as part of this effort were processed using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) according to procedures outlined in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Quality Assurance Project Plan with minor deviations designed to enhance the rigor of our data. Presence of DNA in PCR-positive samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing (forward and reverse) and sequences were considered positive only if sequences (forward and reverse) of ?150 base pairs had a match of ?95% to those of published sequences for bighead carp or silver carp. The DNA of bighead carp and silver carp was not detected in environmental samples collected above and below St. Croix Falls Dam on the St. Croix River, above and below the Coon Rapids Dam and below Lock and Dam 1 on the Upper Mississippi River, and from two negative control lakes, Square Lake and Lake Riley. The DNA of silver carp was detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19 at Keokuk, Iowa, a reach of the river with high silver carp abundance. The portion (68%) of environmental samples taken below Lock and Dam 19 that were determined to contain the DNA of silver carp was similar to that reported in the scientific literature for other abundant species. The DNA of bighead carp, however, was not detected in environmental samples collected below Lock and Dam 19, a reach of the river known to have bighead carp. Previous reported detections of the DNA of silver carp in samples collected in 2011 were not replicated in this study. Additional analyses are planned for the DNA extracted from the samples collected in 2012. Those analyses may provide additional information regarding the lack of amplification of bighead carp DNA and the lengths of the sequences of silver carp DNA present in samples taken below Lock and Dam 19. These additional analyses may help inform the use of eDNA monitoring in large, complex systems like the Mississippi River.

  4. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

  5. Changes in physiochemical properties of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp (Carassius auratus) during heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaifeng; Shen, Huixing; Li, Bo; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2014-07-01

    In order to understand physicochemical properties of water-soluble proteins obtained from crucian carp, turbidity, total sulfhydryl content, hydrophobicity and SDS-PAGE of crucian carp water-soluble proteins during heat treatment were investigated. Turbidity remained unchanged up to 44°C and considerably increased from 46°C to 54°C, one peak of increase rate was found at 50°C; total SH content decreased rapidly when heated from 50°C to 55°C; hydrophobicity increased sharply when heated up to 45°C, indicating the conformation of water-soluble proteins from crucian carp began to unfold and expose the buried nonpolar amino acids at temperatures above 45°C; analysis of SDS-PAGE indicating the formation of disulfide linkage of creatine kinase and glyceraldehy-3-phosphate dehydrogenase when the temperature reached 65°C and 80°C, respectively. PMID:24966436

  6. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  7. Effect of selenium nanoparticles with different sizes in primary cultured intestinal epithelial cells of crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Yan, Xuxia; Fu, Linglin

    2013-01-01

    Nano-selenium (Se), with its high bioavailability and low toxicity, has attracted wide attention for its potential application in the prevention of oxidative damage in animal tissues. However, the effect of nano-Se of different sizes on the intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) is poorly understood. Our study showed that different sizes and doses of nano-Se have varied effects on the cellular protein contents and the enzyme activities of secreted lactate dehydrogenase, intracellular sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase. It was also indicated that nano-Se had a size-dependent effect on the primary intestinal epithelial cells of the crucian carp. Thus, these findings may bring us a step closer to understanding the size effect and the bioavailability of nano-Se on the intestinal tract of the crucian carp. PMID:24204137

  8. Description of Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) from the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. in Lake Balaton.

    PubMed

    Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán; Cech, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    Myxobolus balatonicus n. sp. was detected in the gill filaments of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. collected in Lake Balaton, Hungary. Its oval plasmodia measuring 600-800 × 300-400 µm were located intravasally in the filamental arteries. The spores measured 11.2 ± 0.92 × 9.5 ± 0.41 × 7.4 ± 0.33 µm and had two equal polar capsules with six filamental turns. Both morphology and DNA sequence analysis revealed that M. balatonicus n. sp. is distinct from the ten species of Myxobolus Bütschli, 1882 described from the European common carp and the 21 species described from the Asian common carp subspecies. Phylogenetic analysis placed M. balatonicus n. sp. in a clade of gill-infecting myxobolids. PMID:25862034

  9. Effect of water hardness and dissolved-solid concentration on hatching success and egg size in bighead carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis is an Asian species that has been introduced to the United States and is regarded as a highly undesirable invader. Soft water has been said to cause the bursting of Asian carp eggs and thus has been suggested as a factor that would limit the spread of this species. To evaluate this, we subjected fertilized eggs of bighead carp to waters with a wide range of hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations. Hatching rate and egg size were not significantly affected by the different water qualities. These results, combined with the low hardness (28–84 mg/L) of the Yangtze River (the primary natal habitat of Hypophthalmichthys spp.), suggest that managers and those performing risk assessments for the establishment of Hypophthalmichthys spp. should be cautious about treating low hardness and dissolved-solid concentrations as limiting factors.

  10. Viscoelastic Characteristics of Fins, Muscle and Skin in Crucian Carp (Carassius Auratus) Described by the Fractional Zener Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Jia, Lai-Bing; Yin, Xie-Zhen

    2011-08-01

    Fish are supposed to be able to adapt to various underwater environments. The mechanical properties of the body of a fish is of essential importance in order to explore the source of high efficiency during fish swimming. We investigate the viscoelastic properties of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp (carassius auratus). A fractional Zener model is used to fit the relaxation force and the results show that the model can describe the relaxation process well. With a Fourier transform, we discuss the response functions of the fins, muscle and skin of Crucian carp under the external excitation of a harmonic force. Comparison of these results with the cruising frequency of Crucian carp shows that the dissipation due to internal viscoelasticity during cruising is small.

  11. 26S Proteasome regulation of Ankrd1/CARP in adult rat ventricular myocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Samaras, Susan E. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Chen, Billy [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)] [Molecular Medicine Program, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Koch, Stephen R. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Sawyer, Douglas B.; Lim, Chee Chew [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)] [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Davidson, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeff.davidson@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Research Service, Veterans Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 26S proteasome regulates Ankrd1 levels in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ankrd1 protein degrades 60-fold faster in endothelial cells than cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential degradation appears related to nuclear vs. sarcolemmal localization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endothelial cell density shows uncoupling of Ankrd1 mRNA and protein levels. -- Abstract: Ankyrin repeat domain 1 protein (Ankrd1), also known as cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), increases dramatically after tissue injury, and its overexpression improves aspects of wound healing. Reports that Ankrd1/CARP protein stability may affect cardiovascular organization, together with our findings that the protein is crucial to stability of the cardiomyocyte sarcomere and increased in wound healing, led us to compare the contribution of Ankrd1/CARP stability to its abundance. We found that the 26S proteasome is the dominant regulator of Ankrd1/CARP degradation, and that Ankrd1/CARP half-life is significantly longer in cardiomyocytes (h) than endothelial cells (min). In addition, higher endothelial cell density decreased the abundance of the protein without affecting steady state mRNA levels. Taken together, our data and that of others indicate that Ankrd1/CARP is highly regulated at multiple levels of its expression. The striking difference in protein half-life between a muscle and a non-muscle cell type suggests that post-translational proteolysis is correlated with the predominantly structural versus regulatory role of the protein in the two cell types.

  12. Using ecological niche models to predict the abundance and impact of invasive species: application to the common carp.

    PubMed

    Kulhanek, Stefanie A; Leung, Brian; Ricciardi, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In order to efficiently manage nonindigenous species (NIS), predictive tools are needed to prioritize locations where they are likely to become established and where their impacts will be most severe. While predicting the impact of a NIS has generally proved challenging, forecasting its abundance patterns across potential recipient locations should serve as a useful surrogate method of estimating the relative severity of the impacts to be expected. Yet such approaches have rarely been applied in invasion biology. We used long-term monitoring data for lakes within the state of Minnesota and artificial neural networks to model both the occurrence as well as the abundance of a widespread aquatic NIS, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). We then tested the ability of the resulting models to (1) interpolate to new sites within our main study region, (2) extrapolate to lakes in the neighboring state of South Dakota, and (3) assessed the relative contribution of each variable to model predictions. Our models correctly identified over 83% of sites where carp are either present or absent and explained 73% of the variation in carp abundance for validation lakes in Minnesota (i.e., lakes not used to build the model). When extrapolated to South Dakota, our models correctly classified carp occurrence in 79% of lakes and explained 32% of the variation in carp abundance. Variables related to climate and water quality were found to be the most important predictors of carp distribution. These results demonstrate that ecological niche-based modeling techniques can be used to forecast both the occurrence and abundance patterns of invasive species at a regional scale. Models also yielded sensible predictions when extrapolated to neighboring regions. Such predictions, when combined, should provide more useful estimates of the overall risk posed by NIS on potential recipient systems. PMID:21516898

  13. Pharmacokinetics of sulphadimidine in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) acclimated at two different temperature levels.

    PubMed

    van Ginneken, V J; Nouws, J F; Grondel, J L; Driessens, F; Degen, M

    1991-04-01

    The influence of temperature (10 degrees C and 20 degrees C) on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of sulphadimidine (SDM) in carp and trout was studied. At 20 degrees C a significantly lower level of distribution (Vdarea) and a significantly shorter elimination half-life (T(1/2)beta) was achieved in both species compared to the 10 degrees C level. In carp the body clearance parameter (ClB(SDM)) was significantly higher at 20 degrees C compared to the value at 10 degrees C, whereas for trout this parameter was in the same order of magnitude for both temperatures. N4-acetylsulphadimidine (N4-SDM) was the main metabolite of SDM in both species at the two temperature levels. The relative N4-SDM plasma percentage in carp was significantly higher at 20 degrees C than at 10 degrees C, whereas there was in trout no significant difference. In neither species was the peak plasma concentration of N4-SDM (Cmax(N4-SDM)) significantly different at two temperatures. The corresponding peak time of this metabolite (Tmax(N4-SDM)) was significantly shorter at 20 degrees C compared to 10 degrees C in both carp and trout. In carp at both temperatures, acetylation occurs to a greater extent than hydroxylation. Only the 6-hydroxymethyl-metabolite (SCH2OH) was detected in carp, at a significant different level at the two temperatures. Concentrations of hydroxy metabolites in trout were at the detection level of the HPLC-method (0.02-micrograms/ml). The glucuronide metabolite (SOH-gluc.) was not detected in either species at the two temperatures. PMID:1882494

  14. Ontogeny of GnRH-like immunoreactive neuronal systems in the forebrain of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus mrigala.

    PubMed

    Biju, K C; Gaikwad, Archana; Sarkar, Sumit; Schreibman, Martin P; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2005-04-01

    GnRH immunoreactivity appeared in the medial olfactory placode very early in the development of Cirrhinus mrigala. The immunoreactive elements were divisible into distinct migratory and non-migratory components. The migratory component appeared as a patch of intensely immunoreactive cells located close to the olfactory epithelium in day 6 post-fertilization larvae. Subsequently, these neurons migrate caudally along the ventromedial aspect of the developing forebrain and enroute give rise to GnRH immunoreactive neurons in the (1) nervus terminalis located in ventral and caudal part of the olfactory bulb (day 8), and (2) basal telencephalon (day 9). The non-migratory GnRH immunoreactive component appeared in the olfactory placode of day 1 post-fertilization larvae. It consisted of few olfactory receptor neuron (ORN)-like cells with distinct flask-shaped somata, dendrites that communicate with the periphery and a single axon on the basal side; GnRH immunoreactivity was seen throughout the neuron. Considerable increase in the number of immunoreactive ORNs was encountered in day 2 post-fertilization larvae. On day 3, the dendrites of ORNs sprout bunches of apical cilia, while on the basal side the axonal outgrowths can be traced to the olfactory bulb. GnRH immunoreactive fibers were distributed in the olfactory nerve layer in the periphery of the bulb and glomeruli-like innervation was clearly established in 5 days old larvae. The innervation to the olfactory bulb showed a considerable increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in 9 and 19 days old larvae. However, GnRH immunoreactivity in non-migratory as well as migratory components gradually diminished and disappeared altogether by the age of 68 days. Results of the present study suggest that GnRH may serve a neurotransmitter role in the ORNs during early stages of development in C. mrigala. PMID:15748717

  15. Characterization and Expression Analysis of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio TLR5M

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Duo; Sun, Zhen; Jia, Shengmei; Chen, Yilong; Feng, Xiangru

    2013-01-01

    TLR5 is responsible for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in vertebrates. In this study, we cloned the TLR5M gene of common carp using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The TLR5M cDNA was 3182?bp in length and contained a 2658-bp open reading frame, which encoded a protein of 885 amino acids (aa). The entire coding region of the TLR5M gene was successfully amplified from genomic DNA and contained a single exon. The aa sequence of carp TLR5M showed the highest similarity (84.46%) to Cirrhinus mrigala. Tissue-specific expression analysis of the TLR5M gene by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed its broad distribution in various organs and tissues; however, the highest level of TLR5M expression was noted in the liver. TLR5M gene expression was examined after flagellin stimulation and showed highly significant (p<0.01) induction in the spleen, heart, liver and kidney. The induction of TLR5M was analyzed in various organs infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. TLR5M gene expression in the kidney and spleen was significantly (p<0.01) increased. Concurrently, modulation of TLR5M gene expression and the induction of IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-10 and TNF-?4 were analyzed in peripheral blood leucocytes after lipopolysaccharide, concanavalin A, and flagellin stimulation. In the treated group, significant induction of these genes was noted, although the intensity varied between the tissues. These findings may indicate a crucial role for TLR5M in the innate immunity of common carp in response to pathogenic invasion. PMID:23930591

  16. Development and evaluation of the first high-throughput SNP array for common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) but, as yet, no high-throughput genotyping platform is available for this species. C. carpio is an important aquaculture species that accounts for nearly 14% of freshwater aquaculture production worldwide. We have developed an array for C. carpio with 250,000 SNPs and evaluated its performance using samples from various strains of C. carpio. Results The SNPs used on the array were selected from two resources: the transcribed sequences from RNA-seq data of four strains of C. carpio, and the genome re-sequencing data of five strains of C. carpio. The 250,000 SNPs on the resulting array are distributed evenly across the reference C.carpio genome with an average spacing of 6.6 kb. To evaluate the SNP array, 1,072 C. carpio samples were collected and tested. Of the 250,000 SNPs on the array, 185,150 (74.06%) were found to be polymorphic sites. Genotyping accuracy was checked using genotyping data from a group of full-siblings and their parents, and over 99.8% of the qualified SNPs were found to be reliable. Analysis of the linkage disequilibrium on all samples and on three domestic C.carpio strains revealed that the latter had the longer haplotype blocks. We also evaluated our SNP array on 80 samples from eight species related to C. carpio, with from 53,526 to 71,984 polymorphic SNPs. An identity by state analysis divided all the samples into three clusters; most of the C. carpio strains formed the largest cluster. Conclusions The Carp SNP array described here is the first high-throughput genotyping platform for C. carpio. Our evaluation of this array indicates that it will be valuable for farmed carp and for genetic and population biology studies in C. carpio and related species. PMID:24762296

  17. Anti-platelet-activating factor, antibacterial, and antiradical activities of lipids extract from silver carp brain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have verified the protective role of fish lipids in cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of fish lipids on health boost remain undefined. Large amounts of by-products, such as fish brain which contains high level of lipids, are produced with silver carp processing. Fish brain is rich in bioactive lipids which are overwhelmingly effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pharmacological activities of silver carp brain lipids against diseases by inhibiting platelet-activating factor (PAF), suppressing bacterial growth and scavenging free radicals. Methods Total lipids (TL) were extracted from silver carp brain and separated into polar lipids (PL) and neutral lipids (NL). The capabilities of the lipid fractions in aggregating washed rabbit platelet or in inhibiting PAF-induced platelet aggregation were tested. Their antibacterial and antiradical activities were studied as well. Results The lipid fractions exhibited strong inhibitory activities, and the activity of TL was mainly attributed to NL. TL exhibited antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, while NL managed to fight against S. aureus and Escherichia coli. PL excelled TL and NL in simultaneously suppressing the growths of Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi besides those of S. aureus and E. coli. The scavenging effect of PL on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was considerably higher than those of TL and NL. Conclusion The present study may help to explain the protective role of fish lipids against diseases and may be responsible for the effectiveness of fish brain in benefiting health. PMID:23805935

  18. Obestatin partially suppresses ghrelin stimulation of appetite in "high-responders" grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaochen; Cai, Wenjing; Liang, Xu-Fang; Su, Hang; Yuan, Yongchao; Li, Aixuan; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2015-06-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gastrointestinal peptides obtained by post-translational processing of a common precursor, preproghrelin. The effect of obestatin on food intake is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ghrelin and obestatin on food intake in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idellus. Fish received intraperitoneal (IP) injection of saline, ghrelin (100ngg(-1)BW), obestatin-like (25ngg(-1)BW) and ghrelin in combination with obestatin-like. Ghrelin stimulation of food intake varied considerably among individual fish with 70.8% eliciting a robust response. In these high-responders, food intake was significantly increased by IP ghrelin within 2h. Co-administration of ghrelin and obestatin-like resulted in a decrease in food intake, indicating that obestatin was able to antagonize the effect of ghrelin. However, IP obestatin-like alone could not regulate food intake in grass carp. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that IP ghrelin peptide led to a significant increase in mRNA abundance of NPY, Y8a and Y8b genes compared to saline injected fish, while in combination with obestatin-like peptide decreased ghrelin-induced gene expressions of these three genes. IP sole obestatin-like peptide did not modify the expression levels of NPY, Y8a, Y8b, CART and POMC compared to the control group. Therefore, IP administration of obestatin-like peptide, partially blocking the ghrelin-induced appetite, investigated the possible involvement of obestatin as a mediator of the ghrelin stimulatory action on food intake, at least in "high-responders" grass carp. PMID:25737031

  19. Glycosylation is essential for translocation of carp retinol-binding protein across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Devirgiliis, Chiara [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Gaetani, Sancia [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Apreda, Marianna [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy); Bellovino, Diana [National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: bellovino@inran.it

    2005-07-01

    Retinoid transport is well characterized in many vertebrates, while it is still largely unexplored in fish. To study the transport and utilization of vitamin A in these organisms, we have isolated from a carp liver cDNA library retinol-binding protein, its plasma carrier. The primary structure of carp retinol-binding protein is very conserved, but presents unique features compared to those of the correspondent proteins isolated and characterized so far in other species: it has an uncleavable signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites in the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the protein that are glycosylated in vivo. In this paper, we have investigated the function of the carbohydrate chains, by constructing three mutants deprived of the first, the second or both carbohydrates. The results of transient transfection of wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein in Cos cells followed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis have shown that the absence of both carbohydrate moieties blocks secretion, while the presence of one carbohydrate group leads to an inefficient secretion. Experiments of carp RBP mRNA in vitro translation in a reticulocyte cell-free system in the presence of microsomes have demonstrated that N-glycosylation is necessary for efficient translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, when Cos cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant retinol-binding protein (aa 1-67)-green fluorescent protein fusion constructs and semi-permeabilized with streptolysin O, immunofluorescence analysis with anti-green fluorescent protein antibody revealed that the double mutant is exposed to the cytosol, thus confirming the importance of glycan moieties in the translocation process.

  20. Human consumption as an invasive species management strategy. A preliminary assessment of the marketing potential of invasive Asian carp in the US.

    PubMed

    Varble, Sarah; Secchi, Silvia

    2013-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, Asian carp have invaded rivers and lakes in the Midwest and southern United States, with large negative impacts, such as encroachment on the habitat of native fish and mass die-off. They also respond to boat motors by jumping out of the water, which can cause harm to boaters and fishermen. Policymakers in the Great Lakes region between the US and Canada are worried about possible expansion of the Asian carp to their region and its effects on their fishing industry. A potential solution to the problem is to harvest Asian carp for human consumption. This study analyzes the results of the first national survey on the attitudes of US fish consumers towards Asian carp. We find that this is a potentially promising strategy. Most respondents would be willing to try a free sample of Asian carp and would be willing to pay for it. Because of the negative connotation attached to carp in general, this figure is encouraging. Creating demand for Asian carp could be a market based, cost-effective solution for a problem (invasive species) that is typically dealt with through command and control policies, if it is coupled with appropriate policies and safeguards to ensure the fish is eventually eradicated and not cultivated for profit after removal from US rivers and lakes. PMID:23415978

  1. Alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kate M; Minter, Larry J; Lewbart, Gregory A; Harms, Craig A; Griffith, Emily H; Posner, Lysa P

    2014-12-01

    Fish are commonly anesthetized with MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), a sodium-channel-blocker used as an immersion anesthetic, but its mechanism of action as a general anesthetic is uncertain. Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that acts at the GABA(A) receptors. Alfaxalone has been evaluated and was deemed successful as an immersion agent in koi carp. Alfaxalone is an effective intramuscular anesthetic in multiple species. A reliable intramuscular anesthetic in fish would be useful in multiple settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate alfaxalone as an intramuscular injectable anesthetic agent in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Eight koi carp were utilized in a crossover design. In each trial, six fish received 1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10mg/kg of alfaxalone intramuscularly. They were assessed every 15 min for opercular rate and sedation score. The sedation score was based on a visual scale from 0 to 5, 0 indicating no response and 5 indicating absent righting reflex and anesthesia. Anesthetized koi were placed on a fish anesthesia delivery system (FADS). Time to anesthesia/recovery was recorded and heart rate was recorded every 15 min. Anesthesia was achieved in 0/6, 1/6, and 5/6 fish at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Duration of anesthesia for one fish at 5 mg/kg was 2 hr. At 10 mg/kg, median anesthesia duration was 6.5 (3-10) hr. At 10 mg/kg, prolonged apnea (2-3 hr) was observed in 3/6 fish, 2/3 died under anesthesia, and 1/3 recovered 10 hr post-injection. Median peak sedation scores were 1.5, 2.5, and 5, at 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. A dosage of 10 mg/kg alfaxalone resulted in 33% mortality. The duration of anesthesia and opercular rate were unpredictable. Due to variation in response despite consistent conditions, as well as risk of mortality, intramuscular alfaxalone cannot be recommended for anesthesia in koi carp. PMID:25632673

  2. Magnetic particles in European eel ( Anguilla Anguilla) and carp ( Cyprinus Carpio). Magnetic susceptibility and remanence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, M.; Walker, M. M.

    1987-03-01

    We present an investigation of samples of the skull and backbone of eel and carp that was made in order to search for magnetic material with a possible connection to a magnetic sense organ. Room temperature measurements of magnetic susceptibility and remanence gave evidence of minute amounts of ferro- or ferrimagnetic precipitates in the fish tissues. The magnetic data implied that the magnetic material consisted of particles with a size distribution in the range between single domain and truly multidomain sizes. The results did not allow us to draw any conclusion about the physiological function of the magnetic particles.

  3. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis of two Saprolegnia sp. ( Oomycetes) isolated from silver crucian carp and zebra fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao L. Ke; Jian G. Wang; Ze M. Gu; Ming Li; Xiao N. Gong

    2009-01-01

    Two Saprolegnia isolates, JY isolated from silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch) and BMY isolated from zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio Hamilton) came from infections occurring concurrently in different locations in China. To confirm whether the two isolates were from the same Saprolegnia clone, comparative studies have been carried out based on their morphological, physiological and molecular characteristics. Observations showed

  4. Capillarisation, oxygen diffusion distances and mitochondrial content of carp muscles following acclimation to summer and winter temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian A. Johnston

    1982-01-01

    Many species of fish show a partial or complete thermal compensation of metabolic rate on acclimation from summer to winter temperatures. In the present study Crucian carp (Carassius carassius L.) were acclimated for two months to either 2° C or 28° C and the effects of temperature acclimation on mitochondrial content and capillary supply to myotomal muscles determined.

  5. Histological changes induced by dietary phospholipids in intestine and liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Fontagné; Inge Geurden; Anne-Marie Escaffre; Pierre Bergot

    1998-01-01

    Histological observations were made in common carp larvae in order to understand the origin of the phospholipid (PL) requirement of fish during their young stages. Larvae were fed for 6 or 8 days after start-feeding on semi-purified diets containing peanut oil and supplemented with or without different PL fractions enriched in phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylinositol (PI). A group of larvae

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of two distinct neuropeptide Ya paralogues in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongkai; Li, Hongxia; Li, Jianlin; Yu, Fan; Yu, Juhua

    2014-12-01

    Two distinct neuropeptide Ya paralogues (jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2) were cloned and characterized in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), with a highly conserved organization encoded by four exons and three introns. The cDNAs for jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 were 693 and 730 bp in size, respectively. jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 both encoded a 96-amino acid protein, which shared 97.9 % identity. Phylogenetic tree showed that it has two NPYa genes, called jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2, that presumably resulted from the tetraploidization event in the carp lineage. Analysis of expression profiles of jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 showed that the two NPY genes had a broad tissue distribution but expressed primarily in the forebrain, hypothalamus, testis and liver. The expression pattern was different in juvenile and adult (female and male) Jian carp. In juvenile, the highest expression level of jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 was detected in the testis. In adult, it was detected in the forebrain. In female hypothalamus, the expression level of jlNPYa1 was significantly higher than that of jlNPYa2. However, the opposite was true in male hypothalamus. The differing distribution patterns of the two NPY genes suggested that jlNPYa1 and jlNPYa2 might play different roles in Jian carp. PMID:25015546

  7. Uptake and transport of intact macromolecules in the intestinal epithelium of carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and the possible immunological implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. W. M. Rombout; C. H. J. Lamers; M. H. Helfrich; A. Dekker; J. J. Taverne-Thiele

    1985-01-01

    Two protein antigens, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ferritin, have been administered to the digestive tract of carp. Electron-microscopical observations reveal considerable absorption of both antigens in the second segment of the gut (from 70 to 95% of the total length) and also, although to a lesser extent, in the first segment (from 0 to 70% of the total length). Even

  8. Effects of atrazine and chlorpyrifos on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of the common carp.

    PubMed

    Xing, Houjuan; Wang, Chao; Wu, Hongda; Chen, Dechun; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2015-02-01

    DNA methylation is known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in animal. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of atrazine (ATR), chlorpyrifos (CPF) and combined ATR/CPF exposure on DNA methylation in the brain and gonad of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). The carp were sampled after a 40-d exposure to CPF and ATR, individually or in combination, followed by a 40-d recovery to measure the levels of global DNA methylation and the expression of methylation enzymes (DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylcytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)) in the brain and gonad tissues. The results revealed that a significant global DNA hypomethylation in the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture was observed compared to the control fish. The MBD2 mRNA expression was up-regulated in the brain and gonad of the common carp exposed to ATR, CPF and their mixture, in contrast, the DNMTs mRNA expression was down-regulated. The information regarding the effects of ATR and CPF on DNA methylation status generated in this study is important for pesticides toxicology evaluation. However, the effect of ATR and CPF on the methylation status of specific genes, as well as its detailed mechanism requires further investigation. PMID:25460047

  9. Composition and Use of Common Carp Meal as a Marine Fish Meal Replacement in Yellow Perch Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the use of fish meal derived from a locally abundant, non-native fish species – common carp Cyprinus carpio – with the objective of offsetting the cost of marine fish meal (MFM, ~$1,200/ton) in yellow perch Perca flavescens feed. Biochemical analyses of meals showed that crude protein a...

  10. SNP discovery and development of genetic markers for mapping immune response genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immune response genes have been reported as markers for susceptibility to infectious diseases in human and livestock. A disease caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is highly contagious and virulent in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). With the aim to de...

  11. RESPONSES OF MOLECULAR INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE IN MESOCOSMS: COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) EXPOSED TO THE HERBICIDES ALACHLOR AND ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were treated in aquatic mesocosms with a single pulse of the herbicides atrazine or alachlor to study the bioavailability and biological activity of these herbicides using molecular indicators: Liver vitellogenin gene expression in male fish for estr...

  12. CORRELATIONS OF NONYLPHENOL-ETHOXYLATES AND NONYLPHENOL WITH BIOMARKERS OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO) FROM THE CUYAHOGA RIVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various chemical and biological measures were determined in carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from seven sites along the Cuyahoga River, Ohio; from the relatively pristine headwaters to the lower portion heavily polluted from various industrial, urban and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Levels of n...

  13. Recent Duplication of the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Genome as Revealed by Analyses of Microsatellite Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lior David; Shula Blum; Marcus W. Feldman; Uri Lavi; Jossi Hillel

    2003-01-01

    Genome duplications may have played a role in the early stages of vertebrate evolution, near the time of divergence of the lamprey lineage. Additional genome duplication, specifically in ray-finned fish, may have occurred before the divergence of the teleosts. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been considered tetraploid because of its chromosome number (2n ¼100) and its high DNA content.

  14. Association between IL-10a SNPs and resistance to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of gene polymorphisms and disease association is essential for assessing putative candidate genes affecting susceptibility or resistance to disease. In this paper, we report the results of an association analysis between SNPs in common carp innate immune response genes and resistance to Cy...

  15. Effects of subchronic exposure to carbofuran on antioxidant defence system and malondialdehyde levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Ensibi; D Hernández Moreno; F Soler Rodríguez; MN Daly Yahya; MP Míguez-Santiyán; M Pérez-López

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the assessment of oxidative stress induction by pesticides such as carbamates which are widely used as insecticides and nematicides and contaminate aquatic ecosystems on certain biomarkers in liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Biomarkers selected for stress monitoring were malondialdehyde (MDA), an index of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant defence system enzymes, mainly catalase (CAT),

  16. Assessment of bioavailable PAH, PCB and OCP concentrations in water, using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), sediments and caged carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Verweij; Kees Booij; Karel Satumalay; Natascha van der Molen; Ron van der Oost

    2004-01-01

    Bioavailable water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were assessed at several freshwater sites in and around the city of Amsterdam. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were caged for 4 weeks at 10 sites, together with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). In addition, sediment samples were taken at each site. SPMDs and sediments were analysed for

  17. ISOMER DEPENDENT BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM MUNICIPAL INCINERATOR FLY ASH TO CARP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The isomer dependent bioavailability of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) from municipal incinerator fly ash to freshwater fish was determined. It was observed that carp exposed to fly ash in a continuous flow exposure readily accumulated selec...

  18. PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH TUNA LIVER MEAL IN DIETS FOR COMMON CARP FRY, CYPRINUS CARPIO L. 1758

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. GÜMÜ?; Y. KAYA; B. A. BALCI; B. B. ACAR

    Tuna liver meal (TLM) was tested to replace fish meal (FM) in diets for carp fry, Cyprinus carpio Linneus, 1758. Triplicate groups of fish with average weight of 0.32 ± 0.65g were fed each of six isonitogenous (42%), isolipidic (16%) and isoenergetic (18 KJ DE g -1 ) diets prepared to include 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% (diets

  19. Cadmium induces liver cell apoptosis through caspase-3A activation in purse red common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Gao, Dian; Xu, Zhen'e; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

  20. Cadmium Induces Liver Cell Apoptosis through Caspase-3A Activation in Purse Red Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Shen; Zhang, Li; He, Penghui; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yannan; Min, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-3, the essential effector caspase, plays a pivotal role during caspase-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we isolated and characterized caspase-3A gene from common carp. The common carp caspase-3A comprising 273 amino acids showed 71.8% sequence similarity and 59.3% sequence identity to human caspase-3. It exhibited an evolutionarily conserved structure of mammalian caspase-3 genes, including a pro-domain, a large subunit, a small subunit and other motifs such as the pentapeptide active-site motif (QACRG) and the putative cleavage sites at the aspartic acids. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that common carp caspase-3A formed a clade with cyprinid fish caspase-3. To assess whether caspase-3A is involved in cadmium (Cd)-induced cell apoptosis in common carp, a Cd exposure experiment was performed. TUNEL analysis showed that Cd triggered liver cell apoptosis; caspase-3A activity was markedly increased; its proenzyme level was significantly decreased, and the levels of its cleaved forms were markedly increased. However, real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA transcript level of caspase-3A was not significantly elevated. Immunoreactivities were observed in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes by immunohistochemical detection. The findings indicates that Cd can trigger liver cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3A. Caspase-3A may play an essential role in Cd-induced apoptosis. PMID:24349509

  1. Purification and characterization of cathepsin L from the muscle of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Yin, Lijun; Zhang, Nan; Li, Shuhong; Ma, Changwei

    2006-12-13

    Cathepsin L in silver carp musle was purified to 48.4-fold by acid-heat treatment and ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by a series of chromatographic separations. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 30 kDa determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme was activated by dithiothreitol and cysteine while it was substantially inhibited by E-64 and insensitive to PMSF and pepstatin A, suggesting that the purified enzyme belongs to a family of cysteine proteinase. Consistent with this conclusion, Zn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, and Fe2+ could strongly inhibit the activity of this enzyme. The optimal pH and temperature were 5.0 and 55 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of Z-Phe-Arg-MCA with a parameter of K(m) (8.27 microM) and K(cat) (28.7 s(-1)) but hardly hydrolyzed Z-Arg-Arg-MCA, Arg-MCA, and Boc-Val-Leu-Lys-MCA. The microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed that this proteinase is capable of destroying the network structure of silver carp surimi gels. The enzyme exhibited a higher hydrolytic activity on surimi protein at 65 degrees C than at 40 degrees C. PMID:17147449

  2. Construction of a genetic linkage map for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Yang, G; Guo, S; Wei, Q; Zou, G

    2010-10-01

    For silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), a combined microsatellite (or simple sequence repeat) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) sex average linkage map was constructed. A total of 483 markers (245 microsatellites and 238 AFLPs) were assigned to 33 linkage groups. The map spanned 1352.2 cM, covering 86.4% of the estimated genome size of silver carp. The maximum and average spaces between 420 loci were 21.5 cM and 3.2 cM, respectively. The length of linkage groups ranged from 3.6 cM to 98.5 cM with an average of 41.0 cM. The number of markers per group varied from 2 to 44 with an average of 14.6. The AFLP markers significantly improved the integrity of microsatellite-based linkage groups and increased the genome coverage and marker evenness. A genome-wide recombination suppression was observed in male. In an extreme case, six microsatellites co-segregated in male, but spanned a 45.1 cM region in female. PMID:20331598

  3. Transgenic Common Carp Do Not Have the Ability to Expand Populations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rong; Du, Fukuan; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC) in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of “all-fish” growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC) and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1?1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear. PMID:23762383

  4. Pierisins and CARP-1: ADP-ribosylation of DNA by ARTCs in butterflies and shellfish.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, and related species possess a previously unknown ADP-ribosylating toxin, guanine specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. This enzyme toxin, known as pierisin, consists of enzymatic N-terminal domain and receptor-binding C-terminal domain, or typical AB-toxin structure. Pierisin efficiently transfers an ADP-ribosyl moiety to the N(2) position of the guanine base of dsDNA. Receptors for pierisin are suggested to be the neutral glycosphingolipids, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4). This DNA-modifying toxin exhibits strong cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis in various human cell lines, which can be blocked by Bcl-2. Pierisin also produces detrimental effects on the eggs and larvae of the non-habitual parasitoids. In contrast, a natural parasitoid of the cabbage butterfly, Cotesia glomerata, was resistant to this toxin. The physiological role of pierisin in the butterfly is suggested to be a defense factor against parasitization by wasps. Other type of DNA ADP-ribosyltransferase is present in certain kinds of edible clams. For example, the CARP-1 protein found in Meretrix lamarckii consists of an enzymatic domain without a possible receptor-binding domain. Pierisin and CARP-1 are almost fully non-homologous at the amino acid sequence level, but other ADP-ribosyltransferases homologous to pierisin are present in different biological species such as eubacterium Streptomyces. Possible diverse physiological roles of the DNA ADP-ribosyltransferases are discussed. PMID:25033755

  5. The in vitro interference of synthetic progestogens with carp steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Denise; Pujol, Sílvia; Aceña, Jaume; Perez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià; Porte, Cinta

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic progestogens represent a class of pharmaceuticals widely used in oral contraceptives and in hormone replacement therapies. They reach the aquatic environment through wastewater effluents; however, environmental concentrations and effects on non-target organisms are poorly known. Given the important role of progestogens regulating fish spawning processes, this study aimed at assessing the in vitro interference of four currently used progestogens-drospirenone (DRO), levonorgestrel (LNG), norethindrone (NOR) and cyproterone acetate (CPA) - with key enzymatic activities involved in the synthesis of active steroids in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The enzymatic pathways investigated were (a) CYP17 (C17,20-lyase) and CYP11? involved in the synthesis of androgens, (b) CYP19 that catalyses the aromatization of androgens to estrogens, and (c) 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) responsible for the synthesis of maturation-inducing hormones. All tested progestogens significantly inhibited the synthesis of androgens: DRO (IC50: 3.8 ?M) was the strongest inhibitor of CYP17 followed by CPA (IC50s: 183 ?M). Moreover, NOR (IC50: 0.4 ?M), DRO (IC50: 1.8 ?M) and CPA (IC50s: 87 ?M) inhibited CYP11?. An inhibition by NOR of ovarian CYP19 activity, and by DRO and CPA of 20?-HSD was also observed, but at rather high concentrations (500 ?M). Overall, this study highlights the potential of synthetic progestogens, and particularly DRO and NOR, to interfere with the biosynthesis of androgens in carp gonads. PMID:25087002

  6. Effect of Trichlorfon on Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Crucian Carp Carassius auratus gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Xu, WeiNa; Liu, WenBin; Shao, XianPing; Jiang, GuangZhen; Li, XianngFei

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the toxic effects of the organophosphate pesticide trichlorfon on hepatic lipid accumulation in crucian carp Carassius auratus gibelio. Seventy-five fish were divided into five groups (each group in triplicate), and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L of trichlorfon and fed with commercial feed for 30 d. At the end of the experiment, plasma and hepatic lipid metabolic biochemical status were analyzed. Triglyceride contents were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in liver but decreased in plasma after 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/L trichlorfon treatments. Plasma insulin contents were markedly (P < 0.05) increased when trichlorfon concentrations were 0.5, 1.0, and 4.0 mg/L. There were no significant differences in hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase contents between the trichlorfon-treated fish and the controls. Hepatic cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B100 contents were decreased in the fish when trichlorfon concentration was 2.0 mg/L. Furthermore, electron microscope observations showed rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and mitochondrial vacuolization in hepatocytes with trichlorfon exposure. On the basis of morphological and physiological evidence, trichlorfon influenced crucian carp hepatic pathways of lipid metabolism and hepatocellular ultrastructure, which resulted in lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:22897202

  7. Effect of frying in different culinary fats on the fatty acid composition of silver carp

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mahmood; Abedi, Elahe; Mohammadzadeh, Behrooz; Afsharnaderi, Azam

    2013-01-01

    The influence of frying with four different oils (sunflower oil, soybean oil, olive oil, and corn oil) on the fatty acid composition of silver carp was evaluated. The fat content of the fillets increased after frying while the moisture content decreased in all evaluated samples. Mean saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, ??3, and ??6 contents of raw fish were 26.1 ± 0.5, 52.1 ± 1.1, 15.1 ± 0.6, 8.9 ± 0.1, and 6.1 ± 0.4%, respectively. Frying led to exchange of fatty acids between the silver carp lipid and frying fats. As a result of interactions, MUFA, PUFA, ??6, and PUFA/SFA ratio of samples fried in sunflower, soybean, and corn oil significantly increased while the amounts of SFA decreased. Frying had a negative effect on the ??3/?6 ratio but reduction in olive oil-fried samples is the least among the other samples. Except in soybean oil, long-chain ?3-PUFA content of samples was not affected by frying. PMID:24804033

  8. Toxic effects of paraquat on cytokine expression in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junguo; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Yao; Niu, Daichun

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the acute toxicity of paraquat (PQ) in common carp was determined. Then, the contents and mRNA levels of the cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interferon-? (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were evaluated following subacute exposure to PQ. The results show that the LC50 of PQ for common carp at 72 and 96 h was 15.962 and 15.106 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, after 7 days of subacute PQ exposure, the IL-1? content in the fish liver and kidney increased, although it decreased in spleen. However, changes in the IFN-? content showed an irregular trend. The TNF-? content increased in the liver and spleen but decreased in the kidney. Additionally, PQ exposure also induced alterations in the mRNA levels of IL-1?, IFN-?, and TNF-?. These results suggest that PQ exposure may result in suppression or excessive activation of the immune system in treated fish and lead to immune dysfunction and reduced immunity. PMID:24989943

  9. Tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism, and effects of erythromycin in crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianchao; Lu, Guanghua; Ding, Jiannan; Zhang, Zhenghua; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-08-15

    In this study, the tissue distribution, bioconcentration, metabolism and biological effects of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin (ERY) were investigated in fish using crucian carp (Carassius auratus) as a model. Crucian carp were exposed to various concentrations of ERY (4, 20, and 100 ?g/L) for 28 days. The UPLC/MS/MS analysis of both water and tissue provided the bioconcentration of ERY and its metabolites in the fish body. The results from tissue samples showed that a maximum tissue concentration occurred in the muscle and that the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 72.2 was lower than the theoretical BCF of 90.4 calculated from the octanol-water coefficient of ERY. A significant portion of the absorbed ERY was metabolized via demethylation and dehydration and observed in the form of descladinose in fish. In addition, the relevant biomarkers, including acetylcholinesterase in the brain, as well as 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and superoxide dismutase in the liver, changed significantly during 28 days of exposure (P<0.05). These results clearly indicated that ERY accumulated in fish and that similar metabolites as those observed in mammals were produced, resulting in the biochemical disturbance of biological systems. PMID:24911771

  10. Structural and biochemical characterization of a new type of lectin isolated from carp eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Galliano, Monica; Minchiotti, Lorenzo; Campagnoli, Monica; Sala, Alberto; Visai, Livia; Amoresano, Angela; Pucci, Piero; Casbarra, Annarita; Cauci, Marco; Perduca, Massimiliano; Monaco, Hugo L

    2003-01-01

    A previously unidentified glycoprotein present in the eggs of the carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) was isolated and structurally characterized. The protein binds to a Sepharose 4B matrix and can be eluted with 0.4 M N -acetylglucosamine. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 26686.3 Da. On the basis of gel-filtration chromatography, the protein appears to be present in solution as a monomer. The sequence of its 238 amino acids, the position of its four disulphide bridges and the composition of its single N-linked carbohydrate chain were determined. The lectin shows a very low agglutinating activity for human A-type erythrocytes and interacts with both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These latter interactions are inhibited by N -acetylglucosamine. A database search shows that its amino acid sequence is similar to that of the members of an invertebrate lectin family that includes tachylectin-1. Tachylectin-1 is present in the amoebocytes of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, and plays a role in the innate defence system of this species. Homologous genes are also present in other fish, having 85% identity with a gene expressed in the oocytes of the crucian carp ( Carassius auratus gibelio ) and 78% identity with a gene in the cDNA library of the zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). PMID:12956625

  11. Carbofuran promotes biochemical changes in carp exposed to rice field and laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Bárbara; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Murussi, Camila; Pretto, Alexandra; Menezes, Charlene; Dalabona, Fabrícia; Marchezan, Enio; Adaime, Martha Bohrer; Zanella, Renato; Loro, Vania Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Effects of carbofuran commercial formulation on oxidative stress parameters were studied in carps (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to 50µg/L for 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels were increased in the brain of fish after 7 and 30 days under rice field and laboratory conditions. In the liver and muscle, TBARS levels increased after 7 and 30 days under laboratory conditions, whereas in rice field the levels increased only after 30 days. Protein carbonyl content in the liver increased after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was decreased in the brain and muscle after 7 and 30 days under both experimental conditions evaluated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in the liver after 7 and 30 days under rice field condition, whereas under laboratory condition this enzyme increased only after 30 days. The catalase (CAT) activity in the liver decreased after 30 days under rice field condition, whereas no changes were observed under laboratory conditions. In rice field, glutathione S-transferase (GST) decreased after 7 days but increased after 30 days, whereas no change was observed in fish exposed to carbofuran under laboratory conditions. These results suggest that environmental relevant carbofuran concentrations may cause oxidative stress, affecting biochemical and enzymatic parameters on carps. Some parameters could be used as biomarkers to carbofuran exposure. PMID:24507130

  12. Interactions between predator- and diet-induced phenotypic changes in body shape of crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jens; Johansson, Frank; Söderlund, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Predator cues and diet, when studied separately, have been shown to affect body shape of organisms. Previous studies show that the morphological responses to predator absence/presence and diet may be similar, and hence could confound the interpretation of the causes of morphological differences found between groups of individuals. In this study, we simultaneously examined the effect of these two factors on body shape and performance in crucian carp in a laboratory experiment. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) developed a shallow body shape when feeding on zooplankton prey and a deep body shape when feeding on benthic chironomids. In addition, the presence of chemical cues from a pike predator affected body shape, where a shallow body shape was developed in the absence of pike and a deep body shape was developed in the presence of pike. Foraging activity was low in the presence of pike cues and when chironomids were given as prey. Our results thereby suggest that the change in body shape could be indirectly mediated through differences in foraging activity. Finally, the induced body shape changes affected the foraging efficiency, where crucians raised on a zooplankton diet or in the absence of pike cues had a higher foraging success on zooplankton compared to crucian raised on a chironomid diet or in the presence of pike. These results suggest that body changes in response to predators can be associated with a cost, in terms of competition for resources. PMID:16615209

  13. Studies of Ribonucleotide Reductase in Crucian Carp—An Oxygen Dependent Enzyme in an Anoxia Tolerant Vertebrate

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Guro K.; Tomter, Ane B.; Bergan, Jonas; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Barra, Anne-Laure; Røhr, Åsmund K.; Kolberg, Matthias; Ellefsen, Stian

    2012-01-01

    The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, the precursors for DNA. RNR requires a thiyl radical to activate the substrate. In RNR of eukaryotes (class Ia RNR), this radical originates from a tyrosyl radical formed in reaction with oxygen (O2) and a ferrous di-iron center in RNR. The crucian carp (Carassius carassius) is one of very few vertebrates that can tolerate several months completely without oxygen (anoxia), a trait that enables this fish to survive under the ice in small ponds that become anoxic during the winter. Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. This appears nearly impossible, as DNA synthesis requires the production of new deoxyribonucleotides and therefore active RNR. We have here characterized RNR in crucian carp, to search for adaptations to anoxia. We report the full-length sequences of two paralogs of each of the RNR subunits (R1i, R1ii, R2i, R2ii, p53R2i and p53R2ii), obtained by cloning and sequencing. The mRNA levels of these subunits were measured with quantitative PCR and were generally well maintained in hypoxia and anoxia in heart and brain. We also report maintained or increased mRNA levels of the cell division markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Ki67 in anoxic hearts and brains. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements on in vitro expressed crucian carp R2 and p53R2 proteins gave spectra similar to mammalian RNRs, including previously unpublished human and mouse p53R2 EPR spectra. However, the radicals in crucian carp RNR small subunits, especially in the p53R2ii subunit, were very stable at 0°C. A long half-life of the tyrosyl radical during wintertime anoxia could allow for continued cell division in crucian carp. PMID:22916159

  14. Improved Methods for Capture, Extraction, and Quantitative Assay of Environmental DNA from Asian Bigheaded Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Cameron R.; Miller, Derryl J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  15. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    PubMed

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  16. Vaccination of plasmid DNA encoding ORF81 gene of CJ strains of KHV provides protection to immunized carp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingxiang; Xue, Jiangdong; Wang, Qiuju; Zhu, Xia; Li, Xingwei; Lv, Wenliang; Zhang, Dongming

    2014-06-01

    In order to construct the recombinant plasmid of pIRES-ORF81, the nucleic acid isolated from Koi herpes virus-CJ (KHV-CJ) strains was used as a template to insert the ORF81 gene fragments amplified by PCR into the pIRES-neo, a kind of eukaryotic expression vector. Using Western blotting analysis, it was verified that ORF81 gene protein can be expressed correctly by pIRES-ORF81, after MFC cells were transfected. The recombinant plasmid pIRES-ORF81 was set into three immunization dose gradients: 1, 10, and 50 ?g/carp. Empty plasmid group, PBS group, and blank control group were set simultaneously. Giving intramuscular injections to healthy carps with an average body mass of 246 ± 20 g, indirect ELISA was used to regularly determine antibody levels after three times immunization injection. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by neutralization assay. The results of inoculation tests showed that the pIRES-ORF81 recombinant plasmid can induce the production of carp-specific antibodies. The differences of immune effect between the three different doses of immune gradients were not significant (P > 0.05), but they can induce the production of neutralizing antibodies. After 25 d of inoculation, carp mortality of pIRES-neo empty vector treatment groups was 85%, while the carp mortality of eukaryotic expression recombinant plasmid pIRES-ORF81 injected with three different doses of immune gradients was 20, 17.5, and 12.5%, respectively. Differences in comparison to the control group were highly significant (P < 0.01). However, histopathological section of immunohistochemistry organization revealed no significant changes. It demonstrated that the DNA vaccine pIRES-ORF81 constructed in the experiment displayed a good protective effect against KHV, which had the potential to industrial applications. PMID:24619212

  17. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing generates high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing hybridization between bighead and silver carp in the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Lamer, James T; Sass, Greg G; Boone, Jason Q; Arbieva, Zarema H; Green, Stefan J; Epifanio, John M

    2014-01-01

    Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix) are invasive species and listed as US federally injurious species under the Lacy Act. They have established populations in much of the Mississippi River Basin (MRB; Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri rivers) and are capable of producing fertile hybrids and complex introgression. Characterizing the composition of this admixture requires a large set of high-quality, evolutionarily conserved, diagnostic genetic markers to aid in the identification and management of these species in the midst of morphological ambiguity. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of 45 barcoded bighead and silver carp from the United States and China produced reads that were aligned to the silver carp transcriptome yielded 261 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with fixed allelic differences between the two species. We selected the highest quality 112 SNP loci for validation using 194 putative pure-species and F1 hybrids from the MRB and putative bighead carp and silver carp pure species from China (Amur, Pearl and Yangtze rivers). Fifty SNPs were omitted due to design/amplification failure or lack of diagnostic utility. A total of 57 species-diagnostic SNPs conserved between carp species in US and Chinese rivers were identified; 32 were annotated to functional gene loci. Twenty-seven of the 181 (15%) putative pure species were identified as hybrid backcrosses after validation, including three backcrosses from the Amur River, where hybridization has not been documented previously. The 57 SNPs identified through RAD sequencing provide a diagnostic tool to detect population admixture and to identify hybrid and pure-species Asian carps in the United States and China. PMID:23957862

  18. Functional characterisation of UCP1 in the common carp: uncoupling activity in liver mitochondria and cold-induced expression in the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Jastroch; Julie A. Buckingham; Michael Helwig; Martin Klingenspor; Martin D. Brand

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) mediates nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. We previously reported\\u000a on the presence of a UCP1 orthologue in ectothermic fish and observed downregulation of UCP1 gene expression in the liver\\u000a of the common carp. Neither the function of UCP1, nor the mode of UCP1 activation is known in carp liver mitochondria. Here,\\u000a we compared the

  19. Changes in the respiratory properties of the blood in the carp, Cyprinus carpio , induced by diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Lykkeboe; Roy E. Weber

    1978-01-01

    Summary  Effects of diurnal variation in ambient oxygen tension on acid-base balance and blood respiratory properties were investigated in carp (Cyprinus carpio). The carp were subjected to two cycles in ambient\\u000a$$P_{O_2 }$$\\u000a between about 130 mm Hg and about 12 mm Hg at 17°C (cf. Figs. 1 and 2). The first period of hypoxia was characterized by a non-compensated respiratory

  20. The complement component C5 of the common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ): cDNA cloning of two distinct isotypes that differ in a functional site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Kato; Miki Nakao; Junichi Mutsuro; Ioannis K. Zarkadis; Tomoki Yano

    2003-01-01

    The complement component C5 plays important roles in inflammatory responses and complement-mediated cytolysis. In bony fish, although C5 has been identified at the DNA or the protein level in trout, carp and gilthead seabream, only partial C5 sequences are available. The present study was designed to obtain the complete primary structure of C5 from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and

  1. PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --1 PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --2

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Matthew

    PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University D. Facilities E. Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology 2. Department Faculty and Staff

  2. Fall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    /Pictorial Arts 15 BFA Art/Spatial Arts 49 BA Art/Art History and Visual Culture 51 BA Art Design 201 BS Industrial Design 77 BFA Graphic Design 168 BFA Interior Design 453 BA Art/Design Studies English 408 BAFall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total 164 BA Art/Studio Practice

  3. DNA Methylation Analysis of Allotetraploid Hybrids of Red Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus red var.) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaojun; Tao, Min; Hu, Jie; Wang, Jun; Liu, Wei; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization may lead to divergence in adaptation and boost speciation in angiosperms and some lower animals. Epigenetic change plays a significant role in the formation and adaptation of polyploidy. Studies of the effects of methylation on genomic recombination and gene expression in allopolyploid plants have achieved good progress. However, relevant advances in polyploid animals have been relatively slower. In the present study, we used the bisexual, fertile, genetically stable allotetraploid generated by hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. and Cyprinus carpio L. to investigate cytosine methylation level using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. We observed 38.31% of the methylation changes in the allotetraploid compared with the parents at 355 randomly selected CCGG sites. In terms of methylation status, these results indicate that the level of methylation modification in the allotetraploid may have increased relative to that in the parents. We also found that the major methylation changes were hypermethylation on some genomic fragments and genes related to metabolism or cell cycle regulation. These results provide circumstantial evidence that DNA methylation might be related to the gene expression and phenotype variation in allotetraploid hybrids. Our study partly fulfils the need for epigenetic research in polyploid animals, and provides evidence for the epigenetic regulation of allopolyploids. PMID:23457564

  4. Potential Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Development in the Mekong River Basin on the Migration of Siamese Mud Carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) Elucidated by Otolith Microchemistry

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409–0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

  5. Potential effects of hydroelectric dam development in the Mekong River basin on the migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus) elucidated by otolith microchemistry.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Michio; Jutagate, Tuantong; Grudpan, Chaiwut; Phomikong, Pisit; Nohara, Seiichi

    2014-01-01

    The migration of Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis and H. lobatus), two of the most economically important fish species in the Mekong River, was studied using an otolith microchemistry technique. Fish and river water samples were collected in seven regions throughout the whole basin in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia over a 4 year study period. There was coherence between the elements in the ambient water and on the surface of the otoliths, with strontium (Sr) and barium (Ba) showing the strongest correlation. The partition coefficients were 0.409-0.496 for Sr and 0.055 for Ba. Otolith Sr-Ba profiles indicated extensive synchronized migrations with similar natal origins among individuals within the same region. H. siamensis movement has been severely suppressed in a tributary system where a series of irrigation dams has blocked their migration. H. lobatus collected both below and above the Khone Falls in the mainstream Mekong exhibited statistically different otolith surface elemental signatures but similar core elemental signatures. This result suggests a population originating from a single natal origin but bypassing the waterfalls through a passable side channel where a major hydroelectric dam is planned. The potential effects of damming in the Mekong River are discussed. PMID:25099147

  6. Direct evidence for interaction between lead ions and kidney DNA from silver crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Hong, Fashui; Wu, Cheng; Liu, Chao; Wang, Ling; Gao, Fengqing; Yang, Fan; Xu, Jianhua; Liu, Tao; Xie, Yaning; Li, Xiangzhen

    2007-07-01

    A direct interaction of lead (Pb) with kidney DNA from silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) has been systematically studied in vitro using multi-techniques, including UV-vis absorption, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism spectral methods and gel electrophoresis. We find that Pb is bound with four oxygen or nitrogen atoms of DNA in its fresh shell at the distances of 2.64 A. Additionally, Pb may bind to the oxygen atom of nucleic acid or nitrogen atom of base pairs of DNA in that obvious changes in the secondary structure of DNA are found after Pb treatment. However, this direct interaction of Pb with DNA do not cause DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:17517428

  7. Purification and characterization of parvalbumin isotypes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; You, Juan; Luo, Yongkang; Wu, Jianping

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of fish allergy is rapidly increasing because of a growing fish consumption driven mainly by a positive image of the fish and health relationship. The purpose of this study was to characterize parvalbumin isotypes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), one of the most frequently consumed freshwater fish in China. Three parvalbumin isotypes were purified using consecutive gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography and denoted as PVI, PVII, and PVIII. The molecular weights of the isotypes were determined to be 11.968, 11.430, and 11.512 kDa, respectively. PVI showed 74% matched amino acids sequence with PV isotype 4a from Danio rerio, while PVII and PVIII showed 46% matched amino acids sequence with PV isotypes from Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. PVII is the dominant allergen, but it was liable to gastrointestinal enzymes as PVIII; however, PVI was resistant to pepsin digestion. A further study is to characterize the epitopes of PVII, the dominant allergen. PMID:24866418

  8. Classical and molecular cytogenetics of Khawia sinensis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), invasive parasite of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Orosová, Martina; Oros, Mikuláš

    2012-05-01

    Chromosomes of the invasive tapeworm Khawia sinensis (Caryophyllidea), the specific parasite of common carp, were analyzed by means of conventional Giemsa staining and using fluorescent DAPI and YOYO-1 dyes, silver staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe. The karyotype is composed of eight pairs of metacentric and telocentric chromosomes (2n = 16, n = 3m + 5t, TCL = 42.54 ?m). Constitutive heterochromatin was located at pericentromeric regions of all pairs, except for the largest metacentric pair (no. 1), which possessed no DAPI-positive band. FISH with rDNA probe revealed that both homologues of chromosome pair no. 6 carry a cluster of ribosomal arrays, which were located interstitially close to the centromere. Present results are compared with previous cytogenetic data on Khawia spp., and comments are made on the karyotypes with respect to their phylogenetic links. PMID:22167367

  9. Antioxidative role of cerium against the toxicity of lead in the liver of silver crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Ling, Qufei; Hong, Fashui

    2010-09-01

    The antioxidative role of cerium was investigated in the liver of silver crucian carp injected with lead. The fish were intraperitoneally injected with 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg wet weight PbCl(2). After a 14-day period of incubation, 35 animals were injected with a solution of 1.5 mg/kg wet weight CeCl(3). After 42 days, the wet weight and the liver weight of the fish were weighed, and the oxidative stress of the fish liver was estimated by assaying lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, ascorbic acid, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results show that Ce(3+) could decrease ROS accumulation, relieve the inhibition of the activities of the antioxidant enzyme and the reduction of antioxidants in fish liver caused by Pb(2+), and decrease the enhancement of hepatosomatic index of fish under various Pb(2+) dosages. PMID:19130280

  10. Study the seasonal steroid hormones of common carp in Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Vahid; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Mehdinejad, Nooshin

    2013-12-01

    In this investigation, serum steroid hormones such as testosterone (T), 17?-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in 12 female of the migratory population of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in southeast of Caspian Sea during a year from May 2011 to May 2012 were studied. The results of present study revealed that changes in levels of steroid hormones, (E2) and (T) were closely correlated to ovarian development. There was significant difference in level of 17 ?- estradiol between autumn and winter seasons that the highest of 17-? estradiol level was observed in autumn season. In the case of progesterone hormone, higher levels was recorded in summer season and there was significant difference between summer and spring seasons and lower level of testosterone was observed in spring season. PMID:23687630

  11. Genome sequence and genetic diversity of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Xumin; Li, Jiongtang; Liu, Guiming; Kuang, Youyi; Xu, Jian; Zheng, Xianhu; Ren, Lufeng; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yan; Huo, Linhe; Zhao, Zixia; Cao, Dingchen; Lu, Cuiyun; Li, Chao; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Zhanjiang; Fan, Zhonghua; Shan, Guangle; Li, Xingang; Wu, Shuangxiu; Song, Lipu; Hou, Guangyuan; Jiang, Yanliang; Jeney, Zsigmond; Yu, Dan; Wang, Li; Shao, Changjun; Song, Lai; Sun, Jing; Ji, Peifeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Qiang; Xu, Liming; Sun, Fanyue; Feng, Jianxin; Wang, Chenghui; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Baosen; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yaping; Xue, Wei; Zhao, Lan; Wang, Jintu; Gu, Ying; Lv, Weihua; Wu, Kejing; Xiao, Jingfa; Wu, Jiayan; Zhang, Zhang; Yu, Jun; Sun, Xiaowen

    2014-11-01

    The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is one of the most important cyprinid species and globally accounts for 10% of freshwater aquaculture production. Here we present a draft genome of domesticated C. carpio (strain Songpu), whose current assembly contains 52,610 protein-coding genes and approximately 92.3% coverage of its paleotetraploidized genome (2n = 100). The latest round of whole-genome duplication has been estimated to have occurred approximately 8.2 million years ago. Genome resequencing of 33 representative individuals from worldwide populations demonstrates a single origin for C. carpio in 2 subspecies (C. carpio Haematopterus and C. carpio carpio). Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses were used to identify loci potentially associated with traits including scaling patterns and skin color. In combination with the high-resolution genetic map, the draft genome paves the way for better molecular studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of C. carpio and other closely related species. PMID:25240282

  12. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Dongyi; Chu, Wuying; Liu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ruixue; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Jianshe

    2008-11-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 ?mol/L resulted in decreased expression of both ?- and ?-tubulin but ?-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  13. Purification, characterization, and molecular cloning of gonadotropin subunits of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Chang, Y S; Huang, C J; Huang, F L; Liu, C S; Lo, T B

    1990-04-01

    The alpha and beta subunit of silver carp gonadotropin (scGTH-alpha and scGTH-beta) were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Heterogeneity of N-terminal amino acid sequence was observed in scGTH-alpha but not in scGTH-beta. For determining the complete primary structures of scGTH-alpha and scGTH-beta, their cDNAs were cloned. Combining the data of N- and C-terminal sequences determined from proteins and the amino acid sequences deduced from cDNAs, we infer that scGTH-alpha consists of 95 and/or 93 residues and scGTH-beta consists of 115 residues. Both scGTH-alpha and scGTH-beta are glycoprotein. Their carbohydrate content is about 20 g per 100 g protein. The molecular weights of scGTH-alpha and scGTH-beta were calculated to be 12,700 and 15,700 Da, respectively. The amino acid sequences of scGTH-alpha and scGTH-beta are very similar to those of the corresponding subunit of carp GTH, different in only 2 and 4 residues, respectively. In addition, a high extent of homology (70%) was also observed between the alpha subunits of fish and mammalian GTHs. In the case of beta subunit, homology among various species of fish (75 to 98%) is much higher than that between fish and mammal (40%). These data suggest that the alpha subunit is conserved while the beta subunit is diversified during the molecular evolution of vertebrate GTH. PMID:2332148

  14. Rheological properties of gelatin from silver carp skin compared to commercially available gelatins from different sources.

    PubMed

    Boran, G; Mulvaney, S J; Regenstein, J M

    2010-10-01

    Gelatin is used as a functional ingredient in many foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics as a stabilizing, thickening, and gelling agent. The rheological properties of gelatins are important in the potential functionality of gelatin. This study is designed to determine the rheological properties of gelatin extracted from the skins of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes 1844). The extracted gelatin is compared with commercially available gelatins from different sources. The results indicate that the stress-strain relationship of gelatin gels remained in the linear region over a broad range of strains and stresses and gave similar elastic moduli at varying frequency, stress, and strain levels. One exception was a commercial high molecular weight fish skin gelatin that gave a lower elastic modulus indicating that its gel strength was low compared to the other gelatin samples studied. Gel strength varied between 220 and 1230 g while viscosity varied between 4.53 and 6.91 cP among the samples. Melting and gelling temperatures varied between 14.2 and 32.3 °C and 3.2 and 25.4 °C, respectively. Texture profile analysis was done at 2 deformation levels, 25% and 75%, and the results correlated well with gel strength. The correlations between hardness, cohesiveness, and gumminess and gel strength were 0.98, 0.82, and 0.99, respectively, at 25% deformation but lower at 75% deformation. The results suggest that rheological measurements might be used to quickly estimate gel strength using less material. In addition, the silver carp skin gelatin seemed to be of equal quality to some of the commercial gelatins. PMID:21535497

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus), an Important Aquaculture and Hypoxia-Tolerant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Xiaolin; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Peng; Lu, Guoqing; Wachholtz, Michael; Sun, Xiaowen; Chen, Songlin

    2013-01-01

    The crucian carp is an important aquaculture species and a potential model to study genome evolution and physiological adaptation. However, so far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of four cDNA libraries representing brain, muscle, liver and kidney tissues respectively, each with six specimens. The removal of low quality reads resulted in 2.62 million raw reads, which were assembled as 127,711 unigenes, including 84,867 isotigs and 42,844 singletons. A total of 22,273 unigenes were found with significant matches to 14,449 unique proteins. Around14,398 unigenes were assigned with at least one Gene Ontology (GO) category in 84,876 total assignments, and 6,382 unigenes were found in 237 predicted KEGG pathways. The gene expression analysis revealed more genes expressed in brain, more up-regulated genes in muscle and more down-regulated genes in liver as compared with gene expression profiles of other tissues. In addition, 23 enzymes in the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway were recovered. Importantly, we identified 5,784 high-quality putative SNP and 11,295 microsatellite markers which include 5,364 microsatellites with flanking sequences ?50 bp. This study produced the most comprehensive genomic resources that have been derived from crucian carp, including thousands of genetic markers, which will not only lay a foundation for further studies on polyploidy origin and anoxic survival but will also facilitate selective breeding of this important aquaculture species. PMID:23630630

  16. A mathematical model of the carp heart ventricle during the cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Kochová, Petra; Cimrman, Robert; Štengl, Milan; Oš?ádal, Bohuslav; Tonar, Zbyn?k

    2015-05-21

    The poikilothermic heart has been suggested as a model for studying some of the mechanisms of early postnatal mammalian heart adaptations. We assessed morphological parameters of the carp heart (Cyprinus carpio L.) with diastolic dimensions: heart radius (5.73mm), thickness of the compact (0.50mm) and spongy myocardium (4.34mm), in two conditions (systole, diastole): volume fraction of the compact myocardium (20.7% systole, 19.6% diastole), spongy myocardium (58.9% systole, 62.8% diastole), trabeculae (37.8% systole, 28.6% diastole), and cavities (41.5% systole, 51.9% diastole) within the ventricle; volume fraction of the trabeculae (64.1% systole, 45.5% diastole) and sinuses (35.9% systole, 54.5% diastole) within the spongy myocardium; ratio between the volume of compact and spongy myocardium (0.35 systole, 0.31 diastole); ratio between compact myocardium and trabeculae (0.55 systole, 0.69 diastole); and surface density of the trabeculae (0.095?m(-1) systole, 0.147?m(-1) diastole). We created a mathematical model of the carp heart based on actual morphometric data to simulate how the compact/spongy myocardium ratio, the permeability of the spongy myocardium, and sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium influence stroke volume, stroke work, ejection fraction and p-V diagram. Increasing permeability led to increasing and then decreasing stroke volume and work, and increasing ejection fraction. An increased amount of spongy myocardium led to an increased stroke volume, work, and ejection fraction. Varying sinus-trabeculae volume fractions within the spongy myocardium showed that an increased sinus volume fraction led to an increased stroke volume and work, and a decreased ejection fraction. PMID:25797310

  17. Characterizing the In Vitro Hepatic Biotransformation of the Flame Retardant BDE 99 by Common Carp

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Pamela D.; Kelly, Shannon M.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of flame retardant chemicals that are known to biomagnify in aquatic foodwebs. However, significant biotransformation of some congeners via reductive dehalogenation has been observed during in vivo and in vitro laboratory exposures, particularly in fish models. Little information is available on the enzyme systems responsible for catalyzing this metabolic pathway in fish. This study was undertaken to characterize the biotransformation of one primary BDE congener, 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), using in vitro techniques. Hepatic sub-cellular fractions were first prepared from individual adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to examine metabolism in both microsomal and cytosolic sub-cellular fractions. Debromination rates (i.e. BDE-99 biotransformation to BDE-47) were generally higher in the microsomal fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, and some intra-species variability was observed. Further experiments were conducted to determine the biotransformation kinetics and the influence of specific co-factors, inhibitors and competitive substrates on metabolism using pooled carp liver microsomes. The apparent Km and Vmax values were 19.4 ?M and 1,120 pmoles hr?1 mg protein?1, respectively. Iodoacetate (IaC) and the two thyroid hormones, reverse triodothyronine (rT3) and thyroxine (T4), significantly inhibited the debromination of BDE-99 in microsomal sub-cellular fractions with IC50 values of 2.2 ?M, 0.83 ?M, and >1.0 ?M, respectively. These results support our hypothesis that deiodinase enzymes may be catalyzing the metabolism of PBDEs in fish liver tissues. Further studies are needed to evaluate metabolic activity in other species and tissues that contain these enzymes. PMID:20080306

  18. Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 ?m) and large (150-200 ?m) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

  19. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ö?retmen, F; ?nanan, B E

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to test the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the cryopreservation of common carp spermatozoa. BHT is widely used in the cryopreservation of the spermatozoa of different animal species and successfully sustains the characteristics of spermatozoa during freezing and thawing, but it has not previously been used with fish. After sampling, common carp spermatozoa were diluted with an extender composed of modified Kurokura's extender, 10% DMSO, and 10% egg yolk containing 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, or 10mM BHT and subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen. The post-thaw spermatozoa characteristics (i.e., progressive motility percentage (%), duration of progressive motility (s), fertilization rate (%), and eyed-eggs rate (%)) were evaluated and compared with those of the control group. There were significant increases in the percentage of progressive motility and the duration of progressive motility at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.001mM BHT (P<0.05). The duration of post-thawed spermatozoa progressive motility at 0.001mM BHT was significantly greater than that of the other groups (39.6±0.4s, P<0.05), and the fertilization rates and eyed-eggs rates were also higher following the 0.1 and 1mM BHT treatments. BHT at concentrations of more than 1mM caused sperm immobility during the preparatory stages of the sperm freezing. We concluded that 0.001-0.1mM BHT can be beneficial for the cryopreservation of common spermatozoa. PMID:25459081

  20. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  1. GC/MS-based metabolomics approach to identify biomarkers differentiating survivals from death in crucian carps infected by Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Man-Jun; Wang, Sheng; Ren, Shi-Tong; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Microbial disease problems constitute the largest single cause of economic losses in aquaculture. An understanding of immune system in aquaculture animals how to function in defense against bacterial infections is especially important to control these diseases and improve food quality and safety. In the present study, we use a crucian carp model to explore which pathways and metabolites are crucial for the defense against infection caused by Edwardsiella tarda EIB202. We establish the metabolic profile of crucian carps and then compare the metabolic difference between survivals and dead fish by self-control. We identify elevating unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and decreasing fructose and mannose metabolism as the most key pathways and increasing palmitic acid and decreasing d-mannose as the most crucial metabolites differentiating survivals from death in these fish infected by E. tarda. Our findings highlight the importance of metabolic strategy against bacterial infections. PMID:24837326

  2. Fish peptone development using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp by-products as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus media

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Meysam; Bahram, Somayeh; Javadian, Seyed Roholla

    2015-01-01

    Fish peptone was produced using enzymatic hydrolysis of silver carp filleting by-products by alcalase and trypsin. Also, the efficiency of the hydrolysates as a nitrogen source in Staphylococcus aureus medium was compared with commercial TSB. The results indicated that the protein hydrolysate from alcalase and trypsin had high protein content (92.92%, 91.53 respectively), and degree of hydrolysis (4.94%, 4.6% respectively).The results showed that silver carp filleting waste can be an efficient source for fish peptone production as a nitrogen source for S. aureus medium. However, the type of the used proteolytic enzyme considerably affected the performance of the resulting peptone despite the same DH. Fish peptone produced by alcalese performed significantly (P < 0.05) better than commercial TSB as a media for the bacteria while the performance of the trypsin peptone was not as good as the commercial medium.

  3. Vitellogenin Induction and Other Biochemical Responses in Carp, Cyprinus carpio , After Experimental Injection with 17a-Ethynylestradiol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Solé; C. Porte; D. Barceló

    2000-01-01

    Prespawning, adult male and female carp, Cyprinus carpio, were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 500 7g\\/kg of 17!-ethynylestradiol (EE2). Blood samples were taken and vitellogenin levels were recorded previous to the injection and 8 days afterward. Western blot analysis of plasma VTG showed a marked response in both males (90-fold) and females (67-fold) after EE2 injection. Also, a

  4. Responses of carp hepatopancreatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and glutathione-dependent enzymes to organic pollutants -- a field study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Machala; K. Nezveda; R. Ulrich; M. Petrivalsky; L. Dusek; V. Placka; Z. Svobodova

    1997-01-01

    Modulations of hepatopancreatic activities of cytochrome P450IA (CYPIA) and glutathione-dependent enzymes were investigated in carp collected in five ponds with different levels of contamination. The CYPIA-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity was markedly induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the sediment at a total concentration of 0.9 mg\\/kg. Even a low organic contamination increased some of the glutathione-dependent enzymatic activities, namely cytosolic

  5. Cloning of cytochrome P450 3A137 complementary DNA in silver carp and expression induction by ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Junguo; Lei, Wenlong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Yuanlong

    2013-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, especially CYP 3A, are responsible for metabolizing of various kinds of endogenous and exogenous compounds in animals. In the present study, a full-length sequence of CYP 3A137 cDNA in silver carp was cloned and sequenced, and then a phylogenetic tree of CYP 3A was structured. Additionally, the acute toxicity of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) on silver carp and transcription and microsome enzyme activity of CYP 3A137 in the liver of silver fish after rifampicin or [C8mim]Br exposure were also determined in this study. The results show that the full length of CYP 3A137 cDNA is 1810 base pair (bp) long and contains an open reading frame of 1539bp encoding a protein of 513 amino acids. Sequence analysis reveals that CYP 3A137 is highly conserved in fish. Moreover, the results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction reveal that CYP 3A137 in silver carp is constitutively expressed in all tissues examined and the sequence of expression rate is liver>intestine>kidney>spleen>brain>heart>muscle. Finally, the results of acute toxicity tests indicate that both rifampicin and [C8mim]Br significantly up-regulate the expression of CYP 3A137 at mRNA level and increase CYP 3A137 enzyme activity in fish liver, suggesting that CYP 3A137 be involved in metabolism of [C8mim]Br in silver carp. PMID:23683867

  6. Short and long-term exposure to diclofenac alter oxidative stress status in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Vence, Karinne; Dublán-García, Octavio; López-Martínez, Leticia Xochitl; Morachis-Valdes, Gabriela; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; Islas-Flores, Hariz; Gómez-Oliván, Leobardo Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Diclofenac (DCF) has been detected in significant amounts in municipal treated wastewater effluent. Diverse studies report that trace concentrations of DCF may induce toxic effects on different aquatic organisms as well as developmental, reproductive and renal damage. This study aimed to determine whether short and long-term exposure to DCF alter the oxidative stress (OS) status in blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver of common carp Cyprinus carpio. The median lethal concentration of DCF at 96 h (96-h LC50) and subsequently the lowest observed adverse effect level were determined. Carp were exposed (short and long-term) to the latter value for different exposure times (4 and 24 days) and the following biomarkers were evaluated in gill, brain, liver and blood: hydroperoxides content (HPC), lipid peroxidation (LPX), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Also, the DCF was determined by LC-MS/MS. Significant increases in HPC, LPX and PCC were observed respect to control (P < 0.05) particularly in blood, muscle, gill, brain and liver. SOD, CAT and GPx activity also increased in these organs, with respect to controls (P < 0.05). DCF concentrations decreased and increased in water system and carp, respectively. Cyprinus carpio exposed to DCF was affected in OS status during the initial days of the study (at 4 days), exhibiting an increased response at 24 days in blood and liver. In contrast, a decrease was observed in muscle, gills and brain at 24 days with respect to 4 days. In conclusion, DCF induces OS on blood, muscle, gills, brain and liver in the carp C. carpio in short and long-term exposure. The biomarkers employed in this study are useful in the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. PMID:25512029

  7. Influence of Dioxin and Metal-Contaminated Sediment on Phase I and II Biotransformation Enzymes in Silver Crucian Carp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen Guosheng; Xu Ying; Xu Lihong; Zhang Yongyuan; Karl-Werner Schramm; Antonius Kettrup

    1998-01-01

    Several biochemical responses were measured in silver crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after exposure to sediments obtained from contaminated Ya-Er Lake, No. 1 pond, and an unpolluted reference site, Honglian Lake. After 1 week of exposure, a significant induction of the phase I biotransformation enzyme (ethoxylresorufin-o-deethylase, EROD) was found (83-fold of control), whereas the phase II biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase,

  8. Copper Speciation and Accumulation in the Gill Microenvironment of Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) in the Presence of Kaolin Particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Tao; A. Long; R. W. Dawson; F. Xu; B. Li; J. Cao; J. Fang

    2002-01-01

    Carp were exposed to copper adsorbed on kaolin particles at various concentrations (0–2.4 mg\\/L), and net accumulation due\\u000a to elevated adsorbed copper in the surrounding water was observed. Copper speciation in the water and fish gill microenvironment\\u000a was modeled in the presence and absence of kaolin using a chemical speciation program (MINTEQA2). The adsorption affinity\\u000a constants of kaolin for copper

  9. Effects of adding various oils to the diet on growth, feed conversion and chemical composition of carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Steffens; M. Wirth; B. Rennert

    1995-01-01

    The suitability of various vegetable and fish oils was tested as feed components for one?summer?old carp fingerlings. Five diets were used: a basal diet, which served as control feed, was supplemented with 10% corn?germ oil, 10% sunflower oil, 10% fish oil or 10% rapeseed oil, respectively. By means of the lipid supplementation the crude protein content decreased from 35.5% in

  10. Specializations and limitations in the utilization of food resources by the carp, Cyprinus carpio : a study of oral food processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferdinand A. Sibbing

    1988-01-01

    Synopsis  The wide variety of aquatic food is considered to be instrumental for the diversification in fish species. Yet their abilities\\u000a and inabilities of handling food are poorly known. For these reasons the food processing and feeding repertoire of the adult\\u000a carp, Cyprinus carpio, fed on a variety of food types, were analyzed by light and X-ray cinematography of the head

  11. Growth and Condition of the Carp and the River Carpsucker in an Altered Environment in Western Kansas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman P. Stucky; Harold E. Klaassen

    1971-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the populations of the carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, and the river carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque), in Cedar Bluff Reservoir, and the Smoky Hill River, west-central Kansas. Three variables-(1) growth rate, (2) condition factor, and (3) percentage fat content-were used to evaluate the two populations.Data were collected from the spring of 1967 to the fall

  12. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial control region in polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp ( Carassius auratus ) × blunt snout bream ( Megalobrama amblycephala )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinpeng Yan; Liangguo Liu; Shaojun Liu; Xinhong Guo; Yun Liu

    2010-01-01

    The entire sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA control region (CR) and portions of its flanking genes in the red crucian\\u000a carp (RC) and blunt snout bream (BSB) as well as their polyploid hybrids (3nRB, 4nRB and 5nRB) were determined and subjected\\u000a to a comparative analysis. The mtDNA-CRs of these five fish species ranged from 923 to 937 bp in length, they

  13. Chinese herbs ( Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, Cyprinus carpio, and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Yin; L. Ardó; K. D. Thompson; A. Adams; Z. Jeney; G. Jeney

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. Fish were fed diets containing Astragalus (0.5%), Ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (Astragalus 0.5% and Ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. Other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against Aeromonas hydrophila\\/Aeromonas salmonicida (Shering Plough, Essex, U.K.) at the beginning of the experiment

  14. Genetic analysis of “all-fish” growth hormone gene trans ferred carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) and its F 1 generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaping Wang; Wei Hu; Gang Wu; Yonghua Sun; Shangping Chen; Fuying Zhang; Zuoyan Zhu; Jianxin Feng; Xirui Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant “all-fish” growth hormone gene (GH) was microinjected into the fertilized eggs of carp. A comparison between the growth traits of transgenics and non-transgenics\\u000a was carried out, and the transgenic individuals with significant “fast-growing” effect were successfully gained. A comparison\\u000a on the reproductivities was also given out between the transgenics and their non-transgenic siblings, and showed that the\\u000a reproductive capacity

  15. The effect of sublethal levels of copper on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun De Boeck; Hans De Smet; Ronny Blust

    1995-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) of 15–30 g body weight were exposed to copper levels of 0.22 ± 0.07, 0.34 ± 0.12 and 0.84 ± 0.35 ?mol · l?1. Oxygen consumption and nitrogen excretion were determined repeatedly for up to 2 weeks of exposure to copper. Critical oxygen concentrations for oxygen consumption as well as for ammonia excretion were determined after

  16. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in females or a confounding effect of the higher nutrient loads in the Las Vegas Bay environment.

  17. Management of an ornamental pond as a conservation site for a threatened native fish species, crucian carp Carassius carassius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Copp; S. Warrington; K. J. Wesley

    \\u000a Ornamental ponds are important sites for conserving threatened native fish species (e.g. crucian carp Carassius carassius L.), but pond management plans rarely include considerations of native fishes. We developed and implemented a management\\u000a plan for a small (0.8 h), ornamental estate pond in Hertfordshire (England) using historical information (aquatic plant and\\u000a animal surveys) and a 9-year data set on climatic variables

  18. Management of an ornamental pond as a conservation site for a threatened native fish species, crucian carp Carassius carassius

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Copp; S. Warrington; K. J. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Ornamental ponds are important sites for conserving threatened native fish species (e.g. crucian carp Carassius carassius L.), but pond management plans rarely include considerations of native fishes. We developed and implemented a management\\u000a plan for a small (0.8 h), ornamental estate pond in Hertfordshire (England) using historical information (aquatic plant and\\u000a animal surveys) and a 9-year data set on climatic variables

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) inhabiting three rivers in Kochi Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Hiroya; Yamasaki, Kenichi; Furusawa, Keiki; Tamura, Kazuki; Oguro, Kazuki; Kurihara, Sumire; Seki, Shingo; Oshima, Syun-ichirou; Imajoh, Masayuki

    2015-02-25

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes lethal disease in common and koi carp. Mortality by CyHV-3 disease has not been reported since 2011 in Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Here, we detected and quantified CyHV-3 in common carp inhabiting three rivers in the prefecture to examine if the carp are carriers of CyHV-3 as a source of infection. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 16.7% (12/72) of brain samples in Kagami River, 3.9% (3/76) of brain and 3.9% (3/76) of gill samples in Monobe River, and 5.1% (4/79) of brain and 1.3% (1/79) of gill samples in Wajiki River. CyHV-3 genotypes identified in the 23 samples were classified as the J genotype A1 that has been found in Japan. The CyHV-3 DNA load did not differ statistically between sampling months, indicating that CyHV-3 has been silent in common carp, unlike Lake Biwa where the annual reactivation occurs in spring. Taken together, our results represented definitive evidence that seasonal changes in water temperature do not affect CyHV-3 activity in carp. Considering that infectious virus was not isolated from CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples, it was suggested that CyHV-3 establishes a latent infection in carp populations inhabiting Kagami River, Monobe River and Wajiki River. Further, the presence of circular or concatameric CyHV-3 DNA was detected in five of 23 CyHV-3 DNA-positive samples. Common carp inhabiting Lake Biwa were reported previously to harbor linear but not circular CyHV-3 DNA. This difference suggested that the CyHV-3 genome may be circularized for long-term maintenance without active viral replication. PMID:25554244

  20. Biomarker responses in caged carp (Cyprinuscarpio) and native collected fish (Leporinus obtusidens) in the Río de la Plata Estuary, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Scarcia, Paola; Calamante, Gabriela; de la Torre, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Punta Lara is located in the Río de la Plata estuary near industrial areas contaminated mainly by organic pollutants. In this work, the responses and status of hepatic biomarkers were studied in juvenile carp (Cyprinus carpio) by means of a 21-day field exposure in cages and collection of juvenile native fish (Leporinus obtusidens) at Punta Lara. The analyzed hepatic biomarkers were: enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation level using the thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBARS), and CYP1A protein expression, condition factor (CF) and liver somatic (LSI) index. Taking into account oxidative stress responses, SOD activity was increased in both species, while CAT was increased in C. carpio and decreased in L. obtusidens; TBARS levels indicated that oxidative damage was possibly exerted only in L. obtusidens. Biotransformation responses mediated by CYP1A were observed in both species, while GST activity was induced mainly in carps. Considering morphometric indices, CF and LSI were significantly increased in carps while CF decreased in native species. The anthropogenic pollution detected in this study in Punta Lara was associated with differences in biomarkers on both fish species, although a different pattern of response was observed. PMID:23125150

  1. Effect of subacute exposure to silver nanoparticle on some hematological and plasma biochemical indices in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

    PubMed

    Shaluei, F; Hedayati, A; Jahanbakhshi, A; Kolangi, H; Fotovat, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) is rapidly increasing, but there are limited data on their effects on the aquatic environment. The present study aimed to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of subacute concentrations of Ag-NPs (Nanocid®: average particle size of 61 nm) on hematological and plasma biochemical indices of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, after 3, 7 and 14 days. The 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) values of Nanocid for silver carp were estimated at 0.810, 0.648, 0.383 and 0.202 mg/L, respectively; 20% and 10% of the 96-h LC50 values (0.04 and 0.02 mg/L) were selected for subacute study. Red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb) count and hematocrit (Hct) level were significantly reduced at both concentrations tested (p < 0.05). White blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), cortisol and glucose levels in Nanocid-treated groups were significantly higher than the controlled group at experimental periods (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Ag-NPs intoxication resulted in erythrocyte reduction, hematological disturbances, leucocytosis and stress response in silver carp and offered a simple tool to evaluate toxicity-derived alterations. PMID:23632006

  2. Occurrence and pathology of Sinergasilus lieni (Copepoda: Ergasilidae), a parasite of the silver carp and bighead, in Hungarian ponds.

    PubMed

    Molnár, K; Székely, Cs

    2004-01-01

    Sinergasilus lieni Yin, 1949, a well-known and pathogenic parasitic copepod in China and Russia, has been detected in Hungarian carp farms for the first time. The parasite infected the third-year generation of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (Aristichthys nobilis). The gills of the infected fish specimens showed severe pathological changes. At the attachment sites of female copepods clubbing and fusing of the gill filaments were observed and in some parts of the pale or whitish hemibranchia deep indentations were recorded in places where the tips of the damaged filaments had broken off. Silver carp and bighead were infected at a similar rate, having 8 to 27 copepods attached to the end of the clubbed filaments or the proliferated epithelium of 2 to 10 fused filaments. In histological sections the head part of the parasite was found in a deep cavity of the proliferated epithelium, piercing its antennae deep into the tissues. Only the end of the filaments showed changes. In this part the proliferated epithelium was infiltrated by eosinophilic granular cells. In the central and basal parts of the hemibranchia the original structure of the filaments was preserved with intact secondary lamellae. PMID:15119787

  3. [Effect of silver carp stocking and fertilization on plankton community in enclosures in saline-alkaline ponds].

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Dong, S; Zhang, Z; Li, D

    2001-04-01

    The effect of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) stocking and fertilization on plankton community of enclosures ecosystem in saline-alkaline ponds were studied. After stocking silver carp in enclosures, the abundance, chlorophyll-a content and primary productivity of phytoplankton increased, and the biomass of phytoplankton was mainly composed by small species, such as diatom and green algae. Moreover, Euglnophyta and Chrysophyta were also subdominant species. The biomass of zooplankton decreased with fish stocking, and that of Cladocera was greater in control than in fish-culture enclosures. Zooplankton community was dominated by larger species such as Daphnia carinata in control enclosures. Fertilization, especially applying inorganic fertilizer, significantly increased the abundance and primary productivity of phytoplankton and the biomass of zooplankton. Although the biomass of plankton in the enclosures applied organic fertilizer was greater than that of control enclosures, the primary productivity and chlorophyll-a content of phytoplankton, the diversity index of plankton, and the P/R ratio were very low, and thus, silver carp grew slowly. The effect of filter feeding fish and applying fertilizer on the structure of plankton community was also discussed. PMID:11757386

  4. Effects and bioaccumulation of 17?-estradiol and 17?-ethynylestradiol following long-term exposure in crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Sun, Wenwen; Li, Xiaoman; Liu, Jingliang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Renmin; Pan, Xuejun

    2015-02-01

    Bioaccumulation and effects of 17?-estradiol (E2) and 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) were assessed by crucian carp (Carassius auratus) following single and binary mixture exposures in flow-through exposure system for 16 months. In comparison with water control (DWC) and solvent control (SC), a significant reduction in body weight, body length and gonadosomatic index (GSI), and increase in hepatosomatic index (HSI) and plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels were observed, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of E2 and EE2 in fish muscle ranged from 3.2 to 40 and from 64 to 123, respectively. Crucian carp were found to be more sensitive to EE2 than E2. The bioaccumulation and toxicological effects in binary mixture exposed fish (mixture of E2 and EE2) were more significant than exposure of individual compound. Crucian carp is sensitive to E2 and EE2 in long-term laboratory exposure experiments and can be used as a potential model species for investigating the toxicity of hormones. PMID:25463868

  5. Evolutionary history of two divergent Dmrt1 genes reveals two rounds of polyploidy origins in gibel carp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Zhi; Hong, Wei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-09-01

    Polyploidy lineages, despite very rare in vertebrates, have been proposed to play significant role in speciation and evolutionary success, but the occurrence history and consequences are still largely unknown. In this study, we used the conserved Dmrt1 to analyze polyploidy occurrence and evolutionary process in polyploid gibel carp. We identified two divergent Dmrt1 genes and respectively localized the two genes on three homologous chromosomes. Subsequently, the corresponding full-length cDNAs and genomic sequences of Dmrt1 genes were also characterized from the closely related species including Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio, and their two Dmrt1 genes were respectively localized on two homologous chromosomes. Significantly, the evolutionary relationship analyses among cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of these Dmrt1 genes revealed two rounds of polyploidy origins in the gibel carp: an early polyploidy might result in an common tetraploid ancestor of Carassius auratus gibelio, Carassius auratus auratus and Cyprinus carpio before 18.49 million years ago (Mya), and an late polyploidy might occur from evolutionary branch of Carassius auratus at around 0.51 Mya, which lead to the occurrence of the hexaploid gibel carp. Therefore, this study provides clear genetic evidence for understanding occurrence time and historical process of polyploidy in polyploid vertebrates. PMID:24859683

  6. Haematological indices are modulated in juvenile carp, Cyprinus carpio L., exposed to microcystins produced by cyanobacterial water bloom.

    PubMed

    Kopp, R; Palíková, M; Mareš, J; Navrátil, S; Kubí?ek, Z; Ziková, A

    2011-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of toxic cyanobacterial water blooms on the blood indices of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Experimental fish were exposed to a natural population of cyanobacterial water blooms (mainly Microcystis aeruginosa and M. ichthyoblabe), which contained microcystins [total concentration 133-284 ?g g?¹ (DW), concentration in water 2.8-7.4 ?g L?¹]. Haematological indices showed marked changes in fish exposed to the cyanobacterial population in comparison with the control group. Statistical evaluation of the influence of cyanobacterial water blooms on biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed a distinct decrease in albumin, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, calcium, cholesterol, glucose, phosphorus and iron when compared to controls. Values of red blood counts [haemoglobin, haematocrit (PCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration] and lactate were significantly increased compared to controls. After exposure to cyanobacterial water bloom, the carp were kept in clean water to monitor the persistence of biochemical indices. The influence of cyanobacterial populations on calcium, cholesterol, glucose, lactate, phosphorus and PCV persisted up to 28 days after conclusion of the experiment. Duration of exposure, toxicity and density of cyanobacterial water blooms had an important impact on individual haematological indices. PMID:21158871

  7. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  8. Modulation of biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under the influence of toxic cyanobacterial biomass in diet.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, Miroslava; Navrátil, Stanislav; Mareš, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Cyanobacteria are producers of potent and environmentally abundant microcystins, representing an emerging global health issue. In the present study, we investigated the impact of cyanobacterial biomass on biochemical indices of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., average weight of 246 ± 73 g) under laboratory conditions. The fish were fed a diet containing cyanobacterial biomass with microcystins in high concentration (0.4 mg/kg of fish weight and day) for 28 days. Statistical evaluation of the influence of the cyanobacterial biomass in food on the biochemical indices of the juvenile carp showed only minor differences. The activity of aspartate aminotransferase value and the urea concentration were significantly reduced compared to control group. The biochemical parameters of fish blood plasma significantly rose during the experiment in the control group as well as in the experimental group. This state was probably influenced by the environmental conditions and the fish diet. A significant rising value was established in calcium creatinine, total protein, phosphorus, lactate, urea and natrium. The present study demonstrates that the oral exposure of toxic cyanobacterial biomass has a minor influence on the biochemical indices of common carp and that the effect of other factors, e.g., nutrition is more visible. PMID:24972534

  9. Use of heat shock protein mRNA expressions as biomarkers in wild crucian carp for monitoring water quality.

    PubMed

    An, Li-hui; Lei, Kun; Zheng, Bing-hui

    2014-01-01

    In organisms, the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs) can be induced after exposure to various stressors. In the present study, partial cDNA sequences encoding of HSP30, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 genes were isolated and sequenced in the crucian carp (Carassius carassius). Next, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays normalized to beta-actin were developed to quantify HSP mRNA expression. The same methods were used to detect HSP mRNA expression in the wild crucian carp that were collected from the Hun River. In fish located downstream of the river, we found that the levels of HSP70 and HSP30 in the liver and kidney were higher than fish located upstream, and these differences coincided with changes of the water quality. These results suggest that kidney HSP30 and liver HSP70 expression can serve as sensitive biomarkers for the presence of field environmental stressors in wild crucian carp. PMID:24370851

  10. Carp Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a metal-tooling project for his fourth-graders. Giving the students a specific subject with specific features and textures enabled him to guide them step-by-step in the metal-tooling process. This project would be a great practice project for even high-school students before doing other relief work. After…

  11. Carpe Diem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, Sheila M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a spur-of-the-moment curriculum development activity involving primary-school students researching the "real" Leonardo, Donatello, Raphael, and Michelangelo behind the names of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Notes that the products of the research were shared during a classroom pizza party. (RS)

  12. A Novel Soluble Immune-Type Receptor (SITR) in Teleost Fish: Carp SITR Is Involved in the Nitric Oxide-Mediated Response to a Protozoan Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carla M. S.; Bird, Steve; Raes, Geert; Ghassabeh, Gholamreza H.; Schijns, Virgil E. J. C.; Pontes, Maria J. S. L.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Wiegertjes, Geert F.

    2011-01-01

    Background The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I-) type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production. Conclusion/Significance We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR) in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a protozoan parasite. PMID:21305002

  13. Use of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) in biological control of intermediate host snails of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in nursery ponds in the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risks of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) to human health constitute an important problem in Vietnam. The infection of humans with these trematodes, such as small liver trematodes (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini), intestinal trematodes (Heterophyidae) and others is often thought to be linked to fish culture in areas where the habit of eating raw fish is common. Juvenile fish produced in nurseries are often heavily infected with FZT and since fishes are sold to aquaculture facilities for growth, control of FZT in these fishes should be given priority. Controlling the first intermediate host (i.e., freshwater gastropods), would be an attractive approach, if feasible. The black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus, is a well-known predator of freshwater snails and is already used successfully for biological control of snails in various parts of the world including Vietnam. Here we report the first trials using it for biological control of intermediate host snails in nursery ponds stocked with 1-week old fry (10–12 mm in length) of Indian carp, Labeo rohita. Methods Semi-field and field experiments were set up to test the effect of black carp on snail populations. In the semi-field experiment a known quantity of snails was initially introduced into a pond which was subsequently stocked with black carp. In the field trial in nursery ponds, density of snails was estimated prior to a nursing cycle and at the end of the cycle (after 9 weeks). Results The results showed that black carp affect the density of snail populations in both semi-field and field conditions. The standing crop of snails in nursery ponds, however, was too high for 2 specimens to greatly reduce snail density within the relatively short nursing cycle. Conclusions We conclude that the black carp can be used in nursery ponds in Northern Vietnam for snail control. Juvenile black carp weighing 100 - 200g should be used because this size primarily prey on intermediate hosts of FZT and other studies have shown that it does not prey on fish fry of other species. It may be necessary to use a high stocking density of black carp or to reduce snail density in the nursery ponds using other measures (e.g. mud removal) prior to stocking fry in order for the black carp to keep the density of intermediate host snails at a very low level. PMID:23680382

  14. Massive mortality of common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) in the St. Lawrence River in 2001: diagnostic investigation and experimental induction of lymphocytic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Monette, S; Dallaire, A D; Mingelbier, M; Groman, D; Uhland, C; Richard, J-P; Paillard, G; Johannson, L M; Chivers, D P; Ferguson, H W; Leighton, F A; Simko, E

    2006-05-01

    A massive fish kill affecting exclusively common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) in the St. Lawrence River, Québec, Canada, during the summer of 2001 was investigated by use of laboratory diagnostic methods and by an attempt to experimentally induce the disease. The ultimate causes of mortality were opportunistic bacterial infections with Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. secondary to immunosuppression induced by physiologic (i.e., spawning) and environmental (i.e., high temperatures and low water levels) stressors, and possibly enhanced by an infection causing lymphocytic encephalitis observed in 9 of 18 (50%) fish examined. Experimental induction of disease was attempted in captured wild carp by administration of crude and filtered (particulate <0.22 microm) inocula prepared from a homogenate of tissues from carp affected by the natural outbreak. Although significant clinical disease or mortality was not induced by experimental challenge, lymphocytic encephalitis similar to the one observed in naturally affected carp was induced in four of seven (57%) fish administered crude inoculum and four of seven (57%) fish administered filtered inoculum. None of the control fish inoculated with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (n = 6) were affected by encephalitis. The cause of the encephalitis observed in carp from the natural outbreak and in experimentally inoculated fish could not be determined by use of virus isolation and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:16672577

  15. Effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, gut microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Soleimani, Narges; Ringø, Einar

    2014-10-28

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) (0, 1, 2 and 3%) supplementation on the growth performance, haemato-immunological parameters, cultivable autochthonous (non-adherent) intestinal microbiota and stress resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry (3·23 (SEM 0·14) g). These parameters were measured after feeding the carp fry with the experimental diets for 7 weeks. Dietary FOS supplementation had no significant effects on the growth performance and food intake of carp fry compared with the control treatment. It also had no significant effects on the following haematological parameters: erythrocyte count; leucocyte counts (WBC); haematocrit; Hb; mean corpuscular volume; mean corpuscular Hb content; mean corpuscular Hb concentration. However, WBC and respiratory burst activity were significantly affected by dietary FOS supplementation. Evaluation of the cultivable autochthonous intestinal microbiota revealed a significant increase in the levels of total viable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in fish fed diets supplemented with 2 and 3% FOS. Furthermore, dietary FOS supplementation significantly increased the survival rate and stress resistance of carp fry compared with the control treatment. These results encourage conducting further research on the administration of FOS and other prebiotics in carp fry studies. PMID:25313574

  16. Promoter analysis and transcriptional regulation of a Gig2 gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huarong; Sun, Changgui; Liu, Wenqun; Gu, Meihui; Lin, Gang; Liu, Yong; Mi, Yichuan; Fan, Lihua; Wang, Binhua; Hu, Chengyu

    2015-02-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV)-induced gene 2 (Gig2) is recognized as a new antiviral factor involved in response to viral infection. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind the transcriptional regulation of Gig2 when infected by virus. In this study, the upstream promoter region of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Gig2 gene (CiGig2) was identified by homology cloning strategy. CiGig2 promoter sequence was found to be 859 bp in length and contained three scattered IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE). In addition, some grass carp IRFs (CiIRF1, CiIRF2 and CiIRF3) ORF sequences were subcloned into the expression plasmids pET-32a and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, then the expressed proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-NTA His-Bind Resin. Gel mobility shift assay was employed to screen the transcriptional regulatory factor for CiGig2. The results revealed that the recombinant polypeptides of CiIRF1, CiIRF2 and CiIRF3 bound to CiGig2 promoter with high affinity; indicating that IRF1, IRF2 and IRF3 could be the potential transcriptional regulatory factors for Gig2. Subsequently, CiGig2 promoter sequence was cloned into pGL3-Basic vector and the ORFs of CiIRF1, CiIRF2 and CiIRF3 were cloned into the expression plasmids pcDNA3.1 (+). Then, pGL3-CiGig2 promoter sequence and pcDNA3.1-CiIRFs were co-transfected into C. idella kidney (CIK) cells. The in vivo effects of CiIRFs on CiGig2 promoter were measured by dual-luciferase assays in the transfected CIK cells. Our results showed that the roles of CiIRFs were diversified in regulating CiGig2 transcription, e.g., CiIRF3 played a positive role in during this process; on the contrary CiIRF1 worked as a suppressor; however the effect of CiIRF2 on CiGig2 transcription was not obvious. For further study the roles of the three ISREs in CiGig2 transcription, we cloned three mutant CiGig2 promoters called ISRE1mut-luc (deleted ISRE1), ISRE2mut-luc (deleted ISRE2) and ISRE3mut-luc (deleted ISRE3), respectively. In vitro, gel mobility shift assays showed that all three mutant promoters also were combined with CiIRFs. CIK cells were co-transfected with CiGig2 promoter mutants (ISRE1mut-luc, ISRE2mut-luc or ISRE3mut-luc, respectively) and pcDNA3.1-IRFs. The results suggested that different ISRE played the diverse roles. ISRE2 is more important than ISRE1 and ISRE3 to the transcription of CiGig2 induced by CiIRF1. ISRE1 and ISRE3 are important to the transcription of CiGig2 induced by CiIRF2 and CiIRF3. PMID:25463285

  17. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of PKR from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    PubMed

    Hu, You-Sheng; Li, Wen; Li, Dong-Ming; Liu, Yong; Fan, Li-Hua; Rao, Ze-Chang; Lin, Gang; Hu, Cheng-Yu

    2013-12-01

    The interferon-induced, dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is considered as an important component of innate immune system and as a representative effector protein of interferon system. In the present study, PKR gene (CiPKR, JX511974) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) was isolated and identified using homology-based PCR. CiPKR shares high sequence identity with the counterparts of goldfish (Crucian carp) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). The full-length cDNA of CiPKR was found to be 2436 bp, with an ORF of 2067 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 688 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide CiPKR contains three tandem dsRNA-binding motifs (dsRBMs) at the N-terminus and a conserved Ser/Thr kinase domain at the C-terminus. CiPKR was expressed ubiquitously at a low-level under normal conditions, but it could be up-regulated after intraperitoneal (ip) injection with grass carp haemorrhagic virus (GCHV). CiPKR was dramatically up-regulated at 6 h post-injection and then recovered rapidly to normal levels within 24 h; however, it was obviously up-regulated once again at 48 h or 72 h post-injection. It seemed that CiPKR could respond to GCHV infection in an IFN-independent as well as an IFN-dependent pathway. To further investigate its mechanism of biological actions, we constructed a series of recombinant plasmids including pcDNA3.1/PKR-wt, pcDNA3.1/PKR-K430R, pcDNA3.1/PKR-C (deletion of dsRBD sequence) and pcDNA3.1/PKR-C-K430R, and then each recombinant plasmid was transfected into CIK cells. In comparison with those of controls, a 79% and a 64% decrease of luciferase activities were detected in the tested cells transfected with CiPKR and CiPKR-C, respectively; however, luciferase activities were increased in those cells transfected with PKR-K430R and PKR-C-K430R, with a 160% and 115% up-regulation, respectively. Similarly, MTT colorimetric assay indicated that cell viabilities of CIK cells transfected with pcDNA3.1/PKR-wt, pcDNA3.1/PKR-K430R, pcDNA3.1/PKR-C and pcDNA3.1/PKR-C-K430R were 49%, 90%, 54% and 100%, respectively. Our observations suggested that the expression of CiPKR could be up-regulated following viral infection, and then resulted in the inhibition of protein synthesis and the induction of potential apoptosis. PMID:24084043

  18. Native American Studies Major Major Advisors

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    Native American Studies Major Major Advisors Laura Jimenez-Olvera & Dewey St. Germaine 532 & 530://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Native American Studies Program exists to broaden the understanding of students interested in the history, culture, and contemporary situations of Native Americans in the United States

  19. Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Cell Growth Inhibition by CARP-1 Functional Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory ?B (I?B) ? and ? proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

  20. Kinetics of waterborne strontium uptake in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, at different calcium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, M.J.; Ginneken, L. Van; Blust, R.

    2000-03-01

    The uptake kinetics of strontium in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were characterized in vivo, exposing preacclimated fish to a wide range of Sr{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} concentrations in water; {sup 85}Sr, {sup 45}Ca, and {sup 47}Ca were used as tracers in determining the uptake, and the possibility of adsorption of the tracers to the exterior of the fish were verified. The uptake rates were determined in the whole body, gills, and blood of the fish after an exposure period of 3 h and were analyzed as a function of the free-ion activity of strontium and calcium in water. With the increase of Sr{sup 2+} concentration in the exposure water, Sr{sup 2+} uptake did not increase linearly but displayed Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics, and with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration, Sr{sup 2+} uptake decreased significantly in the whole body, gills, and blood. The competitive inhibition model fitted to the pooled data for whole-body uptake explains about 94% of the variation in Sr{sup 2+} uptake and 71% in Ca{sup 2+} uptake, indicating a competitive type of interaction during the transport of these metal ions across the biological interfaces. The maximum uptake rate of Sr{sup 2+} (J{sub maxSr}) was estimated to be 243.0 {micro}mol/kg/h and that of Ca{sup 2+} (J{sub maxCa}) 119.4 {micro}mol/kg/h. The apparent K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake increased greatly with the increase of Ca{sup 2+} concentration in water. Estimation of the true K{sub m} for Sr{sup 2+} uptake (K{sub mSr}) and its inhibitor constant for Ca{sup 2+} (K{sub iCa}) yielded the values of 96.3 and 28.5 {micro}M, respectively. These values are very close to those obtained for Ca{sup 2+} uptake. This model provides a mechanistic description of the effect of calcium on strontium uptake from water and, vice versa, in carp.