Science.gov

Sample records for major components composed

  1. Composing simulations using persistent software components

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.V.; Michelsen, R.E.; Powell, D.R.; Upton, S.C.; Thompson, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.

  2. Perceptual integrality of major chord components.

    PubMed

    Acker, B E; Pastore, R E

    1996-07-01

    In the present study, an accuracy, rather than a reaction time, version of the Garner paradigm was used to evaluate the integrality or separability of major chord components. Tuned (prototype, or P) and mistuned (nonprototype, or NP) sets of root position C-major triads were constructed by holding the C constant in all stimuli and varying the E and G frequencies in 2- and 4-Hz steps. The P stimuli represent small systematic mistunings in the E and G notes relative to an equal-tempered C-major chord. The NP stimuli represent an equivalent range of frequency variation, but relative to a significantly out-of-tune C-major triad. In different experimental sessions, a same-different (AX) task was used to separately evaluate discrimination performance for the E and G frequencies as a function of whether the nontarget frequency (G or E) was fixed or varied in either a correlated or an orthogonal fashion (with the C frequency always held constant). Compared with a fixed baseline condition where only the target frequency changed, both chord components exhibited a significant redundancy gain in the correlated conditions and, to varying degrees, significant interference effects in the orthogonal condition, indicating that the chord components function largely in an integral fashion. Relative to the discrimination of G, discrimination of the E frequency was less influenced by variation in the nontarget (G) frequency, showing that attention, to some degree, could be selectively allocated to the E chord component. In addition, the results were consistent with previous findings that the functional prototype for the major chord category seems to act as a perceptual anchor, rather than as a magnet, and appears to be located in the physiologically defined area of just temperament, as opposed to the more experientially defined area of equal temperament. PMID:8710453

  3. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    experienced cladding failures as operational capabilities of the different designs were being established. In addition, numerous spills of heavy water occurred within the facility. Currently, radiation and radioactive contamination levels are low within HWCTR with most of the radioactivity contained within the reactor vessel. There are no known insults to the environment, however with the increasing deterioration of the facility, the possibility exists that contamination could spread outside the facility if it is not decommissioned. An interior panoramic view of the ground floor elevation taken in August 2009 is shown in Figure 2. The foreground shows the transfer coffin followed by the reactor vessel and control rod drive platform in the center. Behind the reactor vessel is the fuel pool. Above the ground level are the polar crane and the emergency deluge tank at the top of the dome. Note the considerable rust and degradation of the components and the interior of the containment building. Alternative studies have concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning is to remove the reactor vessel, steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. Characterization studies along with transport models have concluded that the remaining below grade equipment that is left in place including the transfer coffin will not contribute any significant contamination to the environment in the future. The below grade space will be grouted in place. A concrete cover will be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater will be monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. The schedule for completion of decommissioning is late FY2011. This paper describes the concepts planned in order to remove the major components including the dome, the reactor vessel (RV), the two steam generators (SG), and relocating the transfer coffin (TC).

  4. On overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of high-loss and lossless components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figotin, Alexander; Welters, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Using a Lagrangian framework, we study overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of two components, one of which is highly lossy and the other is lossless. The losses are accounted by a Rayleigh dissipation function. As we have shown previously, for such a composite system, the modes split into two distinct classes, high-loss and low-loss, according to their dissipative behavior. A principal result of this paper is that for any such system, a rather universal phenomenon of selective overdamping occurs. Namely, first of all, the high-loss modes are all overdamped, i.e., non-oscillatory, as are an equal number of low-loss modes. Second of all, the rest of the low-loss modes remain oscillatory (i.e., the underdamped modes), each with an extremely high quality factor (Q-factor) that actually increases as the loss of the lossy component increases. We prove that selective overdamping is a generic phenomenon in Lagrangian systems with gyroscopic forces and gives an analysis of the overdamping phenomena in such systems. Moreover, using perturbation theory, we derive explicit formulas for upper bound estimates on the amount of loss required in the lossy component of the composite system for the selective overdamping to occur in the generic case and give Q-factor estimates for the underdamped modes. Central to the analysis is the introduction of the notion of a "dual" Lagrangian system and this yields significant improvements on some results on modal dichotomy and overdamping. The effectiveness of the theory developed here is demonstrated by applying it to an electric circuit with a gyrator element and a high-loss resistor.

  5. Radiation chemistry of major food components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes radiolysis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The major focuses of the chapter are on recent developments in radiation chemistry and the use of irradiation to reduce undesirable chemicals in foods. Specifically, formation of volatile sulfur compounds from...

  6. Two Components in Major Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Cane, H. V.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A study has been made of 29 intense, solar particle events observed in the energy range 25-100 MeV/nuc near Earth in the years 1997 through 2001. It is found that the majority of the events (19/29) had Fe to O ratios which were reasonably constant with time and energy, and with values above coronal. These all originated on the Sun s western hemisphere and most had intensities that rose rapidly at the time of an associated flare, and coronal mass ejection (CME), and then decayed more gradually. Few interplanetary shocks were observed during these increases. The spectra were mainly power laws. The remaining 10 events had different intensity-time profiles and Fe to O ratios that varied with time and energy with values at or below coronal. Most of these originated near central meridian and 6 had strong interplanetary shocks that were observed near Earth. In general the spectra were not power laws but steepened at high energies, particularly for Fe. There were four events with two peaks in the intensity-time profiles, the first near the time of the associated flare and the other at shock passage. The results, considered in the light of other recent work, suggest that the high energy particles that occur shortly after flares are indeed flare particles. At the highest rigidities considered here shock-accelerated particles are uncommon and are observed only in association with unusually fast shocks.

  7. Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank Connection to Shuttle Main Engines - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. [Relative adscriptions of components in the effective fractions of Yinqiao decoction and its composing individual herbs].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yue; Shi, Ren-bing

    2007-02-01

    HPLC and LC-MS/MS were used to establish a comprehensive HPLC analytical method of Yinqiao decoction and identify the chemical constituents of the whole and individual herbs of Yinqiao decoction. YWG-C18 (250 mm x4. 6 mm ID, 10 microm) column was used; the mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile (A) and water ( B, with 3% acetic acid) with gradient elution; the flow rate was 1. 0 mL x min(-1) and the column temperature was set up at 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. The chromatographic fingerprints of Yinqiao Decoction showed 30 main peaks. Peak 2, 14, 15, 17 were from Lonicera japonica Thunb, peak 3, 12, 13, 24 were from Fosythia suspense (Thunb) Vahl, peak 19, 25, 26, 27 were from Arctium lappa L. , peak 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 28 were from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, peak 20, 21 were from Mentha haplocalyx Briq. , peak 22, 23 were from Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. , peak 1 presented in the chromatograms of Lonicera japonica Thunb, Fosythia suspense (Thunb) Vahl, Mentha haplocalyx Briq. , Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. and Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. ) A. DC. , peak 7 presented in the chromatograms of Fosythia suspense (Thunb) Vahl and Glycine max (L. ) Merr. , peak 16 presented in the chromatograms of Mentha haplocalyx Briq. and Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. , peak 29 presented in the chromatograms of the herbs except Mentha haplocalyx Briq. and Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. ) A. DC. , peak 30 presented in the chromatograms of the herbs except Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. ) A. DC. , peak 4 was not identified, maybe it was a new constituent produced during decoction. By comparison of the standards isolated and MS spectra, 14 peaks were identified as 2 ( chlorogenic acid) , 9 ( liquiritin ) , 10 ( 4'-O-[ beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1--> 2 ) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl] liquiritigenin), 12 (forsythiaside), 13 (rutin), 14 (4,5-O-dicaffeoylquiniic acid), 15 (3, 5-O-dicaffeoylquiniic acid ), 16 ( 4-0- [ beta-D-apiofuranosyl ( 1 -->2 ) -beta

  9. Investigation of data quality in a wireless sensing unit composed of off-the-shelf components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jin-Song; Kapoor, Chetan; Graves-Abe, Troy L.; Sugeng, Yohanes P.; Ferzli, Nadim; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study on data and system identification results (derived from collected data) in a wireless sensing environment. The goal of this study is to understand how various hardware design choices and operational conditions affect the quality of the data and accuracy of the identified results; the focus of this paper is packet and data loss. A series of experimental investigations are carried out using a laboratory shaking table instrumented with off-the-shelf Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers. A wireless sensing unit is developed to interface with these wired analog accelerometers to enable wireless data transmission. To reduce the overall design variance and aid convenient application in civil infrastructure health monitoring, this wireless unit is built with off-the-shelf microcontroller and radio development boards. The anti-aliasing filter and analog-to-digital convectors (ADC) are the only customized components in the hardware. By varying critical hardware configurations, including using analog accelerometers of different commercial brands, taking various designs for the anti-aliasing filter, and adopting ADCs with different resolutions, shaking table tests are repeated, the collected data are processed, and the results are compared. Operational conditions such as sampling rate and wireless data transmitting range are also altered separately in the repeated testing. In all of the cases tested, data is also collected using a wire-based data acquisition system to serve as a performance baseline for evaluation of the wireless data transmission performance. Based on this study, the challenges in the hardware design of wireless sensing units and data processing are identified.

  10. Residual life assessment of major light water reactor components: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Amar, A.S.; Bakr, M.H.; Beaudoin, B.F.; Buescher, B.J.; Conley, D.A.; Drahos, F.R.; Gardner, J.B.; Garner, R.W.; Kirkwood, B.J.; Meyer, L.C.; Server, W.L.; Shah, V.N.; Siegel, E.A.; Sinha, U.P.; Ware, A.G. )

    1989-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of the aging (time-dependent degradation) of selected major light water reactor components and structures. The stressors, possible degradation sites and mechanisms, potential failure modes, and current inservice inspection requirements are discussed for eleven major light water reactor components: reactor coolant pumps, pressurized water reactor (PWR) pressurizers, PWR pressurizer surge and spray lines, PWR reactor coolant system charging and safety injection nozzles, PWR feedwater lines, PWR control rod drive mechanisms and reactor internals, boiling water reactor (BWR) containments, BWR feedwater and main steam lines, BWR control rod drive mechanisms and reactor internals, electrical cables and connections, and emergency diesel generators. Unresolved technical issues related to understanding and managing the aging of these major components are identified. 575 refs., 148 figs., 96 tabs.

  11. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.

  12. A Recipe Composed of Chinese Herbal Active Components Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of NAFLD In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Sheng-xi; Liu, Qian; Tang, Ya-jun; Wang, Wen-jing; Zheng, Qing-shan; Tian, Hua-jie; Yao, Dong-sheng; Liu, Lin; Peng, Jing-hua; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yi-yang; Feng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of the recipe composed of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide (named ACG) on experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). The research was divided into two parts as screening experiment and verification experiment. In the screening experiment, we used high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFL rat model and uniform design to get the recipe from five Chinese herbal active components. In the verification experiment, HFD induced fatty liver rat and mouse NAFL models and free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 cell model were used to verify the effects of ACG. According to the multiple regression equation of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents of each group in the screening experiment, the recipe ACG was obtained and the doses of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide for rats were 266.67, 3.33, and 45 mg/kg, respectively. The results of verification experiment verified that ACG could significantly reduce hepatic TG contents of NAFL rats and mice, as well as the cellular TG content of FFA-induced HepG2 cells. ACG could also improve HOMA-IR and hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure of NAFL mice. Our study verified that ACG recipe could regulate lipid metabolism of NAFL in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27069915

  13. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27479153

  14. Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-07-17

    Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

  15. Refractive errors and ocular biometry components in thalassemia major patients.

    PubMed

    Heydarian, Samira; Jafari, Reza; Karami, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine and compare biometric and refractive characteristics of thalassemia major patients and normal individuals. In this cross-sectional study, 54 thalassemia major patients were selected randomly as case group, and 54 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were regarded as control group. Refractive errors, corneal curvature and ocular components were measured by autokeratorefractometery and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Mean spherical equivalent was -0.0093 ± 0.86 D in thalassemia patients and -0.22 ± 1.33 D in the normal group. The prevalence of myopia, Hyperopia, and emmetropia among thalassemia patients was 16.7, 19.4, and 63.9 %, respectively. While in the control group, 26.9 % were myopic, 25 % were hyperopic, and 48.1 % were emmetropic. The prevalence of astigmatism in case group was 22.2 %, which was not significantly different from that in control group, (27.8 %, p = 0.346). Mean axial length in thalassemia patients was 22.89 ± 0.70 which was significantly lower than that in normal group (23.37 ± 0.91, p = 0.000). The flattest meridian of the cornea (R1) was significantly steeper in thalassemia patients (7.77 ± 0.24) in comparison to normal individuals (7.85 ± 0.28). Although thalassemic patients had significantly smaller axial length and vitreous chamber depth in comparison to normal group, which could be due to their abnormal physical growth, there was no significant difference between the mean of spherical equivalent among two groups. This can be due to their steeper corneal curvature that overcomes the refractive disadvantage of their shorter axial length. PMID:26646775

  16. The major bioactive components of seaweeds and their mosquitocidal potential.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Jantan, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Rohani; Wong, Ching-Lee

    2014-09-01

    Seaweeds are one of the most widely studied natural resources for their biological activities. Novel seaweed compounds with unique chemical structures have been reported for their pharmacological properties. The urge to search for novel insecticidal compound with a new mode of action for development of botanical insecticides supports the relevant scientific research on discovering the bioactive compounds in seaweeds. The mosquitocidal potential of seaweed extracts and their isolated compounds are documented in this review paper, along with the discussion on bioactivities of the major components of seaweeds such as polysaccharides, phenolics, proteins, terpenes, lipids, and halogenated compounds. The effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward different life stages of mosquito (egg, larva, pupa, and adult), its growth, development, and reproduction are elaborated. The structure-activity relationships of mosquitocidal compounds are discussed to extrapolate the possible chemical characteristics of seaweed compounds responsible for insecticidal properties. Furthermore, the possible target sites and mode of actions of the mosquitocidal seaweed compounds are included in this paper. The potential synergistic effects between seaweeds and commercial insecticides as well as the toxic effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward other insects and non-target organisms in the same habitat are also described. On top of that, various factors that influence the mosquitocidal potential of seaweeds, such as abiotic and biotic variables, sample preparation, test procedures, and considerations for a precise experimental design are discussed. The potential of active seaweed extracts and compounds in the development of effective bioinsecticide are also discussed. PMID:25115733

  17. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana I.; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John’s wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  18. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana I; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C P

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John's wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  19. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-09-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function.

  20. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a), CBH2 (Cel6a), EG1 (Cel7b), EG2 (Cel5a), as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a) were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25%) which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:22373423

  1. Intelligent Video Disc as a Major Component of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Richard E.

    Due to the importance of visual stimuli for learning, the videodisc is expected to have a major impact on education. When combined with the computer, it will greatly expand the capabilities of computer assisted instruction. There are two major types of videodisc equipment: the optical type with a laser beam to read the information from the disc,…

  2. [Comparison of major bioactive components from leaves of Chrysanthemum morifolium].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shen, Xue-gen; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Zhou, Jian-song; Mao, Peng-fei; Shen, Zhen-guo

    2015-05-01

    Leaves of Chrysanthemum morifolium were potential medicinal resource. The present study aims to estimate the main bioactive components: total flavonoids (TF), galuteolin (GA), quercitrin (QU), chlorogenic acid (CA) and 3 ,5-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( CQ), which were considered to be the main effective components, in leaves of C. morfolium cultivars in China. The TF content was estimated hy UV-VIS spectrophotometry, while GA, QU, CA, and CQ were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The highest TF content (7. 13% w/w) was found in cultivar Wan Cong (Shexian county). Cultivar Da Bo ( Bozhou county) had the highest GA content (33. 45 mg - g-1); Cultivar Hong Xin (Sheyang county) contained the highest QU content (29.25 mg · g(-1)); Cultivar Chang Ban (Sheyang county) had the highest CA content (13.14 mg ·(-1)). The maximum CQ content (7.35 mg · g(-1)) was observed in culti- r Da Yang ( Tongxiang county). Different cultivars of C. morfolium had significant difference in components, but the leaf and capitulum of C. morifolium. were found to possess similar chemical compositions. The high content of bioactive components in several cultivars suggested the potential utilization of C. morifolium leaves. PMID:26323127

  3. The CO2-concentrating mechanism of Synechococcus WH5701 is composed of native and horizontally-acquired components.

    PubMed

    Rae, Benjamin D; Förster, Britta; Badger, Murray R; Price, G Dean

    2011-09-01

    The cyanobacterial CO(2)-concentrating mechanism (CCM) is an effective adaptation that increases the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration around the primary photosynthetic enzyme Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RuBisCO). α-Cyanobacteria (those containing Form1-A RuBisCO within cso-type α-carboxysomes) have a limited CCM composed of a small number of Ci-transporters whereas β-cyanobacteria (those species containing Form-1B RuBisCO within ccm-type β-carboxysomes) exhibit a more diverse CCM with a greater variety in Ci-transporter complement and regulation. In the coastal species Synechococcus sp. WH5701 (α-cyanobacteria), the minimal α-cyanobacterial CCM has been supplemented with β-cyanobacterial Ci transporters through the process of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These transporters are transcriptionally regulated in response to external Ci-depletion however this change in transcript abundance is not correlated with a physiological induction. WH5701 exhibits identical physiological responses grown at 4% CO(2) (K (1/2) ≈ 31 μM Ci) and after induction with 0.04% CO(2) (K (1/2) ≈ 29 μM Ci). Insensitivity to external Ci concentration is an unusual characteristic of the WH5701 CCM which is a result of evolution by HGT. Our bioinformatic and physiological data support the hypothesis that WH5701 represents a clade of α-cyanobacterial species in transition from the marine/oligotrophic environment to a coastal/freshwater environment. PMID:21384181

  4. Proteins of human milk. I. Identification of major components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, N.G.; Powers, M.T.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1982-04-01

    Traditionally, human milk proteins are identified largely by reference to bovine milk. Hence, to identify the major proteins in human milk, we subjected human and bovine milk, in parallel, to high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. Isoelectric precipitation at pH 4.6 was our criterion for distinguishing whey proteins from those of the casein complex. The ..cap alpha..- and..beta..-caseins were identified on the basis of relative abundance, relative molecular mass, and relative isoelectric points. No protein disappeared from ISO-DALT patterns of human milk after rennin treatment, and no new protein comparable to bovine para K-casein appeared in the BASO-DALT patterns; this suggests that K-casein is absent from human milk. The proteins identified in human milk patterns include the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. casein families, lactalbumin, albumin, transferrin, IgA, and lactoferrin. Numerous additional proteins seen in patterns for human milk remain to be identified.

  5. Recorder Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The best moments happen when students begin to realize how much power they have and use that power to create. Composing as they master different instrumental stages helps students make composition and performance a natural step in learning. A step-by-step process (rhythm notation, add pitches, copy to a five-line staff, check work, and play) keeps…

  6. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a...

  7. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a...

  8. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a...

  9. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a...

  10. 41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40 Public Contracts and Property Management...-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are the major components of the pricing policy? The major components of the pricing policy are: (a) An OA between a...

  11. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-01-01

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase. PMID:26091076

  12. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  13. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  14. Composing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  15. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  16. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  17. 77 FR 39521 - Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment Pursuant to 10... Reactor internals, Components and For use in Braka nuclear power Company LLC reactor coolant equipment for... plant in Braka. 110060011 control equipment, auxiliary equipment and emergency cooling systems....

  18. 32 CFR 203.4 - Major components of the TAPP process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESTORATION ACTIVITIES § 203.4 Major components of the TAPP process. (a) The Department of Defense will issue... of the installation's total projected environmental restoration cost-to-complete. Note that these... will provide a description of the services requested (TAPP Project Description) and, if desired,...

  19. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells. PMID:20428679

  20. Composing and Arranging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott; And Others

    1977-01-01

    With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)

  1. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Prashar, A; Locke, I C; Evans, C S

    2006-08-01

    The essential oil extracted from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used as a topical application to relieve pain and promote healing in herbal medicine and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. Clove oil has two major components, eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, which constitute 78% and 13% of the oil, respectively. Clove oil and these components are generally recognized as 'safe', but the in-vitro study here demonstrates cytotoxic properties of both the oil and eugenol, towards human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Clove oil was found to be highly cytotoxic at concentrations as low as 0.03% (v/v) with up to 73% of this effect attributable to eugenol. beta-caryophyllene did not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, indicating that other cytotoxic components may also exist within the parent oil. PMID:16872360

  2. Development of bacterial spot on near-isogenic lines of bell pepper carrying gene pyramids composed of defeated major resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Kousik, C S; Ritchie, D F

    1999-11-01

    ABSTRACT Disease severity caused by races 1 through 6 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on eight near-isogenic lines (isolines) of Early Calwonder (ECW) with three major resistance genes (Bs1, Bs2, and Bs3) in different combinations was evaluated in the greenhouse and field. Strains representing races 1, 3, 4, and 6 caused similar high levels of disease severity, followed by races 2 and 5 on susceptible ECW. Race 3 caused severe disease on all isolines lacking resistance gene Bs2. Race 4, which defeats Bs1 and Bs2, caused less disease on isoline ECW-12R (carries Bs1 + Bs2), than on isolines ECW, ECW-10R (carries Bs1), and ECW-20R (carries Bs2). Similar results were obtained with race 4 strains in field studies conducted during 1997 and 1998. In greenhouse studies, race 6, which defeats all three major genes, caused less disease on isoline ECW-13R (carries Bs1 + Bs3) and ECW-123R (carries Bs1 + Bs2 + Bs3) than on isolines ECW, ECW-10R, ECW-20R, and ECW-30R (carries Bs3), but not on ECW-23R (carries Bs2 + Bs3). In greenhouse studies with commercial hybrids, strains of races 4 and 6 caused less disease on Boynton Bell (carries Bs1 + Bs2) than on Camelot (carries no known resistance genes), King Arthur (carries Bs1), and X3R Camelot (carries Bs2). Race 6 caused less disease on hybrid R6015 (carries Bs1 + Bs2 + Bs3) and Sentinel (carries Bs1 + Bs3) than on Camelot. Residual effects were not as evident in field studies with race 6 strains. Defeated major resistance genes deployed in specific gene combinations (i.e., gene pyramids) were associated with less area under the disease progress curve than when genes were deployed individually in isolines of ECW or commercial hybrids. Successful management of bacterial spot of pepper is achieved incrementally by integrating multiple tactics. Although there is evidence of residual effects from defeated genes, these effects alone likely will not provide acceptable bacterial spot control in commercial production fields

  3. My Career: Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  4. 40 CFR Table W-1c to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment W Table W-1C to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment Major equipment Valves...

  5. Changes in the major cell envelope components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during in vitro growth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanhao; Sinha, Tejas; Carlson, Tracy K; Keiser, Tracy L; Torrelles, Jordi B; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2013-01-01

    One-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which causes tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell envelope components such as glycolipids, lipoglycans and polysaccharides play important roles in bacteria–host cell interactions that dictate the host immune response. However, little is known about the changes in the amounts and types of these cell envelope components as the bacillus divides during in vitro culture. To shed light on these phenomena, we examined growth-dependent changes over time in major cell envelope components of virulent M.tb by using sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography, mass spectrometry, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. Our studies provide evidence that major mannosylated glycoconjugates on the M.tb cell envelope change as M.tb grows in vitro on the widely used Middlebrook 7H11 agar. In particular, our compositional analyses show that from Day 9 to 28 the amounts of mannose-containing molecules, such as mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan and phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides, change continuously in both the cell envelope and outer cell surface. Along with these changes, mannan levels on the outer cell surface also increase significantly over time. The implications of these differences in terms of how M.tb is grown for studies performed in vitro and in vivo for assessing M.tb-host recognition and establishment of infection are discussed. PMID:23576535

  6. Seasonal contribution of mineral dust and other major components to particulate matter at two remote sites in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Heo, Jongbae; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg; DeMinter, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that are in and generally surround Central Asia (e.g., the Aral Sea region, the Taklimakan desert in Western China). To investigate the relative importance of mineral dust (dust specifically composed of soil related minerals and oxides) in Central Asia, PM10 and PM2.5, and by difference, coarse particles (particles with diameters between 2.5 and 10 μm) were measured at two sites, Bishkek and Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (Lidar), in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were collected every other day from July 2008 to July 2009. Daily samples were analyzed for mass and organic and elemental carbon. Samples were also composited on a bi-weekly basis and analyzed for elemental constituents and ionic components. In addition, samples collected on days with relatively high and low PM concentrations were analyzed before, and separately, from the biweekly composites to investigate the chemical differences between the episodic events. Data from the episodic samples were averaged into the composited averages. Using the elemental component data, several observational models were examined to estimate the contribution of mineral dust to ambient PM levels. A mass balance was also conducted. Results indicate that at both sites, mineral dust (as approximated by the "dust oxide" model) and organic matter (OM) were the dominant contributors to PM10 and PM2.5. Mineral dust was a more significant contributor to the coarse PM (PM10-2.5) during high event samples at both sites, although the relative contribution is greater at the Lidar site (average ± standard deviation = 42 ± 29%) as compared with the Bishkek site (26 ± 16%). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed using data from both sites, and PCA indicated

  7. Analysis and functionality of major polyphenolic components of Polygonum cuspidatum (itadori).

    PubMed

    Kirino, Akiko; Takasuka, Yuka; Nishi, Asami; Kawabe, Satoko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kimoto, Masumi; Ito, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum has been broadly utilized as a herbal medicine in Asia, but the outline of the polyphenol compounds in the plant has not been characterized well. In the present study, the major polyphenolic components were isolated from the roots of P. cuspidatum, and identified as resveratrol and its glucosides, resveratroloside and polydatin. On the other hand, chlorogenic acid was found to be one of the polyphenolic components in the leaves and stems of the plant. Next, we elucidated that resveratrol derivatives and chlorogenic acid exhibit α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and resveratroloside exhibits the same inhibitory activity as quercetin does. Furthermore, DPPH radical scavenging activities of antioxidants including resveratrol derivatives and chlorogenic acid derivatives were examined by initial rate analyses of their reactions. Subsequently, it was revealed that resveratrol derivatives have slow-acting effects on the radical scavenging activity and that chlorogenic acid derivatives exhibit very fast-acting effects. PMID:23132312

  8. Specificity of the receptor for the major sex pheromone component in Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Gissella M; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Estes, Patricia A; Leal, Walter S; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the Drosophila melanogaster OR67d(GAL4);UAS system was used to functionally characterize the receptor for the major component of the sex pheromone in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), HvOR13. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that transgenic flies expressing HvOR13 responded to (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald). However, tests were not performed to determine whether these flies would also respond to secondary components of the H. virescens sex pheromone. Thus, in this study the response spectrum of HvOR13 expressed in this system was examined by performing single cell recordings from odor receptor neuron in trichoid T1 sensilla on antennae of two Or67d(GAL4 [1]); UAS-HvOR13 lines stimulated with Z11-16:Ald and six H. virescens secondary pheromone components. Fly courtship assays were also performed to examine the behavioral response of the Or67d(GAL4[1]); UAS-HvOR13 flies to Z11-16:Ald and the secondary component Z9-14:Ald. Our combined electrophysiological and behavioral studies indicated high specificity and sensitivity of HvOR13 to Z11-16:Ald. Interestingly, a mutation leading to truncation in the HvOR13 C-terminal region affected but did not abolish pheromone receptor response to Z11-16:Ald. The findings are assessed in relationship to other HvOR13 heterologous expression studies, and the role of the C-terminal domain in receptor function is discussed. A third line expressing HvOR15 was also tested but did not respond to any of the seven pheromone components. PMID:24773407

  9. A tetraene aldehyde as the major sex pheromone component of the promethea moth (Callosamia promethea (Drury)).

    PubMed

    Gago, Rafael; Allison, Jeremy D; McElfresh, J Steven; Haynes, Kenneth F; McKenney, Jessica; Guerrero, Angel; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2013-10-01

    The promethea moth Callosamia promethea is one of three species of silkmoths from the genus Callosamia that occur in North America. Cross attraction of males to heterospecific calling females has been observed in the field, and hybrid progeny have been produced by pairing heterospecifics in captivity. These observations suggest that all three species share or have considerable overlap in the sex attractant pheromones produced by females, so that other prezygotic isolating mechanisms, such as diel differences in reproductive activity, limit hybridization in the field. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection and gas chromatography- mass-spectrometry analyses of extracts of volatiles collected from female promethea moths supported the identification of (4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-hexadeca-4,6,11,13-tetraenal [(4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-16:Ald] as the compound in extracts that elicited the largest responses from antennae of males. The identification was confirmed by non-selective synthesis of several isomers as analytical standards, and stereoselective synthesis of (4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-16:Ald for testing in field trials. Male moths were strongly attracted to synthetic (4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-16:Ald, suggesting that this compound is the major and possibly the only component of the sex pheromone of these large saturniid moths. Based on the cross-attraction of heterospecifics, it is likely that this is also a major pheromone component of the other two North American Callosamia species as well. PMID:24091710

  10. Temporal variations of PM1 major components in an urban street canyon.

    PubMed

    Yubero, E; Galindo, N; Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the levels of PM1 and its main components (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-) and NH4 (+)) were studied in an urban street canyon in southeastern Spain. Although PM1 levels did not show an evident seasonal cycle, strong variations in the concentrations of its major components were observed. Ammonium sulfate, the main secondary inorganic compound, was found to be of regional origin. Its formation was favored during summer due to increased photochemical activity. In contrast, the concentrations of particulate ammonium nitrate, which is thermally unstable, were highest in winter. Although traffic emissions are the dominant source of EC in the city, variations in traffic intensity could not explain the seasonal cycle of this component. The higher EC concentrations during the cold months were attributed to the lower dispersion conditions and the increase in EC emissions. Special attention has been given to variations in organic carbon levels since it accounted for about one third of the total PM1 mass. The concentrations of both total OC and secondary OC (SOC) were maxima in winter. The observed seasonal variation in SOC levels is similar to that found in other southern European cities where the frequency of sunny days in winter is high enough to promote photochemical processes. PMID:25940489

  11. Constraining The Radiocarbon Distribution Within Major Components of Marine Dissolved Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigah, P.; Repeta, D.; McNichol, A. P.; Beaupre, S. R.; Xu, L.; Aluwihare, L.; Hemingway, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is one of the largest active carbon pools on Earth with a carbon inventory similar to that of the atmosphere. The sources and cycling of DOC in the ocean is not well-constrained. However, knowledge of the cycling and annual flux of carbon through DOC is critical to understanding the global carbon cycle and feedback mechanisms in the global climate system. Natural-abundance radiocarbon and stable carbon isotopic values can be used to infer the sources and cycling of DOC in the oceans. Past measurements for the most part have been made on bulk DOC, which represents an average of all DOC components. There is, however, good evidence that the actual range of values within the average is quite large, and recent serial oxidation measurements of the surface and deep ocean total DOC [1, 2, 3] reveal isotopic heterogeneity in the DOC pool with a radiocarbon-enriched modern component and a radiocarbon-depleted older component co-cycling in the surface ocean. Also, modeled data from the serial oxidation of the total DOC suggest the presence of a significant amount of modern DOC in the deep ocean [3]. In this study, we used a detailed size and chemical fractionation approach to examine the isotopic distribution within different size and molecular constituents of DOC. We also used a novel thermal serial oxidation approach to link the isotopic diversity of DOC to its concurrent major structural composition in order to build upon and refine the insights from the total DOC isotopic work. Our data show that, in the deep ocean, a major component of the heteropolysaccharide (HPS)-rich DOC isolated by ultrafiltration has radiocarbon value similar to co-occurring DIC indicating either a chemosynthetic source or conservative transport. In contrast, the fraction of DOC rich in the carboxylic -rich compounds isolated by solid phase extraction was much older than the DIC and also exhibit remarkable isotopic diversity in its constituent organic compounds. Our

  12. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    PubMed

    Urbisz, Anna Z; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts is

  13. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components

    PubMed Central

    Urbisz, Anna Z.; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells - ring canals - cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts

  14. Some Analysis of Major Impact of Geothermal Fluid Components in Power Plant Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzăianu, A.; Csaki, I.; Moţoiu, P.; Leósson, K.; Serghiuţă, S.; Arnbjornsson, A.; Moţoiu, V.; Popescu, G.; Guðlaugsson, S.; Guðmundsson, D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results from a some analysis and major impact of geothermal fluid composition on the equipment in use in geothermal power plant. The structural analysis of material deposition improve the direct influenced of chemical composition of stem and waters included CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated in the molten phase and the deposits in the scales formed due to equipment. The steam turbine corrosion damage, particularly of blades, discs and pomps, has long been recognized as a leading causes of reduced availability in the geothermal power plant. The corrosion process depends on temperature, pressure, chemisty and vaporous carryover by diversity of impurity. The experimental analysis procedure involves characterization of the fluid geothermal composition. Detailed information about surfaces morphological modification of the power plant components are obtained by electron microprobe analysis EDX and SEM investigation. References selection are obtaining by X-ray diffractometer patterns of the specimen.

  15. HLA is unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial inflammatory bowl disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, C.G.; Naom, I.S.; Hodgson, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the bowel which is confined to the colon in ulcerative colitis (UC) or may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in Crohn`s disease (CD). The cause of IBD is unknown, but a genetic component is suggested by a 10-fold increase in risk to first degree relatives, and a higher concordance of disease in MZ versus DZ twins. Distinct associations of HLA DR2 with UC and DR1/DQw5 with CD have been reported. We are searching for susceptibility genes in IBD by linkage analysis in a panel of 43 families with 3 or more living affected members, which includes 12 families with CD, 17 with UC and 14 {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes} families with UC and CD. In view of the reported HLA associations in IBD, we have analyzed 5 microsatellite markers from the major histocompatibility complex for linkage to IBD using both parametric and nonparametric methods. LOD scores were calculated for 4 different genetic models, including both dominant and recessive inheritance, and haplotype sharing was analyzed in affected siblings. LOD scores for the MHC locus were negative in the full data set, and in the 3 classes of family (UC,CD,mixed). Haplotype sharing in affected sibs was very close to that expected if no linkage was present. We conclude that genes from the HLA region are unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial IBD. Linkage analysis of genes which cause chronic colitis when disrupted in transgenic mice is in progress.

  16. Comparative study on major bioactive components in natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Wu, Yan-Wen; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2007-01-01

    Major bioactive components in various Calculus Bovis, including natural, artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, were comparatively studied. An approach of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detections (HPLC/UV/ELSD) was established to simultaneously determinate six bioactive components thereof, including five bile acids (cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic acid, hyodeoxycholic acid) and bilirubin. ELSD and UV detector were applied to detect bile acids and bilirubin respectively. The assay was performed on a C(18) column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze twenty-one Calculus Bovis extraction samples, and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The result indicated the variations among Calculus Bovis samples under different developmental conditions. Artificial and in-vitro cultured Calculus Bovis, especially in-vitro cultured ones, which contain total bioactive constituents no less than natural products and have the best batch-to-batch uniformity, suffice to be used as substitutes of natural Calculus Bovis. PMID:17202716

  17. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P < 0.0001). MetS was independent of pertinent MACE risk factors except age and previous cardiac disease. Among MetS components, dysglycemia provided greatest hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. PMID:25207680

  18. Identification of hydrogen peroxide as a major cytotoxic component in Maillard reaction mixtures and coffee.

    PubMed

    Hegele, Jörg; Münch, Gerald; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2009-06-01

    The cytotoxic activity of Maillard reaction products and coffee was studied using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the neutral red uptake (NRU) assay. Equimolar mixtures of sugars and lysine were heated at 120 degrees C and used to stimulate bovine aorta endothelial cells for 24 h. The cytotoxic activity increased with increase in educt concentration and heating time. Mixtures containing ribose were most active, followed by lactose and glucose. Hydrogen peroxide, which was present in the Maillard mixtures in concentrations between 7 and 87 microM, was identified as one of their major cytotoxic components. H2O2-concentrations increased further up to 130 microM under cell culture conditions. Filter coffee, espresso, and green coffee extract reduced cell viability significantly to 10, 19, and 83% of PBS-treated control. The effect was largely attenuated by the addition of catalase. Nil, 33, and 41 microM H2O2 was measured in green coffee extract, filter coffee, and espresso, respectively, increasing to 13, 369, and 333 microM during cell culture conditions. No additional H2O2 formation was detected when coffee was incubated for up to 5 h without further treatment. In conclusion, hydrogen peroxide is a major product in Maillard mixtures and coffee inducing cell death in vitro. PMID:19199286

  19. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  20. Analysis of the Activity and Regulon of the Two-Component Regulatory System Composed by Cjj81176_1484 and Cjj81176_1483 of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, Paul M.; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial diarrheal disease and a frequent commensal of the intestinal tract in poultry and other animals. For optimal growth and colonization of hosts, C. jejuni employs two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) to monitor environmental conditions and promote proper expression of specific genes. We analyzed the potential of C. jejuni Cjj81176_1484 (Cjj1484) and Cjj81176_1483 (Cjj1483) to encode proteins of a cognate TCS that influences expression of genes possibly important for C. jejuni growth and colonization. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the regulons of the Cjj81176_1484 (Cjj1484) histidine kinase and the Cjj81176_1483 (Cjj1483) response regulator contain many common genes, suggesting that these proteins likely form a cognate TCS. We found that this TCS generally functions to repress expression of specific proteins with roles in metabolism, iron/heme acquisition, and respiration. Furthermore, the TCS repressed expression of Cjj81176_0438 and Cjj81176_0439, which had previously been found to encode a gluconate dehydrogenase complex required for commensal colonization of the chick intestinal tract. However, the TCS and other specific genes whose expression is repressed by the TCS were not required for colonization of chicks. We observed that the Cjj1483 response regulator binds target promoters in both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms and influences expression of some specific genes independently of the Cjj1484 histidine kinase. This work further expands the signaling mechanisms of C. jejuni and provides additional insights regarding the complex and multifactorial regulation of many genes involved in basic metabolism, respiration, and nutrient acquisition that the bacterium requires for optimal growth in different environments. IMPORTANCE Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) link environmental cues to expression of specific genes that enable optimal bacterial growth or colonization of

  1. A novel ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion composed of biologically acceptable components: an excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-03-21

    In this work we have reported the formulation of a novel ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsion where the polar core of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium n-butylsulfate ([C2mim][C4SO4]), is stabilized by a mixture of two nontoxic nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and sorbitan laurate (Span-20), in a biological oil phase of isopropyl myristate (IPM). The formation of the microemulsion droplets has been confirmed from the dynamic light scattering (DLS) and phase behavior study. To assess the dynamic heterogeneity of this tween-based IL/O microemulsion, we have performed an excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from coumarin 480 (C480) to rhodamine 6G (R6G). The multiple donor-acceptor (D-A) distances, ∼15, 30, and 45 Å, obtained from the rise times of the acceptor emission in the presence of a donor can be rationalized from the varying distribution of the donor, C480, in the different regions of the microemulsion system. With increasing the excitation wavelength from 375 to 408 nm, the contribution of the rise component of ∼240 ps which results the D-A distance of ∼30 Å increases significantly due to the enhanced contribution of the C480 probe molecules closer to the acceptor in the ionic liquid pool of the microemulsion. PMID:23445434

  2. d-Alanylcardiolipin, a Major Component of the Unique Lipid Pattern of Vagococcus fluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Werner; Arneth-Seifert, Doris

    1998-01-01

    Motile group N streptococci, classified as Vagococcus fluvialis, have been isolated from cows’ udders, human and animal feces, river water, and seawater. They possess an unusual membrane lipid and fatty acid pattern. We isolated and characterized 13 polar lipids, 8 of them also found in other gram-positive bacteria: mono- and dihexosyldiacylglycerol, an acylated and a glycerophosphate-substituted derivative of the latter, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, d-alanylphosphatidylglycerol, and l-lysylphosphatidylglycerol. Besides them, we characterized two rare compounds, bis(acylglycero)phosphate and α-d-glucopyranosylcardiolipin, and two compounds so far not detected in nature, d-alanylbis(acylglycero)phosphate and d-alanylcardiolipin. The concomitant occurrence of four aminoacyl phospholipids in one organism is another unique finding. Substituted cardiolipins represent a novel lipid class: in vagococci, d-alanylcardiolipin is a major membrane lipid component, contributing 11 and 26 mol% of total lipids in the exponential and stationary phases of growth, respectively. The vagococcal lipids contain even-numbered straight-chain saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, but the cis-monoenic acids belong to the ω-9 series and not the ω-7 series, found in enterococci, lactococci, and streptococci. PMID:9603887

  3. Dual role of preputial gland secretion and its major components in sex recognition of mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Sun, Lixing

    2008-10-20

    This study was aimed at validating the sexual attractiveness of hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate, two putative pheromone compounds, from preputial gland secretion of mice. These two compounds have been reported to be among the major components of preputial gland secretion in both sexes but higher in quantity in males than females. In this study, we show that castration suppressed the production of the two compounds, further suggesting their association with maleness. Adding preputial gland secretion and the synthetic analogs of the two compounds to castrated male urine at their physiological levels in intact males increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to female mice, showing that the two compounds were indeed male pheromones. Furthermore, their sexual attractiveness disappeared upon removing the vomeronasal organs (VNOs) from female recipients. Replenishing castrated male urine with preputial gland secretion and the two compounds at their physiological levels in females increased the attractiveness of castrated male urine to males. Such a reversal of sexual attractiveness for hexadecanol and hexadecyl acetate suggests that they had opposing dual effects in sexual attractiveness in a dosage-dependent manner. PMID:18657559

  4. Hydrogeochemistry of the Fraser River, British Columbia: seasonal variation in major and minor components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Eion M.

    1996-07-01

    For several years Environment Canada (EC) has carried out a program of water sampling at four stations along the Fraser River and at one station on each of its two principal tributaries, the Thompson and the Nechako. Samples collected at bi-weekly intervals have been analyzed by EC for major and some trace components. Seasonal variation in water composition mainly relates to changes in discharge, this being low during winter and high during early summer snowmelt. Dissolved constituents, Mg, Si, K, Ca, Sr, HCO 3, SO 4 and (NO 3 + NO 2), show moderate variation, being least concentrated during maximum discharge, reflecting dilution of groundwater by melting snow. Factor analysis shows secondary seasonal variation for SO 4, that is related to the importance of deep groundwater as a source, and for (NO 3 + NO 2), precipitated with snow and released during snowmelt. Large amounts of Na and Cl are added in pulp mill effluent. A uniform flux of this effluent, superimposed on a highly variable river discharge, gives rise to greater seasonal variation for Na and Cl than other dissolved constituents. The trace constituents, Fe, Mn, Al, P and Sr, were analyzed by EC in unfiltered water samples by methods that extract the elements from suspended material. Except for Sr, these elements have a high partition factor in favor of suspended over dissolved phases; their results reflect seasonal changes in quantities of suspended material, which can vary by two orders of magnitude.

  5. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 3: Major component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, L. L.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations, performed to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites, are reported. Aluminum-boron-epoxy and titanium-boron-epoxy were used in the design and manufacture of three major structural components. The components were representative of subsonic aircraft fuselage and window belt panels and supersonic aircraft compression panels. Both unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement concepts were employed. Blade penetration, axial compression, and inplane shear tests were conducted. Composite reinforced structural components designed to realistic airframe structural criteria demonstrated the potential for significant weight savings while maintaining strength, stability, and damage containment properties of all metal components designed to meet the same criteria.

  6. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Seccacini, Emilia; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2007-09-01

    In the search for new alternatives for the control of Aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of E. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alpha- and beta-pinene are the only major components. Third and early 4th instars of the CIPEIN-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti were exposed to acetonic solutions of E. grandis essential oil, turpentine, and their major components for 24 h. Turpentine, with an LC50 of 14.7 ppm, was more active than the essential oil of E. grandis (LC50: 32.4 ppm). Larvicidal activity of the essential oil components showed that alpha- and beta-pinene present low LC50 values (15.4 and 12.1 ppm, respectively), whereas pure 1,8-cineole showed an LC50 of 57.2 ppm. These results suggest that alpha-pinene in E. grandis and alpha- and beta-pinene in turpentine serve as the principal larvicidal components of both oils. Results obtained on larvicidal effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis and turpentine could be considered a contribution to the search for new biodegradable larvicides of natural origin. PMID:17939510

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) analysis of major components of milk and the development of analysis instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingwei; Ji, Zhongpeng; Tian, Mi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we introduce a new spectroscopy analysis instrument, along with applied research based on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of the major components of milk. Firstly, we analyzed and compared the characteristics of existing near-infrared spectrometers. Then, according to the major component spectra of milk, the spectral range, spectral resolution, and other parameters of the analysis instrument were determined, followed by the construction of a spectroscopy-analysis instrument based on acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs). Secondly, on the basis of application requirements, we obtained spectral information from a variety of test samples. Finally, qualitative and quantitative testing of the major components of the milk samples was carried out via typical analysis methods and a mathematical model of NIRS. Thus, this study provides a technical reference for the development of spectroscopy instruments and their applied research.

  8. A Major Intermediate Component in Drawn High-Density Polyethylene Identified by Solid-State NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowery, Daniel; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2001-03-01

    In a commercial polyethylene (HDPE) highly drawn at 295 K, a distinct morphological component intermediate to the crystalline and the almost isotropic amorphous phases has been identified by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This intermediate component accounts for nearly 25% of the material bulk, exceeding the amorphous fraction at the highest draw ratios. In the neat isotropic material examined for reference, the NMR-derived composition shows excellent agreement with other techniques. 13C NMR isotropic chemical shifts of the intermediate component, whose signal was selected using an “inverse T1,C filter”, prove chains of nearly all-trans conformations; the line width indicates significant disorder. Reduction of dipolar couplings and the chemical-shift anisotropy show fast rotations of 30 50 deg. amplitude around the chain axes. The degree of orientation of the chain axes is high. Spin diffusion experiments suggest that the intermediate component consists mostly of extended chain bundles closely associated with the amorphous phase (tie-molecule bundles ?).

  9. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN MAJOR COMPONENTS OF FORESTS LOCATED IN FIVE LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major uncertainties concerning the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle is the lack of adequate data on the carbon content of all their components. The goal of this study was to contribute to filling this data gap by estimating the quantity of carbon in ...

  10. Semi-continuous mass closure of the major components of fine particulate matter in Riverside, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Brett D.; Eatough, Norman L.; Woolwine, Woods R.; Cannon, Justin P.; Eatough, Delbert J.; Long, Russell W.

    The application of newly developed semi-continuous aerosol monitors allows for the measurement of all the major species of PM 2.5 on a 1-h time basis. Temporal resolution of both non-volatile and semi-volatile species is possible. A suite of instruments to measure the major chemical species of PM 2.5 allows for semi-continuous mass closure. A newly developed dual-oven Sunset carbon monitor is used to measure non-volatile organic carbon, semi-volatile organic carbon and elemental carbon. Inorganic species, including sulfate and nitrate, can be measured with an ion chromatograph based sampler. Comparison of the sum of the major chemical species in an urban aerosol with mass measured by an FDMS resulted in excellent agreement. Linear regression analysis resulted in a zero-intercept slope of 0.98±0.01 with an R2=0.86. One-hour temporal resolution of the major species of PM 2.5 may reduce the uncertainty in receptor based source apportionment modeling, will allow for better forecasting of PM 2.5 episodes, and may lead to increased understanding of related health effects.

  11. Unskilled Writers as Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1979-01-01

    Composition is not a straightforward, linear process; it involves a creative search for meaning that becomes clear only as the writer engages in the composing process. This suggests that teaching not dwell on the correctness of the finished product. (Author/SJL)

  12. Decomposing Composing Conventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Terry

    Recent research has invited critiques of the authoritative descriptions of composing found in many rhetoric textbooks. The concept of "convention" may be especially useful in rethinking the teleological basis of these textbook descriptions. Conventions found in composition textbooks need to be unmasked as arbitrary concepts which serve to…

  13. Composing a Research Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    In this article about her early career development and the experiences that shaped her life as a scholar and researcher, the author describes the work lives of university-based teacher educators and what it means to compose a research life in this field. This article draws on the author's 30 years as a university-based teacher educator. In it, she…

  14. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2015-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ56Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ56Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 100–103 y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 105–106 y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean. PMID:26109570

  15. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M

    2015-07-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ(56)Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ(56)Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 10(0)-10(3) y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 10(5)-10(6) y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean. PMID:26109570

  16. Polyclonal activation of naïve T cells by urease deficient-recombinant BCG that produced protein complex composed of heat shock protein 70, CysO and major membrane protein-II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to be only partially effective in inhibiting M. tuberculosis (MTB) multiplication in human. A new recombinant (r) urease-deficient BCG (BCG-dHCM) that secretes protein composed of heat shock protein (HSP)70, MTB-derived CysO and major membrane protein (MMP)-II was produced for the efficient production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) which is an essential element for mycobacteriocidal action and inhibition of neutrophil accumulation in lungs. Methods Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages were differentiated from human monocytes, infected with BCG and autologous T cells-stimulating activity of different constructs of BCG was assessed. C57BL/6 mice were used to test the effectiveness of BCG for the production of T cells responsive to MTB-derived antigens (Ags). Results BCG-dHCM intracellularly secreted HSP70-CysO-MMP-II fusion protein, and activated DC by up-regulating Major Histcompatibility Complex (MHC), CD86 and CD83 molecules and enhanced various cytokines production from DC and macrophages. BCG-dHCM activated naïve T cells of both CD4 and CD8 subsets through DC, and memory type CD4+ T cells through macrophages in a manner dependent on MHC and CD86 molecules. These T cell activations were inhibited by the pre-treatment of Ag-presenting cells (APCs) with chloroquine. The single and primary BCG-dHCM-inoculation produced long lasting T cells responsive to in vitro secondarily stimulation with HSP70, CysO, MMP-II and H37Rv-derived cytosolic protein, and partially inhibited the replication of aerosol-challenged MTB. Conclusions The results indicate that introduction of different type of immunogenic molecules into a urease-deficient rBCG is useful for providing polyclonal T cell activating ability to BCG and for production of T cells responsive to secondary stimulation. PMID:24690183

  17. Complex Forms of Soil Organic Phosphorus-A Major Component of Soil Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Timothy I; Smernik, Ronald J; McLaughlin, Mike J; McBeath, Therese M; Kirby, Jason K; Simpson, Richard J; Guppy, Christopher N; Doolette, Ashlea L; Richardson, Alan E

    2015-11-17

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, an innate constituent of soil organic matter, and a major anthropogenic input to terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of P to living organisms is strongly dependent on the dynamics of soil organic P. However, fluxes of P through soil organic matter remain unclear because only a minority (typically <30%) of soil organic P has been identified as recognizable biomolecules of low molecular weight (e.g., inositol hexakisphosphates). Here, we use (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the speciation of organic P in soil extracts fractionated into two molecular weight ranges. Speciation of organic P in the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was markedly different to that of the low molecular weight fraction (<10 kDa). The former was dominated by a broad peak, which is consistent with P bound by phosphomonoester linkages of supra-/macro-molecular structures, whereas the latter contained all of the sharp peaks that were present in unfractionated extracts, along with some broad signal. Overall, phosphomonoesters in supra-/macro-molecular structures were found to account for the majority (61% to 73%) of soil organic P across the five diverse soils. These soil phosphomonoesters will need to be integrated within current models of the inorganic-organic P cycle of soil-plant terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26492192

  18. Architecture of the major component of the type III secretion system export apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Abrusci, Patrizia; Vergara–Irigaray, Marta; Johnson, Steven; Beeby, Morgan D; Hendrixson, David; Roversi, Pietro; Friede, Miriam E; Deane, Janet E; Jensen, Grant J; Tang, Christoph M; Lea, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are bacterial membrane-embedded secretion nanomachines designed to export specifically targeted sets of proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm. Secretion through T3SS is governed by a subset of inner membrane proteins termed the ‘export apparatus’. We show that a key member of the Shigella flexneri export apparatus, MxiA, assembles into a ring essential for secretion in vivo. The ring forming interfaces are well conserved in both non-flagellar and flagellar homologues, implying that the ring is an evolutionary conserved feature in these systems. Electron cryo-tomography reveals a T3SS-associated cytoplasmic torus of size and shape corresponding to the MxiA ring aligned to the secretion channel located between the secretion pore and the ATPase complex. This defines the molecular architecture of the dominant component of the export apparatus and allows us to propose a model for the molecular mechanisms controlling secretion. PMID:23222644

  19. Isolation and characterization of ellagitannins as the major polyphenolic components of Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sudjaroen, Yuttana; Hull, William E; Erben, Gerhard; Würtele, Gerd; Changbumrung, Supranee; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour, syn. Euphoria longan Lam.) represents an important fruit in Northern Thailand and has significant economic impact. The fruit is either consumed fresh or as commercially prepared dried and canned products. The canning industry in Thailand produces considerable quantities of waste products, in particular Longan seeds. Because these seeds may be an exploitable source of natural phenolic antioxidants, it was of interest to identify, purify and quantitate the major potential antioxidant phenolics contained therein. The polyphenolic fraction from ground Longan seeds was obtained by extraction with methanol after delipidation with hexane. The hexane extract contained predominantly long-chain fatty acids with major contributions from palmitic (35%) and oleic (28%) acids. The polyphenolic fraction (80.90 g/kg dry weight) was dominated by ellagic acid (25.84 g/kg) and the known ellagitannins corilagin (13.31 g/kg), chebulagic acid (13.06 g/kg), ellagic acid 4-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (9.93 g/kg), isomallotinic acid (8.56 g/kg) and geraniin (5.79 g/kg). Structure elucidation was performed with mass spectrometry and complete assignment of (1)H and (13)C NMR signals. The methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant capacities with an IC(50) of 154 μg/ml for reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid and 78 μg/ml for inhibition of xanthine oxidase in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The extracts were less effective in the 2-deoxyguanosine assay (IC(50)=2.46 mg/ml), indicating that gallates along with ellagic acid and its congeners exert their potential antioxidant effects predominantly by precipitation of proteins such as xanthine oxidase. This was confirmed for the pure compounds gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid and corilagin. PMID:22277734

  20. Proteomics reveals major components of oogenesis in the reproductive tract of sugar-fed Anopheles aquasalis.

    PubMed

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Borges-Veloso, Andre; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Padrón, Gabriel; de Faria Castro, Cássia Luana; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ramos; Britto, Constança; Cuervo, Patricia; De Jesus, Jose Batista

    2016-05-01

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis is a malaria vector mainly distributed along the coastal regions of South and Central America. In the absence of an effective vaccine against malaria, strategies for controlling the vector are the main tool for interrupting parasite transmission. Mechanisms of oogenesis and embryogenesis in anautogenous mosquitoes are mainly modulated by blood feeding. However, the expression, at the protein level, of genes involved in such mechanisms in sugar-fed females is unknown. In this work, total protein extracts of the reproductive tract of female An. aquasalis that were fed sugar were analyzed using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification and bioinformatic tools for data mining. We identified 922 proteins expressed in the organ, and using several databases, we attributed biological meaning for several of them. Remarkably, nine proteins involved in oogenesis were identified in females fed sugar. Putative vitellogenins, vitellogenin receptor, lipid storage droplet, transferrin, ferritin, and apolipoprotein, identified here, are proteins involved in egg development. Proteins involved in embryonic development, such as paxillin, exuperantia, several growth factors, and dorsal switch protein, were identified. Interestingly, in this study, we identified 15 peptidases of various classes such as aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, serine protease, cathepsin, and metalloprotease that could potentially interact with male seminal components. Here, we demonstrated that the reproductive tract of female An. aquasalis fed on sugar expresses proteins involved in oogenesis and embryonic development. These findings reveal unknown aspects of the physiology of this organ under the given nutritional conditions. PMID:26850722

  1. Preventive effect of Kaempferia parviflora ethyl acetate extract and its major components polymethoxyflavonoid on metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Horikawa, Takumi; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Taguchi, Takaaki; Ichinose, Koji; Takahashi, Kunio; Aburada, Masaki

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we reported that rhizome powder of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker prevented obesity and a range of metabolic diseases. In this study, to clarify which molecular mechanisms and active ingredients of K. parviflora have an anti-obesity effect, we investigated the effect of ethyl acetate extract of K. parviflora (KPE) on TSOD mice, a spontaneously obese Type II diabetes model, and on pancreatic lipase. In the TSOD groups, KPE showed a suppressive effect on body weight increase and visceral fat accumulation and also showed preventive effects on symptoms related to insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver. In addition, KPE also suppressed body weight increase and food intake in TSNO mice groups, which served as reference animals, at an early stage of administration. Searching for the ingredients in KPE revealed that KPE contains at least 12 kinds of polymethoxyflavonoid (PMF). Furthermore, KPE and its component PMFs showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase. The above results suggest that KPE has a preventive effect on obesity and various metabolic diseases. The mechanisms of action probably involve inhibition of pancreatic lipase by the PMFs in KPE. PMID:21907268

  2. Free fatty acids as a major component of the chlorosulfolipid membrane of Ochromonas danica

    SciTech Connect

    Winicov, I.

    1985-01-01

    This work is an attempt to determine whether or not free fatty acids are components of the natural membrane of Ochromonas danica. If the FFAs were artifacts, they would most likely have been produced during solvent extraction or during the procedure for flagellar detachment. Attempts to denature putative solvent-activated lipase(s) through exposure to boiling isopropanol or by crosslinking the flagella with glutaraldehyde prior to extraction failed to eliminate the free fatty acid fraction, nor to significantly alter its composition. Exposure of flagella to albumin resulted in the net transfer of FFAs to the supernatant phase, showing their presence is not caused by solvent activated lipolysis. Finally levels of labelled free fatty acids failed to rise as a function of time after deflagellation in cells grown in the presence of (10-/sup 14/C)-oleic acid. Acid hydrolysis of the total labelled lipid at elevated temperature increased the percentage of counts occurring as unesterified fatty acids (from 2.6% to 64.8%). This, taken together with a corresponding loss of the more polar labelled material (66.8% to 8.2%) indicates that some esterified lipids were present, but probably not broken down during the isolation procedure.

  3. Novel lectin-related proteins are major components in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sparvoli, F; Gallo, A; Marinelli, D; Santucci, A; Bollini, R

    1998-02-17

    The only component of the lectin-related protein family so far reported in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds is the minor seed lectin (LBL). In the morphotype Big Lima, we have isolated and characterised two abundant lectin-related seed proteins and the corresponding cDNA clones. The clones show 93.7% nucleotide identity and encode an arcelin-like (ARL) and an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like (AIL) protein. Not considering the signal peptides, ARL and AIL polypeptides contain 239 and 233 amino acids, respectively. Each polypeptide is present in the mature protein as two glycoforms. ARL subunits (43 and 46 kDa) make up oligomers of about 125 to 130 kDa whereas AIL subunits (40 and 42 kDa) oligomerise in dimers of about 88 to 100 kDa. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of the less abundant Lima bean lectin were also isolated. In common bean (P. vulgaris) the lectin locus encodes the lectin and the lectin-related proteins alpha-amylase inhibitor and arcelin, all plant defence proteins. Our data indicate extensive evolution of the locus also in Lima bean. PMID:9540803

  4. A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Repeta, Daniel J.; Chen, Robert F.

    1997-05-01

    Organic carbon dissolved in sea water is an important component of the global carbon cycle1. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the ocean's surface mixed layer are at least twice those in the deep sea2,3, because of the production of soluble carbon compounds by marine algae in the euphotic zone4,5. But very little is known about the chemical composition of DOC, and the connection between photosynthetic production and DOC accumulation is not well understood6,7. Here we report the chemical characterization of macromolecular DOC at several sites in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Neutral sugars, acetate and lipids show similar distributions, suggesting that these constituents are linked together in a common macromolecular structure. Chemical linkage patterns between the oligosaccharide portions of dissolved organic matter subjected to ultrafiltration are highly specific, with little variation between ocean basins. We show that laboratory culture experiments on the decomposition of algal exudate produce macromolecular organic matter with similar compositions and linkage characteristics. We propose that a significant fraction of DOC in sea surface water consists of structurally related and biosynthetically derived acyl oligosaccharides that persist after more labile organic matter has been degraded.

  5. Model of Close Packing for Determination of the Major Characteristics of the Liquid Dispersions Components

    PubMed Central

    Kolikov, Kiril Hristov; Hristozov, Dimo Donchev; Koleva, Radka Paskova; Krustev, Georgi Aleksandrov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a close packing model of the particles from the disperse phase of a liquid dispersion. With this model, we find the sediment volumes, the emergent, and the bound dispersion medium. We formulate a new approach for determining the equivalent radii of the particles from the sediment and the emergent (different from the Stokes method). We also describe an easy manner to apply algebraic method for determining the average volumetric mass densities of the ultimate sediment and emergent, as well as the free dispersion medium (without using any pycnometers or densitometers). The masses of the different components and the density of the dispersion phase in the investigated liquid dispersion are also determined by means of the established densities. We introduce for the first time a dimensionless scale for numeric characterization and therefore an index for predicting the sedimentation stability of liquid dispersions in case of straight and/or reverse sedimentation. We also find the quantity of the pure substance (without pouring out or drying) in the dispersion phase of the liquid dispersions. PMID:25136673

  6. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    PubMed

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors. PMID:16537952

  7. Anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious effects of Evodia rutaecarpa (Wuzhuyu) and its major bioactive components

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the anti-inflammatory relative and anti-infectious effects of Evodia rutaecarpa and its major bioactive components and the involvement of the nitric oxide synthases, cyclooxygenase, NADPH oxidase, nuclear factor kappa B, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, reactive oxygen species, prostaglandins, tumor necrosis factor, LIGHT, amyloid protein and orexigenic neuropeptides. Their potential applications for the treatment of endotoxaemia, obesity, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and their uses as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal protective agents, analgesics, anti-oxidant, anti-atherosclerosis agents, dermatological agents and anti-infectious agents are highlighted. Stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide release may partially explain the analgesic, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal protective, anti-obese activities of Evodia rutaecarpa and its major bioactive components. PMID:21320305

  8. Effect of piperine, a major component of black pepper, on the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in rats.

    PubMed

    Alhumayyd, M S; Bukhari, I A; Almotrefi, A A

    2014-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of piperine, a major active ingredient of black pepper, on the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in rats. Animals were given oral (p.o.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) domperidone (20 mg/kg) alone or together with piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.). Plasma samples were collected at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0 and 12 hours after drug administration. The concentration of domperidone in the plasma was measured using a HPLC method. The concomitant administration of piperine with oral or intraperitoneal domperidone resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and the elimination half-life (t1/2) of domperidone as compared to those obtained for domperidone alone. These results suggest that an important pharmacokinetic interaction may occur if piperine is administered concurrently with domperidone. PMID:25554982

  9. [Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology focused on cannabidiol, a major component of the fiber-type cannabis].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso

    2013-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines. PMID:24088353

  10. (2S,12Z)-2-Acetoxy-12-heptadecene: major sex pheromone component of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Daroogheh, Hassan; Mart, Cafer; Karadag, Serpil; Er, M Kubilay; Britton, Robert; Gries, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    The sex pheromone of the pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella (Lepidoptera: Oinophilidae), one of the most important insect pests of pistachio, Pistacia vera, in Turkey and Iran, was identified. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female K. pistaciella from Turkey, (2S,12Z)-2-acetoxy-12-heptadecene was identified as the major candidate pheromone component. In field experiments in Turkey, lures containing synthetic (2S,12Z)-2-acetoxy-12-heptadecene attracted large numbers of male moths. Its attractiveness was significantly reduced by the presence of the R-enantiomer or of either enantiomer of the corresponding alcohol. (2S,12Z)-2-Acetoxy-12-heptadecene is the first pheromone component identified in the Oinophilidae and the first secondary acetate pheromone component identified in the Lepidoptera. PMID:17123172

  11. Multicolor well-composed pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latecki, Longin J.

    1995-01-01

    As was noted early in the history of computer vision, using the same adjacency relation for the entire digital picture leads to so-called `paradoxes' related to the Jordan Curve Theorem. The most popular idea to avoid these paradoxes in binary images was using different adjacency relations for the foreground and the background: 8-adjacency for black points and 4-adjacency for white points, or vice versa. This idea cannot be extended in a straightforward way to multicolor pictures. In this paper a solution is presented which guarantees avoidance of the connectivity paradoxes related to the Jordan Curve Theorem for all multicolor pictures. Only one connectedness relation is used for the entire digital picture, i.e., for every component of every color. The idea is not to allow a certain `critical configuration' which can be detected locally to occur in digital pictures; such pictures are called `well-composed.' Well-composed pictures have very nice topological properties. For example, the Jordan Curve Theorem holds and the Euler characteristic is locally computable. This implies that properties of algorithms used in computer vision can be stated and proved in a clear way, and that the algorithms themselves become simpler and faster. Moreover, if a digitization process is guaranteed to preserve topology, then the obtained digital pictures must be well-composed.

  12. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.T.; Salter, M.A.; Harborne, A.R.; Crowley, S.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Wilson, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly <2 ??m) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., >4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ???6.1 ?? 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 ??m fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ???14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  13. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ~14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  14. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chris T; Salter, Michael A; Harborne, Alastair R; Crowley, Stephen F; Jelks, Howard L; Wilson, Rod W

    2011-03-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly < 2 μm) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., > 4 mole % MgCO(3)) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ∼6.1 × 10(6) kg CaCO(3)/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the < 63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ∼14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past. PMID:21368155

  15. Process of timbral composing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  16. Simultaneous determination of major bioactive components in Qingkailing injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Xin, Wen-Feng; Luo, Guo-An; Wang, Yi-Ming; Cheng, Yi-Yu

    2005-11-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC/ELSD) was established for simultaneous determination of seven major bioactive components of Qingkailing injection including adenosine, geniposide, chlorogenic acid, baicalin, ursodeoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and hyodeoxycholic acid. The proposed method was applied to analyze ten various Qingkailing injections and produced data with acceptable linearity, repeatability, precision and accuracy having a limit of detection (LOD) of 10-50 ng. In comparison with UV detection, HPLC/ELSD permits the determination of non-chromophoric compounds without prior derivatization, and shows good compatibility to the multi-components of complex analytes. The proposed method is a useful alternative for routine analysis in the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:16272719

  17. [Application of on-line single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) for studying major components in fine particulate matter].

    PubMed

    Fu, Huai-yu; Yan, Cai-qing; Zheng, Mei; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-ying; Zhang, Yan-jun; Zhou Zhen; Fu, Zhong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2014-11-01

    Based on preliminary studies by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), typical methods for identifying the number of particles (or particle count) for five major components including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in China and abroad were summarized. In this study, combined with the characteristics of single particle mass spectrum by SPAMS, an optimized method is proposed. With field measurement using SPAMS during January 2013 in Beijing, particle counts of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, and EC determined by different methods were compared. The comparison with results of off-line filter analyses for these five components proved that the method proposed in this study is comparable and optimized. We also suggest factors needed to be considered in future application of SPAMS and other areas that require in-depth research. PMID:25639078

  18. Two-dimensional model simulation of Martian atmospheric convection with condensation of the major component under fixed thermal forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Odaka, M.; Sugiyama, K.; Nakajima, K.; Ishiwatari, M.; Takahashi, Y. O.; Nishizawa, S.; Hayashi, Y.-Y.

    2011-10-01

    We perform a numerical simulation of cloud convection by using two-dimensional nonhydrostatic model for the purpose of investigating the structure of cloud convection with condensation of the major component when significant high supersaturation is not allowed. In quasi-equilibrium state, horizontally uniform cloud layer is formed above the condensation level, and the dry adiabatic layer is formed below the level. The updraft and downdraft associated with convection extends from near the surface to the top of the model atmosphere. The updraft and downdraft in the cloud layer seem to be maintained by buoyancy in the dry adiabatic layer.

  19. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  20. Abundance, major element composition and size of components and matrix in CV, CO and Acfer 094 chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Denton S.; Brunner, Chelsea; Konrad, Kevin; Leftwich, Kristin; Erb, Isabelle; Lu, Muzhou; Rodriguez, Hugo; Crapster-Pregont, Ellen J.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Weisberg, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    The relative abundances and chemical compositions of the macroscopic components or "inclusions" (chondrules and refractory inclusions) and fine-grained mineral matrix in chondritic meteorites provide constraints on astrophysical theories of inclusion formation and chondrite accretion. We present new techniques for analysis of low count/pixel Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and Fe X-ray intensity maps of rock sections, and apply them to large areas of CO and CV chondrites, and the ungrouped Acfer 094 chondrite. For many thousands of manually segmented and type-identified inclusions, we are able to assess, pixel-by-pixel, the major element content of each inclusion. We quantify the total fraction of refractory elements accounted for by various types of inclusion and matrix. Among CO chondrites, both matrix and inclusion Mg/Si ratios approach the solar (and bulk CO) ratio with increasing petrologic grade, but Si remains enriched in inclusions relative to matrix. The oxidized CV chondrites with higher matrix/inclusion ratios exhibit more severe aqueous alteration (oxidation), and their excess matrix accounts for their higher porosity relative to reduced CV chondrites. Porosity could accommodate an original ice component of matrix as the direct cause of local alteration of oxidized CV chondrites. We confirm that major element abundances among inclusions differ greatly, across a wide range of CO and CV chondrites. These abundances in all cases add up to near-chondritic (solar) bulk abundance ratios in these chondrites, despite wide variations in matrix/inclusion ratios and inclusion sizes: chondrite components are complementary. This complementarity provides a robust meteoritic constraint for astrophysical disk models.

  1. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  2. NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Frank C; Taggi, Andrew E; Gronquist, Matthew; Malik, Rabia U; Grant, Jacqualine B; Eisner, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2008-09-23

    Extensive chemical analyses of spider venoms from many species have revealed complex mixtures of biologically active compounds, of which several have provided important leads for drug development. We have recently shown that NMR spectroscopy can be used advantageously for a direct structural characterization of the small-molecule content of such complex mixtures. Here, we report the application of this strategy to a larger-scale analysis of a collection of spider venoms representing >70 species, which, in combination with mass spectrometric analyses, allowed the identification of a wide range of known, and several previously undescribed, small molecules. These include polyamines, common neurotransmitters, and amino acid derivatives as well as two additional members of a recently discovered family of natural products, the sulfated nucleosides. In the case of the well studied brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, sulfated guanosine derivatives were found to comprise the major small-molecule components of the venom. PMID:18794518

  3. NMR-spectroscopic screening of spider venom reveals sulfated nucleosides as major components for the brown recluse and related species

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Frank C.; Taggi, Andrew E.; Gronquist, Matthew; Malik, Rabia U.; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Eisner, Thomas; Meinwald, Jerrold

    2008-01-01

    Extensive chemical analyses of spider venoms from many species have revealed complex mixtures of biologically active compounds, of which several have provided important leads for drug development. We have recently shown that NMR spectroscopy can be used advantageously for a direct structural characterization of the small-molecule content of such complex mixtures. Here, we report the application of this strategy to a larger-scale analysis of a collection of spider venoms representing >70 species, which, in combination with mass spectrometric analyses, allowed the identification of a wide range of known, and several previously undescribed, small molecules. These include polyamines, common neurotransmitters, and amino acid derivatives as well as two additional members of a recently discovered family of natural products, the sulfated nucleosides. In the case of the well studied brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa, sulfated guanosine derivatives were found to comprise the major small-molecule components of the venom. PMID:18794518

  4. Alpha-eleostearic acid and its dihydroxy derivative are major apoptosis-inducing components of bitter gourd.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Masuko; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Akimoto, Yukari; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2008-11-26

    Bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.) pericarp, placenta, and seed extracts were previously shown to induce apoptosis in HL60 human leukemia cells. To determine the active component that induces apoptosis in cancer cells, bitter gourd ethanol extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. Several fractions obtained by silica gel column chromatography inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in HL60 cells. Among them, fraction 7 had the strongest activity in inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis in HL60 cells. A component that induced apoptosis in HL60 cells was then isolated from fraction 7 by another silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C18 column and was identified as (9Z,11E,13E)-15,16-dihydroxy-9,11,13-octadecatrienoic acid (15,16-dihydroxy alpha-eleostearic acid). 15,16-Dihydroxy alpha-eleostearic acid induced apoptosis in HL60 cells within 5 h at a concentration of 160 microM (50 microg/mL). (9Z,11E,13E)-9,11,13-Octadecatrienoic acid (alpha-eleostearic acid) is known to be the major conjugated linolenic acid in bitter gourd seeds. Therefore, the effect of alpha-eleostearic acid on the growth of some cancer and normal cell lines was examined. alpha-Eleostearic acid strongly inhibited the growth of some cancer and fibroblast cell lines, including those of HL60 leukemia and HT29 colon carcinoma. alpha-Eleostearic acid induced apoptosis in HL60 cells after a 24 h incubation at a concentration of 5 microM. Thus, alpha-eleostearic acid and the dihydroxy derivative from bitter gourd were suggested to be the major inducers of apoptosis in HL60 cells. PMID:18959405

  5. Plastoglobules in algae: A comprehensive comparative study of the presence of major structural and functional components in complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Lohscheider, Jens N; Río Bártulos, Carolina

    2016-08-01

    Plastoglobules (PG) are lipophilic droplets attached to thylakoid membranes in higher plants and green algae and are implicated in prenyl lipid biosynthesis. They might also represent a central hub for integration of plastid signals under stress and therefore the adaptation of the thylakoid membrane under such conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PG contain around 30 specific proteins of which Fibrillins (FBN) and Activity of bc1 complex kinases (ABC1K) represent the majority with respect to both number and protein mass. However, nothing is known about the presence of PG in most algal species, which are responsible for about 50% of global primary production. Therefore, we searched the genomes of publicly available algal genomes for components of PG and the associated functional network in order to predict their presence and potential evolutionary conservation of physiological functions. We could identify homologous sequences for core components of PG, like FBN and ABC1K, in most investigated algal species. Furthermore, proteins at central and interesting positions within the PG functional coexpression network were identified. Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed diversity within FBN and ABC1K sequences among algal species with complex plastids of the red lineage and large differences compared with green lineage species. Two types of FBN were detected that differ in their isoelectric point which seems to correlate with subcellular localization. Subgroups of FBN were shared between many investigated species and modeling of their 3D-structure implied a conserved structure. FBN and ABC1K are essential structural and functional components of PG. Their occurrence in investigated algal species suggests presence of PG therein and functions in prenyl lipid metabolism and adaptation of the thylakoid membrane that are conserved during evolution. PMID:27373732

  6. One-Step Detection of Major Lipid Components in Submicroliter Volumes of Unpurified Liposome and Cell Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ssu-Ying; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2016-07-19

    Liposomes and cells have high lipid contents, which are the main components of the external and internal membranes. Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used in the analysis of the lipids present in the biological matrixes. However, MS analysis of liposome and cell suspensions is challenging due to the presence of other high-abundance matrix components (e.g., salts, buffers, and growth media) that cause ion suppression. These interfering species would normally be removed by dialysis or centrifugation. Here we propose a simple and fast method to detect major lipid components in cells and cell suspensions by MS while circumventing dialysis and centrifugation. Capillary hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) has been coupled online with the aid of an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Complex samples containing bioparticles and a large amount of potential interferences (buffer, inorganic salts, amino acids) were separated hydrodynamically, detected optically (by light absorption/scattering), and immediately transferred to the MS interface. Liposomes and animal cells are disintegrated during electrospray, and the constituent lipids are ionized. The signal-to-noise ratios are ∼10× higher in HDC-ESI-MS than in direct infusion ESI-MS experiments (with or without dilution). This method has been tested on liposomes (containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol) and four types of animal/human cells, i.e., mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7), human breast cancer cells (T47D and Hs578T), and mouse preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1). We suggest that HDC-ESI-MS can be used in quality control analyses of bioparticle suspensions in the fields of biotechnology, molecular biology, drug discovery, and cosmetics. PMID:27337108

  7. Composing the Curriculum: Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    What is composing and how is it valued? What does a good education in composing look like; what constraints hinder it and is it possible to overcome such constraints? Can composing be a personal, creative and valuable activity for the school student? What role does the teacher play in all of this? These are questions that I discuss in this…

  8. In vitro inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its major components on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components. PMID:24427941

  9. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  10. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  11. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates.

    PubMed

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Santos, Patricia; Kosma, Dylan K; Joubès, Jérôme; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  12. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Kosma, Dylan K.; Joubès, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  13. Simultaneous determination of the major active components of tea polyphenols in rat plasma by a simple and specific HPLC assay.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ting; Liang, Jun; Han, Guozhu; Lv, Li; Li, Nan

    2008-11-15

    A simple and specific HPLC assay for simultaneous determination of two major active components (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and (-) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) of tea polyphenols (TP) in rat plasma was developed and validated. Following addition of resorcinol as internal standard (IS) the analytes were isolated from rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 0.1% citric acid+CH(3)CN (86:14, v/v) running at flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The effluent was monitored at a wavelength of 280 nm. EGCG, ECG and IS were well separated from each other and free from interference from blank plasma and other components in TP as well as metabolites post-dosing. The calibration curve was constructed by plotting peak area ratio of analytes to IS vs. concentration. The method showed good linearity over range of 0.5-300 microg/mL for EGCG and 0.1-60 microg/mL for ECG (r>0.999). The intra- and inter-day precision (R.S.D.) was better than 6 and 12%, respectively. Assay accuracy was better than 94.78% for both compounds. Extraction recovery at QC samples was between 85.73 and 91.93% for EGCG and 79.08 and 86.51% for ECG. The developed method was successfully used to simultaneously measure plasma concentrations of EGCG and ECG after intravenous administration of TP to rats and yielded two typical biexponential decay concentration-time curves. PMID:18922746

  14. Microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) is a major antigenic component of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kosik, K S; Joachim, C L; Selkoe, D J

    1986-01-01

    The detailed protein composition of the paired helical filaments (PHF) that accumulate in human neurons in aging and Alzheimer disease is unknown. However, the identity of certain components has been surmised by using immunocytochemical techniques. Whereas PHF share epitopes with neurofilament proteins and microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2, we report evidence that the MAP tau (tau) appears to be their major antigenic component. Immunization of rabbits with NaDodSO4-extracted, partially purified PHF (free of normal cytoskeletal elements, including tau) consistently produces antibodies to tau but not, for example, to neurofilaments. Such PHF antibodies label all of the heterogeneous fetal and mature forms of tau from rat and human brain. Absorption of PHF antisera with heat-stable MAPs (rich in tau) results in almost complete loss of staining of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in human brain sections. An affinity-purified antibody to tau specifically labels NFT and the neurites of senile plaques in human brain sections as well as NaDodSO4-extracted NFT. tau-Immunoreactive NFT frequently extend into the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons, suggesting an aberrant intracellular locus for this axonal protein. tau and PHF antibodies label tau proteins identically on electrophoretic transfer blots and stain the gel-excluded protein representing NaDodSO4-insoluble PHF in homogenates of human brain. The progressive accumulation of altered tau protein in neurons in Alzheimer disease may result in instability of microtubules, consequent loss of effective transport of molecules and organelles, and, ultimately, neuronal death. Images PMID:2424016

  15. Potential Effects of Silymarin and Its Flavonolignan Components in Patients with β-Thalassemia Major: A Comprehensive Review in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Aliasgharian, Aily; Jalali, Hossein; Hadian Amree, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Major β-thalassemia (β-TM) is one of the most common inherited hemolytic types of anemia which is caused as a result of absent or reduced synthesis of β-globin chains of hemoglobin. This defect results in red blood cells lysis and chronic anemia that can be treated by multiple blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy. Without iron chelation therapy, iron overload will cause lots of complications in patients. Antioxidant components play an important role in the treatment of the disease. Silymarin is an antioxidant flavonoid isolated from Silybum marianum plant. In the present study, we reviewed clinical and experimental studies investigating the use of silymarin prior to September 1, 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Scopus, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases and we evaluated the potential effects of silymarin on controlling the complications induced by iron overload in patients with β-TM. Based on the results of the present study, we can conclude that silymarin may be useful as an adjuvant for improving multiple organ dysfunctions. PMID:26997953

  16. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s) of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin. PMID:27187328

  18. Lemnitoxin, the major component of Micrurus lemniscatus coral snake venom, is a myotoxic and pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Casais-E-Silva, Luciana L; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Lebrun, Ivo; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-08-22

    The venom of Micrurus lemniscatus, a coral snake of wide geographical distribution in South America, was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the fractions screened for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The major component of the venom, a PLA2, here referred to as 'Lemnitoxin', was isolated and characterized biochemically and toxicologically. It induces myotoxicity upon intramuscular or intravenous injection into mice. The amino acid residues Arg15, Ala100, Asn108, and a hydrophobic residue at position 109, which are characteristic of myotoxic class I phospholipases A2, are present in Lemnitoxin. This PLA2 is antigenically related to M. nigrocinctus nigroxin, Notechis scutatus notexin, Pseudechis australis mulgotoxin, and Pseudonaja textilis textilotoxin, as demonstrated with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Lemnitoxin is highly selective in its targeting of cells, being cytotoxic for differentiated myotubes in vitro and muscle fibers in vivo, but not for undifferentiated myoblasts or endothelial cells. Lemnitoxin is not lethal after intravenous injection at doses up to 2μg/g in mice, evidencing its lack of significant neurotoxicity. Lemnitoxin displays anticoagulant effect on human plasma and proinflammatory activity also, as it induces paw edema and mast cell degranulation. Thus, the results of this work demonstrate that Lemnitoxin is a potent myotoxic and proinflammatory class I PLA2. PMID:27282409

  19. Inhibitory effects of geranium essential oil and its major component, citronellol, on degranulation and cytokine production by mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Yorita, Mika; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Jippo, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of geranium essential oil (GEO) on anaphylaxis. GEO can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but its roles in allergic reactions are incompletely understood. Here, we used mouse cells to show that GEO inhibited the degranulation of cultured mast cells (CMCs). Citronellol is the major component of GEO and inhibited CMC degranulation. The l-enantiomer of citronellol more effectively suppressed CMC degranulation than did d-citronellol. We also examined whether citronellol could inhibit the immunoglobulin (Ig) E-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Treatment with various concentrations of citronellol before CMC activation with IgE significantly inhibited the induction of TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, citronellol suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK), which is critical for ERK activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. These findings suggest that citronellol may represent a candidate compound for the effective treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:26927807

  20. myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate is a major component of an extracellular structure in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed Central

    Irigoín, Florencia; Ferreira, Fernando; Fernández, Cecilia; Sim, Robert B; Díaz, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) is an abundant intracellular component of animal cells. In this study we describe the presence of extracellular IP(6) in the hydatid cyst wall (HCW) of the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The HCW comprises an inner cellular layer and an outer, acellular (laminated) layer up to 2 mm in thickness that protects the parasite from host immune cells. A compound, subsequently identified as IP(6), was detected in and purified from an HCW extract on the basis of its capacity to inhibit complement activation. The identification of the isolated compound was carried out by a combination of NMR, MS and TLC. The majority of IP(6) in the HCW was found in the acellular layer, with only a small fraction of the compound being extracted from cells. In the laminated layer, IP(6) was present in association with calcium, and accounted for up to 15% of the total dry mass of the HCW. IP(6) was not detected in any other structures or stages of the parasite. Our results imply that IP(6) is secreted by the larval stage of the parasite in a polarized fashion towards the interface with the host. This is the first report of the secretion of IP(6), and the possible implications beyond the biology of E. granulosus are discussed. PMID:11853537

  1. Purification, characterization and immunoreactivity of β'-component, a major allergen from the roe of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Yun; Cao, Min-Jie; Zhang, Ming-Li; Hu, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Fish roe, a nutritious food, is favored by consumers, but has also been confirmed to be allergenic in salmonid fish. However, little information is available in other fish species. To determine the allergen in the roe of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), crude extracts were incubated with sera of allergic patients. The major allergen was purified by column chromatography methods, revealing a single band with 16 kDa and was confirmed as β'-component (β'-c) by mass spectrometry. The results of physicochemical characterization showed that β'-c was a glycoprotein and was relatively stable following thermal or acid/alkali treatment. Furthermore, β'-c was easily degraded by pepsin, but was resistant to trypsin and α-chymotrypsin. After treatment with different processing methods, including Maillard reaction (MR), ultraviolet radiation (UVR), ultrasound-heat (UH), and retorting (RT), the IgG-binding activity of β'-c decreased obviously by MR, but decreased slightly by UVR and UH. Cross-immunoreactivity results of the allergens in the roes of different species revealed that β'-c was a specific allergen in teleostean, and the cross-immunoreactivity between the roe of large yellow croaker and other kinds of fish roe was relatively strong. PMID:25046389

  2. Cupulin Is a Zona Pellucida-Like Domain Protein and Major Component of the Cupula from the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Dernedde, Jens; Weise, Christoph; Müller, Eva-Christina; Hagiwara, Akira; Bachmann, Sebastian; Suzuki, Mamoru; Reutter, Werner; Tauber, Rudolf; Scherer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular membranes of the inner ear are essential constituents to maintain sensory functions, the cupula for sensing torsional movements of the head, the otoconial membrane for sensing linear movements and accelerations like gravity, and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea for hearing. So far a number of structural proteins have been described, but for the gelatinous cupula precise data are missing. Here, we describe for the first time a major proteinogenic component of the cupula structure with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa from salmon. Analyses of respective peptides revealed highly conserved amino-acid sequences with identity to zona pellucida-like domain proteins. Immunohistochemistry studies localized the protein in the ampulla of the inner ear from salmon and according to its anatomical appearance we identified this glycoprotein as Cupulin. Future research on structure and function of zona pellucida-like domain proteins will enhance our knowledge of inner ear diseases, like sudden loss of vestibular function and other disturbances. PMID:25369234

  3. C-Kit Binding Properties of Hesperidin (a Major Component of KMP6) as a Potential Anti-Allergic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Choi, Youngjin; Kim, Kyu-Yeob; Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of mast cells can be causally related to several allergic inflammations. Stem cell factor (SCF) as a mast cell chemotaxin induces mast cell migration. To clarify a new effect of Pyeongwee-San extract (KMP6, a drug for indigestion) for the treatment of allergy, we investigated the effects of KMP6 on SCF-induced migration of rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). A molecular docking simulation showed that hesperidin, a major component of KMP6, controls the SCF and c-kit binding by interaction with the active site of the c-kit. KMP6 and hesperidin significantly inhibited SCF-induced migration of RPMCs (P<0.05). The ability of the SCF to enhance morphological alteration and F-actin formation was also abolished by treatment with KMP6 or hesperidin. KMP6 and hesperidin inhibited SCF-induced p38 MAPK activation. In addition, SCF-induced inflammatory cytokine production was significantly inhibited by treatment with KMP6 or hesperidin (P<0.05). Our results show for the first time that KMP6 potently regulates SCF-induced migration, p38 MAPK activation and inflammatory cytokines production through hindrance of SCF and c-kit binding in RPMCs. Such modulation may have functional consequences during KMP6 treatment, especially mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation disorders. PMID:21559359

  4. How Composers Compose: In Search of the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bernard W.

    2004-01-01

    The Genesis Project is a multi-phase research project designed for the purpose of developing an in-depth understanding of the nature of musical creativity by investigating how composers compose. In this first phase of the project, an understanding of the four dimensions of musical creativity: (1) the "person", (2) the compositional "process", (3)…

  5. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Inoue, Ryo; Harada, Yuri; Watanabe, Takumi; Makioka, Yuko; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA) of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells. PMID:26083838

  6. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

    PubMed

    Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Inoue, Ryo; Harada, Yuri; Watanabe, Takumi; Makioka, Yuko; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA) of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells. PMID:26083838

  7. Sequence of xynC and properties of XynC, a major component of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, H; Takagi, K I; Fukumura, M; Kimura, T; Karita, S; Sakka, K; Ohmiya, K

    1997-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the Clostridium thermocellum F1 xynC gene, which encodes the xylanase XynC, consists of 1,857 bp and encodes a protein of 619 amino acids with a molecular weight of 69,517. XynC contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide of 32 amino acid residues, followed by a 165-amino-acid sequence which is homologous to the thermostabilizing domain. Downstream of this domain was a family 10 catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase. The C terminus separated from the catalytic domain by a short linker sequence contains a dockerin domain responsible for cellulosome assembly. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of XynC-II, the enzyme purified from a recombinant Escherichia coli strain, was in agreement with that deduced from the nucleotide sequence although XynC-II suffered from proteolytic truncation by a host protease(s) at the C-terminal region. Immunological and N-terminal amino acid sequence analyses disclosed that the full-length XynC is one of the major components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. XynC-II was highly active toward xylan and slightly active toward p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-cellobioside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The Km and Vmax values for xylan were 3.9 mg/ml and 611 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. This enzyme was optimally active at 80 degrees C and was stable up to 70 degrees C at neutral pHs and over the pH range of 4 to 11 at 25 degrees C. PMID:9209040

  8. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam. PMID:26911626

  9. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. {yields} EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. {yields} Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. {yields} These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K{sub i} values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  10. Cloning and DNA sequence of the gene coding for Clostridium thermocellum cellulase Ss (CelS), a major cellulosome component.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W K; Kruus, K; Wu, J H

    1993-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 produces an extracellular cellulase system capable of hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose. The enzyme system involves a multicomponent protein aggregate (the cellulosome) with a total molecular weight in the millions, impeding mechanistic studies. However, two major components of the aggregate, SS (M(r) = 82,000) and SL (M(r) = 250,000), which act synergistically to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose, have been identified (J. H. D. Wu, W. H. Orme-Johnson, and A. L. Demain, Biochemistry 27:1703-1709, 1988). To further study this synergism, we cloned and sequenced the gene (celS) coding for the SS (CelS) protein by using a degenerate, inosine-containing oligonucleotide probe whose sequence was derived from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the CelS protein. The open reading frame of celS consisted of 2,241 bp encoding 741 amino acid residues. It encoded the N-terminal amino acid sequence and two internal peptide sequences determined for the native CelS protein. A putative ribosome binding site was identified at the 5' end of the gene. A putative signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues was adjacent to the N terminus of the CelS protein. The predicted molecular weight of the secreted protein was 80,670. The celS gene contained a conserved reiterated sequence encoding 24 amino acid residues found in proteins encoded by many other clostridial cel or xyn genes. A palindromic structure was found downstream from the open reading frame. The celS gene is unique among the known cel genes of C. thermocellum. However, it is highly homologous to the partial open reading frame found in C. cellulolyticum and in Caldocellum saccharolyticum, indicating that these genes belong to a new family of cel genes. Images PMID:8444792

  11. Activation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes by particulate zymosan is related to both its major carbohydrate components: glucan and mannan.

    PubMed

    Williams, J D; Topley, N; Alobaidi, H M; Harber, M J

    1986-05-01

    Unopsonized particulate zymosan and its major carbohydrate component glucan were phagocytosed under serum-free conditions by adherent polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Preincubation of PMN monolayers with mannan did not cause a reduction in the phagocytosis of either particle. The phagocytic response was inhibited by preincubation of the cells with trypsin at a concentration that did not inhibit the phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes coated with IgG or of latex particles. Homology of the recognition mechanisms for glucan and zymosan was confirmed when cells cultured on fixed glucan or on fixed zymosan failed to ingest either particle to more than 40% of control phagocytosis. Similarly, zymosan and glucan activated PMN in suspension, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, to generate reactive oxygen species which were measured as luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). There was, however, a four-fold greater CL response to zymosan. Preincubation of PMN with mannan resulted in a significantly decreased CL response to zymosan, while the response to glucan was unaffected. The CL response was also sensitive to a range of concentrations of trypsin. In contrast, two other complex polysaccharide particles (barley-derived beta-glucan and algae-derived laminarin) were not phagocytosed by PMN, nor did they cause the generation of CL, despite the fact that they possessed the capacity, in common with zymosan and glucan, to activate the alternative pathway of complement. The identification of a trypsin-sensitive recognition mechanism on the surface of human PMN for unopsonized zymosan and glucan represents a response not hitherto characterized. Furthermore, our data indicate that the phagocytosis of unopsonized zymosan by human PMN is dependent primarily on its glucan content, but that its capacity to activate the respiratory burst may involve mannan and the recruitment of a second cell surface recognition mechanism. PMID:3710519

  12. Syllabus for a Women Studies Course on Women Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah

    An upper division college-level course dealing with women composers for both music majors and nonmusic majors is outlined. The course provides an historical and analytical survey of western music through works composed by women, with emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Students listen to music, participate in class discussions, and listen to…

  13. Associations of major and trace components in time-series settling particle samples from Cuenca Alfonso, SW Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, A. P.; Shumilin, E.; Silverberg, N.; Morton-Bermea, O.; Hernandez-Alvarez, E.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-12-01

    Cuenca Alfonso is a natural sedimentation basin in Bahía de La Paz, southern Baja California Peninsula, an arid subtropical region characterized by limited land runoff with a productive surface layer overlying a well-developed Oxygen Minimum Zone. A time-series sediment trap program was initiated in 2002 to help understand the processes controlling variations in the biogeochemistry of this environment. INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-OES analyses, as well as flame AAS were made for major and trace elements in 105 subsamples of material collected at 350 m depth during 2002-2005. Principal component analysis, including data for organic and inorganic carbon, biogenic silica and the lithogenic fraction, yielded four factors. Factor 1 (25% of the total variance) showed high eigenvalues for the classical terrigenous aluminosilicate elements: Al, Fe, Mn Sc. High loadings also occurred for the group of light to medium REEs (except for Eu). The latter are frequently associated with acid source rocks, such the granites and rhyolitic volcanics exposed on the margin of the bay. Factor 2 (18%) grouped mainly REEs, with high loading on the heavier members of the series that are more typical of basic rocks (thick sequences of andesitic volcanics occur to the NW), as well as Ni and Rb. Factor 3 (12%) appears to represent carbonate organism production, with high loadings for Cinorg, Ca and moderate levels for Corg and Cu, while %litho is moderately negative, as is biogenic silica. The fourth factor (9%) is characterized by high negative loadings for Cd, Co, Se and moderately negative values for Corg. Moderate positive loadings occur only for Sr and, at lower levels, for U, Sb and %lithogenic. This suggests that this grouping is related to particles that have been partially transformed within the Oxygen Minimum Zone. The results will be examined for distinctive periods within the time-series, such as the hurricane-influenced months of August-September 2003, the generally very low fluxes

  14. Tropes of the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Phillip K.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a montage of the most important revisions of the four master tropes--metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony--for the composing process itself. Discusses the capacity of tropes to prefigure ideological stances toward language and writing. (EL)

  15. SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking CHFR mediated ubiquitination and degradation of its major components

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Inkyung; Sohn, Dong H.; Choi, Jinwook; Kim, Joo Mi; Jeon, Shin; Seol, Jae Hong; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediates the ubiquitination of the major components of the SWI/SNF complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediated-ubiquitination induces the degradation of the major components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRG3 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking the CHFR activity. -- Abstract: The murine SWI/SNF-like BAF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that functions as a transcriptional regulator in cell proliferation, differentiation and development. The SWI/SNF-like BAF complex consists of several components including core subunits such as BRG1, BAF155/SRG3, BAF47/SNF5/INI1, and BAF170. We have previously shown that the interaction between SRG3/mBAF155 and other components of the complex stabilizes them by attenuating their proteasomal degradation. However, it has not been known how the major components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex such as BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a are targeted for the ubiquitination and degradation, and how SRG3/mBAF155 protects them from the degradation process. Here we report that CHFR interacts with BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex and ubiquitinates them to target for degradation through a proteasome-mediated pathway, and that SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes these components by blocking their interaction with CHFR.

  16. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  17. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  18. Multiple leafminer species attracted to the major pheromone components of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of citrus throughout the world due to leafmining damage that reduces photosynthetic capacity of leaves and increases the incidence and severity of citrus canker disease. A lure comprised of two aldehyde compounds isolated from ph...

  19. Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring.

    PubMed

    Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike; Lynen, Frederic; Danthine, Sabine; Brown, Allison; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons - HCs, free fatty acids - FFAs, free fatty alcohols - FALs and wax esters - WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC-ELSD and GC-MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products. PMID:27507530

  20. Guidelines for Coaching Student Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dana

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching students how to compose music. Addresses issues, such as how to get the students started and types of questions to ask students about their compositions. Discusses the musical elements involved in composition, such as melody, harmony, rhythm and meter, timbre, texture, and formal design. (CMK)

  1. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  2. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of major polyphenol components in rat plasma after oral administration of total flavonoid tablet from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiu-Ming; Wang, Si-Huan; Wang, Yi-Ming; Tian, Hui-Fang; Yuan, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong-Yan; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Luo, Guo-An

    2016-07-15

    Total flavonoid tablet from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (Zhimu tablet), which was made of total polyphenol components extracted from the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. (Zhimu in Chinese), is a novel traditional Chinese medicine prescribed for the treatment of diabetes. Mangiferin (MF) and neomangiferin (NMF) are the two main components detected and determined in Zhimu tablet, accounting for 8.9% of the total weight of each tablet. In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to characterize the metabolites of MF and NMF in rat plasmas collected at different time points after oral administration of Zhimu tablet at a dose of 3.63g/kg (corresponding to 270mg/kg MF). Accurate mass measurement was used to determine the elemental composition of metabolites and thus to confirm the proposed structures of identified metabolites. Time points of appearance of some metabolites, such as isomers, were also taken into account during the structure confirmation. A total of 21 potential metabolites were found in rat plasma at different time points, and the metabolic pathways in vivo were involved in hydrolysis, methylation, glucuronide conjugation, glycoside conjugation, sulphation, dehydration and isomerisation. Furthermore, a selective and accurate LC-MS assay method was developed and validated for the quantification of MF in plasma. Semi-quantification of main conjugated metabolites was also performed in order to describe the dynamic metabolism profiles of polyphenol components in Zhimu tablet. MF concentration in plasma reached 1.36±0.47μgmL(-1) about 5.0h after oral administration of Zhimu tablet, which showed a 3.24- and 4.91-fold increase in plasma maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 24h of MF compared with those for rats administered with free MF, respectively. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes and

  3. Comparative Fluorescence Resonance Energy-Transfer Study in Pluronic Triblock Copolymer Micelle and Niosome Composed of Biological Component Cholesterol: An Investigation of Effect of Cholesterol and Sucrose on the FRET Parameters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arpita; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-01-14

    The formation of pluronic triblock copolymer (F127)-cholesterol-based niosome and its interaction with sugar (sucrose) molecules have been investigated. The morphology of F127-cholesterol -based niosome in the presence of sucrose has been successfully demonstrated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The DLS profiles and TEM images clearly suggest that the size of the niosome aggregates increases significantly in the presence of sucrose. In addition to structural characterization, a detailed comparative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study has been carried out in these F127-containing aggregates, involving coumarin 153 (C153) as donor (D) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) as an acceptor (A) to monitor the dynamic heterogeneity of the systems. Besides, time-resolved anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to monitor the rotational and lateral diffusion motion in these F127-cholesterol-based aggregates using C153 and R6G, respectively. During the course of FRET study, we have observed multiple time constants of FRET inside the F127-cholesterol-based niosomes in contrast with the F127 micelle. This corresponds to the presence of more than one preferential donor-acceptor (D-A) distance in niosomes than in F127 micelle. FRET has also been successfully used to probe the effect of sucrose on the morphology of F127-cholesterol-based niosome. In the presence of sucrose, the time constant of FRET further increases as the D-A distances increase in sucrose-decorated niosome. Finally, the excitation-wavelength-dependent FRET studies have indicated that as the excitation of donor molecules varies from 408 to 440 nm the contribution of the faster rise component of the acceptor enhances considerably, which clearly establishes the dynamics heterogeneity of both systems. Our findings also indicate that FRET is completely intravesicular in nature in these block copolymer

  4. The N-Reductive System Composed of Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component (mARC), Cytochrome b5 (CYB5B) and Cytochrome b5 Reductase (CYB5R) Is Regulated by Fasting and High Fat Diet in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jakobs, Heyka H.; Mikula, Michal; Havemeyer, Antje; Strzalkowska, Adriana; Borowa-Chmielak, Monika; Dzwonek, Artur; Gajewska, Marta; Hennig, Ewa E.; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Clement, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component mARC is the fourth mammalian molybdenum enzyme. The protein is capable of reducing N-oxygenated structures, but requires cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase for electron transfer to catalyze such reactions. It is well accepted that the enzyme is involved in N-reductive drug metabolism such as the activation of amidoxime prodrugs. However, the endogenous function of the protein is not fully understood. Among other functions, an involvement in lipogenesis is discussed. To study the potential involvement of the protein in energy metabolism, we tested whether the mARC protein and its partners are regulated due to fasting and high fat diet in mice. We used qRT-PCR for expression studies, Western Blot analysis to study protein levels and an N-reductive biotransformation assay to gain activity data. Indeed all proteins of the N-reductive system are regulated by fasting and its activity decreases. To study the potential impact of these changes on prodrug activation in vivo, another mice experiment was conducted. Model compound benzamidoxime was injected to mice that underwent fasting and the resulting metabolite of the N-reductive reaction, benzamidine, was determined. Albeit altered in vitro activity, no changes in the metabolite concentration in vivo were detectable and we can dispel concerns that fasting alters prodrug activation in animal models. With respect to high fat diet, changes in the mARC proteins occur that result in increased N-reductive activity. With this study we provide further evidence that the endogenous function of the mARC protein is linked with lipid metabolism. PMID:25144769

  5. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Anholeti, Maria C; Duprat, Rodrigo C; Figueiredo, Maria R; Kaplan, Maria AC; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Ratcliffe, Norman A; Feder, Denise; Paiva, Selma R; Mello, Cicero B

    2015-01-01

    Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L), however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L) isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis. PMID:26200711

  6. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Anholeti, Maria C; Duprat, Rodrigo C; Figueiredo, Maria R; Kaplan, Maria Ac; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Ratcliffe, Norman A; Feder, Denise; Paiva, Selma R; Mello, Cicero B

    2015-08-01

    Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers of Clusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L), however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L) isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis. PMID:26200711

  7. Elevated IgG and decreased complement component C3 and factor B in B-thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, D; Yadav, M

    1981-07-01

    Serum immunoglobulins, complements C3 and C4 and factor B were assayed in the sera of children with B-thalassaemia major, siblings and matched controls in an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the conflicting results reported in the literature. Significantly elevated IgG and decreased C3 and factor B levels were observed in thalassaemic patients who also had a high incidence of HBS hepatitis and other infections. The controversial results probably reflect differences in the incidence of infection, and the presence of circulating immune complexes due to blood transfusions, in the various communities. The alterations in immunoglobulin and complement levels represent a secondary rather than a primary immune disorder. PMID:6914868

  8. [Analysis of major components in water based stamp pad inks and their imprints by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zou, Jixin; Shi, Gaojun; Zhang, Lijuan

    2010-12-01

    Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) technology and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology were used to qualitatively analyze the major components in water based stamp pad inks including major colorants and volatile components. After the samples were supersonically extracted and then centrifuged, UHPLC-MS was used to separate and identify the major colorants. A ZORBAX Eclipse Plus Phenyl-Hexyl (50 mm x 4.6 mm, 1.8 microm) column and 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile were utilized for the separation and negative selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) was set for the MS analysis. An HP-INNOWAX (30 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 microm) column was employed in the GC-MS analysis with the full-scan mode to determine the volatiles. This study demonstrated that the major colorants in the inks and their imprints were Acid Red R, Eosin Y and Pigment Red 112; and the major volatiles were glycerol, 1,2-propanediol, etc. The method is rapid and accurate. It also demonstrates that the method can meet the requirements for imprint determination in material evidence identification. The work provides a reliable tool for the categorization research in the forensic sciences. PMID:21438364

  9. Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brandon J; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Craig, Teresa A; Mehring-Franklin, Cynthia E; Defreitas, Zoraida; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans. PMID:23333089

  10. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by an ethyl acetate subfraction separated from Polygonum cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Shih-Ying; Yang, Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Che-Jung; Yeh, Dong-Bor; Chen, Yi-Jie; Lin, Tsuey-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The expression of EBV lytic proteins was analyzed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess the EBV DNA replication and the transcription of lytic genes, including BRLF1 and BZLF1. Results showed that the F3 and its major component emodin inhibit the transcription of EBV immediate early genes, the expression of EBV lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D and reduces EBV DNA replication, showing that F3 and emodin are potentially useful as an anti-EBV drug. PMID:24448066

  11. Protocol for a systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components compared to other resuscitative fluids in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the use of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation of patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. It has been speculated that early resuscitation with blood components may have benefits in terms of treating trauma-induced coagulopathy, which in turn may influence survival. The proposed systematic review will evaluate the evidence on the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components (red blood cells and/or plasma or whole blood), in both civilian and military settings, compared with other resuscitation strategies in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. Methods/design Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. General medical and specialist databases will be searched; the search strategy will combine terms for the population, intervention and setting. Studies will be selected for review if the population includes adult patients with major traumatic haemorrhage who receive blood components in a pre-hospital setting (civilian or military). Systematic reviews, randomised and non-randomised controlled trials and controlled observational studies will be included. Uncontrolled studies will be considered depending on the volume of controlled evidence. Quality assessment will be tailored to different study designs. Both patient related and surrogate outcomes will be considered. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analyses and subgroup analyses will be undertaken where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Discussion Given the increasing use by emergency services of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base for this practice. As far as the authors are aware, the proposed systematic review will be the first to address this topic. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014013794 PMID:25344301

  12. The Transcript Profile of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Atractylodes lancea, Revealing Its Sesquiterpenoid Biosynthesis of the Major Active Components

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Zhan, Chuansong; Yang, Yanyan; Wang, Xuekui; Yang, Tewu; Zhao, Zeying; Zhang, Qiyun; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., named “Cangzhu” in China, which belongs to the Asteraceae family. In some countries of Southeast Asia (China, Thailand, Korea, Japan etc.) its rhizome, commonly called rhizoma atractylodis, is used to treat many diseases as it contains a variety of sesquiterpenoids and other components of medicinal importance. Despite its medicinal value, the information of the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome analysis of different tissues of non-model plant A. lancea by using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). We found 62,352 high quality unigenes with an average sequence length of 913 bp in the transcripts of A. Lancea. Among these, 43,049 (69.04%), 30,264 (48.53%), 26,233 (42.07%), 17,881 (28.67%) and 29,057(46.60%) unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value<1e-5) to known proteins in Nr, KEGG, SWISS-PROT, GO, and COG databases, respectively. Of the total 62,352 unigenes, 43,049 (Nr Database) open reading frames were predicted. On the basis of different bioinformatics tools we identify all the enzymes that take part in the terpenoid biosynthesis as well as five different known sesquiterpenoids via cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and plastidal methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. In our study, 6, 864 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were also found as great potential markers in A. lancea. This transcriptomic resource of A. lancea provides a great contribution in advancement of research for this specific medicinal plant and more specifically for the gene mining of different classes of terpenoids and other chemical compounds that have medicinal as well as economic importance. PMID:26990438

  13. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. PMID:26142866

  14. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ben Chung Lap; Li, Long Fei; Hu, Shui Qing; Wat, Elaine; Wong, Eric Chun Wai; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Lau, Clara Bik San; Wong, Chun Kwok; Hon, Kam Lun Ellis; Hui, Patrick Chi Leung; Leung, Ping Chung

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF) is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC) were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s) of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD) surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC. PMID:26378505

  15. Gene Expression Analysis of Rice Seedling under Potassium Deprivation Reveals Major Changes in Metabolism and Signaling Components

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Alka; Singh, Amarjeet; Kanwar, Poonam; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Pandey, Amita; Suprasanna, Penna; Kapoor, Sanjay; Pandey, Girdhar K.

    2013-01-01

    Plant nutrition is one of the important areas for improving the yield and quality in crops as well as non-crop plants. Potassium is an essential plant nutrient and is required in abundance for their proper growth and development. Potassium deficiency directly affects the plant growth and hence crop yield and production. Recently, potassium-dependent transcriptomic analysis has been performed in the model plant Arabidopsis, however in cereals and crop plants; such a transcriptome analysis has not been undertaken till date. In rice, the molecular mechanism for the regulation of potassium starvation responses has not been investigated in detail. Here, we present a combined physiological and whole genome transcriptomic study of rice seedlings exposed to a brief period of potassium deficiency then replenished with potassium. Our results reveal that the expressions of a diverse set of genes annotated with many distinct functions were altered under potassium deprivation. Our findings highlight altered expression patterns of potassium-responsive genes majorly involved in metabolic processes, stress responses, signaling pathways, transcriptional regulation, and transport of multiple molecules including K+. Interestingly, several genes responsive to low-potassium conditions show a reversal in expression upon resupply of potassium. The results of this study indicate that potassium deprivation leads to activation of multiple genes and gene networks, which may be acting in concert to sense the external potassium and mediate uptake, distribution and ultimately adaptation to low potassium conditions. The interplay of both upregulated and downregulated genes globally in response to potassium deprivation determines how plants cope with the stress of nutrient deficiency at different physiological as well as developmental stages of plants. PMID:23922980

  16. Metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of triptolide, a major active component of the herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuying; Liu, Zhaohua; Li, Xinxiu; Xing, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated in glutathione (GSH)-depleted (treated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, BSO) and aminobenzotriazole (ABT; a non-specific inhibitor for P450s)-treated mice. The toxicity of TP in mice was evaluated in terms of mortality and levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). In incubates with NADPH- and GSH-supplemented liver microsomes, seven GSH conjugates derived from TP were detected. In mice, these hydrolytically unstable GSH conjugates underwent γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/dipeptidases-mediated hydrolysis leading to two major cysteinylglycine conjugates, which underwent further hydrolysis by dipeptidases to form two cysteine conjugates of TP. In ABT-treated mice, the hydroxylated metabolites of TP were found at a lower level than normal mice, and their subsequent conjugated metabolites were not found. The level of cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates derived from NADPH-independent metabolism increased in mice treated with both TP and BSO (or ABT), which could be the stress response to toxicity of TP. Compared with normal mice, mortality and ALT levels were significantly higher in TP-treated mice, indicating the toxicity of TP. Pretreatment of ABT increased the toxicity caused by TP, whereas the mortality decreased in GSH-depleted mice. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes to less reactive metabolites implied a high potential for detoxification of TP. The GSH conjugation pathway also contributed to TP's detoxification in mice. PMID:23836259

  17. The single and synergistic effects of the major tea components caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and L-theanine on rat sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and L-theanine are the major components of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and the main representatives of the classes of methylxanthines, catechins and free amino acids present in this beverage. There are many studies reporting tea's health benefits, however it is not clear if those effects are mediated by a single component or a synergistic action. This study aimed to evaluate the individual and synergistic effects of tea's major components on rat epididymal spermatozoa survival and oxidative profile during 3-day storage at room temperature (RT). For that, spermatozoa were incubated with caffeine (71 μg mL(-1)), EGCG (82 μg mL(-1)), or L-theanine (19 μg mL(-1)), alone or in combination. Spermatozoa viability was assessed by the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. The oxidative profile was established by evaluating the levels of carbonyl groups, protein nitration and lipid peroxidation. Supplementation of sperm storage medium with the three compounds together improved sperm viability, after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, relative to the control and the groups incubated with each component individually. However, at the end of the 72 h of incubation, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the group exposed to the three compounds, illustrating that the combined treatment triggers different alterations in sperm proteins during their maturational process in the epididymis. This study highlights the importance of the synergism between tea components for the beneficial effects usually attributed to this beverage, particularly in sperm storage at RT. PMID:26902467

  18. Organists and organ music composers.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders. PMID:25684298

  19. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils. PMID:19544589

  20. Upstream stimulatory factor proteins are major components of the glucose response complex of the L-type pyruvate kinase gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Lefrançois-Martinez, A M; Martinez, A; Antoine, B; Raymondjean, M; Kahn, A

    1995-02-10

    L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) gene transcription is induced by glucose through its glucose response element (GlRE) composed of two degenerated E boxes able to bind in vitro ubiquitous upstream stimulator factor (USF) proteins. Here we demonstrate in vivo, by transient transfections in hepatoma cells, that (i) native USF proteins synthesized from expression vectors can act as transactivators of the L-PK promoter via the GlRE, stimulating transcription without glucose and, therefore, decreasing the glucose responsiveness of the promoter; (ii) expression of the truncated USF proteins, able to bind the GlRE but devoid of the NH2-terminal activation domain, represses the activation of the L-PK promoter by glucose; and (iii) a similar repression of the glucose effect is observed upon expression of mutant USF proteins devoid of the basic DNA binding domain, able to dimerize with endogenous USF but not to bind the GlRE. We conclude that USF proteins are components of the transcriptional glucose response complex assembled on the L-PK gene promoter. PMID:7852331

  1. Development of Double Eastern Blotting for Major Licorice Components, Glycyrrhizin and Liquiritin for Chemical Quality Control of Licorice Using anti-Glycyrrhizin and anti-Liquiritin Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shunsuke; Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Nomura, Shuichi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2016-02-10

    Licorice is utilized in various food industries around the world for seasoning agents, confectioneries, drinks, and functional foods. Glycyrrhizin (GL) and liquiritin (Liq) are major quality control chemical markers of licorice that have multifunctional bioactivities. Chemical quality control of licorice is important because its component profiles change depending environmental factors (climate, soil condition, and water deficit) and differences between species. Double eastern blotting using anti-GL and anti-Liq monoclonal antibodies was developed for more convenient, rapid, and specific quality control analysis of GL and Liq, respectively. Moreover, double eastern blotting was applied to investigate the immunohistochemical distributions of GL and Liq in the root of fresh licorice; the localization of both components was then clarified visually. This double eastern blotting technique for GL and Liq may serve as a powerful approach for visually determining the chemical quality of licorice. PMID:26765784

  2. Folk medicine Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, are effective against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, P S; Li, J H; Liu, T Y; Lin, T C

    2000-05-01

    Terminalia catappa L. is a popular folk medicine for preventing hepatoma and treating hepatitis in Taiwan. In this paper, we examined the protective effects of T. catappa leaf water extract (TCE) and its major tannin component, punicalagin, on bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pre-treatment with TCE or punicalagin prevented bleomycin-induced hgprt gene mutations and DNA strand breaks. TCE and punicalagin suppressed the generation of bleomycin-induced intracellular free radicals, identified as superoxides and hydrogen peroxides. The effectiveness of TCE and punicalagin against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity could be, at least in part, due to their antioxidative potentials. PMID:10773401

  3. Characterisation of major component leaching and buffering capacity of RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash in relation to reuse or disposal scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Thermal treatment of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is considered a promising solution to reduce waste volumes for disposal, while improving material and energy recovery from waste. Incineration is commonly applied for the energetic valorisation of RDF, although RDF gasification has also gained acceptance in recent years. In this study we focused on the environmental properties of bottom ash (BA) from an RDF incineration (RDF-I, operating temperature 850-1000°C) and a RDF gasification plant (RDF-G, operating temperature 1200-1400°C), by evaluating the total composition, mineralogy, buffering capacity, leaching behaviour (both at the material's own pH and as a function of pH) of both types of slag. In addition, buffering capacity results and pH-dependence leaching concentrations of major components obtained for both types of BA were analysed by geochemical modelling. Experimental results showed that the total content of major components for the two types of BA was fairly similar and possibly related to the characteristics of the RDF feedstock. However, significant differences in the contents of trace metals and salts were observed for the two BA samples as a result of the different operating conditions (i.e. temperature) adopted by the two RDF thermal treatment plants. Mineralogy analysis showed in fact that the RDF-I slag consisted of an assemblage of several crystalline phases while the RDF-G slag was mainly made up by amorphous glassy phases. The leached concentrations of major components (e.g. Ca, Si) at the natural pH of each type of slag did not reflect their total contents as a result of the partial solubility of the minerals in which these components were chemically bound. In addition, comparison of total contents with leached concentrations of minor elements (e.g. Pb, Cu) showed no obvious relationship for the two types of BA. According to the compliance leaching test results, the RDF-G BA would meet the limits of the Italian

  4. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nathalia N R; Alviano, Celuta S; Blank, Arie F; Romanos, Maria Teresa V; Fonseca, Beatriz B; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A; Alviano, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  5. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  6. Simultaneous determination of nineteen major components in Qi She Pill by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongliang; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiufen; Du, Simiao; Zhou, Yongquan; Lv, Chunming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Qi She Pill (QSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that has been used in treating cervical spondylosis radiculopathy for many years. In this study, a simple and sensitive method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) on a reverse-phase C18 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of the 19 major components in QSP. We found that the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution was 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The correlation coefficients of all calibration curves were greater than 0.99. Recoveries measured at three concentration levels varied from 95.43% to 102.35%. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.45%. After successfully validating our method, we then applied it to the quantification of 19 components in QSP products to show that this method provides a new standard in quality assessment of TCM prescriptions containing multiple bioactive components. PMID:26579408

  7. Simultaneous determination of nineteen major components in Qi She Pill by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongliang; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiufen; Du, Simiao; Zhou, Yongquan; Lv, Chunming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Qi She Pill (QSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that has been used in treating cervical spondylosis radiculopathy for many years. In this study, a simple and sensitive method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) on a reverse-phase C18 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of the 19 major components in QSP. We found that the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution was 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The correlation coefficients of all calibration curves were greater than 0.99. Recoveries measured at three concentration levels varied from 95.43% to 102.35%. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.45%. After successfully validating our method, we then applied it to the quantification of 19 components in QSP products to show that this method provides a new standard in quality assessment of TCM prescriptions containing multiple bioactive components. PMID:26579408

  8. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  9. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = −3.6, p = 0.0003, r2 = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and

  10. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and

  11. Nurturing the Careers of Australia's Future Composers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the Australian Society for Music Education (ASME) initiated two related projects supporting and acknowledging composition in schools and offering the opportunity for secondary school-aged students to work with prominent Australian composers. These were the Young Composers' Project and the Composer-in-Residence Project. Both projects were…

  12. Composers and Children: A Future Creative Force?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgrass, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this article, a professional composer shares his experiences writing music for a middle school band. Michael Colgrass was commissioned, along with fourteen other composers, by the American Composers Forum BandQuest project to write a short piece for eighth-grade band. They were asked to pay a couple of visits to a nearby school to work with…

  13. Partitioning of major and trace components in PM 10-PM 2.5-PM 1 at an urban site in Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; López, J. M.; Viana, M.

    Partitioning of major and trace components in PM 10-PM 2.5-PM 1 at an urban site in Barcelona (Spain) in the Western Mediterranean was studied in the period 2005-2006. Particular attention was paid to the partitioning of mineral matter and to the evidence of possible interactions of mineral matter with other pollutants (gaseous pollutants and secondary PM). The results showed a high contribution of mineral matter (mainly anthropogenic, but sporadically associated with African dust outbreaks) in levels of both PM 10 and PM 2.5. A high proportion of nitrate was also present in the coarse fractions as a result of the interaction of mineral matter with gaseous pollutants. As at most urban sites in Europe, sulphate and carbonaceous aerosols are mainly present in the finer PM fractions. The PM 1-2.5 fraction resembled that of PM 10 in composition. The chemically unaccounted fraction (mostly bounded water) had also a fine grain size, probably because of the fine size of the hygroscopic aerosol components. The data series follow an increasing trend for PM 1 levels (and less clearly for PM 2.5) from 1999 to 2006, whereas no trend is observed for PM 10. The contributions of African dust and regional soil resuspension to the annual PM 10 levels has been estimated in around 1-2 and 2-3 μg m -3 in this part of Spain. The African dust outbreaks accounted for around 15-20 exceedances of the European daily PM 10 limit value. Finally, the data obtained were compared with data from selected European sites to highlight major differences in levels and speciation of PM.

  14. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for detecting β'-component (Onk k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in salmon roe.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Seiki, Kohsuke; Saeki, Hiroki

    2015-08-15

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system has been established for selective detection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) yolk protein (SYP). Rabbit and rat polyclonal Immunoglobulin G antibodies to β'-component (the major allergic protein in fish roe; anti-β) were applied for designing the ELISA system. The sandwich ELISA using rabbit anti-β for the capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled F(ab')2 fragment of rat anti-β for the detection antibody obtained high sensitivity and narrow specificity for SYP. Protein extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol ensured strict specificity of the ELISA, and components of three popular processed foods had no effect on the ELISA response. The limits of determination and quantification of SYP were estimated to be 0.78 μg/g and 2.60 μg/g of food sample, respectively. In conclusion, the developed ELISA system has a probability to be applied for the detection of contaminated chum salmon roe in processed food. PMID:25794755

  15. A single-component multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily is part of a network that protects E scherichia coli from bile salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Stephanie; Alegre, Kamela O; Holdsworth, Scarlett R; Rice, Matthew; Brown, James A; McVeigh, Paul; Kelly, Sharon M; Law, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to high concentrations of bile salts in the human intestinal tract is vital for the survival of enteric bacteria such as E scherichia coli. Although the tripartite AcrAB–TolC efflux system plays a significant role in this resistance, it is purported that other efflux pumps must also be involved. We provide evidence from a comprehensive suite of experiments performed at two different pH values (7.2 and 6.0) that reflect pH conditions that E . coli may encounter in human gut that MdtM, a single-component multidrug resistance transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, functions in bile salt resistance in E . coli by catalysing secondary active transport of bile salts out of the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, assays performed on a chromosomal ΔacrB mutant transformed with multicopy plasmid encoding MdtM suggested a functional synergism between the single-component MdtM transporter and the tripartite AcrAB–TolC system that results in a multiplicative effect on resistance. Substrate binding experiments performed on purified MdtM demonstrated that the transporter binds to cholate and deoxycholate with micromolar affinity, and transport assays performed on inverted vesicles confirmed the capacity of MdtM to catalyse electrogenic bile salt/H+ antiport. PMID:24684269

  16. Synergistic Effect of Ferulic Acid and Z-Ligustilide, Major Components of A. sinensis, on Regulating Cold-Sensing Protein TRPM8 and TPRA1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuwei; Zhao, Guoping; Cai, Zejian; Chen, Fengguo; Xu, Dandan; Huang, Si; Lan, Hai; Tong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has been used to attenuate cold-induced cutaneous vasospasm syndrome, such as Raynaud's disease and frostbite, in China for many years. Ferulic acid (PubChem CID: 445858) and Z-ligustilide (PubChem CID: 529865), two major components extracted from Angelica sinensis, had been reported to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by vasoconstrictors. In this study, the pharmacological interaction in regulating cold-induced vascular smooth muscle cell contraction via cold-sensing protein TRPM8 and TRPA1 was analyzed between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. Pharmacological interaction on inhibiting [Ca2+]i influx evoked by TRPM8 agonist WS-12 or TRPA1 agonist ASP 7663 as well as cold-induced upregulation of TRPM8 was determined using isobolographic analysis. The isobolograms demonstrated that the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction. Combination effect of two components in inhibiting RhoA activation and phosphorylation of MLC20 induced by WS-12 or ASP 7663 was also being quantified. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of Angelica sinensis on cold-induced vasospasm may be partially attributed to combinational effect, via TRPM8 and TPRA1 way, between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. PMID:27413384

  17. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD. PMID:26677694

  18. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  19. Real-time rendering method and performance evaluation of composable 3D lenses for interactive VR.

    PubMed

    Borst, Christoph W; Tiesel, Jan-Phillip; Best, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    We present and evaluate a new approach for real-time rendering of composable 3D lenses for polygonal scenes. Such lenses, usually called "volumetric lenses," are an extension of 2D Magic Lenses to 3D volumes in which effects are applied to scene elements. Although the composition of 2D lenses is well known, 3D composition was long considered infeasible due to both geometric and semantic complexity. Nonetheless, for a scene with multiple interactive 3D lenses, the problem of intersecting lenses must be considered. Intersecting 3D lenses in meaningful ways supports new interfaces such as hierarchical 3D windows, 3D lenses for managing and composing visualization options, or interactive shader development by direct manipulation of lenses providing component effects. Our 3D volumetric lens approach differs from other approaches and is one of the first to address efficient composition of multiple lenses. It is well-suited to head-tracked VR environments because it requires no view-dependent generation of major data structures, allowing caching and reuse of full or partial results. A Composite Shader Factory module composes shader programs for rendering composite visual styles and geometry of intersection regions. Geometry is handled by Boolean combinations of region tests in fragment shaders, which allows both convex and nonconvex CSG volumes for lens shape. Efficiency is further addressed by a Region Analyzer module and by broad-phase culling. Finally, we consider the handling of order effects for composed 3D lenses. PMID:20224135

  20. The Composing Process: A Critical Review of Some Recent Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crismore, Avon

    Six of the 10 existing research studies that attempt to characterize the composing process by examining certain components and behaviors are critically reviewed in this paper. For each study, the aims and data gathering and sampling procedures are described, and the findings, interpretations, design, and rationale of the research are critically…

  1. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (< 5%). Seasonal enhancement of PM2.5 was observed in autumn 2012, especially with high-PM2.5 events (more than 100 μg/m3) in October. The backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) and the cluster analysis of the back-trajectories indicate that the northern area is an important source region of long-range transport. An enhancement of PM2.5 as well as sulfate, OC, and EC was observed in the samples with the influence of northern air masses. However, the footprint retroplume of the samples shows that the sources in the Pearl River Delta Region should also be considered, especially secondary aerosol formation and biomass/biofuel burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  2. The composing process in technical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and application of the composing process in technical communications is addressed. The composing process of engineers, some implications for composing research for the teaching and research of technical communication, and an interpretation of the processes as creative experience are also discussed. Two areas of technical communications summarized concern: the rhetorical features of technical communications, and the theoretical background for a process-based view, a problem-solving approach to technical writing.

  3. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews Otto Luening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Otto Luening, one of the pioneers in the development of tape composition, talks about a variety of topics, including the education of musicians, the relationship between composer and teacher, his class for non-music majors, the musical training a teacher should have, and changes needed in music education. (RM)

  4. Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and α-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and β-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents. PMID:22955447

  5. A membrane page composer - Further developments. [for holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Stewart, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Membrane page composers were made and were evaluated in a simulated holographic optical memory system. Calculated and experimentally determined electromechanical and optical characteristics of the circular membrane light valves used on the arrays are shown to be in close agreement. Several operating prototypes of 8 x 8 and 16 x 16 elements were produced. Measurements were made of switching time, optical contrast, and dynamic storage time of many cells on the devices. Digital patterns were stored in the arrays. The performance required of the page composer as a component of an optical memory system is considered. The fabrication techniques used can be easily extended to larger arrays.

  6. Involvement of major components from Sporothrix schenckii cell wall in the caspase-1 activation, nitric oxide and cytokines production during experimental sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Alegranci, Pâmela; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, involving all layers of skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The role of innate immune toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the defense against this fungus has been reported, but so far, there were no studies on the effect of cell wall major components over the cytosolic oligo-merization domain (NOD)-like receptors, important regulators of inflammation and responsible for the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, whose functions are dependents of the caspase-1 activation, that can participate of inflammasome. It was evaluated the percentage of activation of caspase-1, the production of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-17, IFN-γ and nitric oxide in a Balb/c model of S. schenckii infection. It was observed a decreased activity of caspase-1 during the fourth and sixth weeks of infection accompanied by reduced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-17 and high production of nitric oxide. IFN-γ levels were elevated during the entire time course of infection. This temporal reduction in caspase-1 activity coincides exactly with the reported period of fungal burden associated with a transitory immunosuppression induced by this fungus and detected in similar infection models. These results indicate the importance of interaction between caspase-1, cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the host defense against S. schenckii infection, suggesting a participation the inflammasome in this response. PMID:25205196

  7. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  8. Partial Activation and Inhibition of TRPV1 Channels by Evodiamine and Rutaecarpine, Two Major Components of the Fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenglan; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kogure, Yoko; Zhang, Wensheng; Noguchi, Koichi; Dai, Yi

    2016-05-27

    Evodiamine (1) and rutaecarpine (2) are the two major components of Evodia rutaecarpa, which has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. Using transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing HEK293 cells and patch-clamp recording, the inhibitory actions of 1 and 2 against TRPV1 channels were investigated. The effects of these compounds against capsaicin- or proton-activated TRPV1 activities were evaluated. The results showed that, although 1 and 2 can activate TRPV1, the maximum response was 3.5- or 9-fold lower than that of capsaicin, respectively, suggesting partial agonism. In comparison to capsaicin, coadministration of 1 and capsaicin increased the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of capsaicin-activated TRPV1 currents as shown by a right shift in the dose-response curve, whereas coadministration of 1 with protons failed to inhibit the proton-induced current. Moreover, preadministration of 1, but not 2, inhibited both capsaicin- and proton-induced TRPV1 currents, which might involve channel desensitization. Taken together, 1 and 2 may share the same binding site with capsaicin and act as partial agonists (antagonists) of TRPV1. Evodiamine (1), but not rutaecarpine (2), can desensitize or competitively inhibit the activity of TRPV1. PMID:27159637

  9. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. PMID:26048667

  11. The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    The findings from a study of five students undertaken to determine how unskilled college writers compose, whether their writing processes can be analyzed in a systematic manner, and what an increased understanding of those processes suggests about the nature of composing and about the manner in which writing is taught are presented in this paper.…

  12. A Virtual Composer in Every Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.; Carter, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous generations applauded grant-funded programs that brought living composers into the lives of K-12 music students. The current economic climate, however, limits opportunities similar to those enjoyed in the past. We designed a virtual composer-in-residence experience that uses technology to overcome the barriers of funding limitations and…

  13. America's Women Composers: Up from the Footnotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Jeannie G.

    1979-01-01

    This article presents an overview on women composers in the United States from the eighteenth century to the present. It also lists women's musical organizations, selected references on women in music, and available recordings of works by American women composers. (SJL)

  14. Sources of humic-like substances in the Pearl River Delta, China: positive matrix factorization analysis of PM2.5 major components and source markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, B. Y.; Lin, P.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2015-02-01

    Humic-like substances (HULIS), the hydrophobic part of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), account for a significant fraction of PM2.5 mass. Their source studies are so far largely qualitative. In this study, HULIS and WSOC were determined in 100 PM2.5 samples collected in 2009 at an urban site (Guangzhou) and a suburban site (Nansha) in the Pearl River Delta in South China. The annual average concentration of HULIS was 4.83 and 4.71 μg m-3, constituting 8.5 and 10.2% of the PM2.5 mass, while HULIS-C (the carbon component of HULIS) contributed 48 and 57% of WSOC at the two sites, respectively. HULIS were found to correlate with biomass burning (BB) tracers (i.e., levoglucosan and K) and secondary species (e.g., SO42- and NH4+), suggesting its association with BB emissions and secondary formation processes. Sources of HULIS were investigated using positive matrix factorization analysis of PM2.5 chemical composition data, including major components and source markers. In addition to secondary formation process and BB emissions, residual oil combustion related to shipping was identified for the first time as a significant source of HULIS. Secondary formation process contributed the most, accounting for 49-82% of ambient HULIS at the two sites in different seasons. BB emissions contributed a seasonal average of 8-28%, with more contributions observed in the winter months (November-February) due to crop residue burning during harvest season. Residual oil combustion was revealed to be an important source at the suburban site in summer (44% of HULIS-C) due to its proximity to one of the ports and the shipping lane in the region. Vehicle emissions were found to contribute little to HULIS, but had contributions to the hydrophilic WSOC fraction. The contrast in contributions from different combustion sources to HULIS and hydrophilic WSOC suggests that primary sources of HULIS are linked to inefficient combustion. This source analysis suggests further study of HULIS be

  15. Murine cell surface glycoproteins. Characterization of a major component of 80,000 daltons as a polymorphic differentiation antigen of mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Hughes, E N; Mengod, G; August, J T

    1981-07-10

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with NIH/3T3 cell surface antigens were obtained from hybridomas of murine myeloma cells fused to spleen cells of rats immunized with NIH/3T3 cell plasma membranes. Four of the antibodies, of forty that have been studied, appeared to react with allospecific antigenic determinants: they bound to NIH/3T3 cells but not to BALB/ 3T3 cells. Each of these four antibodies immunoprecipitated a glycoprotein of about 80,000 daltons that migrated to an isoelectric point of about pH 5.0. Polypeptides of identical molecular weight and isoelectric points, and yielding the same proteolytic cleavage fragments, were present in BALB/3T3 cells, but were not antigenically reactive. The 80,000-dalton glycoprotein was a major constituent of the plasma membrane. It was a predominant lactoperoxidase iodinated component of intact NIH/3T3 cells, and saturation binding of 125I-labeled antibody indicated that there were about 10(6) antigenic sites/cell. Studies of the distribution of the immunoreactive glycoprotein among different strains of mice confirmed the polymorphic expression of the determinant: Spleen cells of BALB/c, DBA/1, DBA/2, and CBA mice did not bind anti-80,000-dalton glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies, whereas spleen cells of a large number of other strains of mice were positive for antibody-binding. The antigenic reactivity varied markedly among different cell lines and was greatest with the NIH/3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast, G8-1 Swiss Webster myoblast, and IC-21 SV40-transformed C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal macrophage. The properties of the 80,000-dalton glycoprotein characterized this molecule as a new cell surface differentiation alloantigen of murine mesenchymal cells. PMID:6787057

  16. Acaricidal activity of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Xuzheng; Guo, Xiao; Dong, Shuwei; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiyu; Pan, Hu; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Xiaolou

    2016-08-15

    Oregano oil possesses marked antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and is widely applied in animal husbandry. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the acaricidal activities of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that oregano oil exhibited significant acaricidal effects against P. cuniculi that were dose- and time-dependent response. In in vitro test, concentrations of 0.05% and 0.02% (v/v) killed all of the mites within 1h and 6h, respectively. Moreover, 0.1mg/ml (w/v) carvacrol, 0.2mg/ml (w/v) thymol and 1% p-cymene (v/v) also possessed marked acaricidal activities, and compared with the control group, elicited mean mortalities of 84.00%, 96.00% and 66% at 24h, respectively. The median lethal times (LT50) against P. cuniculi of the concentrations of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.005% (v/v) of oregano oil, thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene were 2.171h, 11.396h, 26.102h, and 4.424h, 8.957h and 15.201h, respectively. Meanwhile, twenty naturaly infested rabbits were used to four homogeneity groups: negative control (without treatment), positive control (treated with ivermectin), group treated with 1% of oregano oil and other group with 5% of oregano oil. All the treatments were topically. After the treatment of 1% and 5% oregano oil, the P. cuniculi were completely eliminated in the rabbits, and at the end of the test (day 20), the rabbits of all treatment groups exhibited favorable mental and physical statuses. These results indicated that oregano oil could be widely applied as a potential acaricidal agent in the treatment of animal acariasis in the future. PMID:27514892

  17. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa CreBC two-component system plays a major role in the response to β-lactams, fitness, biofilm growth, and global regulation.

    PubMed

    Zamorano, Laura; Moyà, Bartolomé; Juan, Carlos; Mulet, Xavier; Blázquez, Jesús; Oliver, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous versatile environmental microorganism with a remarkable ability to grow under diverse environmental conditions. Moreover, P. aeruginosa is responsible for life-threatening infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients, as the extraordinary capacity of this pathogen to develop antimicrobial resistance dramatically limits our therapeutic arsenal. Its large genome carries an outstanding number of genes belonging to regulatory systems, including multiple two-component sensor-regulator systems that modulate the response to the different environmental stimuli. Here, we show that one of two systems, designated CreBC (carbon source responsive) and BlrAB (β-lactam resistance), might be of particular relevance. We first identified the stimuli triggering the activation of the CreBC system, which specifically responds to penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) inhibition by certain β-lactam antibiotics. Second, through an analysis of a large comprehensive collection of mutants, we demonstrate an intricate interconnection between the CreBC system, the peptidoglycan recycling pathway, and the expression of the concerning chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC. Third, we show that the CreBC system, and particularly its effector inner membrane protein CreD, plays a major role in bacterial fitness and biofilm development, especially in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactams. Finally, global transcriptomics reveals broad regulatory functions of CreBC in basic physiological aspects, particularly anaerobic respiration, in both the presence and absence of antibiotics. Therefore, the CreBC system is envisaged as a potentially interesting target for improving the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:24936599

  18. Tiliroside, the major component of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb ethanol extract, inhibits MAPK/JNK/p38-mediated inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    JIN, XIN; SONG, SHIQING; WANG, JING; ZHANG, QINGZHEN; QIU, FENG; ZHAO, FENG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) ethanol extract was confirmed in experimental animal models, including xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside, the major component of AP extract, was isolated and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of tiliroside was then examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. An MTT assay was used to determine cytotoxicity and a Griess assay was used to determine nitric oxide (NO) production. Concentration levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated (p)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p-p38 and inhibitor of κB-α were detected by western blot analysis. AP ethanol extract was revealed to inhibit xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside significantly suppressed the overproduction of NO (P<0.01), but revealed no notable inhibition of the release of TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, tiliroside significantly downregulated the elevated expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 induced by LPS (P<0.01). The phosphorylation of JNK and p38 proteins were also significantly inhibited (P<0.01), however, tiliroside exhibited no obvious inhibition on the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and the degradation of IκB-α protein. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of tiliroside may involve the downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression levels, and the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/JNK, in addition to the MAPK/p38 signaling pathway. PMID:27347085

  19. Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Is Not a Major Component of the Extracellular Matrix in Biofilms Formed by icaADBC-Positive Staphylococcus lugdunensis Isolates▿

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kristi L.; Patel, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a pathogen of heightened virulence that causes infections resembling those caused by Staphylococcus aureus rather than those caused by its coagulase-negative staphylococcal counterparts. Many types of S. lugdunensis infection, including native valve endocarditis, prosthetic joint infection, and intravascular catheter-related infection, are associated with biofilm etiology. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG), a polysaccharide synthesized by products of the icaADBC locus, is a common mechanism of intercellular adhesion in staphylococcal biofilms. Here we report the characterization of ica homologues and the in vitro biofilm formation properties of a collection of S. lugdunensis clinical isolates. Isolates formed biofilms in microtiter wells to various degrees. Biofilm formation by most isolates was enhanced with glucose but diminished by sodium chloride or ethanol. icaADBC homologues were found in all S. lugdunensis isolates tested, although the locus organization differed substantially from that of other staphylococcal ica loci. icaR was not detected in S. lugdunensis, but a novel open reading frame with putative glycosyl hydrolase function is located upstream of the ica locus. icaADBC sequence heterogeneity did not explain the variability in biofilm formation among isolates. PNAG was not detected in S. lugdunensis extracts by immunoblotting with an anti-deacetylated PNAG antibody or wheat germ agglutinin. Confocal microscopy with fluorescently labeled wheat germ agglutinin showed a paucity of PNAG in S. lugdunensis biofilms, but abundant extracellular protein was visualized with SYPRO Ruby staining. Biofilms were resistant to detachment by dispersin B and sodium metaperiodate but were susceptible to detachment by proteases. Despite the genetic presence of icaADBC homologues in S. lugdunensis isolates, PNAG is not a major component of the extracellular matrix of in vitro biofilms formed by this species. Our data suggest that the S

  20. Carnosic acid as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Sedighi, Rashin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-05-20

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of carnosic acid (CA) as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract (RE) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice. The mice were given a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with either 0.14% or 0.28% (w/w) CA-enriched RE (containing 80% CA, RE#1L and RE#1H), or 0.5% (w/w) RE (containing 45% CA, RE#2), for a period of 16 weeks. There was the same CA content in the RE#1H and RE#2 diets and half of this amount in the RE#1L diet. The dietary RE supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, percent of fat, plasma ALT, AST, glucose, insulin levels, liver weight, liver triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in comparison with the mice fed with a HF diet without RE treatment. RE administration also decreased the levels of plasma and liver malondialdehyde, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the liver expression of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in comparison with those for mice of the HF group. Histological analyses of liver samples showed decreased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in mice administrated with RE in comparison with that of HF-diet-fed mice. Meanwhile, RE administration enhanced fecal lipid excretion to inhibit lipid absorption and increased the liver GSH/GSSG ratio to perform antioxidant activity compared with HF group. Our results demonstrate that rosemary is a promising dietary agent to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25929334

  1. Insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control). PMID:21510210

  2. Major Components of Energy Drinks (Caffeine, Taurine, and Guarana) Exert Cytotoxic Effects on Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Ambrosi, Priscilla; Resende Terra, Silvia; Pires, André Simões; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Antônio Behr, Guilherme; Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio

    2013-01-01

    Scope. To elucidate the morphological and biochemical in vitro effects exerted by caffeine, taurine, and guarana, alone or in combination, since they are major components in energy drinks (EDs). Methods and Results. On human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, caffeine (0.125–2 mg/mL), taurine (1–16 mg/mL), and guarana (3.125–50 mg/mL) showed concentration-dependent nonenzymatic antioxidant potential, decreased the basal levels of free radical generation, and reduced both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, especially when combined together. However, guarana-treated cells developed signs of neurite degeneration in the form of swellings at various segments in a beaded or pearl chain-like appearance and fragmentation of such neurites at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/mL. Swellings, but not neuritic fragmentation, were detected when cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL (or higher doses) of caffeine, concentrations that are present in EDs. Cells treated with guarana also showed qualitative signs of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, and cleaved caspase-3 positivity. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cells treated with 12.5–50 mg/mL of guarana and its combinations with caffeine and/or taurine underwent apoptosis. Conclusion. Excessive removal of intracellular reactive oxygen species, to nonphysiological levels (or “antioxidative stress”), could be a cause of in vitro toxicity induced by these drugs. PMID:23766861

  3. The processive endocellulase CelF, a major component of the Clostridium cellulolyticum cellulosome: purification and characterization of the recombinant form.

    PubMed Central

    Reverbel-Leroy, C; Pages, S; Belaich, A; Belaich, J P; Tardif, C

    1997-01-01

    The recombinant form of the cellulase CelF of Clostridium cellulolyticum, tagged by a C-terminal histine tail, was overproduced in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography on a Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid column. The intact form of CelF (Mr, 79,000) was rapidly degraded at the C terminus, giving a shorter stable form, called truncated CelF (Mr, 71,000). Both the entire and the truncated purified forms degraded amorphous cellulose (kcat = 42 and 30 min(-1), respectively) and microcrystalline cellulose (kcat = 13 and 10 min(-1), respectively). The high ratio of soluble reducing ends to insoluble reducing ends released by truncated CelF from amorphous cellulose showed that CelF is a processive enzyme. Nevertheless, the diversity of the cellodextrins released by truncated CelF from phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose at the beginning of the reaction indicated that the enzyme might randomly hydrolyze beta-1,4 bonds. This hypothesis was supported by viscosimetric measurements and by the finding that CelF and the endoglucanase CelA are able to degrade some of the same cellulose sites. CelF was therefore called a processive endocellulase. The results of immunoblotting analysis showed that CelF was associated with the cellulosome of C. cellulolyticum. It was identified as one of the three major components of cellulosomes. The ability of the entire form of CelF to interact with CipC, the cellulosome integrating protein, or mini-CipC1, a recombinant truncated form of CipC, was monitored by interaction Western blotting (immunoblotting) and by binding assays using a BIAcore biosensor-based analytical system. PMID:8981979

  4. Joint Composable Object Model and LVC Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinsmith, Richard; Wallace, Jeffrey; Bizub, Warren; Ceranowicz, Andy; Cutts, Dannie; Powell, Edward T.; Gustavson, Paul; Lutz, Robert; McCloud, Terrell

    2010-01-01

    Within the Department of Defense, multiple architectures are created to serve and fulfill one or several specific service or mission related LVC training goals. Multiple Object Models exist across and within those architectures and it is there that those disparate object models are a major source of interoperability problems when developing and constructing the training scenarios. The two most commonly used architectures are; HLA and TENA, with DIS and CTIA following close behind in terms of the number of users. Although these multiple architectures can share and exchange data the underlying meta-models for runtime data exchange are quite different, requiring gateways/translators to bridge between the different object model representations; while the Department of Defense's use of gateways are generally effective in performing these functions, as the LVC environment increases so too does the cost and complexity of these gateways. Coupled with the wide range of different object models across the various user communities we increase the propensity for run time errors, increased programmer stop gap measures during coordinated exercises, or failure of the system as a whole due to unknown or unforeseen incompatibilities. The Joint Composable Object Model (JCOM) project was established under an M&S Steering Committee (MSSC)-sponsored effort with oversight and control placed under the Joint Forces Command J7 Advanced Concepts Program Directorate. The purpose of this paper is to address the initial and the current progress that has been made in the following areas; the Conceptual Model Development Format, the Common Object Model, the Architecture Neutral Data Exchange Model (ANDEM), and the association methodology to allow the re-use of multiple architecture object models and the development of the prototype persistent reusable library.

  5. Films Composed Of Diamond And Diamondlike Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Yuh-Han

    1995-01-01

    Proposed films composed of diamond and diamondlike carbon useful as wear-resistant and self-lubricating protective and tribological coats at extreme temperatures and in corrosive and oxidizing environments. Films have wide variety of industrial applications.

  6. Intestinal transport of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, using Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Steinmetz, André; Liao, Yonghong; Wang, Ning; Peng, Bo; Chang, Qi

    2013-10-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose is a major active component of the herb Polygala tenuifolia which has long been used for relieving tranquilization, uneasiness of the mind, and improving learning and memory. Our previous study found that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had a very low oral bioavailability. Its mechanisms of absorption in the small intestine have so far been unclear. In the present study, the absorption mechanisms of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose were investigated by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models. The 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose concentration was determined by an LC/MS/MS method. In a Caco-2 cell transport study, the results showed that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had very limited intestinal permeability with average apparent permeability coefficient values around (1.11-1.34) × 10(-7) cm/s from the apical (A) to the basolateral (B) side and (1.37-1.42) × 10(-7) cm/s from B to A, at concentrations of 5, 20, and 33 µM. No concentration dependence in the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport was observed. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose (5 µM) from A to B greatly increased to 4.49 × 10(-7) and 1.81 × 10(-7) cm/s, respectively, when the cells were preincubated with EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM). No significant effect on the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport by the inhibitors including verapamil, cyclosporine A, and sodium azide was observed. Similar results were found in the small intestinal perfusion study. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose greatly increased from 3.97 × 10(-6) to 23.4 × 10(-6) and 20.0 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM), respectively, in perfusion buffer. An in vitro stability evaluation of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in the gastrointestinal tract showed that it was relatively stable both in the stomach and small intestine contents, while it was found to be more instable in the colon contents. All of the

  7. Music and emotion—a composer's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Douek, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an experiential and anecdotal look at the daily lives and work of film composers as creators of music. It endeavors to work backwards from what practitioners of the art and craft of music do instinctively or unconsciously, and try to shine a light on it as a conscious process. It examines the role of the film composer in his task to convey an often complex set of emotions, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language. Through the experiences of the author, as well as interviews with composer colleagues, this explores both concrete and abstract ways in which music can bring meaning and magic to words and images, and as an underscore to our daily lives. PMID:24348344

  8. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  9. Solar cells composed of semiconductive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hezel, R.

    1981-03-03

    A solar cell is composed of a semiconductive material having an active zone in which charge carriers are produced by photons which strike and penetrate into the solar cell. The cell is comprised of a semiconductive body having an electrically insulating laminate with metal contacts therein positioned on the semiconductor body in the active zone thereof. The insulating laminate is composed of a double layer of insulating material, with the layer in direct contact with the semiconductive surface being composed of SiO2 which is either natural or is produced at temperatures below 800/sup 0/ C. And the layer superimposed above the SiO2 layer being composed of a different insulating material, such as plasma-produced Si3N4. In certain embodiments of the invention, a whole-area pn-junction is provided parallel to the semiconductive surface. The solar cells of the invention exhibit a higher degree of efficiency due to a higher fixed interface charged density, and low surface recombination velocity, an increased UV sensitivity, improved surface protection and passivation and improved anti-reflection characteristics relative to prior art solar cell devices.

  10. Take a Change with Aleatory Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can incorporate musical composition into their classrooms by teaching students about aleatory, or chance, music. Provides a definition of aleatory music and provides various composing techniques, focusing on aleatory music. Includes lesson plans using aleatory music, such as the "Mozart Model" for grades 4-12. (CMK)

  11. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  12. Composing for Digital Publication: Rhetoric, Design, Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, Douglas; Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the state of digital publication with the claim that, at this historical moment, nearly all composition is digital composition. But, as a field, composition studies has not yet made that shift completely explicit in the discussions of composing processes and writing pedagogies. A deeper engagement with this very rapid shift in…

  13. The Composer's Blueprint: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzcinski, Louis C.; Nelhybel, Vaclav

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany two 15-minute color television programs dealing with the creative process involved in conceiving a composition. The programs are appropriate for junior high school string students and instrumental students in string methods courses at teacher training institutions. In the program, the composer explains…

  14. Prospects for composability of models and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Anderson, Robert B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper is the summary of a recent RAND study done at the request of the U.S. Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO). Commissioned in recognition that the last decade's efforts by DoD to achieve model "composability" have had only limited success (e.g., HLA-mediated exercises), and that fundamental problems remain, the study surveyed the underlying problems that make composability difficult. It then went on to recommend a series of improvement measures for DMSO and other DoD offices to consider. One strong recommendation was that DoD back away from an earlier tendency toward overselling composability, moving instead to a more particularized approach in which composability is sought within domains where it makes most sense substantively. Another recommendation was that DoD needs to recognize the shortcomings of standard software-engineering paradigms when dealing with "models" rather than pure software. Beyond this, the study had concrete recommendations dealing with science and technology, the base of human capital, management, and infrastructure. Many recommendations involved the need to align more closely with cutting edge technology and emerging standards in the private sector.

  15. Mathematical Approaches to the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dennis R.

    Rhetoric and mathematics have much in common that can help explain the composing process. Common elements of rhetoric and mathematics important to the teaching of writing are (1) relationships between syntax and semantics, (2) practices of representation, and (3) focus on problem solving. Recent emphasis on "repair processes" in mathematics is…

  16. A Design for Composing and Extending Vehicle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Neuhaus, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Development Branch (SDB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) creates simulation software products for research. Each product consists of an aircraft model with experiment extensions. SDB treats its aircraft models as reusable components, upon which experiments can be built. SDB has evolved aircraft model design with the following goals: 1. Avoid polluting the aircraft model with experiment code. 2. Discourage the copy and tailor method of reuse. The current evolution of that architecture accomplishes these goals by reducing experiment creation to extend and compose. The architecture mechanizes the operational concerns of the model's subsystems and encapsulates them in an interface inherited by all subsystems. Generic operational code exercises the subsystems through the shared interface. An experiment is thus defined by the collection of subsystems that it creates ("compose"). Teams can modify the aircraft subsystems for the experiment using inheritance and polymorphism to create variants ("extend").

  17. Understanding low-lipid algae hydrothermal liquefaction characteristics and pathways through hydrothermal liquefaction of algal major components: crude polysaccharides, crude proteins and their binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Li, Zihui; Tong, Chenhong; Feng, Lijuan

    2015-11-01

    Crude polysaccharides and proteins extracted from algae were chosen as model materials to investigate the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) characteristics and pathways of low-lipid algae. Liquefaction behavior of the two individuals and their binary mixtures with different mass ratios were evaluated under different temperatures. Formation pathways of bio-oil from crude polysaccharides/proteins were proposed. Results showed that polysaccharides had a small contribution to bio-oil (<5%) and approximately 60% distributed in aqueous phase, while proteins played a crucial role on bio-oil formation (maximum 16.29%). Bio-oil from polysaccharides mainly contained cyclic ketones and phenols and from proteins composed of pyrazines, pyrroles and amines. Interaction between polysaccharides and proteins forming polycyclic nitrogenous compounds had a negative effect on bio-oil yield at 220 and 260°C. However, their further decomposition caused increase of bio-oil yield at 300°C. Mixture liquefaction obtained the highest higher heating value (HHV) of bio-oil and energy recovery than polysaccharides/proteins liquefaction at 300°C. PMID:26231129

  18. Immunohistochemistry of ß 1,4-glucanase, the major enzymatic component of glassy-winged sharpshooter saliva, in probed grape petioles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this project is to determine whether ß 1, 4-glucanase (EGase), the major enzyme in the saliva of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), co-localizes with the few ‘pioneer’ Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) cells that are inoculated into a plant by this vector. If it does, then this suggests that ve...

  19. Efficient, highly enantioselective synthesis of selina-1,3, 7(11)-trien-8-one, a major component of the essential oil of Eugenia uniflora.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, A; Patin, A; Greene, A E

    2000-09-01

    The first synthesis of selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one (1), a major constituent of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora, has been accomplished, with excellent stereo- and regiocontrol, in eight steps and in 12% overall yield from the known octalone derivative 2a. PMID:11000042

  20. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  1. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  2. Copy number variation at the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment is a major component of frost resistance in barley.

    PubMed

    Francia, Enrico; Morcia, Caterina; Pasquariello, Marianna; Mazzamurro, Valentina; Milc, Justyna Anna; Rizza, Fulvia; Terzi, Valeria; Pecchioni, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    A family of CBF transcription factors plays a major role in reconfiguring the plant transcriptome in response to low-freezing temperature in temperate cereals. In barley, more than 13 HvCBF genes map coincident with the major QTL FR-H2 suggesting them as candidates to explain the function of the locus. Variation in copy number (CNV) of specific HvCBFs was assayed in a panel of 41 barley genotypes using RT-qPCR. Taking advantage of an accurate phenotyping that combined Fv/Fm and field survival, resistance-associated variants within FR-H2 were identified. Genotypes with an increased copy number of HvCBF4 and HvCBF2 (at least ten and eight copies, respectively) showed greater frost resistance. A CAPS marker able to distinguish the CBF2A, CBF2B and CBF2A/B forms was developed and showed that all the higher-ranking genotypes in term of resistance harbour only CBF2A, while other resistant winter genotypes harbour also CBF2B, although at a lower CNV. In addition to the major involvement of the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment in the proximal cluster of CBF elements, a negative role of HvCBF3 in the distal cluster was identified. Multiple linear regression models taking into account allelic variation at FR-H1/VRN-H1 explained 0.434 and 0.550 (both at p < 0.001) of the phenotypic variation for Fv/Fm and field survival respectively, while no interaction effect between CNV at the HvCBFs and FR-H1/VRN-H1 was found. Altogether our data suggest a major involvement of the CBF genes located in the proximal cluster, with no apparent involvement of the central cluster contrary to what was reported for wheat. PMID:27338258

  3. Simultaneous quantification of nine major active components in traditional Chinese prescription Mahuang decoction and the influence of herbal compatibility on their contents

    PubMed Central

    He, Yu; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ruping; Ge, Lijun; Wan, Haitong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mahuang decoction (MHD), a famous classic traditional Chinese formula, has been extensively applied for treating cold, influenza, asthma, acute bronchitis, and other pulmonary diseases. However, the interaction among four drugs of MHD has not been clearly deciphered from the aspect of molecular composition. Objective: To assess the quality of MHD and explore the interplay among different prescription drugs. Materials and Methods: A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine bioactive components was developed. A somatomedin A (SMA)-phenyl column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) was eluted by a gradient mobile phase contained acetonitrile and 0.05% formic acid-0.05% triethylamine aqueous solution. Four detection wavelengths (210, 252, 278, and 291 nm) were utilized for the quantitative analysis due to the different ultraviolet (UV) spectra of these compounds. Results: Satisfactory separation was obtained for all the components, and the assay was fully validated in respects of linearity, precision, stability, and accuracy. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R2≥ 0.9991) within the test ranges. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and interday repeatability were not more than 1.70 and 2.66%, respectively. The spike recoveries of nine components varied from 97.50 ± 1.69 to 99.27 ± 1.37%. Conclusion: The established method was successfully applied to analyze nine active compounds in decoction samples of various drug compatibilities of MHD. The variations of contents were obvious for different combinations, which hinted the mutual promotion or inhibition of componential dissolution among four herbs of MHD. PMID:24914312

  4. System Composer: Technology for rapid system integration and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an approach to the design, evaluation, deployment and operation of intelligent systems which is called System Composer. This toolkit provides an infrastructure and architecture for robot and automation system users to readily integrate system components and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources over networks. The technology described in this paper provides a framework for real-time collaboration between researchers, manufacturing entities, design entities, and others without regard to relative location. An overview of the toolkit including its elements and architecture is provided along with examples of its use.

  5. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  6. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  7. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  8. Epithermal neutron activation, radiometric, correlation and principal component analysis applied to the distribution of major and trace elements in some igneous and metamorphic rocks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Cristache, C I; Duliu, O G; Culicov, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Ricman, C; Toma, M

    2009-05-01

    Six major (Na, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 28 trace (Sc, Cr, V, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Br, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U) elements were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in nine Meridional Carpathian and Macin Mountains samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Correlation and principal factor analysis were used to interpret data while natural radionuclides radiometry shows a good correlation with ENAA results. PMID:19231213

  9. Compositional variations and anthelmentic activity of essential oils from rhizomes of different wild populations of Acorus calamus L. and its major component, beta-Asarone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravendra; Prakash, Om; Pan, Anil K; Hore, Subrata K; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Mathela, Chandra S

    2009-02-01

    Hydro-distilled essential oils from Acorus calamus rhizomes collected from six different geographical zones in the northwest Himalayan region of Uttarakhand have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. All the oils differed in their qualitative and quantitative make up, although beta-asarone was the major constituent of all of them. The essential oils and the isolated beta-asarone were screened for anthelmintic activity using contractility of Ascaridia galli. beta-Asarone, in particular, showed potent activity with IC50 values of 75.4 +/- 61.8 ng/mL. PMID:19370938

  10. Evaluation of embryotoxicity for major components of herbal extracts using the chick embryonic heart micromass and mouse D3 embryonic stem cell systems.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Omar J; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-01-01

    Herbal remedies are often used during the early stages of pregnancy, being considered 'harmless' and 'natural'. There are insufficient data regarding their potential embryotoxicity. The main components of selected herbs, including 6-gingerol from ginger, Ginkgolide A and Ginkgolide B from gingko biloba and Ginsenoside Rg1 from ginseng, have been investigated using chick embryonic heart micromass and Mouse D3 embryonic stem cells. The potential effects were evaluated via alteration in contractility, cell viability, and cell protein content. The myocytes in both systems were also demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using a specific cardiomyocyte marker (α-actinin). For 6-gingerol, Ginkgolide A, Ginkgolide B and Ginsenoside Rg1 in both methods, at moderate to high concentrations, there were alterations in the values for the endpoints. These data indicate that herbal remedies used in the first trimester of pregnancy might not be safe for fetal development. PMID:26708230

  11. Geochemistry of the Phlegraean Fields (Italy) proximal sources for major Mediterranean tephras: Implications for the dispersal of Plinian and co-ignimbritic components of explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, Emma L.; Arienzo, Ilenia; Civetta, Lucia; Wulf, Sabine; Smith, Victoria C.; Hardiman, Mark; Lane, Christine S.; Carandente, Antonio; Orsi, Giovanni; Rosi, Mauro; Müller, Wolfgang; Menzies, Martin A.

    2012-09-01

    Volcanic activity at Phlegraean Fields, Italy, produced several major marker tephras over a 50 ka period. The caldera forming eruptions of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) are of particular importance for tephrostratigraphy in Europe. Other key eruptions from this source include the Pomici Principali (PP) and the Tufi Biancastri eruptions. We combine analyses of fresh glasses from proximal locations (i.e., juvenile clasts in proximal flow and fall deposits) with data for key tephra layers from Lago Grande di Monticchio, 120 km to the east. The micron-beam major (EMPA) and trace (LA-ICP-MS) element glass dataset allows us to: (a) distinguish between tephra units produced from the Phlegraean Fields before and during the CI eruption (CI-series), and before and during the NYT and PP eruptions (NYT-series/PP); (b) discriminate between the CI and the geochemically similar Pre-CI pyroclastic deposits; (c) separate the NYT from Pre-NYT tephra units, although both major and trace elements do show significant overlap. The complex compositional overlap between Pre-NYT tephras may present a problem for tephra correlations in the 14-39 ka time window and may have resulted in incorrect proximal-distal and distal-distal correlations. The diagnostic chemical criteria detailed herein permits more accurate matching of distal tephras with their proximal equivalents and hence will improve chronostratigraphy of distal settings and give insight into tephra dispersal. We show that the dispersal of PP tephra was more limited than previously thought. The surge/fall (Lower Member) and subsequent pyroclastic density current (Upper Member) phases of the NYT eruption can be recognised in distal settings. Both the NYT Lower and Upper Members are found in distal localities to the east of the Phlegraean Fields, however the Lower Member is found in the absence of the Upper Member in locations to the far north of Phlegraean Fields. Chemical compositions of the Plinian

  12. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  13. Hederagenin, a major component of Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root, attenuates inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul Won; Park, Sang Mi; Zhao, Rongjie; Lee, Chu; Chun, Wonjoo; Son, Yonghae; Kim, Sung Hun; Jung, Ji Yun; Jegal, Kyung Hwan; Cho, Il Je; Ku, Sae Kwang; Kim, Young Woo; Ju, Seong A; Kim, Sang Chan; An, Won G

    2015-12-01

    Clematis mandshurica Ruprecht root has been used in Asia as a traditional anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antitumor agent. Its main active component is hederagenin, a naturally occurring triterpene, and in this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of hederagenin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR. In addition, its effects on acute inflammation in vivo were observed using a carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay. Furthermore, the changes on the histopathology and histomorphometry of hind paw skins were examined using carrageenan-treated mice. Treatment with hederagenin (10, 30 and 100μM) resulted in inhibited levels of protein expression of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB as well as production of NO, PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide. Consistent with these results, hederagenin also dose-dependently reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2, and of the above-mentioned cytokines. Interestingly, results of the carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema assay showed an anti-edema effect of hederagenin. Furthermore, hederagenin (30mg/kg) inhibited the carrageenan-induced increases in skin thicknesses, infiltrated inflammatory cells, and mast cell degranulation. These results suggest that hederagenin may possess anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26481049

  14. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Vietnamese krait venoms: Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus multicinctus and phospholipases A2 in Bungarus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Ziganshin, Rustam H; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Arapidi, Georgij P; Starkov, Vladislav G; Hoang, Anh Ngoc; Thi Nguyen, Thao Thanh; Nguyen, Khoa Cuu; Shoibonov, Batozhab B; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-12-01

    Kraits are venomous snakes of genus Bungarus from family Elapidae. Krait venoms are generally neurotoxic, but toxicity strongly depends on the particular species and regional origin of snakes. We analyzed the proteomes of Vietnamese Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms both qualitatively and quantitatively. It should be noted that no proteomic data for B. multicinctus venom existed so far. We have found that in this venom, almost half (45%) of the proteins by weight was represented by β-bungarotoxins, followed by three finger toxins (28%) and phospholipases A2 (16%), other proteins being present at the level of 1-3%. In B. fasciatus venom, phospholipase A2 was the main component (71%), followed by oxidase of l-amino acids (8%), acetylcholinesterase (5%) and metalloproteinases (4%). Unexpectedly, extremely low amount of three finger toxins (1%) was found in this venom. Interestingly, the presence of complement depleting factor was observed in both venoms. Although our data showed the presence of the same toxin families in Vietnamese krait venoms as those found earlier in the venoms of kraits from other geographic regions, their relative ratio is completely different. This concerns especially B. fasciatus venom with predominant content of phospholipases A2 and very low amount of three finger toxins. PMID:26341420

  15. A one-year record of carbonaceous components and major ions in aerosols from an urban kerbside location in Oporto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Danilo; Cerqueira, Mário; Alves, Célia; Nunes, Teresa; Pio, Casimiro; Esteves, Valdemar; Frosini, Daniele; Lucarelli, Franco; Querol, Xavier

    2016-08-15

    PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected from January 2013 to January 2014 on the kerbside of a major arterial route in the city of Oporto, Portugal, and later analyzed for carbonaceous fractions and water soluble ions. The average concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the aerosol were 6.2μg/m(3), 5.0μg/m(3) and 3.8μg/m(3), respectively, and fit within the range of values that have been observed close to major roads in Europe, Asia and North America. On average, carbonaceous matter accounted for 56% of the gravimetrically measured PM2.5 mass. The three carbon fractions exhibited a similar seasonal variation, with high concentrations in late autumn and in winter, and low concentrations in spring. SO4(2-) was the dominant water soluble ion, followed by NO3(-), NH4(+), Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), oxalate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), formate, methanesulfonate and acetate. Some of these ions exhibited a clear seasonal trend during the study period. The average OC/EC ratio for the entire set of samples was 1.28±0.61, which was consistent with a significant influence of vehicle exhaust emissions on aerosol composition. On the other hand, the average WSOC/OC ratio was 0.67±0.23, reflecting the influence of other emitting sources. WSOC was highly correlated with nssK(+), a tracer of biomass combustion, and was not correlated with nssSO4(2-), a species associated with secondary processes, suggesting that the main source of WSOC was biomass burning. Most of the SO4(2-) was anthropogenic in origin and was closely associated with NH4(+), pointing to the formation of secondary aerosols. Na(+), Cl(-) and methanesulfonate were clearly associated with marine sources while NO3(-) was related with combustion of both fossil and non-fossil fuels. Mixed sources explained the occurrence of the other water soluble ions. PMID:27110993

  16. Reassessment of the Listeria monocytogenes pan-genome reveals dynamic integration hotspots and mobile genetic elements as major components of the accessory genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen and model organism for host-pathogen interaction, thus representing an invaluable target considering research on the forces governing the evolution of such microbes. The diversity of this species has not been exhaustively explored yet, as previous efforts have focused on analyses of serotypes primarily implicated in human listeriosis. We conducted complete genome sequencing of 11 strains employing 454 GS FLX technology, thereby achieving full coverage of all serotypes including the first complete strains of serotypes 1/2b, 3c, 3b, 4c, 4d, and 4e. These were comparatively analyzed in conjunction with publicly available data and assessed for pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella insect model. Results The species pan-genome of L. monocytogenes is highly stable but open, suggesting an ability to adapt to new niches by generating or including new genetic information. The majority of gene-scale differences represented by the accessory genome resulted from nine hyper variable hotspots, a similar number of different prophages, three transposons (Tn916, Tn554, IS3-like), and two mobilizable islands. Only a subset of strains showed CRISPR/Cas bacteriophage resistance systems of different subtypes, suggesting a supplementary function in maintenance of chromosomal stability. Multiple phylogenetic branches of the genus Listeria imply long common histories of strains of each lineage as revealed by a SNP-based core genome tree highlighting the impact of small mutations for the evolution of species L. monocytogenes. Frequent loss or truncation of genes described to be vital for virulence or pathogenicity was confirmed as a recurring pattern, especially for strains belonging to lineages III and II. New candidate genes implicated in virulence function were predicted based on functional domains and phylogenetic distribution. A comparative analysis of small regulatory RNA candidates supports observations of a

  17. Alexia without agraphia in a composer.

    PubMed

    Judd, T; Gardner, H; Geschwind, N

    1983-06-01

    A 77-year-old composer had a left occipital lobe haemorrhagic infarct giving a severe reading disturbance with well-preserved writing and without appreciable aphasia. He continued to read music and to compose. His text- and music-reading performance under different conditions suggests that this unusual dissociation was primarily due to four factors. (1) He was unusually talented musically and inferred a great deal about the music he was reading. (2) The symbols of staff music notation are more visually distinctive than the symbols of phonetic language writing systems. (3) In staff music notation, pitch is represented ordinally, and other symbols are also distinguishable by their relative positions and sizes. (4) Music notation can be usefully read by interpreting it acoustically, kinaesthetically or in terms of formal musical concepts; in contrast to written language, it need not be interpreted referentially or in terms of auditory-verbal images. His disorder fits the classic visual-verbal disconnection account of alexia without agraphia and the contemporary view that music involves a family of related but distinct skills probably involving many brain areas in both hemispheres, although different cortical areas make characteristic contributions to different musical behaviours. PMID:6850277

  18. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Nicolosi, Daria; Tempera, Gianna; Genovese, Carlo; Furneri, Pio M.

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health. PMID:27025740

  19. Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Daria; Tempera, Gianna; Genovese, Carlo; Furneri, Pio M

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health. PMID:27025740

  20. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  1. An Ultra-Depleted Mantle Component in the Ontong Java Plateau Revealed by Major, Trace and Volatile Element Abundances in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.; Cabral, R. A.; Rose-Koga, E. F.; Koga, K. T.; Price, A. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Michael, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) represents the most voluminous large igneous province (LIP) preserved in the geologic record. The most voluminous volcanic stages of the OJP—the Kroenke and Kwaimbaita stages, which dominate the accessible portions of the plateau—have relatively flat primitive mantle normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns, or spidergrams. With the exception of relatively small volumes of late-stage melts—referred to as the Singgalo stage—that are characterized by slightly enriched REE spidergrams, the volcanic stages that dominated the eruptive history of the OJP exhibit remarkably homogeneous, flat REE patterns. Here we isolate, for the first time, olivine-hosted melt inclusions from OJP. We show that the melt inclusions have two clear populations defined by having distinct trace element characteristics. The first population has relatively flat trace element patterns that are similar to that observed in whole rock lavas from the most voluminous volcanic stages (Kroenke and Kwaimbaita stages) recorded in the OJP. In contrast, a second group of melt inclusions, referred to as UDM (ultra-depleted melt) inclusions, exhibit strikingly depleted REE spidergrams; these trace element patterns are far more depleted than any previously reported lava from OJP. The UDM have unique trace element signatures that preclude an origin by assimilation of hydrothermally-altered oceanic crust or re-melting the depleted mantle source left over after melt extraction during construction of the OJP. We interpret the new UDM compositions to be the result of melting of a previously unrecognized ultra-depleted component hosted in the OJP mantle source.

  2. The chromosomal order of genes controlling the major histocompatibility complex, properdin factor B, and deficiency of the second component of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Raum, D; Glass, D; Carpenter, C B; Alper, C A; Schur, P H

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of the genes coding for HLA to those coding for properdin Factor B allotypes and for deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) was studied in families of patients with connective tissue disorders. Patients were selected because they were heterozygous or homozygous for C2 deficiency. 12 families with 15 matings informative for C2 deficiency were found. Of 57 informative meioses, two crossovers were noted between the C2 deficiency gene and the HLA-B gene, with a recombinant fraction of 0.035. A lod score of 13 was calculated for linkage between C2 deficiency and HLA-B at a maximum likelihood value of the recombinant fraction of 0.04. 18 families with 21 informative matings for both properdin Factor B allotype and HLA-B were found. Of 72 informative meioses, three recombinants were found, giving a recombinant fraction of 0.042. A lod score of 16 between HLA-B and Factor B allotypes was calculated at a maximum likelihood value of the recombinant fraction of 0.04. A crossover was shown to have occurred between genes for Factor B and HLA-D, in which HLA-D segregared with HLA-A and B. These studies suggest that the genes for Factor B and C2 deficiency are located outside those for HLA, that the order of genese is HLA-A, -B, -D, Factor B allotype, C2 deficiency, that the genes coding for C2 deficiency and Factor B allotypes are approximately 3--5 centimorgans from the HLA-A and HLA-B loci, and that the apparent lack of recombinants between the Factor B gene and C2 deficiency gene suggests that these two genes lie in close proximity to one another. PMID:993342

  3. A Shift to Melted Sea Ice From Runoff as the Major Component of Chukchi Shelf Open Water Freshwater Fractions, 1993-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Logvinova, C. L.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The freshwater fraction of water that is derived from melted sea ice has increased significantly on the Chukchi shelf relative to runoff within the past decade, based upon analysis of salinity and δ18O mixing lines from a number of research cruises from 1993-2013. The shift to summertime dominance of melted sea ice (freshwater end-member δ18O >-10 per mil) relative to runoff occurred within the past ten years with a transition primarily observed from runoff dominance to sea ice melt after 2004. This shift is localized to the Chukchi shelf and does not reflect large amounts of melted sea ice flowing north through Bering Strait, which still largely transports a freshwater component with runoff origins (freshwater end-member δ18O ~-20 per mil). These observations have implications for understanding high latitude shelf biogeochemical cycling as melted sea ice carries much lower fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than runoff, allowing for greater light penetration, including through melt ponds in sea ice, and potential changes in productivity. Lower alkalinity and buffering capacity in melted sea ice compared to runoff will also increase the vulnerability of shelf organisms to water column acidification. Melted sea ice, with low DOC relative to runoff can dominate the freshwater budget in Chukchi shelf waters even under apparently continuous ice coverage. The higher transmission of light through melted sea ice with low DOC may be in part responsible for recent reported under-ice blooms on the Chukchi shelf. Since these blooms occur in waters with the freshwater budget dominated by melted sea ice, they can reasonably interpreted as being part of a continuum with other ice melt-associated blooms and not independent of sea ice retreat and dissolution.

  4. The major components of particles emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xinhui; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Wang, ZhenZhen; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-11-01

    Electronic waste from across the world is dismantled and disposed of in China. The low-tech recycling methods have caused severe air pollution. Air particle samples from a typical workshop of South China engaged in recycling waste printed circuit boards have been analyzed with respect to chemical constituents. This is the first report on the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted in an e-waste recycling workshop of South China. The results show that the composition of PM from this recycling process was totally different from other emission sources. Organic matter comprised 46.7-51.6% of the PM. The major organic constituents were organophosphates consisting mainly of triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and its methyl substituted compounds, methyl esters of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, levoglucosan and bisphenol A. TPP and bisphenol A were present at 1-5 orders of magnitude higher than in other indoor and outdoor environments throughout the world, which implies that they might be used as potential markers for e-waste recycling. The elemental carbon, inorganic elements and ions had a minor contribution to the PM (<5% each). The inorganic elements were dominated by phosphorus and followed by crustal elements and metal elements Pb, Zn, Sn, and lesser Cu, Sb, Mn, Ni, Ba and Cd. The recycling of printed circuit boards was demonstrated as an important contributor of heavy metal contamination, particularly Cd, Pb and Ni, to the local environment. These findings suggest that this recycling method represents a strong source of PM associated with pollutants to the ambient atmosphere of an e-waste recycling locale.

  5. Diurnal variations of carbonaceous components, major ions, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in suburban aerosols from northern vicinity of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Nannan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    We report diurnal variations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and major ions as well as stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in ambient aerosols at a suburban site (Mangshan), 40 km north of Beijing, China. We found that aerosol chemical compositions were largely controlled by the air mass transport from Beijing in daytime with southerly winds and by relatively fresh air mass in nighttime from the northern forest areas with northerly winds. Higher concentrations of aerosol mass and total carbon were obtained in daytime. Further, higher OC/EC ratios were recorded in daytime (4.0 ± 1.7) than nighttime (3.2 ± 0.7), suggesting that OC is formed by photochemical oxidation of gaseous precursors in daytime. Contributions of WSOC to OC were slightly higher in daytime (38%) than nighttime (34%), possibly due to secondary formation of WSOC in daytime. We also found higher concentrations of Ca2+ in daytime, which was originated from the construction dust in Beijing area and transported to the sampling site. δ13C ranged from -25.3 to -21.2‰ (ave. -23.5 ± 0.9‰) in daytime and -29.0 to -21.4‰ (-24.0 ± 1.5‰) in nighttime, suggesting that Mangshan aerosols were more influenced by fossil fuel combustion products in daytime and by terrestrial C3 plants in nighttime. This study suggests that daytime air mass delivery from megacity Beijing largely influence the air quality at the receptor site in the north together with photochemical processing of organic aerosols during the atmospheric transport, whereas the Mangshan site is covered with relatively clean air masses at night.

  6. Diurnal variations of carbonaceous components, major ions, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in suburban aerosols from northern vicinity of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Nannan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    We report diurnal variations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and major ions as well as stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in ambient aerosols at a suburban site (Mangshan), 40 km north of Beijing, China. We found that aerosol chemical compositions were largely controlled by the air mass transport from Beijing in daytime with southerly winds and by relatively fresh air mass in nighttime from the northern forest areas with northerly winds. Higher concentrations of aerosol mass and total carbon were obtained in daytime. Further, higher OC/EC ratios were recorded in daytime (4.0 ± 1.7) than nighttime (3.2 ± 0.7), suggesting that OC is formed by photochemical oxidation of gaseous precursors in daytime. Contributions of WSOC to OC were slightly higher in daytime (38%) than nighttime (34%), possibly due to secondary formation of WSOC in daytime. We also found higher concentrations of Ca2+ in daytime, which was originated from the construction dust in Beijing area and transported to the sampling site. δ13C ranged from -25.3 to -21.2‰ (ave. -23.5 ± 0.9‰) in daytime and -29.0 to -21.4‰ (-24.0 ± 1.5‰) in nighttime, suggesting that Mangshan aerosols were more influenced by fossil fuel combustion products in daytime and by terrestrial C3 plants in nighttime. This study suggests that daytime air mass delivery from megacity Beijing largely influence the air quality at the receptor site in the north together with photochemical processing of organic aerosols during the atmospheric transport, whereas the Mangshan site is covered with relatively clean air masses at night.

  7. Nursing: a major hospital cost component.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L; Prescott, P A; Aleksandrowicz, L

    1988-01-01

    Selected studies of nursing costs demonstrate a wide variation per patient-day and per patient stay within the same DRG. These differences could reflect either actual differences in nursing practice or methodological differences in calculating practice costs. We examined several alternative methods to find hospital nursing costs of the same group of patients. Measures of patient illness--AS-SCORE severity of illness, Relative Intensity (RIMs), MacLeod nursing intensity, and a per diem measure--were compared for variations in nursing cost. Various definitions of nursing cost itself also were compared using the same patients. Two approaches to defining nursing cost elements--by nursing unit and by hands-on patient care-are discussed. Several nursing cost studies reporting data for DRG 121 (myocardial infarction with complications and/or comorbidity) were compared with our data. The nursing care costs in several studies of these same patients varied from $706 to $1,778 per stay (a 60 percent difference); reasons for these cost differences are discussed. It is suggested that at least part of this variability reflects methodological differences. Cost data should be reported carefully to facilitate comparisons with the results of other studies. Efforts should begin toward designing nursing cost studies using comparable measures and cost-finding methodologies. PMID:3126163

  8. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  9. Amyloid fibrils composed of hexameric peptides attenuate neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kurnellas, Michael P; Adams, Chris M; Sobel, Raymond A; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B

    2013-04-01

    The amyloid-forming proteins tau, αB crystallin, and amyloid P protein are all found in lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous work established that amyloidogenic peptides from the small heat shock protein αB crystallin (HspB5) and from amyloid β fibrils, characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, were therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reflecting aspects of the pathology of MS. To understand the molecular basis for the therapeutic effect, we showed a set of amyloidogenic peptides composed of six amino acids, including those from tau, amyloid β A4, major prion protein (PrP), HspB5, amylin, serum amyloid P, and insulin B chain, to be anti-inflammatory and capable of reducing serological levels of interleukin-6 and attenuating paralysis in EAE. The chaperone function of the fibrils correlates with the therapeutic outcome. Fibrils composed of tau 623-628 precipitated 49 plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100, clusterin, transthyretin, and complement C3, supporting the hypothesis that the fibrils are active biological agents. Amyloid fibrils thus may provide benefit in MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23552370

  10. Amyloid Fibrils Composed of Hexameric Peptides Attenuate Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kurnellas, Michael P.; Adams, Chris M.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid forming proteins Tau, alpha B crystallin, and amyloid P protein are all found in lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous work established that amyloidogenic peptides from the small heat shock protein, alpha B crystallin(HspB5), and from amyloid β fibrils, characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, were therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reflecting aspects of the pathology of MS. To understand the molecular basis for the therapeutic effect, a set of amyloidogenic peptides composed of six amino acids, including those from tau, amyloid β A4, major prion protein (PrP), HspB5, amylin, serum amyloid P (SAP), and insulin B chain were shown to be anti-inflammatory, capable of reducing serological levels of IL-6, and attenuating paralysis in EAE. The chaperone function of the fibrils correlates with the therapeutic outcome. Fibrils composed of Tau 623–628 precipitated 49 plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100, clusterin, transthyretin, and complement C3, supporting the hypothesis that the fibrils are active biological agents. Amyloid fibrils thus may provide benefit in MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23552370

  11. Composants actifs opto-électroniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carenco, Alan; Scavennec, André

    2003-02-01

    Opto-electronics has played a key role in long-distance cabled communications by offering high-performance, easy-to-use, compact devices at acceptable cost. Spreading throughout metropolitan networks and access networks and more generally facing the increasing demand for less expensive and wider bandwidth call for new functionalities and improved technologies. This evolution covers all fibre network components and their management: signal propagation and processing along fiber, opto-electronic interfaces, electronic processing,… Issues, progress and perspectives of devices as enablers of capacity, flexibility and cost reduction are addressed. To cite this article: A. Carenco, A. Scavennec, C. R. Physique 4 (2003).

  12. Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2005-12-01

    Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud

  13. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  14. Nucleation of polyaniline nano-/macrotubes from anilinium composed micelles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruijuan; Wang, Chensen; Liu, Kong; Bei, Fengli; Lu, Lude; Han, Qiaofeng; Wu, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    A mechanistic study on the nucleation of polyaniline nanotubes (PANI-NT) through template-free method is explored by in situ solution-state (1)H NMR experiments via a careful analysis of the spectral evolution of the major species in the course of the reaction. Before polymerization, aniline and salicylic acid have assembled into loosely packed micelles due to electrostatic interactions and the proton exchange reaction between aniline and anilinium. A three-stage polymerization with a formation, accumulation of aniline dimers, as well as a generation of phenazine-like oligomers is observed, which can be attributed to the monomer transformation from neutral aniline molecules to anilinium cations and the significantly lowered pH in the reaction. Strong π-π stacking interactions from the phenazine-like oligomers facilitate the intermolecular aggregation which initiates the formation of PANI-NT. At first, such aggregates, locating at the outermost layer of anilinium composed micelles, shield in situ formed protons from releasing into the aqueous bulk but into the micelle instead. Due to the continuously increased charge in the micelle, a sphere-to-rod structural transition occurs which leads the oligomer aggregates to be sheathed at the exterior of the rod. Further consumption of anilinium in the micelle leaves the internal cavity while the fusion between the micelles elongates the length of the tubes. Our work demonstrates that (i) loosely packed anilinium composed micelles, highly mobile monomers within the micelle, and efficient blockage of the proton-releasing to the aqueous bulk are three key factors for the generation of tubular structures; and (ii) dynamic NMR line shape analysis provides a new perspective for resolving the formation profile of nanostructured polymers. PMID:24568544

  15. Ccaffeine framework : composing and debugging applications interactively and running them statically.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robert C.; Allan, Benjamin A.

    2005-02-01

    Ccaffeine is a Common Component Architecture (CCA) framework devoted to high-performance computing. In this note we give an overview of the system features of Ccaffeine and CCA that support component-based HPC application development. Object-oriented, single-threaded and lightweight, Ccaffeine is designed to get completely out of the way of the running application after it has been composed from components. Ccaffeine is one of the few frameworks, CCA or otherwise, that can compose and run applications on a parallel machine interactively and then automatically generate a static, possibly self-tuning, executable for production runs. Users can experiment with and debug applications interactively, improving their productivity. When the application is ready, a script is automatically generated, parsed and turned into a static executable for production runs. Within this static executable, dynamic replacement of components can be performed by self-tuning applications.

  16. Popular Periodicals and Rhetoric & Composition Textbooks in the Nineteenth Century: A Cultural Conversation on Composing Oneself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, Kathleen A.

    In 19th century America, talk of manners and morals as integral components of American character filled a significant space in public discourse. Lessons on how to compose oneself properly and models of appropriate behavior abounded in the form of essays, stories, poetry, editorials, and travel literature. This conversation on character influenced…

  17. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based screening and identification of two major bioactive components and their metabolites in normal and CKD rat plasma, urine and feces after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch extract.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jin-hua; Zhao, Min; Wang, Dong-geng; Yang, Chi; Chen, Guang-tong; Zhao, Xi; Pu, Xu-lian; Jiang, Shu

    2015-09-15

    Rehmannia glutinosa is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in clinical practice to tackle chronic kidney disease for thousands of years. However, the in vivo metabolism of its two major bioactive components (catalpol and acteoside) remains unknown. In this paper, a highly sensitive, rapid and robust ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) with MetaboLynx™ software combined with mass defect filtering (MDF) method was established. This validated analysis method was successfully applied to investigate the in vivo metabolic profiles of R. glutinosa extract in normal and chronic kidney disease (CKD) rats. The results showed that a total of 17 metabolites of two parent compounds in normal rats in vivo were tentatively detected and identified according to the characteristics of their protonated ions and relevant literature. While 11 of the metabolites were observed in the CKD rat samples. These metabolites suggested that catalpol was firstly deglycosylated to its aglycone and subsequently to two main metabolites (M1 and M4) by conjugation and hydrogenation respectively and acteoside was mainly metabolized by O-glucuronide conjugation and O-sulphate conjugation. In conclusion, this study showed an insight into the metabolism of R. glutinosa extract in vivo and the proposed metabolic pathways of bioactive components might play a key role in further pharmacokinetic experiments evaluations. PMID:26262601

  18. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells. PMID:25728340

  19. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope signatures of lavas from the Central Lau Basin: Implications for the nature and influence of subduction components in the back-arc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Liyan; Castillo, Paterno R.; Hawkins, James W.; Hilton, David R.; Hanan, Barry B.; Pietruszka, Aaron J.

    2008-12-01

    New major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data are presented for basaltic glasses from active spreading centers (Central Lau Spreading Center (CLSC), Relay Zone (RZ) and Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC)) in the Central Lau Basin, SW Pacific. Basaltic lavas from the Central Lau Basin are mainly tholeiitic and are broadly similar in composition to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Their generally high 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, combined with relatively low 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios are more akin to MORB from the Indian rather than Pacific Ocean. In detail, the CLSC, RZ and ELSC lavas are generally more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, Sr, and K) than average normal-MORB, which suggests that the mantle beneath the Central Lau Basin was modified by subducted slab-derived components. Fluid mobile/immobile trace element and Sr - Nd isotope ratios suggest that the subduction components were essentially transferred into the mantle via hydrous fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust; contributions coming from the subducted sediments are minor. Compared to CLSC lavas, ELSC and RZ lavas show greater enrichment in fluid mobile elements and depletion in high field strength elements, especially Nb. Thus, with increasing distance away from the arc, the influence of subduction components in the mantle source of Lau Basin lavas diminishes. The amount of hydrous fluids also influences the degree of partial melting of the mantle beneath the Central Lau Basin, and hence the degree of melting also decreases with increasing distance from the arc.

  20. Modular variations of the human major histocompatibility complex class III genes for serine/threonine kinase RP, complement component C4, steroid 21-hydroxylase CYP21, and tenascin TNX (the RCCX module). A mechanism for gene deletions and disease associations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Mendoza, A R; Welch, T R; Zipf, W B; Yu, C Y

    1999-04-23

    The frequent variations of human complement component C4 gene size and gene numbers, plus the extensive polymorphism of the proteins, render C4 an excellent marker for major histocompatibility complex disease associations. As shown by definitive RFLPs, the tandemly arranged genes RP, C4, CYP21, and TNX are duplicated together as a discrete genetic unit termed the RCCX module. Duplications of the RCCX modules occurred by the addition of genomic fragments containing a long (L) or a short (S) C4 gene, a CYP21A or a CYP21B gene, and the gene fragments TNXA and RP2. Four major RCCX structures with bimodular L-L, bimodular L-S, monomodular L, and monomodular S are present in the Caucasian population. These modules are readily detectable by TaqI RFLPs. The RCCX modular variations appear to be a root cause for the acquisition of deleterious mutations from pseudogenes or gene segments in the RCCX to their corresponding functional genes. In a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, we discovered a TNXB-TNXA recombinant with the deletion of RP2-C4B-CYP21B. Elucidation of the DNA sequence for the recombination breakpoint region and sequence analyses yielded definitive proof for an unequal crossover between TNXA from a bimodular chromosome and TNXB from a monomodular chromosome. PMID:10207042

  1. Chondroinductive Hydrogel Pastes Composed of Naturally Derived Devitalized Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Beck, Emily C; Barragan, Marilyn; Tadros, Madeleine H; Kiyotake, Emi A; Acosta, Francisca M; Kieweg, Sarah L; Detamore, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogel precursors are liquid solutions that are prone to leaking from the defect site once implanted in vivo. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to create a hydrogel precursor that exhibited a yield stress. Additionally, devitalized cartilage extracellular matrix (DVC) was mixed with DVC that had been solubilized and methacrylated (MeSDVC) to create hydrogels that were chondroinductive. Precursors composed of 10% MeSDVC or 10% MeSDVC with 10% DVC were first evaluated rheologically, where non-Newtonian behavior was observed in all hydrogel precursors. Rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs) were mixed in the precursor solutions, and the solutions were then crosslinked and cultured in vitro for 6 weeks with and without exposure to human transforming growth factor β3 (TGF-β3). The compressive modulus, gene expression, biochemical content, swelling, and histology of the gels were analyzed. The DVC-containing gels consistently outperformed the MeSDVC-only group in chondrogenic gene expression, especially at 6 weeks, where the relative collagen II expression of the DVC-containing groups with and without TGF-β3 exposure was 40- and 78-fold higher, respectively, than that of MeSDVC alone. Future work will test for chondrogenesis in vivo and overall, these two cartilage-derived components are promising materials for cartilage tissue engineering applications. PMID:26744243

  2. Percolation in networks composed of connectivity and dependency links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Amir; Parshani, Roni; Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-05-01

    Networks composed from both connectivity and dependency links were found to be more vulnerable compared to classical networks with only connectivity links. Their percolation transition is usually of a first order compared to the second-order transition found in classical networks. We analytically analyze the effect of different distributions of dependencies links on the robustness of networks. For a random Erdös-Rényi (ER) network with average degree k that is divided into dependency clusters of size s, the fraction of nodes that belong to the giant component P∞ is given by P∞=ps-1[1-exp(-kpP∞)]s, where 1-p is the initial fraction of removed nodes. Our general result coincides with the known Erdös-Rényi equation for random networks for s=1. For networks with Poissonian distribution of dependency links we find that P∞ is given by P∞=fk,p(P∞)e(-1)[pfk,p(P∞)-1], where fk,p(P∞)≡1-exp(-kpP∞) and is the mean value of the size of dependency clusters. For networks with Gaussian distribution of dependency links we show how the average and width of the distribution affect the robustness of the networks.

  3. Spatial Stories with Nomadic Narrators: Affect, Snapchat, and Feeling Embodiment in Youth Mobile Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done "behind" the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing "with" and "through" mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective…

  4. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  5. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  6. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  7. Hyperfrequency components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  8. Coding the Composing Process: A Guide for Teachers and Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    Designed for teachers and researchers interested in the study of the composing process, this guide introduces a method of analysis that can be applied to data from a range of different cases. Specifically, the guide offers a simple, direct coding scheme for describing the movements occurring during composing that involves four procedures: teaching…

  9. Composing in Public: The Ambient Audiences of a Writing Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although scholars have investigated the ways youths individually enact composing practices and the impact of audience on these practices, this study examines the impact of an audience physically present while composing in a shared, public space--an ambient audience. Blurring the line between traditional notions of audience and collaborator through…

  10. The Links between Handwriting and Composing for Y6 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Strand, Steve; Wray, David

    2009-01-01

    Although handwriting is often considered a matter of presentation, a substantial body of international research suggests that the role of handwriting in children's composing has been neglected. Automaticity in handwriting is now seen as of key importance in composing but this proposition is relatively untested in the UK and the assumption has been…

  11. Teaching Composing in Secondary School: A Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a case study of an experienced teacher of composing working with secondary school students in a large urban centre in Ontario, Canada. Results suggest authentic assignments connect student composing to the "real world", and so have meaning and life beyond the music classroom. Teachers can facilitate the development of…

  12. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed...

  13. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats...

  14. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats...

  15. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed...

  16. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20 Section 301.20 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed...

  17. Hypermedia Composing: Questions Arising from Writing in Three Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garthwait, Abigail

    2001-01-01

    Observes four sixth graders composing nonfiction projects for an integrated unit on Canadian studies, using hypermedia. Ponders issues raised when students compose in hypermedia including evaluating nontraditional projects, developing a sense of audience, conventions of the medium, use of visuals to convey information, engaged students, and…

  18. How Composers Approach Teaching Composition: Strategies for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal…

  19. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  20. The composing process of technical writers: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, D.; Roundy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The assumption that technical writers compose as do other writers is tested. The literature on the composing process, not limited to the pure or applied sciences, was reviewed, yielding three areas of general agreement. The composing process (1) consists of several stages, (2) is reflexive, and (3) may be mastered by means of strategies. Data on the ways technical writers compose were collected, and findings were related to the three areas of agreement. Questionnaires and interviews surveying 70 writers were used. The disciplines represented by these writers included civil, chemical, agricultural, geological, mechanical, electrical, and petroleum engineering, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and biology. Those providing consulting services, or performing research. No technical editors or professional writers were surveyed, only technicians, engineers, and researchers whose jobs involved composing reports. Three pedagogical implications are included.

  1. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

  2. Cloning and DNA Sequencing of the Genes Encoding Clostridium josui Scaffolding Protein CipA and Cellulase CelD and Identification of Their Gene Products as Major Components of the Cellulosome

    PubMed Central

    Kakiuchi, Motohide; Isui, Ayako; Suzuki, Katsuhisa; Fujino, Tsuchiyoshi; Fujino, Emi; Kimura, Tetsuya; Karita, Shuichi; Sakka, Kazuo; Ohmiya, Kunio

    1998-01-01

    The Clostridium josui cipA and celD genes, encoding a scaffolding-like protein (CipA) and a putative cellulase (CelD), respectively, have been cloned and sequenced. CipA, with an estimated molecular weight of 120,227, consists of an N-terminal signal peptide, a cellulose-binding domain of family III, and six successive cohesin domains. The molecular architecture of C. josui CipA is similar to those of the scaffolding proteins reported so far, such as Clostridium thermocellum CipA, Clostridium cellulovorans CbpA, and Clostridium cellulolyticum CipC, but C. josui CipA is considerably smaller than the other scaffolding proteins. CelD consists of an N-terminal signal peptide, a family 48 catalytic domain of glycosyl hydrolase, and a dockerin domain. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the C. josui cellulosomal proteins indicates that both CipA and CelD are major components of the cellulosome. PMID:9696784

  3. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  4. Analysis of the aliphatic monomer composition of polyesters associated with Arabidopsis epidermis: occurrence of octadeca-cis-6, cis-9-diene-1,18-dioate as the major component.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Gustavo; Beisson, Frédéric; Ohlrogge, John; Pollard, Mike

    2004-12-01

    Although the surface waxes from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and stems have been thoroughly characterized, the monomer composition of the polyesters of the cuticular membrane has not been analyzed. Delipidated Arabidopsis leaves or stems, when depolymerized under conditions to cleave polyesters, produced typical omega-hydroxy fatty acid cutin monomers such as 16-hydroxy-palmitate, 10,16-dihydroxy-palmitate and 18-hydroxy-9,10-epoxy-stearate. However, the major monomer was octadeca-cis-6, cis-9-diene-1,18-dioate, with lesser amounts of octadec-cis-9-ene-1,18-dioate and hexadeca-1,16-dioate. These dicarboxylates were found predominantly in epidermal peels from Arabidopsis stems and are therefore likely to be associated with the cuticular membrane. They were also found in analyses of canola leaves but were absent in tomato and apple fruit cutins. In the fad2-1 mutant line of Arabidopsis, which has reduced levels of linoleate and linolenate and elevated oleate in cytosolic phospholipids, the amount of octadeca-cis-6, cis-9-diene-1,18-dioate was 50% reduced, with a concomitant increase in octadec-cis-9-ene-1,18-dioate. In a fatb-ko line of Arabidopsis, where the availability of cytosolic palmitate is impaired, there was an 80% loss of C16 monomers and a compensating increase in C18 monomers. The presence of substantial amounts of dicarboxylates in cuticular membranes is unexpected. High amounts of aliphatic dicarboxylates are usually considered as an indicator of suberin, and are reported only as very minor components of cutin. The high level of polyunsaturation is also unusual in cuticles; saturated fatty acid monomers usually predominate, with lesser amounts of monounsaturates. These novel findings for Arabidopsis demonstrate that a broad range of monomer compositions are possible for polyesters of the epidermis. PMID:15584957

  5. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. PMID:25684289

  6. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  7. Optimization of global model composed of radial basis functions using the term-ranking approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Peng; Tao, Chao Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2014-03-15

    A term-ranking method is put forward to optimize the global model composed of radial basis functions to improve the predictability of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined by numerical simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulations indicate that this method can significantly lengthen the prediction time and decrease the Bayesian information criterion of the model. The application to real voice signal shows that the optimized global model can capture more predictable component in chaos-like voice data and simultaneously reduce the predictable component (periodic pitch) in the residual signal.

  8. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  9. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  10. Syrtis Major Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows barchan sand dunes west of the Meroe Patera volcanic caldera in central Syrtis Major. The winds that shape these dunes blow from the right/upper right (northeast). The surface across which the dunes have traveled is probably composed of volcanic rocks; the dunes, too, may have volcanic materials, such as sand-sized grains of tephra-volcanic ash-in them. This October 2003 view is located near 7.4oN, 292.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. Components in the Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian

    2011-02-24

    Scientists commonly describe their data processing systems metaphorically as software pipelines. These pipelines input one or more data sources and apply a sequence of processing steps to transform the data and create useful results. While conceptually simple, pipelines often adopt complex topologies and must meet stringent quality of service requirements that place stress on the software infrastructure used to construct the pipeline. In this paper we describe the MeDICi Integration Framework, which is a component-based framework for constructing complex software pipelines. The framework supports composing pipelines from distributed heterogeneous software components and provides mechanisms for controlling qualities of service to meet demanding performance, reliability and communication requirements.

  12. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 May 2004 This image of Syrtis Major was acquired August 20, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.8, Longitude 79.5 East (280.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  13. The Composing Processes of Unskilled Writers at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    This paper uses five case studies of unskilled writers at the college level to provide insights into the composing process. Each student's writing process was tape-recorded and observed by the instructor in four sessions. The tapes and written observations were charted and analyzed for exhibited behavior patterns in comparison to the written…

  14. To Compose: Teaching Writing in the High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas, Ed.

    The twelve essays in this collection, selected by leading teacher educators, explore the composition process and composition instruction. The first essay, "Toward Righting Writing" by Arthur Diagon, serves as a prologue while the second section, "getting started," consists of "A Way of Writing" by William Stafford, "Understanding Composing" by…

  15. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  16. Circularly polarized printed arrays composed of strip dipoles and slots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Koichi

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents circularly polarized printed arrays composed of strip dipoles and slots (CP-PASS). A design method for CP-PASS is described on the basis of its equivalent circuit model. A linear array with a Chebyshev pattern and a middle-gain planar array are designed and measured at S band.

  17. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and then free…

  18. Performing Stenographic Activities. Compose Correspondence. Student's Manual and Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Pam

    Supporting performance objective 71 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on composing correspondence are included in this packet. (The packet is the fourth in a set of four on performing stenographic activities--CE 016 973-976.) The…

  19. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  20. "Convince Me!" Valuing Multimodal Literacies and Composing Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Richard J.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    For some teachers, the increasing attention to digital and multimodal composing in English and Language Arts classrooms has brought into sharp relief the profession's investment in print as the primary means of expression. Although new forms of communication that combine words, still and moving images, and animation have begun to dominate digital…

  1. How One Class with One Computer Composed Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Music composition is a rewarding activity for students. Through composition, teachers not only address National Standard 4 (composing and arranging music within specified guidelines), but also cover other areas of the music curriculum such as singing, notation, improvisation, form, style, tempo, dynamics, music vocabulary, and assessment. During…

  2. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  3. The Poetics of Computers: Composing Relationships with Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Bernadette; Reiss, Donna; Selfe, Cynthia L.; Young, Art

    2003-01-01

    Describes a course with three primary goals: to help students reflect on the complex relationship between humans and technology; to reflect on students' responsibility for shaping this relationship in contemporary contexts; and to provide opportunities within which to practice composing this relationship in personal terms. Concludes that in such…

  4. Quiet Grove in a Savage Garden: A Composer's Bicameral Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlen, Donald

    2004-01-01

    This author, a composer, states that music has been the primal generator of his existence and the definition of living creatively; and that understanding the bicameral reality of creativity through a study of the nature of consciousness involves a symbiotic host of disciplines. In the study of the occurrence of "creativity," consciousness as well…

  5. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  6. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews William Schuman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Born in 1910, composer William Schuman has been deeply involved with music education, first as a college professor and later a president of the Julliard School of Music. In this interview, Schuman talks about what music means to him, his teaching career, and music in general education. (RM)

  7. Readers as Writers Composing from Sources. Technical Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Nancy Nelson; King, James R.

    A study of discourse synthesis (readers/writers composing new texts by selecting, organizing, and connecting content from source texts) examined the performance of accomplished and less accomplished readers in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades on a report-writing task. Over a 3-day period 60 English/language arts students wrote informational reports…

  8. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Rhizoma Zingiberis on the Level of Aconitine in Rat Gut Sacs and Qualitative Analysis of the Major Influencing Components of Rhizoma Zingiberis on Aconitine Using UPLC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to clarify the material basis for the detoxification of Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ) on aconitine, an analgesic drug, by quantitatively assessing the influence of RZ on the in vitro intestinal concentration of aconitine using an everted gut sac model and by qualitatively identifying the components in the RZ extract. To quantify aconitine in rat everted gut sacs, both an accurate processing method and a sensitive detection method were required. We developed a three-step sample processing method to protect the components from decomposition and applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/TQMS) to quantify aconitine, glucose and digoxin. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/ITMS) was applied to detect the potential antidotal components in the RZ extract. Finally, the RZ extract reduced the level of aconitine in everted gut sacs, and eleven gingerols were successfully identified, which could be considered potential antidotal components for aconitine. This study demonstrated the application of two UPLC/MS methods for analyzing the material basis for the reciprocity between Chinese medicine components in everted gut sacs. PMID:25978042

  9. Composing Texts, Composing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1994-01-01

    Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)

  10. PSPTO_3380 and PSPTO_3381: A two-component system that influences the virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major factor in pathogenesis is the ability of the pathogen to respond and react to the host environment during the infection cycle. For bacteria, external stimuli are mainly sensed by two-component systems (TCS) composed of histidine kinases with external recognition domains and cytoplasmic respo...

  11. Bactericidal Compounds Controlling Growth of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Which Forms Biofilms Composed of a Novel Exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghods, Shirin; Sims, Ian M.; Moradali, M. Fata

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of 5:1.5:2. Experimental evidence that P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 produces two polysaccharides, a branched α-d-rhamnan with side chains of terminal α-d-Fucf and an α-d-1,4-linked glucan, was obtained. The susceptibility of the cells in biofilms to kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide was assessed. About 64 and 73% of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 cells in biofilms were killed when kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide were used at 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Kasugamycin inhibited the attachment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 to solid surfaces at concentrations of 80 and 100 ppm. Kasugamycin was bacteriostatic against P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 growth in the planktonic mode, with the MIC being 40 to 60 ppm and a bactericidal effect being found at 100 ppm. Here we studied the formation, architecture, and composition of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biofilms as well as used the biofilm as a model to assess the efficacies of bactericidal compounds. PMID:25841017

  12. Bactericidal Compounds Controlling Growth of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Which Forms Biofilms Composed of a Novel Exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Shirin; Sims, Ian M; Moradali, M Fata; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2015-06-15

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of 5:1.5:2. Experimental evidence that P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 produces two polysaccharides, a branched α-d-rhamnan with side chains of terminal α-d-Fucf and an α-d-1,4-linked glucan, was obtained. The susceptibility of the cells in biofilms to kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide was assessed. About 64 and 73% of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 cells in biofilms were killed when kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide were used at 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Kasugamycin inhibited the attachment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 to solid surfaces at concentrations of 80 and 100 ppm. Kasugamycin was bacteriostatic against P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 growth in the planktonic mode, with the MIC being 40 to 60 ppm and a bactericidal effect being found at 100 ppm. Here we studied the formation, architecture, and composition of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biofilms as well as used the biofilm as a model to assess the efficacies of bactericidal compounds. PMID:25841017

  13. Lipid flip-flop in binary membranes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Krystal L; Conboy, John C

    2013-12-01

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of lipid flip-flop in bilayers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DPPS) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) were studied using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. The kinetics of DSPC and DPPS flip-flop were examined as a function of temperature and bilayer composition. The rate of DSPC flip-flop did not exhibit any significant dependence on bilayer composition while the rate of DPPS flip-flop was inversely dependent on the mole fraction of DPPS. The transition-state thermodynamics for DSPC and DPPS lipids in these mixed bilayers were determined in order to identify the energetic impact of the phosphatidylserine headgroup on lipid flip-flop. The thermodynamics for the DSPC component remained statistically identical to bilayers composed entirely of DSPC. The activation energy for the DPPS component showed a linear correlation with the mole fraction of DPPS for all bilayer compositions. The enthalpy and entropy for DPPS flip-flop did not increase linearly with the fraction of DPPS but did directly correlate with the molecular area. The DPPS component also exhibited enthalpy-entropy compensation which suggests that lipid hydration may play a significant role in membrane dynamics. PMID:24200035

  14. Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araujo, Joao; Whittle, Jon; Ki, Dae-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest, within the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community, in representing crosscutting concerns at various stages of the software lifecycle. However, most of these efforts have concentrated on the design and implementation phases. We focus in this paper on representing aspects during use case modeling. In particular, we focus on scenario-based requirements and show how to compose aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios so that they can be simulated as a whole. Non-aspectual scenarios are modeled as UML sequence diagram. Aspectual scenarios are modeled as Interaction Pattern Specifications (IPS). In order to simulate them, the scenarios are transformed into a set of executable state machines using an existing state machine synthesis algorithm. Previous work composed aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios at the sequence diagram level. In this paper, the composition is done at the state machine level.

  15. Soft elasticity in solids composed of ellipse-shaped particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhonta, Simiso K.; Vernon, Daniel; Elder, K. R.; Grant, Martin

    2013-03-01

    We present a method for studying the influence of internal rotational degrees of freedom on the elastic properties of crystals composed of ellipsoidal particles. We derive the conditions under which a stretched-triangular lattice of ellipsoidal particles can exhibit a vanishing shear modulus. Analytical predictions are confirmed with numerical calculations. Numerical results also show that internal rotational modes can delay the proliferation of dislocations in the plastic regime.

  16. 1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the greenhouse, a storeroom (shed), a classroom (over a former ice pit), and a kitchen (over a cellar)-stands on the right. The barn roof is visible at center and the gift shop (former stable) stands on the left (Note the carved stone posts framing the gateway). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Measuring image quality in overlapping areas of panoramic composed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Escofet, Jaume

    2012-06-01

    Several professional photographic applications uses the merging of consecutive overlapping images in order to obtain bigger files by means of stitching techniques or extended field of view (FOV) for panoramic images. All of those applications share the fact that the final composed image is obtained by overlapping the neighboring areas of consecutive individual images taken as a mosaic or a series of tiles over the scene, from the same point of view. Any individual image taken with a given lens can carry residual aberrations and several of them will affect more probably the borders of the image frame. Furthermore, the amount of distortion aberration present in the images of a given lens will be reversed in position for the two overlapping areas of a pair of consecutive takings. Finally, the different images used in composing the final one have corresponding overlapping areas taken with different perspective. From all the previously stated can be derived that the software employed must remap all the pixel information in order to resize and match image features in those overlapping areas, providing a final composed image with the desired perspective projection. The work presented analyse two panoramic format images taken with a pair of lenses and composed by means of a state of the art stitching software. Then, a series of images are taken to cover an FOV three times the original lens FOV, the images are merged by means of a software of common use in professional panoramic photography and the final image quality is evaluated through a series of targets positioned in strategic locations over the whole taking field of view. That allows measuring the resulting Resolution and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The results are shown compared with the previous measures on the original individual images.

  18. A design study of a photorefractive page composer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration and preliminary system analysis of a page composer designed to have the dual advantages of low optical loss and small size, were reported. The current page composer is optically addressed and functions by virtue of optically induced refractive index changes in the active material. Laboratory demonstrations of the device were successfully performed using 10 x 10 bit and 128 x 128 bit data arrays. It was established that the only significant obstacle to the construction of a brass-board model working at megabit data rates is the lack of sensitivity of the photorefractive materials which were considered during the course of this study. Possible materials for future consideration are the photoplastics. While they have more than the required sensitivity, their stability and suitability for double exposure holography was not investigated. If a sufficiently sensitive material is found, then the photorefractive page composer could be built to perform in a highly efficient fashion which would result in a overall reduction of the size of the memory system and an easing of the requirements upon the sensitivity of the holographic recording material.

  19. Free Radical Scavenging and Antioxidant Activities of Silymarin Components

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Kevin P.; Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    Silymarin is an over the counter food supplement that is sold as a liver enhancement and liver protection preparation. It is a major constituent of the seeds of Silybum marianum which is composed of a mixture of seven major components and several minor compounds. The seven major components: taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, iso-silybin A and iso-silybin B were isolated and purified from the crude mixture of silymarin using preparative high performance liquid chromatography to determine which were the most effective for liver protection. Free radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity, trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity and total antioxidant capacity antioxidant activities were determined for each of the individual purified components as well as the crude silymarin mixture. Taxifolin was the most effective component for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH assay with an EC50 of 32 µM far more effective than all other components which showed EC50 ranging from 115 to 855 µM. Taxifolin was also found to be the most effective antioxidant in the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay with a trolox equivalent of 2.43 and the second most effective in the hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) assay with a gallic acid equivalent of 0.57. Other antioxidants assays did not show significant differences between samples. PMID:26784472

  20. Theory, fabrication and applications of metamaterials composed of cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Diana

    In this work we design a new type of hyperlens composed of nanowires, and numerically demonstrate its ability to resolve closely spaced and otherwise indistinguishable features of an imaged object in the far field. Conversely, we demonstrate the ability of a concentrator to focus incident radiation into an area much smaller than a wave length. To overcome limitations in fabricating materials such as the nanowire composites used in the applications above as well as other materials composed of cylindrical structures, we propose the newly patented method, #US2015/0017466A1, that features initial masked patterning and partial self-assembly, resulting in a relatively simple, inexpensive process with a flexible flow and many constituent material options, capable of forming composites with diverse functionalities. Although modeling the effective properties of cylinder-based media has been the focus of considerable research in the field of Metamaterials, surprisingly enough, no complete and fully dynamic model of such cylinders' response to incident radiation existed. Based on Mie scattering theory, we derive the complete dynamic polarizability tensor for circular, azimuthally symmetric cylinders excited by an arbitrary field distribution, and provide compact expressions for all of its elements. Interestingly, magnetoelectric effects are shown to arise at oblique incidence, even in the case of centrosymmetric achiral thin cylinders, associated with a weak form of spatial dispersion. We expect the polarizabilities to find applications in antenna design, in metamaterial design, and to improve the physical understanding of the wave interaction and spatial dispersion in artificial materials composed of elongated inclusions such as wire media.

  1. Liquid Crystalline Networks Composed of Pentagonal, Square, and Triangular Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zeng, Xiangbing; Baumeister, Ute; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    T-shaped molecules are designed in such a way that they self-organize into nanoscale liquid crystalline honeycombs based on polygons with any chosen number of sides. One of the phases reported here is a periodic organization of identical pentagonal cylinders; the other one is a structure composed of square-shaped and triangular cylinders in the ratio 2:1. These two different packing motifs represent duals of the same topological class. The generalization of the concept applied here allows the prediction of a whole range of unusual complex liquid crystalline phases.

  2. Longitudinal profiles of serum specific IgE and IgG4 to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen and its major components during allergen immunotherapy in a cohort of southern Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangqiao; Zheng, Peiyan; Luo, Wenting; Huang, Huimin; Wei, Nili; Sun, Baoqing

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal data on serum specific sIgE and sIgG4 to allergen component of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) during allergen immunotherapy (AIT) are limited in Chinese populations. We serially followed up serum sIgE and sIgG4 to Der p and its components (Der p 1 and 2) in 51 Der p-sensitized children receiving guideline-based medications alone and additional 36-month AIT. The the Der p 1 and Der p 2 sIgE levels were elevated at 6 months and progressively declined from 12 months; the sIgG4 levels for Der p, Der p 1 and Der p 2 were increasing during the first year and reached a plateau thereafter; the sIgE/sIgG4 ratios for Der p 1 and Der p 2 decreased continuously from 6 through 24 months of AIT. Subgroup analysis showed that younger children (≤8years) experienced a greater increase in sIgG4 levels for Der p, Der p 1 and Der p 2 during AIT compared with older children (9-16 years). In summary, sIgE and sIgG4 to Der p 1 and Der p 2 may be more useful than those to Der p in reflecting the change in immunological reactivity during AIT. Earlier delivery of AIT may yield greater increase in sIgG4 after 36-month treatment than given later in life. PMID:27111568

  3. Surgical operation using lighting goggle composed of white LED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi; Fujita, Shigeo

    2001-12-01

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles, which controls the lighting beams to the gazing point. With this system, it is just needed for surgeons to wear light plastic goggles with high quality LEDs made by Nichia. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. The electrical power for the system was supplied from lithium-ion battery for 2 hours. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN-blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. Therefore, in the next approach, it is very important to develop the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs. To improve the color rendering in red colors, some adjustments should be given in the fluorescents layers. Design of goggle is also very important for cutting into the real practical market of white LEDs.

  4. Medical lighting composed of LED arrays for surgical operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi; Fujita, Shigeo

    2001-05-01

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles, which controls the lighting beams to the gazing point. With this system, it is just needed for surgeons to wear light plastic goggles with high quality LEDs made by Nichia. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. The electrical power for the system was supplied from lithium-ion battery for 2 hours. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN- blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. Therefore, in the next approach, it is very important to develop the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs.

  5. Domain-Specific Languages for Composing Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Ferosh; Gray, Jeff; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-10-23

    Domain-agnostic signature discovery entails investigation across multiple scientific disciplines. The breadth and cross-disciplinary nature of this work requires that existing executables be integrated with new capabilities into workflows, representing a wide range of user tasks. An algorithm may be written in multiple programming languages for various hardware platforms, and so workflow composition requires integrating executables from any number of remote hosts. This raises an engineering issue on how to generate web service wrappers for these heterogeneous executables and to compose them into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we introduce two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery service and automatically generates its implementation code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our approach with a real-world workflow composed of services wrapping remote executables.

  6. Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index κ that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

  7. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  8. Suicides and suicide attempts among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2012; methods of self-harm vary by major geographic region of assignment.

    PubMed

    Corr, William P

    2014-10-01

    This report analyzed data from the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report program about suicide events (suicide attempts and suicides) among active component service members during 2010-2012. Most attempts (85.2%) and suicides (83.5%) occurred among service members stationed in the U.S. Drugs were identified as the method of self-harm in 54.8% of attempts but in only 3.6% of suicides. Firearms were the leading method of suicide in both the U.S. and combat zones (61.1% and 97.2%, respectively) but accounted for only 5.4% of suicides in those stationed in Europe/Asia. Hanging/asphyxiation (22.9% overall) was the second most common method in suicides. For suicides using firearms, the rates of suicide and the types of firearm used varied according to service members' geographically related access to firearms. Challenges to reducing the frequency of service member suicides by firearms are discussed. PMID:25357138

  9. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Tom; Foley, Samantha S; Hulette, Geoffrey C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Prantl, Adrian; Panyala, Ajay; Sottile, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  10. Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel; Jeggle, Pia; Chanda, Baron; Edwardson, J Michael; Chapman, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca2+-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ~6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins. PMID:26656855

  11. Support for Teaching at Major Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Stanford C., Ed.; Cook, John A., Ed.

    Major themes that dominate institutional support for teaching are addressed by representatives of large research-oriented institutions of higher education that form the "Panel on Research and Development of Instructional Resources." The Panel is composed of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Contents are as follows: "The Panel…

  12. In vitro analysis regarding the safety of components used in a film-based therapeutic system loaded with meglumine antimoniate and its activity toward Leishmania major experimental infections: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jennifer; Vallejo, Bibiana; Barbosa, Helber; Pinzón, John; Delgado, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    Owing to its biocompatibility properties and its ability to promote the scar healing process, chitosan is employed in tissue engineering for the manufacture of formulations. To control the characteristic skin ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), the use of a biopolymeric system that favors the scar healing process and releases an active agent such as meglumine antimoniate may be a better option. For these reasons, here we analyzed the cytotoxic capabilities of excipients [medium molecular weight chitosan (MMWC), lactic acid (LA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)], used for the formulation of a film-based therapeutic system that releases meglumine antimoniate and were evaluated on human macrophages [monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)], L929 fibroblasts and parasites (Leishmania major promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes). The ability of excipients to modulate the cytokines production involved in the scar healing process was compared with film-based therapeutic system. The efficiency of a film-based therapeutic system loaded with meglumine antimoniate was compared with conventional formulation (Albiventriz(®)). We found that MMWC was toxic for two parasite forms. In contrast, measurement of interleukin levels did not show any evidence of preferential secretion as a side effect of treating human macrophages with MMWC. Finally, the efficiency of a polymeric film-based therapeutic system that was loaded with meglumine antimoniate could not be determined due to the high degree of toxicity observed in infected MDMs; moreover, these compounds do not induce any apparent immunomodulatory effects. Our findings suggest that the final concentrations of each excipients (MMWC, LA and PVP) that were used in the polymeric film were suitable vehicles for active pharmaceutical compound delivery and did not selectively affect (enhancing or diminishing immune activity) macrophages. PMID:23473403

  13. The structure of Leishmania major amastigote lipophosphoglycan.

    PubMed

    Moody, S F; Handman, E; McConville, M J; Bacic, A

    1993-09-01

    Intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major produce 6 x 10(4) copies/cell of a lipophosphoglycan (LPG) that is structurally distinct from the LPG produced by the extracellular promastigote form of L. major, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania mexicana (reviewed by McConville, M. J. (1991) Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 15, 779-798). L. major amastigote LPG is composed of a lysoalkyl phosphatidylinositol lipid anchor that links via a diphosphorylated hexasaccharide core to a phosphoglycan (6-100 kDa). The structures of the anchor, the core, and the phosphoglycan were determined by monosaccharide and linkage analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, one-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, and exoglycosidase microsequencing. The lipid anchor contains predominantly 1-O-alkylglycerols with 24:0 and 22:0 alkyl chains. The lipids are linked via a glycerol-myo-inositol-PO4 to a core glycan with the structure -PO4-6)Gal(alpha 1-)Gal(alpha 1-) Galf(beta 1-)[Glc(alpha 1-PO4-)]Man(alpha 1-)Man(alpha 1-)GlcN(alpha 1-). The chromatographic characteristics of the core glycan suggest that the saccharide components are linked similarly in amastigote and promastigote LPG. The phosphoglycan attached to the core consists of -PO4-6)Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1- repeats units which are either unsubstituted (70%) or substituted (30%) at the 3-position of the Gal residues with oligosaccharide side chains containing primarily Gal and some Glc. Thirteen different types of side chains were identified with the structures [Gal(beta 1-3)]x, where x = 1-11, or Glc(1-3)Glc(1-3), or Glc(1-3)Gal(beta 1-3), where glucose is probably in the beta-configuration. All monosaccharides in the phosphoglycan domain are in the pyranose configuration. The average number of repeat units per molecule is 36. The nonreducing terminus of the phosphoglycan chains probably terminates predominantly in the neutral disaccharide Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1-. Comparison of the structure of L. major amastigote LPG to L. major

  14. Identification and characterization of new Leishmania promastigote surface antigens, LaPSA-38S and LiPSA-50S, as major immunodominant excreted/secreted components of L. amazonensis and L. infantum.

    PubMed

    Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel; Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Veyrier, Renaud; Cibrelus, Prisca; Cavaleyra, Mireille; Maquaire, Sarah; Moreaux, Jérôme; Lemesre, Jean-Loup

    2014-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated that sera from dogs vaccinated with excreted/secreted antigens (ESA) of Leishmania infantum promastigotes (LiESAp) mainly recognized an immunodominant antigen of 54 kDa. An anti-LiESAp-specific IgG2 humoral response was observed and associated to Th1-type response in vaccinated dogs. This response was highly correlated with a long-lasting and strong LiESAp-vaccine protection toward L. infantum experimental infection. In addition, it was also shown that dogs from the vaccinated group developed a selective IgG2 response against an immunodominant antigen of 45 kDa of Leishmania amazonensis ESA promastigotes (LaESAp). In order to identify and characterize these immunodominant antigens, a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb F5) was produced by immunization against LaESAp. It was found to recognize the major antigenic targets of both LaESAp and LiESAp. Analysis with mAb F5 of L. amazonensis amastigote and promastigote cDNA expression libraries enabled the identification of clones encoding proteins with significant structural homology to the promastigote surface antigens named PSA-2/gp-46. Among them, one clone presented a full-length cDNA and encoded a novel L. amazonensis protein of 38.6 kDa calculated molecular mass (LaPSA-38S) sharing an amino acid sequence consistent with that of the PSA polymorphic family and a N-terminal signal peptide, characteristic of a secreted protein. We then screened a L. infantum promastigote DNA cosmid library using a cDNA probe derived from the LaPSA-38S gene and identified a full-length clone of a novel excreted/secreted protein of L. infantum with a calculated molecular mass of 49.2 kDa and named LiPSA-50S. The fact that a significant immunological reactivity was observed against PSA, suggests that these newly identified proteins could have an important immunoregulatory influence on the immune response. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that (i) these proteins were naturally excreted/secreted by viable

  15. Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A S; Harrington, C A; Bonner, J

    1975-01-01

    Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. Images PMID:1060072

  16. Production of Metal-Free Composites Composed of Graphite Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nitride Nanodots and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Yeon; Oh, Junghoon; Park, Sunghee; Shim, Yeonjun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-01

    A novel metal-free composite (GN) composed of two types of carbon-based nanomaterials, graphite oxide (GO) and 2D oxidized carbon nitride (OCN) nanodots was produced. Chemical and morphological characterizations reveal that GN contains a main component of GO with well-dispersed 2D OCN nanodots. GN shows enhanced photocatalytic performance for degrading an organic pollutant, Rhodamine B, under visible light. PMID:26887904

  17. Hierarchical spatial heterogeneity in liquid crystals composed of graphene oxides.

    PubMed

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P; Matsumoto, Yuji; Okumura, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Hirotsugu; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Tanaka, Keiji

    2016-08-10

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a class of two-dimensional materials with a thickness of about 1 nm and a broad distribution of lateral dimension commonly approaching several micrometers. A dispersion of GOs in water often forms a liquid crystal, which is expected to be a promising precursor for the fabrication of carbon-based materials with well-ordered structures. To accelerate the application of GO-based liquid crystals, their structures and physical properties at various sizes must be well understood. To that end, we examined the local rheological properties of GO-based liquid crystals in the nematic phase using a particle tracking technique, where local properties can be accessed by observing the thermal motion of embedded probe particles. Particle diffusion was spatially heterogeneous, and depended on the size of the particles. Such a size-dependent heterogeneity can be associated with a hierarchical local environment, which is time-dependent for this system. The anisotropic particle diffusion originated from particles trapped in between the GO layers and in isotropic-like regions. The aggregation states of the GO dispersion composed of nematic and isotropic-like regions were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:27464002

  18. FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George

    The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.

  19. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities. PMID:9914755

  20. Rheology of granular materials composed of nonconvex particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Cyr, B.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Voivret, C.; Radjai, F.; Sornay, P.

    2011-10-01

    By means of contact dynamics simulations, we investigate the shear strength and internal structure of granular materials composed of two-dimensional nonconvex aggregates. We find that the packing fraction first grows as the nonconvexity is increased but declines at higher nonconvexity. This unmonotonic dependence reflects the competing effects of pore size reduction between convex borders of aggregates and gain in porosity at the nonconvex borders that are captured in a simple model fitting nicely the simulation data both in the isotropic and sheared packings. On the other hand, the internal angle of friction increases linearly with nonconvexity and saturates to a value independent of nonconvexity. We show that fabric anisotropy, force anisotropy, and friction mobilization, all enhanced by multiple contacts between aggregates, govern the observed increase of shear strength and its saturation with increasing nonconvexity. The main effect of interlocking is to dislocate frictional dissipation from the locked double and triple contacts between aggregates to the simple contacts between clusters of aggregates. This self-organization of particle motions allows the packing to keep a constant shear strength at high nonconvexity.

  1. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  2. Rebound: A Framework for Automated Component Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The REBOUND adaptation framework organizes a collection of adaptation tactics in a way that they can be selected based on the components available for adaptation. Adaptation tactics are specified formally in terms of the relationship between the component to be adapted and the resulting adapted component. The tactic specifications are used as matching conditions for specification-based component retrieval, creating a 'retrieval for adaptation' scenario. The results of specification matching are used to guide component adaptation. Several examples illustrate how the framework guides component and tactic selection and how basic tactics are composed to form more powerful tactics.

  3. Implementation of Kane's Method for a Spacecraft Composed of Multiple Rigid Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Equations of motion are derived for a general spacecraft composed of rigid bodies connected via rotary (spherical or gimballed) joints in a tree topology. Several supporting concepts are developed in depth. Basis dyads aid in the transition from basis-free vector equations to component-wise equations. Joint partials allow abstraction of 1-DOF, 2-DOF, 3-DOF gimballed and spherical rotational joints to a common notation. The basic building block consisting of an "inner" body and an "outer" body connected by a joint enables efficient organization of arbitrary tree structures. Kane's equation is recast in a form which facilitates systematic assembly of large systems of equations, and exposes a relationship of Kane's equation to Newton and Euler's equations which is obscured by the usual presentation. The resulting system of dynamic equations is of minimum dimension, and is suitable for numerical solution by computer. Implementation is ·discussed, and illustrative simulation results are presented.

  4. Major Work Program Parent Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This guide is designed to help parents and other interested persons understand the nature and needs of gifted children, to provide ideas and activities that will nurture gifted children, and to explain the components of the Major Work Program, which is the gifted education program of the Cleveland (Ohio) Public School District. The guide outlines…

  5. The seminal symphony: how to compose an ejaculate

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Sirot, Laura; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually-reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water and macromolecules) play vital roles in post-copulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole – and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components – has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes. PMID:23582755

  6. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment.

    PubMed

    Simi, Manuele; Campagne, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  7. Electrochemical machining analysis on grid cathode composed of square cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yonghua; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Dongbiao

    2013-07-01

    During the electrochemical machining (ECM), the cathodes designed by the existing methods are mainly unitary cathodes, which can be only used to produce the workpieces with the same shapes. However, there are few researches on designing cathodes for machining the different workpieces with the different surfaces. This paper presents the grid cathode composed of the square cells to produce the workpieces with different shapes. Three types of the square cells, 2.5 mm×2.5 mm, 3 mm×3 mm, and 4 mm×4 mm, are utilized to construct the plane, the slant, and the blade cathode. The material of the cathode and the anode is CrNi18Ti9, and the ingredient of electrolyte is 15% NaCl and 15% NaNO3. The machining equilibrium machining current and time are acquired and analyzed, the machining process and the workpiece quality are compared between using the grid cathode and the unitary cathode. Moreover, the machining errors on the workpiece surface are measured and analyzed, and the error reasons are traced and discussed to obtain the better surface quality of the workpiece. The experiment and analysis results show that the grid cathode can be used to manufacture the workpieces with complex shapes in certain range of the error. The workpiece quality improves with the size of the square cell being reduced, and if the square element is small enough, the workpiece quality is almost equal to the one machined by the unitary cathode. The proposed research realizes a single cathode machining the different workpieces with the different surfaces.

  8. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment

    PubMed Central

    Simi, Manuele

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  9. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  10. Mars and Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Taking advantage of Mars's closest approach to Earth in eight years, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have taken the space- based observatory's sharpest views yet of the Red Planet. The telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped these images between April 27 and May 6, when Mars was 54 million miles (87 million kilometers) from Earth. From this distance the telescope could see Martian features as small as 12 miles (19 kilometers) wide. The telescope obtained four images, which, together, show the entire planet. Each view depicts the planet as it completes one quarter of its daily rotation. In these views the north polar cap is tilted toward the Earth and is visible prominently at the top of each picture. The images were taken in the middle of the Martian northern summer, when the polar cap had shrunk to its smallest size. During this season the Sun shines continuously on the polar cap. Previous telescopic and spacecraft observations have shown that this summertime 'residual' polar cap is composed of water ice, just like Earth's polar caps. These Hubble telescope snapshots reveal that substantial changes in the bright and dark markings on Mars have occurred in the 20 years since the NASA Viking spacecraft missions first mapped the planet. The Martian surface is dynamic and ever changing. Some regions that were dark 20 years ago are now bright red; some areas that were bright red are now dark. Winds move sand and dust from region to region, often in spectacular dust storms. Over long timescales many of the larger bright and dark markings remain stable, but smaller details come and go as they are covered and then uncovered by sand and dust. The dark feature known as Syrtis Major was first seen telescopically by the astronomer Christiaan Huygens in the 17th century. Many small, dark, circular impact craters can be seen in this region, attesting to the Hubble telescope's ability to reveal fine detail on the planet's surface. To the south of

  11. Chondrites and Their Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.

    Chondrites are extraordinary mixtures of materials with diverse origins that formed around other stars, in the solar nebula, and in their parent asteroids. Most chondrites were so severely altered by aqueous fluids, thermal metamorphism, and impacts that the original characteristics of their components have been largely erased. But a few pristine chondrites have preserved an exquisite mineralogical, chemical, isotopic, and chronological record of the first few million years of solar system history. The properties of diverse types of carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites focusing on the most pristine samples are reviewed to establish the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical properties and origins of their components and to elucidate the asteroidal processes that modified them. Refractory inclusions - amoeboid olivine aggregates and Ca-Al-rich inclusions - were the first solids to form in the solar nebula near to the protosun. Chondrules and associated metallic Fe-Ni grains were still forming several million years later when the earliest planetesimals, which melted due to heat from 26Al decay, were colliding. In the least-altered chondrites, matrix material, which coats chondrules and other components, is largely composed of micrometer-sized silicates and amorphous materials, which formed at high temperatures, plus small amounts (up to 200 ppm) of presolar oxides and silicates.

  12. The Single Component Superinsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getmanets, V. F.; Goncharenko, L. G.; Mikhalchenko, R. S.; Pershin, N. P.; Stears, H.

    Many up-to-date space and ground-based applications require a superinsulation characterized by low outgassing rate, minimal emission of particles and extremely low heat conductivity. All these qualities are featured by a single- component superinsulation blankets composed of metallized film-screens provided with small "dimples" and perforations of very specific size. Our team has optimized and produced material such as this as a result of a great number of multiple successful laboratory tests. We have characterized and documented all of the relevant parameters of such a superinsulation. We have also developed, manufactured and tested a machine intended for large- scale industrial production of "dimpled" and perforated superinsulation. Within this report are presented results of tests for the new superinsulation as related to cryovessels. Resultant data shows that this superinsulation type is the best appropriate one for outer space and terrestrial applications where maximum contamination concerns are present. Several US organizations are presently performing independent evaluation of our material.

  13. NERIES: Seismic Data Gateways and User Composed Datasets Metadata Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinuso, Alessandro; Trani, Luca; Kamb, Linus; Frobert, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    One of the NERIES EC project main objectives is to establish and improve the networking of seismic waveform data exchange and access among four main data centers in Europe: INGV, GFZ, ORFEUS and IPGP. Besides the implementation of the data backbone, several investigations and developments have been conducted in order to offer to the users the data available from this network, either programmatically or interactively. One of the challenges is to understand how to enable users` activities such as discovering, aggregating, describing and sharing datasets to obtain a decrease in the replication of similar data queries towards the network, exempting the data centers to guess and create useful pre-packed products. We`ve started to transfer this task more and more towards the users community, where the users` composed data products could be extensively re-used. The main link to the data is represented by a centralized webservice (SeismoLink) acting like a single access point to the whole data network. Users can download either waveform data or seismic station inventories directly from their own software routines by connecting to this webservice, which routes the request to the data centers. The provenance of the data is maintained and transferred to the users in the form of URIs, that identify the dataset and implicitly refer to the data provider. SeismoLink, combined with other webservices (eg EMSC-QuakeML earthquakes catalog service), is used from a community gateway such as the NERIES web portal (http://www.seismicportal.eu). Here the user interacts with a map based portlet which allows the dynamic composition of a data product, binding seismic event`s parameters with a set of seismic stations. The requested data is collected by the back-end processes of the portal, preserved and offered to the user in a personal data cart, where metadata can be generated interactively on-demand. The metadata, expressed in RDF, can also be remotely ingested. They offer rating

  14. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  15. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options. PMID:23372455

  16. Principles of moment distribution applied to stability of structures composed of bars or plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z; Schuette, Evan H

    1943-01-01

    Principles of the cross method of moment distribution, which have previously been applied to the stability of structures composed of bars under axial load, are applied to the stability of structures composed of long plates under longitudinal load.

  17. Component Technology for Laser Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bosl, W J; Smith, S G; Dahlgren, T; Epperley, T; Kohn, S; Kumfert, G

    2002-06-17

    This paper will discuss the application of high performance component software technology developed for a complex physics simulation development effort. The primary tool used to build software components is called Babel and is used to create language-independent libraries for high performance computers. Components were constructed from legacy code and wrapped with a thin Python layer to enable run-time scripting. Low-level components in Fortran, C++, and Python were composed directly as Babel components and invoked interactively from a parallel Python script.

  18. Optical properties of internally mixed aerosol particles composed of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Miriam A; Hasenkopf, Christa A; Beaver, Melinda R; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2009-12-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of internally mixed aerosol particles composed of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate using cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectroscopy at a wavelength of 532 nm. The real refractive indices of these nonabsorbing species were retrieved from the extinction and concentration of the particles using Mie scattering theory. We obtain refractive indices for pure ammonium sulfate and pure dicarboxylic acids that are consistent with literature values, where they exist, to within experimental error. For mixed particles, however, our data deviates significantly from a volume-weighted average of the pure components. Surprisingly, the real refractive indices of internal mixtures of succinic acid and ammonium sulfate are higher than either of the pure components at the highest organic weight fractions. For binary internal mixtures of oxalic or adipic acid with ammonium sulfate, the real refractive indices of the mixtures are approximately the same as ammonium sulfate for all organic weight fractions. Various optical mixing rules for homogeneous and slightly heterogeneous systems fail to explain the experimental real refractive indices. It is likely that complex particle morphologies are responsible for the observed behavior of the mixed particles. Implications of our results for atmospheric modeling and aerosol structure are discussed. PMID:19877658

  19. Designing a Composable Geometric Toolkit for Versatility in Applications to Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Gregory S.; Campbell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Conceived and implemented through the development of probabilistic risk assessment simulations for Project Constellation, the Geometric Toolkit allows users to create, analyze, and visualize relationships between geometric shapes in three-space using the MATLAB computing environment. The key output of the toolkit is an analysis of how emanations from one "source" geometry (e.g., a leak in a pipe) will affect another "target" geometry (e.g., another heat-sensitive component). It can import computer-aided design (CAD) depictions of a system to be analyzed, allowing the user to reliably and easily represent components within the design and determine the relationships between them, ultimately supporting more technical or physics-based simulations that use the toolkit. We opted to develop a variety of modular, interconnecting software tools to extend the scope of the toolkit, providing the capability to support a range of applications. This concept of simulation composability allows specially-developed tools to be reused by assembling them in various combinations. As a result, the concepts described here and implemented in this toolkit have a wide range of applications outside the domain of risk assessment. To that end, the Geometric Toolkit has been evaluated for use in other unrelated applications due to the advantages provided by its underlying design.

  20. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  1. Rethinking Joseph Janangelo's "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Composition and Communication, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several excerpts from an article written by Joseph Janangelo titled "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts." In his article, Janangelo suggested that Cornell's work and ideas about composing model intelligent ways to composing persuasive nonsequential text. Janangelo also wondered if the use of…

  2. The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoric and composition's increasing attention to multimodal composing involves challenges that go beyond issues of access to digital technologies and electronic composing environments. As a specific case study, this article explores the history of aural composing modalities (speech, music, sound) and examines how they have been understood and…

  3. Isolation and characterization of a proteinaceous subnuclear fraction composed of nuclear matrix, peripheral lamina, and nuclear pore complexes from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P A; Berrios, M; Blobel, G

    1982-03-01

    Morphologically intact nuclei have been prepared from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster by a simple and rapid procedure. These nuclei have been further treated with high concentrations of DNase I and RNase A followed by sequential extraction with 2% Triton X-100 and 1 M NaCl to produce a structurally and biochemically distinct preparation designated Drosophila subnuclear fraction I (DSNF-I). As seen by phase-contrast microscopy, DSNF-I is composed of material which closely resembles unfractionated nuclei; residual internal nuclear structures including nucleolar remnants are clearly visible. By transmission electron microscopy, nuclear lamina, pore complexes, and a nuclear matrix are similarly identified. Biochemically, DSNF-I is composed almost entirely of protein (greater than 93%). SDS PAGE analysis reveals several major polypeptides; species at 174,000, 74,000, and 42,000 predominate. A polypeptide coincident with the Coomassie Blue-stainable 174-kdalton band has been shown by a novel technique of lectin affinity labeling to be a glycoprotein; a glycoprotein of similar or identical molecular weight has been found to be a component of nuclear envelope fractions isolated from the livers of rats, guinea pigs, opossums, and chickens. Antisera against several of the polypeptides in DSNF-I have been obtained from rabbits, and all of them show only little or no cross-reactivity with Drosophila cytoplasmic fractions. Initial results of immunocytochemical studies, while failing to positively localize either the 174- or 16-kdalton polypeptides, demonstrate a nuclear localization of the 74-kdalton antigen in all of several interphase cell types obtained from both Drosophila embryos and third-instar larvae. PMID:6177701

  4. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  5. Effect of different drying methods on the quality of Angelicae Sinensis Radix evaluated through simultaneously determining four types of major bioactive components by high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detector and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying-Jia; Kong, Ming; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Song-Lin

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of drying methods on the quality of Angelicae Sinensis Radix (DG), was evaluated by newly developed high performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). Ten major bioactive components including two phenolic acids, two hydroxyl phthalides, four alkyl phthalides and two phthalide dimers were selected as evaluation chemical markers and the newly-established method was qualitatively and quantitatively validated. DG slices and whole roots dried in shade, sun light, hot air, vacuum, microwave, far infrared ray and combination of microwave and far infrared ray as well as the fresh DG samples were determined by the established methods. DG slices dried in hot air kept the similar chemical composition to that of fresh DG, while DG whole roots dried in vacuum retained highest contents of the major components. Coniferyl ferulate and ligustilide degraded significantly in DG slices dried by microwave, far infrared ray and their combination. The influence of such chemical changes induced by different drying methods on the bioactivities of DG warrants further investigation, so that the optimal drying method can be obtained for the standardization of DG herb. PMID:24561333

  6. Sheet music by mind: Towards a brain-computer interface for composing.

    PubMed

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Muller-Putz, Gernot R

    2015-08-01

    Providing brain-computer interface (BCI) users engaging applications should be one of the main targets in BCI research. A painting application, a web browser and other applications can already be controlled via BCI. Another engaging application would be a music composer for self-expression. In this work, we describe Brain Composing: A BCI controlled music composing software. We tested and evaluated the implemented brain composing system with five volunteers. Using a tap water-based electrode biosignal amplifier further improved the usability of the system. Three participants reached accuracies above 77% and were able to copy-compose a given melody. Results of questionnaires support that our brain composing system is an attractive and easy way to compose music via a BCI. PMID:26736446

  7. Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

  8. Optimal read/write memory system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozma, A.; Vander Lugt, A.; Klinger, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two holographic data storage and display systems, voltage gradient ionization system, and linear strain manipulation system are discussed in terms of creating fast, high bit density, storage device. Components described include: novel mounting fixture for photoplastic arrays; corona discharge device; and block data composer.

  9. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  10. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  11. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  12. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development. PMID:25841572

  13. Solid state formulations composed by amphiphilic polymers for delivery of proteins: characterization and stability.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Fernanda; Fonte, Pedro; Oliva, Mireia; Videira, Mafalda; Ferreira, Domingos; Sarmento, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite powders composed by polymeric micelles as vehicles for delivery proteins were developed in this work, using insulin as model protein. Results showed that size and polydispersity of micelles were dependent on the amphiphilic polymer used, being all lower than 300 nm, while all the formulations displayed spherical shape and surface charge close to neutrality. Percentages of association efficiency and loading capacity up to 94.15 ± 3.92 and 8.56 ± 0.36, respectively, were obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that insulin was partially present at the hydrophilic shell of the micelles. Lyophilization did not significantly change the physical characteristics of micelles, further providing easily dispersion when in contact to aqueous medium. The native-like conformation of insulin was maintained at high percentages (around 80%) after lyophilization as indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and far-UV circular dichroism (CD). Moreover, Raman spectroscopy did not evidenced significant interactions among the formulation components. The formulations shown to be physically stable upon storage up to 6 months both at room-temperature (20 °C) and fridge (4 °C), with only a slight loss (maximum of 15%) of the secondary structure of the protein. Among the polymers tested, Pluronic(®) F127 produced the carrier formulations more promising for delivery of proteins. PMID:25818062

  14. Conventional Kinesin Holoenzymes Are Composed of Heavy and Light Chain Homodimers†

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Scott R.; You, YiMei; Szodorai, Anita; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Pigino, Gustavo; Nwabuisi, Evelyn; Wang, Bin; Estrada-Hernandez, Tatiana; Kins, Stefan; Brady, Scott T.; Morfini, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Conventional kinesin is a major microtubule-based motor protein responsible for anterograde transport of various membrane-bounded organelles (MBO) along axons. Structurally, this molecular motor protein is a tetrameric complex composed of two heavy (kinesin-1) chains and two light chain (KLC) subunits. The products of three kinesin-1 (kinesin-1A, -1B, and -1C, formerly KIF5A, -B, and -C) and two KLC (KLC1, KLC2) genes are expressed in mammalian nervous tissue, but the functional significance of this subunit heterogeneity remains unknown. In this work, we examine all possible combinations among conventional kinesin subunits in brain tissue. In sharp contrast with previous reports, immunoprecipitation experiments here demonstrate that conventional kinesin holoenzymes are formed of kinesin-1 homodimers. Similar experiments confirmed previous findings of KLC homodimerization. Additionally, no specificity was found in the interaction between kinesin-1s and KLCs, suggesting the existence of six variant forms of conventional kinesin, as defined by their gene product composition. Subcellular fractionation studies indicate that such variants associate with biochemically different MBOs and further suggest a role of kinesin-1s in the targeting of conventional kinesin holoenzymes to specific MBO cargoes. Taken together, our data address the combination of subunits that characterize endogenous conventional kinesin. Findings on the composition and subunit organization of conventional kinesin as described here provide a molecular basis for the regulation of axonal transport and delivery of selected MBOs to discrete subcellular locations. PMID:18361505

  15. An experimental vaccine composed of two adjuvants gives protection against Mycoplasma bovis in calves.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Katarzyna; Bednarek, Dariusz; Ayling, Roger D; Kycko, Anna; Szacawa, Ewelina; Karpińska, Teresa A

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen affecting cattle causing bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and other disorders. Only autogenous vaccines made specifically for individual farms are available in parts of Europe and the United States. A novel experimental vaccine composed of a field M. bovis isolate combined with saponin and Emulsigen(®) adjuvants was evaluated. Eighteen 3-4 week old calves were placed in three equal groups: vaccinated (Vac), positive control (PC) and negative control (NC). The Vac calves were subcutaneously injected with 8ml of the vaccine; the PC and NC calves received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Three weeks later the Vac and PC calves were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain, the NC group received PBS. Throughout the study clinical observations, microbiology and immunological tests were carried out. Three weeks post challenge two calves from each group were euthanased for necropsy and histopathological examination. The vaccine effectively stimulated the humoral immune response, with high titres of anti-M. bovis specific antibodies and total Ig concentration. This vaccine also intensified the IgA response. A clinically protective effect of the vaccine was demonstrated as it also reduced the gross pathological lung lesions and nasal shedding of M. bovis. PMID:27156637

  16. Hydropower major rehabilitation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Norlin, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Corps of Engineers has developed an active Major Rehabilitation Program to handle large, long duration restoration projects. These projects are funded by specific appropriations and subsequently are required to have detailed rehabilitation plans to justify the work. The emphasis of the Major Rehabilitation Program is correcting reliability problems. Papers that were presented at Waterpower `93 discussed the basic concepts that are required in preparing a Major Rehabilitation Evaluation Report. This paper will cover the current status of each of the current major rehabilitation projects that the Corps of Engineers has in progress.

  17. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  18. Transforming Experience: Negotiations of Sexual Identity in the Composing Processes of Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiating meaning, knowledge, and identity is fundamental to composing processes. These negotiations occur both individually and socially for writers. Sexual identity is an intrinsic part of these negotiations, but is often overlooked by researchers. This study explored the phenomenon of negotiating sexual identity in the composing processes of…

  19. Rethinking Composing in a Digital Age: Authoring Literate Identities through Multimodal Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasudevan, Lalitha; Schultz, Katherine; Bateman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors engage the theoretical lens of multimodality in rethinking the practices and processes of composing in classrooms. Specifically, they focus on how learning new composing practices led some fifth-grade students to author new literate identities--what they call authorial stances--in their classroom community. Their…

  20. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  1. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  2. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  3. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  4. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  5. Composing with an Eye to the Unexpected: An Interview with John Heiss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Helen Bohn

    1984-01-01

    John Heiss, a teacher and composer, describes how he came to write "Songs of Nature," a song cycle with text by nineteenth-century American poets. Heiss believes that, though a composer must know his craft, there should be room for intuition and the emotions in the creative process. (CS)

  6. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  7. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  8. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  9. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  10. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  11. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  12. Development of Safeguards System Simulator Composed of Multi-Functional Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Ihara, Hitoshi

    Due to the large plutonium (Pu) throughput and high burn-up fuel in an advanced reprocessing facility, we are faced with the inevitable increasing burden of nuclear material accountancy (NMA) to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards criteria. A large volume of sampling analysis and inspectors' activities result in a great cost for facility operation. Therefore, it is increasingly important to evaluate a cost-effective performance for the safeguards system. In order to design an advanced safeguards system, we have initiated the development of a safeguards system simulator. The simulator is composed of several interrelated cores and a separate core is planned to develop. The NMA core is a near-real-time accounting (NRTA) code that had been originally developed more than ten years ago and has been improved on an objective-driven pre- and post-processor. A multivariate and multi-scale core based on a principle component analysis with a wavelet technique has been developed to provide an algorithm of process monitoring. The time and frequency decomposition was verified to be an effective technique to detect an abnormal event. In addition, a multiple optimization core has been developed with a fuzzy-linear-programming technique to investigate the cost-effective performance of the conceptual safeguards system. It is shown that a combination of flow-meter and non-destructive assay can be applied to the system in a cost-effective manner. In the future, a virtual design core will be developed to support a walk-through and three dimensional visible plant model.

  13. Cognitive Components of Developmental Writing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Roberts, Kristin L.; Stafford, Allison L.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of studies have examined the cognitive components of basic academic skills, which has led to major changes in both teaching and early identification assessment practices. However, the majority of previous research has focused solely on reading. This study examines the cognitive components of academic writing skills across…

  14. Unmasking the effect of a precipitation pulse on the biological processes composing Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sanchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Drylands occupy 47.2% of the global terrestrial area and are key ecosystems that significantly determine the inter-annual variability of the global carbon balance. However, it is still necessary to delve into the functional behavior of arid and semiarid ecosystems due to the complexity of drivers and interactions between underpinning processes (whether biological or abiotic) that modulate net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In this context, water inputs are crucial to biological organisms survival in arid ecosystems and frequently arrive via rain events that are commonly stochastic and unpredictable (i.e. precipitation pulses) and strongly control arid land ecosystem structure and function. The eddy covariance technique can be used to investigate the effect of precipitation pulses on NEE, but provide limited understanding of what exactly happens after a rain event. The chief reasons are that, firstly, we cannot measure separately autotrophic and heterotrophic components, and secondly, the partitioning techniques widely utilized to separate Gross Primary Production and Total Ecosystem Respiration, do not work properly in these water-limited ecosystems, resulting in biased estimations of plant and soil processes. Consequently, it is essential to combine eddy covariance measurements with other techniques to disentangle the different biological processes composing NEE that are activated by a precipitation pulse. Accordingly, the main objectives of this work were: (i) to quantify the contribution of precipitation pulse events to annual NEE using the eddy covariance technique in a semiarid steppe located in Almería (Spain), and (ii) to simulate a realistic precipitation pulse in order to understand its effect on the ecosystem, soil and plant CO2 exchanges by using a transitory-state closed canopy chamber, soil respiration chambers and continuous monitoring CO2 sensors inserted in the subsoil. Preliminary results showed, as expected, a delay between soil and plant

  15. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  16. Neisseria meningitidis Type IV Pili Composed of Sequence Invariable Pilins Are Masked by Multisite Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Gault, Joseph; Ferber, Mathias; Machata, Silke; Imhaus, Anne-Flore; Malosse, Christian; Charles-Orszag, Arthur; Millien, Corinne; Bouvier, Guillaume; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Klinge, Kelly; Podglajen, Isabelle; Ploy, Marie Cécile; Seifert, H Steven; Nilges, Michael; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Duménil, Guillaume

    2015-09-01

    The ability of pathogens to cause disease depends on their aptitude to escape the immune system. Type IV pili are extracellular filamentous virulence factors composed of pilin monomers and frequently expressed by bacterial pathogens. As such they are major targets for the host immune system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, strains expressing class I pilins contain a genetic recombination system that promotes variation of the pilin sequence and is thought to aid immune escape. However, numerous hypervirulent clinical isolates express class II pilins that lack this property. This raises the question of how they evade immunity targeting type IV pili. As glycosylation is a possible source of antigenic variation it was investigated using top-down mass spectrometry to provide the highest molecular precision on the modified proteins. Unlike class I pilins that carry a single glycan, we found that class II pilins display up to 5 glycosylation sites per monomer on the pilus surface. Swapping of pilin class and genetic background shows that the pilin primary structure determines multisite glycosylation while the genetic background determines the nature of the glycans. Absence of glycosylation in class II pilins affects pilus biogenesis or enhances pilus-dependent aggregation in a strain specific fashion highlighting the extensive functional impact of multisite glycosylation. Finally, molecular modeling shows that glycans cover the surface of class II pilins and strongly decrease antibody access to the polypeptide chain. This strongly supports a model where strains expressing class II pilins evade the immune system by changing their sugar structure rather than pilin primary structure. Overall these results show that sequence invariable class II pilins are cloaked in glycans with extensive functional and immunological consequences. PMID:26367394

  17. Neisseria meningitidis Type IV Pili Composed of Sequence Invariable Pilins Are Masked by Multisite Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Joseph; Ferber, Mathias; Machata, Silke; Imhaus, Anne-Flore; Malosse, Christian; Charles-Orszag, Arthur; Millien, Corinne; Bouvier, Guillaume; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Klinge, Kelly; Podglajen, Isabelle; Ploy, Marie Cécile; Seifert, H. Steven; Nilges, Michael; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Duménil, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to cause disease depends on their aptitude to escape the immune system. Type IV pili are extracellular filamentous virulence factors composed of pilin monomers and frequently expressed by bacterial pathogens. As such they are major targets for the host immune system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, strains expressing class I pilins contain a genetic recombination system that promotes variation of the pilin sequence and is thought to aid immune escape. However, numerous hypervirulent clinical isolates express class II pilins that lack this property. This raises the question of how they evade immunity targeting type IV pili. As glycosylation is a possible source of antigenic variation it was investigated using top-down mass spectrometry to provide the highest molecular precision on the modified proteins. Unlike class I pilins that carry a single glycan, we found that class II pilins display up to 5 glycosylation sites per monomer on the pilus surface. Swapping of pilin class and genetic background shows that the pilin primary structure determines multisite glycosylation while the genetic background determines the nature of the glycans. Absence of glycosylation in class II pilins affects pilus biogenesis or enhances pilus-dependent aggregation in a strain specific fashion highlighting the extensive functional impact of multisite glycosylation. Finally, molecular modeling shows that glycans cover the surface of class II pilins and strongly decrease antibody access to the polypeptide chain. This strongly supports a model where strains expressing class II pilins evade the immune system by changing their sugar structure rather than pilin primary structure. Overall these results show that sequence invariable class II pilins are cloaked in glycans with extensive functional and immunological consequences. PMID:26367394

  18. The process of VNA affiliation with a major teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, M D

    1992-01-01

    Affiliation among agencies with differing staff, resources, organizational structure, policies, and programs is never easy. The author discusses major components of an affiliation between a visiting nurse association and its former competitor--a major teaching hospital. PMID:1506912

  19. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  20. Twenty-Five Years of Scholarship on Second Language Composing Processes: 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Tony; Kapper, Jessie; Brice, Colleen; Matsuda, Paul Kei; Reichelt, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    This bibliography includes both an annotated and unannotated section on research conducted on second language composing processes in the last 25 years. It includes both published and unpublished material. (Author/VWL)

  1. Optimum Running Condition of Honeycomb Type Rotation Desiccant Device Composed of Polymer Sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Takahisa; Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko

    This paper deals with the optimum running conditions of honeycomb rotor composed of new polymer sorbent which was composed of the cross-linked polymer of sodium acrylate. At first, overall mass transfer coefficient of the honeycomb rotor for numerical computation was derived by the experimental results from the model experimental apparatus. Numerical simulations could predict the optimum running conditions of the honeycomb rotor such as the revolution number of the honeycomb rotor against the inflow air velocity and honeycomb length etc.

  2. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    PubMed

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well. PMID:25880825

  3. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape. PMID:27381794

  4. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  5. EP component identification and measurement by principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R M; McCrary, J W

    1995-04-01

    Between the acquisition of Evoked Potential (EP) data and their interpretation lies a major problem: What to measure? An approach to this kind of problem is outlined here in terms of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). An important second theme is that experimental manipulation is important to functional interpretation. It would be desirable to have a system of EP measurement with the following characteristics: (1) represent the data in a concise, parsimonous way; (2) determine EP components from the data without assuming in advance any particular waveforms for the components; (3) extract components which are independent of each other; (4) measure the amounts (contributions) of various components in observed EPs; (5) use measures that have greater reliability than measures at any single time point or peak; and (6) identify and measure components that overlap in time. PCA has these desirable characteristics. Simulations are illustrated. PCA's beauty also has some warts that are discussed. In addition to discussing the usual two-mode model of PCA, an extension of PCA to a three-mode model is described that provides separate parameters for (1) waveforms over time, (2) coefficients for spatial distribution, and (3) scores telling the amount of each component in each EP. PCA is compared with more traditional approaches. Some biophysical considerations are briefly discussed. Choices to be made in applying PCA are considered. Other issues include misallocation of variance, overlapping components, validation, and latency changes. PMID:7626278

  6. CrusDe: A plug-in based simulation framework for composable CRUStal DEformation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.

    2008-12-01

    Within geoscience, Green's method is an established mathematical tool to analyze the dynamics of the Earth's crust in response to the application of a mass force, e.g. a surface load. Different abstractions from the Earth's interior as well as the particular effects caused by such a force are expressed by means of a Green's function, G, which is a particular solution to an inhomogeneous differential equation with boundary conditions. Surface loads, L, are defined by real data or as analytical expressions. The response of the crust to a surface load is gained by a 2D-convolution (**) of the Green's function with this load. The crustal response can be thought of as an instantaneous displacement which is followed by a gradual transition towards the final relaxed state of displacement. A relaxation function, R, describing such a transition depends on the rheological model for the ductile layer of the crust. The 1D-convolution (*) of the relaxation function with a load history, H, allows to include the temporal evolution of the surface load into a model. The product of the two convolution results expresses the displacement (rate) of the crust, U, at a certain time t: Ut = (R * H)t · (G ** L) Rather than implementing a variety of specific models, approaching crustal deformation problems from the general formulation in equation~1 opens the opportunity to consider reuse of model building blocks within a more flexible simulation framework. Model elements (Green's function, load function, etc.), operators, pre- and postprocessing, and even input and output routines could be part of a framework that enables a user to freely compose software components to resemble equation~1. The simulation framework CrusDe implements equation~1 in the proposed way. CrusDe's architecture defines interfaces for generic communication between the simulation core and the model elements. Thus, exchangeability of the particular model element implementations is possible. In the presented plug

  7. Hygroscopic Properties of Internally Mixed Particles Composed of NaCl and Water-Soluble Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray elemental microanalysis.Hygroscopic properties of inte rnally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of Na-malonate and Na-glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  8. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles. PMID:24437520

  9. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  10. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  11. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  12. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  13. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25973865

  14. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, James A.; Bailey, Jack N.; Chesnut, Dwayne; Compton, James; Snell, Richard D.

    1997-11-10

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS).

  15. Major SSC tunneling begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project.

  16. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  17. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  18. Inelastic behavior of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N.; Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    A more accurate procedure was developed for the determination of the inelastic behavior of structural components. The actual stress-strain curve for the mathematical of the structure was utilized to generate the force-deformation relationships for the structural elements, rather than using simplified models such as elastic-plastic, bilinear and trilinear approximations. relationships were generated for beam elements with various types of cross sections. In the generational of these curves, stress or load reversals, kinematic hardening and hysteretic behavior were taken into account. Intersections between loading and unloading branches were determined through an iterative process. Using the inelastic properties obtained, the plastic static response of some simple structural systems composed of beam elements was computed. Results were compared with known solutions, indicating a considerable improvement over response predictions obtained by means of simplified approximations used in previous investigations.

  19. [Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antelava, N A; Pachkoriia, K Z; Kezeli, T D; Nikuradze, N S; Shamkulashvili, G G

    2005-11-01

    The experimental and clinical data concerning pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis are summarized and analyzed in this article. Major concepts that explain initiation and progressive growth of atherosclerosis such as lipid infiltrations, response to disturbing factors, "response on the keeping of particles" and inflammatory processes are discussed. These concepts are considered as base for integral theory of atherosclerosis according which the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis are the result of the universal response reaction of endothelium to the various disturbing risk factors. Chronic inflammation leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions among cells derived from the endothelium, smooth muscle and several blood cell components and causes oxidative stress, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, oxidative modification of LDL, uptake and macrophage foam cell formation, endothelium dysfunction. Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, oxidative modification of LDL, lipid infiltration, endothelial dysfunction closely interact, forming close vicious circles which leads to metabolic and morphological disturbances, re-modulation of blood vessels, cardiovascular diseases and such complication as cardiac infarction and stroke. Pathogenic peculiarities of atherosclerosis are the theoretic base to the elaboration of therapeutic strategy. Endothelium may be discussed as a new therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. So far as the leukotrienes play an important role in inflammatory processes, it is suggested that the leukotrienes may be as a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16369071

  20. Plasmenylethanolamine synthesis in Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Pawlowic, Mattie C; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Moitra, Samrat; Biyani, Neha; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are ubiquitous cell membrane components. Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania synthesize the majority of their ethanolamine glycerophospholipids as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or plasmenylethanolamine (PME) through the Kennedy pathway. PME is a subtype of ether phospholipids also known as ethanolamine plasmalogen whose functions are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of PME synthesis in Leishmania major through the characterization of an ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) mutant. EPT-null parasites are largely devoid of PME and fully viable in regular medium but fail to proliferate in the absence of fetal bovine serum. They exhibit significant abnormalities in the synthesis and localization of GPI-anchored surface molecules. EPT-null mutants also show attenuated virulence in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, in addition to PME synthesis, ethanolamine also contributes to the production of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant class of lipids in Leishmania. Together, these findings suggest that ethanolamine production is likely required for Leishmania promastigotes to generate bulk phospholipids, to handle stress, and to control the expression of membrane bound virulence factors. PMID:27062077

  1. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  2. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  3. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  4. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  5. MO-A-BRD-05: Evaluation of Composed Lung Ventilation with 4DCT and Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, K; Bayouth, J; Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G; Zhao, B; Ding, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Regional pulmonary function can be derived using fourdimensional computed tomography (4DCT) combined with deformable image registration. However, only peak inhale and exhale phases have been used thus far while the lung ventilation during intermediate phases is not considered. In our previous work, we have investigated the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of lung ventilation and its dependence on respiration effort. In this study, composed ventilation is introduced using all inspiration phases and compared to direct ventilation. Both methods are evaluated against Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: Using an in-house tissue volume preserving deformable image registration, unlike the direct ventilation method, which computes from end expiration to end inspiration, Jacobian ventilation maps were computed from one inhale phase to the next and then composed from all inspiration steps. The two methods were compared in both patients prior to RT and mechanically ventilated sheep subjects. In addition, they wereassessed for the correlation with Xe-CT derived ventilation in sheep subjects. Annotated lung landmarks were used to evaluate the accuracy of original and composed deformation field. Results: After registration, the landmark distance for composed deformation field was always higher than that for direct deformation field (0IN to 100IN average in human: 1.03 vs 1.53, p=0.001, and in sheep: 0.80 vs0.94, p=0.009), and both increased with longer phase interval. Direct and composed ventilation maps were similar in both sheep (gamma pass rate 87.6) and human subjects (gamma pass rate 71.9),and showed consistent pattern from ventral to dorsal when compared to Xe-CT derived ventilation. Correlation coefficient between Xe-CT and composed ventilation was slightly better than the direct method but not significant (average 0.89 vs 0.85, p=0.135). Conclusion: More strict breathing control in sheep subjects may explain higher similarity between direct and composed ventilation

  6. Quantum teleportation through an entangled state composed of displaced vacuum and single-photon states

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2008-03-15

    We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.

  7. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    PubMed

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology. PMID:10718524

  8. Etude theorique des fluctuations structurales dans les composes organiques a dimensionnalite reduite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Benoit

    Les systemes a dimensionnalite reduite constituent maintenant une branche entiere de la physique de la matiere condensee. Cette derniere s'est developpee rapidement au cours des dernieres annees, avec la decouverte des materiaux organiques qui presentent, justement, des proprietes physiques fortement anisotropes. Cette these presente une etude en trois parties de plusieurs composes organiques qui, bien que tres differents du point de vue de leurs compositions chimiques et de leurs proprietes physiques a haute temperature, subissent tous une instabilite structurale a tres basse temperature. De plus, dans chacun des cas, l'instabilite structurale est precedee d'un important regime fluctuatif a partir duquel les proprietes physiques changent de maniere significative. Notre etude suit un ordre chronologique inverse puisque nous nous attardons en premier lieu au cas de composes recemment decouverts: les composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X (X = PF6 , AsF6). Ces derniers sont des isolants magnetiques a la temperature ambiante et subissent une instabilite structurale de type spin-Peierls a une temperature appelee TSP. En particulier, nous nous interessons a l'etude des proprietes physiques de ces systemes dans le regime fluctuatif, qui precede cette instabilite. Notre etude theorique nous permet de comprendre en detail comment ces systemes s'approchent de l'instabilite struturale. Dans la seconde partie de cette these, nous etudions le regime fluctuatif (pre-transitionnel) observe experimentalement dans le compose de (TMTTF)2PF6. Ce compose organique, dont la structure s'apparente aux sels de Bechgaard, subit une instabilite de type spin-Peierls a une temperature T SP = 19K. Bien que ce compose possede la particularite d'etre un bon conducteur a la temperature ambiante, il subit une transition de type Mott-Hubbard a une temperature Trho ≈ 220K et devient alors un isolant magnetique, analogue aux composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X. Le regime fluctuatif precedant l

  9. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  10. Multimodality: An Illuminating Approach to Unravelling the Complexities of Composing with ICT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Having previously been employed to investigate science and English classrooms and listening in the music classroom, theories of multimodality would appear to have much to contribute to an examination of group composing using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), owing to the multimodal nature of music software and group discourse. This…

  11. Reading during Sentence Composing and Error Correction: A Multilevel Analysis of the Influences of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waes, Luuk; Leijten, Marielle; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of reading, how writers coordinate editing with other writing processes. In particular, the experiment examines how the cognitive demands of sentence composing and the type of error influence the reading and writing performance. We devised an experimental writing task in which participants corrected an…

  12. Composing: The Art of Letting Your Right Brain Recognize What Your Left Brain is Recalling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to show teachers that composing is the conveying of "knowing" and that students' growth in writing is frequently stunted by teachers' stress on correct spelling, word choice, and syntax in student writing. Topics discussed in the paper include the following: the presence of "memories and experiences, cinemas, radio…

  13. Research as a Recursive Process: Reconsidering "The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers" 35 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Sondra Perl's retrospective review of the composing processes of unskilled college writers and whether her assumptions and values in the designing of research projects have changed over her long teaching career. She uses her college dissertation "Five Writers Writing" as the basis to reflect on the authors and…

  14. Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…

  15. Elicitation of the "Passe Compose" in French Preschoolers with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royle, Phaedra; Thordardottir, Elin T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines inflectional abilities in French-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) using a verb elicitation task. Eleven children with SLI and age-matched controls (37-52 months) participated in the experiment. We elicited the "passe compose" using eight regular and eight irregular high frequency verbs matched for age…

  16. Learning Design and Proscription: How Generative Activity Was Promoted in Music Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a particular aspect of a PhD study into pupil composing in music classrooms with information and communications technology (ICT). Two case studies based in England investigated the work of two groups of pupils in different phases of education, one aged 12-13 (secondary) and the other 10-11 (primary). A theoretical lens that…

  17. Estimating Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Tests Composed of Testlets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guemin

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriateness and implication of incorporating a testlet definition into the estimation of the conditional standard error of measurement (SEM) for tests composed of testlets. The five conditional SEM estimation methods used in this study were classified into two categories: item-based and…

  18. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  19. The Heart of the Matter: Composing Music with an Adolescent with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2008-01-01

    As a support worker for adolescents with special needs, I have found that they have few opportunities to play music. While previous research emphasizes that students with special needs can enjoy music in multiple capacities, little has been written about their ability to play, improvise, or compose. I employed a qualitative approach for this case…

  20. The Organisation and Assessment of Composing at Key Stage 4 in English Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan; Fautley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores secondary school music teachers' current practice with regard to the organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4. It draws on research undertaken on a nation-wide basis in England, via the use of two online surveys and face-to-face interviews. In terms of the organisation of classroom composition, the study found…

  1. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  2. Compositional Strategies and Musical Creativity When Composing with Staff Notations versus Graphic Notations among Korean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auh, Myung-Sook; Walker, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Examines compositional strategies and musical creativity of 38 seventh-grade students in junior high schools in Seoul (Korea) when composing with staff notations (traditional group) versus graphic notations (non-traditional group). Finds that musical creativity levels were judged to be significantly higher in the non-traditional compositions. (CMK)

  3. Children Composing and Their Visual-Spatial Approach to the Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the already existing findings of children's compositional strategies and products. Despite the abundance of research provided regarding the manner in which children approach composing, little has been found about how children deal, specifically, with the structure of the keyboard. Therefore, from a context in which…

  4. The Charlotte Civic Orchestra's Composer-in-the-Schools Project: Teaching Artistry in the Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Elda

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Composer-in-the-Schools Project, which successfully launched the Charlotte Civic Orchestra's Education and Outreach Program in a meaningful way by providing a unique opportunity for many young middle school orchestra students. Students who participated in the project, their parents, school administrators, and Charlotte…

  5. Reading as Mediated and Mediating Action: Composing Meaning for Literature through Multimedia Interpretive Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the effort of a small group of high school seniors to interpret the character of Laertes in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" through a "body biography," a life-sized human outline they filled with images and words representing their understanding of the character. Examines their discussion as they composed their text. (PA)

  6. Influence Techniques in Dyads Composed of Interdependent Middle and Lower Class Preschool Children. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Howard M.; Russell, Richard L.

    The procedures by which children from lower and middle class backgrounds attempt to obtain rewarding outcomes from each other were observed under semicontrolled conditions. Ten male and 9 female dyads, each composed of 1 middle class and 1 lower class preschool child, were required to complete 12 simple block puzzles in which each was given some…

  7. Teaching the Passe Compose and the Imparfait in French: Traditional versus Aspectual Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, C. L.

    A study compared the effectiveness of two methods of teaching the passe compose and imparfait of French verbs. Sixty community college students were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, one taught with the traditional method focusing on rules governing tense application, and the other taught by the aspectual method, which treats the…

  8. Processes Involved in Composing a Narration in a First and a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowie, David G.; Schallert, Diane L.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of the processes used to compose a story, 12 Portuguese/English bilingual adults created narrations for 2 published, wordless picture stories and, while viewing a videotape of their narration, recalled aloud the processes they used in constructing the stories. One study was narrated in Portuguese and the other in English. The narrations…

  9. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  10. Let Cinderella and Luke Skywalker Help You Teach the Passe Compose and Imperfect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    Instructional materials for the passe compose and imperfect tenses in French use the technique of presenting familiar stories in the foreign language, written in the present tense, which students must place in the past by changing verb forms. The objective is to avoid the disadvantages of simply translating verb tenses and to allow the student to…

  11. Envisioning Collaborative Composing in Music Education: Learning and Negotiation of Meaning in "operabyyou.com"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partti, Heidi; Westerlund, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative instrumental case study examines collaborative composing in the "operabyyou.com" online music community from the perspective of learning by utilising the concept of a "community of practice" as a heuristic frame. The article suggests that although informal music practices offer important opportunities for…

  12. Transdisciplinary Dimensions in the Composing Activities of Children: Transfer of Strategies and Transformation of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies show the value of using visual expression as a means of teaching children to understand and create music. This study aspires to point out an additional valuable aspect, namely, the influence composing via visual expression--whereby children transform their own drawings--may have on children's subsequent compositional processes.…

  13. Reading, Writing, and Knowing: The Role of Disciplinary Knowledge in Comprehension and Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes synthesis essays of graduate students for the importance and origin of information and for the quality of key rhetorical moves. Confirms the interrelatedness of comprehension and composing processes and illustrates how writers, with varying levels of topic familiarity, use both their knowledge of disciplinary topics and their experience…

  14. Beyond Clara Schumann: Integrating Women Composers and Performers into General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artesani, Laura

    2012-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive and balanced curriculum, the accomplishments of women composers and performers must be included in general music classes. This article addresses obstacles that have challenged women musicians and provides an outline for a unit that highlights seven American women who have achieved significant "firsts" in the world of…

  15. Redesigning and Transforming: A Case Study of the Role of Semiotic Import in Early Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the role of semiotic import (Van Leeuwen, 2005) in the composing processes of three bilingual students (six to seven years old) emerging as writers of English. Using social semiotic (Van Leeuwen, 2005) and design (New London Group, 2000) frameworks, I trace a qualitative "micro-history" of how the students imported…

  16. Suggest-Choose-Plan-Compose: A Strategy to Help Students Learn to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesendanger, Katherine Davis; Perry, Jeannine Rajewski; Braun, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a strategy to support students' development of creative writing and construction of text in a sequential manner. The goal of the Suggest-Choose-Plan-Compose (SCPC) strategy is to improve students' ability to create a story by helping them clarify their thoughts as they generate and organize ideas and basic story elements.…

  17. Impairment and Distress Judgments of Symptoms Composing Childhood Externalizing and Internalizing Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Andrew J.; Watson, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of perceived dysfunction associated with symptoms composing the externalizing childhood disorder syndrome was compared to the pattern characterizing the internalizing syndrome. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N = 205) judged the social impairment, academic/occupational impairment and personal distress associated with symptoms from…

  18. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  19. Bending Elasticity Modulus of Giant Vesicles Composed of Aeropyrum Pernix K1 Archaeal Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Genova, Julia; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10−19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10−19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) × 10−19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems. PMID:25821933

  20. Composing across Multiple Media: A Case Study of Digital Video Production in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of two students' composing processes as they developed a documentary video about the Dominican Republic in an urban, public middle school classroom. While using a digital video editing program, the students moved across multiple media (the Web, digital video, books, and writing), drawing semiotic resources from…

  1. Writing as Embodied, College Football Plays as Embodied: Extracurricular Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifenburg, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent explorations position multimodality as a largely curricular practice wherein the body typically is not figured as a potential mode of meaning making. Such a projection not only fails to acknowledge extracurricular uses of such a rhetoric but also fails to acknowledge the role of the body in and especially for composing. In hopes of…

  2. Bending elasticity modulus of giant vesicles composed of aeropyrum pernix k1 archaeal lipid.

    PubMed

    Genova, Julia; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10-19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10-19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) ´ 10-19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems. PMID:25821933

  3. Donkey Kong in Little Bear Country: A First Grader's Composing Development in the Media Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data collected in an ethnographic project in an urban first grade to examine how media use informs child composing. Focuses on the influence of visual media involving animation. Concludes with a consideration of the teaching challenges posed, and opportunities offered, by the children's media use. (Author)

  4. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter surveys the analytical techniques used to determine the concentrations of aerosol mass and its chemical components. The techniques surveyed include mass, major ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), organic carbon, elemental carbon, and trace elements. As reported in...

  5. Streptococcus salivarius Fimbriae Are Composed of a Glycoprotein Containing a Repeated Motif Assembled into a Filamentous Nondissociable Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Céline; Vadeboncoeur, Christian; Chandad, Fatiha; Frenette, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius, a gram-positive bacterium found in the human oral cavity, expresses flexible peritrichous fimbriae. In this paper, we report purification and partial characterization of S. salivarius fimbriae. Fimbriae were extracted by shearing the cell surface of hyperfimbriated mutant A37 (a spontaneous mutant of S. salivarius ATCC 25975) with glass beads. Preliminary experiments showed that S. salivarius fimbriae did not dissociate when they were incubated at 100°C in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. This characteristic was used to separate them from other cell surface components by successive gel filtration chromatography procedures. Fimbriae with molecular masses ranging from 20 × 106 to 40 × 106 Da were purified. Examination of purified fimbriae by electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures up to 1 μm long and 3 to 4 nm in diameter. Biochemical studies of purified fimbriae and an amino acid sequence analysis of a fimbrial internal peptide revealed that S. salivarius fimbriae were composed of a glycoprotein assembled into a filamentous structure resistant to dissociation. The internal amino acid sequence was composed of a repeated motif of two amino acids alternating with two modified residues: A/X/T-E-Q-M/φ, where X represents a modified amino acid residue and φ represents a blank cycle. Immunolocalization experiments also revealed that the fimbriae were associated with a wheat germ agglutinin-reactive carbohydrate. Immunolabeling experiments with antifimbria polyclonal antibodies showed that antigenically related fimbria-like structures were expressed in two other human oral streptococcal species, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus constellatus. PMID:11292790

  6. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  7. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  8. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  9. Optical memory development. Volume 3: The membrane light value page composer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Nagle, E. M.; Stewart, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a page composer for optical memory systems using thin, deformable, membrane-mirror elements as light valves was investigated. The electromechanical and optical performances of such elements were determined both analytically and experimentally. It was found that fast switching (approximately 10 microseconds), high-contrast (10 or greater), fatigue-free operation over missions of cycles, and efficient utilization of input light could be obtained with membrane light valves. Several arrays of 64 elements were made on substrates with feedthroughs, allowing access to individual elements from the backside of the substrate. Single light valves on such arrays were successfully operated with the transistors designed and produced for selection and storage at each bit location. This simulated the operation of a prototype page composer with semiconductor chips beam-lead bonded to the back of the substrate.

  10. Towards Composing Data Aware Systems Biology Workflows on Cloud Platforms: A MeDICi-based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Wynne, Adam S.

    2011-09-08

    Cloud computing is being increasingly adopted for deploying systems biology scientific workflows. Scientists developing these workflows use a wide variety of fragmented and competing data sets and computational tools of all scales to support their research. To this end, the synergy of client side workflow tools with cloud platforms is a promising approach to share and reuse data and workflows. In such systems, the location of data and computation is essential consideration in terms of quality of service for composing a scientific workflow across remote cloud platforms. In this paper, we describe a cloud-based workflow for genome annotation processing that is underpinned by MeDICi - a middleware designed for data intensive scientific applications. The workflow implementation incorporates an execution layer for exploiting data locality that routes the workflow requests to the processing steps that are colocated with the data. We demonstrate our approach by composing two workflowswith the MeDICi pipelines.

  11. Absence of amusia and preserved naming of musical instruments in an aphasic composer.

    PubMed

    Tzortzis, C; Goldblum, M C; Dang, M; Forette, F; Boller, F

    2000-04-01

    M.M., a right-handed, 74 year old professional musician and composer, presented with a progressive aphasia with a severe anomia. His musical competence was apparently totally preserved, and he continued his activity as a composer. There was a striking discrepancy between his impaired naming of nonmusical stimuli and his normal naming of musical instruments' sounds. We suggest that the preservation of skills in the musical domain results from an expanded cortical representation of this function in the left hemisphere, secondary to his lifelong formal training, and to the high level of his professional competence. As for his preserved naming of musical instruments, we argue that the early age-of-acquisition and higher than "normal" frequency/familiarity for names of musical instruments facilitate the access to their lexical representation and/or their retrieval within the lexicon. PMID:10815708

  12. Particle alignment and clustering in sheared granular materials composed of platy particles.

    PubMed

    Boton, Mauricio; Estrada, Nicolas; Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the texture and local ordering in sheared packings composed of cohesionless platy particles. The morphology of large packings of platy particles in quasistatic equilibrium is complex due to the combined effects of local nematic ordering of the particles and anisotropic orientations of contacts between particles. We find that particle alignment is strongly enhanced by the degree of platyness and leads to the formation of face-connected clusters of exponentially decaying size. Interestingly, due to dynamics in continuous shearing, this ordering phenomenon emerges even in systems composed of particles of very low platyness differing only slightly from spherical shape. The number of clusters is an increasing function of platyness. However, at high platyness the proportion of face-face interactions is too low to allow for their percolation throughout the system. PMID:25412821

  13. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  14. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface.

    PubMed

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-07-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  15. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  16. Emil Votocek (1872-1950): A Tribute to the Chemist-Composer-Lexicographer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman*, George B.; Jursík**, Frantisek; Rae***, Ian D.

    1999-04-01

    Emil Votocek (1872-1950), Professor of Experimental Inorganic and Organic Chemistry at the Czech Technical University at Prague (1905-1939) and cofounder and coeditor of the journal Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, was an authority on the chemistry of carbohydrates, especially sugars. Although primarily known for his research on organic, analytical, inorganic, and plant chemistry, this polyglot scholar and lexicographer was also a composer who wrote nearly 60 musical compositions during the relatively short period of 15 years.

  17. Geometry of Prismatic Tensegrity Constructions Composed of Three and Four-strut Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejníková, Tatiana

    2014-11-01

    In the paper there is described geometry of double layer tensegrity constructions composed of prismatic cells with rhombic configuration of three or four strut bases so-called prismatic Tensegrity constructions. There are described bi-dimensional assemblies creating double layer grids of three or four-strut cells with a node-on-node junction. The grids can be planar, of one or two curvature constructions.

  18. Gene Composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Background To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. Results An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. Conclusion We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis

  19. Mid-infrared tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Yu, Ping; Li, Jianxiong; Deng, Li; Tian, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    We present a mid-IR highly tunable optical polarization converter composed of asymmetric graphene nanocrosses. It can convert linearly polarized light to circularly and elliptically polarized light or exhibit a giant optical activity at different wavelengths. The transmitted wavelength and polarization states can also be dynamically tuned by varying the Fermi energy of graphene, without reoptimizing and refabricating the nanostructures. This offers a further step in developing a controllable polarization converter. PMID:23632554

  20. Development of a combustor liner composed of ceramic matrix composite (CMC)

    SciTech Connect

    Nishio, K.; Igashira, K.I.; Take, K.; Suemitsu, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Research Institute of Advanced Materials Gas-Generator (AMG), which is a joint effort by the Japan Key Technology Center and 14 firms in Japan, has, since fiscal year 1992, been conducting technological studies on an innovative gas generator that will use 20% less fuel, weight 50% less, and emit 70% less NO{sub x} than the conventional gas generator through the use of advanced materials. Within this project, there is an R and D program for applying ceramic matrix composite (CMC) liners to the combustor, which is a major component of the gas generator. In the course of R and D, continuous SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composite (SiC{sup F}/SiC) was selected as the most suitable CMD for the combustor liner because of its thermal stability and formability. An evaluation of the applicability of the SiC{sup F}/SiC composite to the combustor liner on the basis of an evaluation of its mechanical properties and stress analysis of a SiC{sup F}/SiC combustor liner was carried out, and trial SiC{sup F}/SiC combustor liners, the largest of which was 500-mm in diameter, were fabricated by the filament winding and PIP (polymer impregnation and pyrolysis) method. Using a SiC{sup F}/SiC liner built to the actual dimensions, a noncooling combustion test was carried out and even when the gas temperature was raised to 1873K at outlet of the liner, no damage was observed after the test. Through their studies, the authors have confirmed the applicability of the selected SiC{sup F}/SiC composite as a combustor liner. In this paper, the authors describe the present state of the R and D of a CMC combustor liner.

  1. "Composing in the Style of Mozart: An Exploration of the "Struggling Boy Writer" Comparing the Composing Processes and Strategies of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The under-achievement of boys in the language components of standardised tests, together with a perception of boys as having negative attitudes towards the English curriculum, has led to boys being positioned as struggling writers. This article reflects critically on this construction, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council…

  2. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  3. COMPOSE: A semisupervised learning framework for initially labeled nonstationary streaming data.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Karl B; Capo, Robert; Polikar, Robi

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of real-world applications are associated with streaming data drawn from drifting and nonstationary distributions that change over time. These applications demand new algorithms that can learn and adapt to such changes, also known as concept drift. Proper characterization of such data with existing approaches typically requires substantial amount of labeled instances, which may be difficult, expensive, or even impractical to obtain. In this paper, we introduce compacted object sample extraction (COMPOSE), a computational geometry-based framework to learn from nonstationary streaming data, where labels are unavailable (or presented very sporadically) after initialization. We introduce the algorithm in detail, and discuss its results and performances on several synthetic and real-world data sets, which demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to learn under several different scenarios of initially labeled streaming environments. On carefully designed synthetic data sets, we compare the performance of COMPOSE against the optimal Bayes classifier, as well as the arbitrary subpopulation tracker algorithm, which addresses a similar environment referred to as extreme verification latency. Furthermore, using the real-world National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration weather data set, we demonstrate that COMPOSE is competitive even with a well-established and fully supervised nonstationary learning algorithm that receives labeled data in every batch. PMID:24806641

  4. Constructing three-dimensional detachable and composable computer models of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Dai, Peishan; Zheng, Buhong; Li, Xinchun

    2015-06-01

    The head and neck region has a complex spatial and topological structure, three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the region can be used in anatomical education, radiotherapy planning and surgical training. However, most of the current models only consist of a few parts of the head and neck, and the 3D models are not detachable and composable. In this study, a high-resolution 3D detachable and composable model of the head and neck was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) serial images. First, fine CT serial images of the head and neck were obtained. Then, a color lookup table was created for 58 structures, which was used to create anatomical atlases of the head and neck. Then, surface and volume rendering methods were used to reconstruct 3D models of the head and neck. Smoothing and polygon reduction steps were added to improve 3D rendering effects. 3D computer models of the head and neck, including the sinus, pharynx, vasculature, nervous system, endocrine system and glands, muscles, bones and skin, were reconstructed. The models consisted of 58 anatomical detachable and composable structures and each structure can be displayed individually or together with other structures. PMID:26091713

  5. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-01

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities. PMID:26691955

  6. Recreating the real, realizing the imaginary--a composer's preoccupation with acoustic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godman, Rob

    2002-11-01

    For centuries composers have been concerned with spatialization of sound and with the use of acoustic spaces to create feeling, atmosphere, and musical structure. This paper will explore Rob Godman's own use of sound in space, including (1) his treatment of ancient Vitruvian principles and how they are combined with new technologies; (2) an exploration of virtual journeys through real and imaginary acoustic spaces; (3) how sounds might be perceived in air, liquid, and solids; and (4) how technology has allowed composers to realize ideas that previously had only existed in the imagination. While focusing on artistic concerns, the paper will provide information on research carried out by the composer into acoustic spaces that are able to transform in real time with the aid of digital technology (Max/MSP software with sensor technology) and how these have been used in installation and pre-recorded work. It will also explore digital reconstructions of Vitruvian theatres and how we perceive resonance and ambience in the real and virtual world.

  7. Photonic crystals composed of virtual pillars with magnetic walls: Photonic band gaps and double Dirac cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong-Han; Kim, Soeun; Kee, Chul-Sik

    2016-08-01

    Photonic crystals composed of virtual pillars with magnetic walls are proposed. A virtual pillar with a magnetic wall can be created inside a parallel perfect electric conductor plate waveguide by introducing a circular perfect magnetic conductor patch in the upper perfect electric conductor plate of the waveguide. The virtual pillar mimics a perfect magnetic conductor pillar with a radius less than that of the circular patch because electromagnetic waves can slightly penetrate the wall. Furthermore, the photonic band structures of a triangular photonic crystal composed of virtual pillars for the transverse electromagnetic modes of the waveguide are investigated. They are very similar to those of a triangular photonic crystal composed of infinitely long perfect electric conductor cylinders for transverse magnetic modes. The similarity between the two different photonic crystals is well understood by the boundary conditions of perfect electric and magnetic conductor surfaces. A double Dirac cone at the center of the Brillouin zone is observed and thus the virtual pillar triangular photonic crystal can act a zero-refractive-index material at the Dirac point frequency.

  8. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  9. Onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed Kerr-black-hole-mirror bomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2014-09-01

    It was first pointed out by Press and Teukolsky that a system composed of a spinning Kerr black hole surrounded by a reflecting mirror may develop instabilities. The physical mechanism responsible for the development of these exponentially growing instabilities is the superradiant amplification of bosonic fields confined between the black hole and the mirror. A remarkable feature of this composed black-hole-mirror-field system is the existence of a critical mirror radius, rmstat, which supports stationary (marginally-stable) field configurations. This critical (‘stationary’) mirror radius marks the boundary between stable and unstable black-hole-mirror-field configurations: composed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region rmcomposed systems whose confining mirror is situated in the region rm>rmstat are unstable (that is, there are confined field modes which grow exponentially over time). In the present paper we explore this critical (marginally-stable) boundary between stable and explosive black-hole-mirror-field configurations. It is shown that the innermost (smallest) radius of the confining mirror which allows the extraction of rotational energy from a spinning Kerr black hole approaches the black-hole horizon radius in the extremal limit of rapidly-rotating black holes. We find, in particular, that this critical mirror radius (which marks the onset of superradiant instabilities in the composed system) scales linearly with the black-hole temperature. For a confined field mode of given harmonic indexes (l,m), the stationary mirror radius is a decreasing function of the BH angular momentum abar. In other words, rapidly-rotating Kerr BHs are characterized by stationary mirror radii which are smaller (closer to the BH horizon) than the corresponding stationary mirror radii of slowly-rotating BHs. For a given value of the spheroidal harmonic index l of the

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  11. Software component quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  12. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  13. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  14. Role of major sperm protein (MSP) in the protrusion and retraction of Ascaris sperm.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas M; Stewart, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Nematode sperm offer a unique perspective for investigating amoeboid cell motility. These cells display the hallmark features of amoeboid movement but power their locomotion with a cytoskeleton composed of major sperm protein (MSP) filaments in place of the familiar actin cytoskeleton found in other crawling cells. Thus, properties of sperm can be compared to those of actin-rich cells to identify the shared features that are essential to motility. Sperm are simple cells in which cytoskeletal dynamics are tightly coupled to protrusion of the leading edge and retraction of the cell body. These features have facilitated reconstitution of both protrusion and retraction in cell-free extracts and enabled identification of accessory components in the motility apparatus as well as elucidation of the mechanical basis of movement. Six MSP accessory proteins have been isolated including four components of the sperm cytoskeleton and two enzymes that play key roles in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics and locomotion. Analysis of this versatile in vitro motility system has identified motor-independent mechanisms for protrusion and retraction that are based on changes in filament-packing density. These changes result in expansion and contraction of the MSP-filament network that generate the forces for movement. We discuss how the mechanisms of motility that operate in nematode sperm may contribute generally to the movement of crawling cells. PMID:22608562

  15. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  16. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  17. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  18. SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR PLANT SPHINGOLIPID CLASSES FROM LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane, tonoplast and other endomembranes of plant cells. Previous compositional analyses have focused only on individual sphingolipid classes because of the widely differing polarities of plant sphingolipids. Consequently, the total content of sphi...

  19. The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2012-09-01

    Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

  20. Component-Based Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    A software system has been developed that gives engineers and operations personnel with no "formal" programming expertise, but who are familiar with the Microsoft Windows operating system, the ability to create visualization displays to monitor the health and performance of aircraft/spacecraft. This software system is currently supporting the X38 V201 spacecraft component/system testing and is intended to give users the ability to create, test, deploy, and certify their subsystem displays in a fraction of the time that it would take to do so using previous software and programming methods. Within the visualization system there are three major components: the developer, the deployer, and the widget set. The developer is a blank canvas with widget menu items that give users the ability to easily create displays. The deployer is an application that allows for the deployment of the displays created using the developer application. The deployer has additional functionality that the developer does not have, such as printing of displays, screen captures to files, windowing of displays, and also serves as the interface into the documentation archive and help system. The third major component is the widget set. The widgets are the visual representation of the items that will make up the display (i.e., meters, dials, buttons, numerical indicators, string indicators, and the like). This software was developed using Visual C++ and uses COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) software where possible.