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1

Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

2

Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

3

Emerging Options for Work and Retirement Policy. (An Analysis of Major Income and Employment Issues With an Agenda for Research Priorities.) An Information Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This information paper on the major income and employment issues affecting older Americans survey the economic impacts of an aging population, presents an agenda for future research into principle income and employment policy issues, and provides an outline of those policy options to be reviewed as a basis for governmental policy formation.…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

4

Cannabis policy: issues and options.  

PubMed

This paper examines some of the key points relevant to the debate about cannabis policy in New Zealand. It provides a brief overview of cannabis use patterns, the cannabis market and the public health implications of use. It describes the various strategies which comprise our current cannabis policy and the context of and primary concerns relating to it. Several alternative policy options are explained and in each case some evaluative comments are made. These alternatives are: total prohibition with an expediency principle; prohibition with civil penalties, partial prohibition, and regulation of private enterprise producers/distributors. From a public health perspective none of these options is unproblematic but each has the potential to overcome some of the disadvantages of the current policy and each needs to be further evaluated. PMID:11039824

Abel, S; Casswell, S

1998-09-25

5

Coastal Transit Options and Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was carried out in two phases. The first phase consisted of a national survey of existing transit services in coastal recreation areas, an analysis of major issues involved in the design and evaluation of such services, and development of a s...

J. H. Banks F. P. Stutz I. Jabbari C. De Cerbo

1983-01-01

6

Policy options to support biofuel production.  

PubMed

Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since the 1970s, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels include renewable fuel mandates, tax incentives, and direct funding for capital projects or fleet upgrades. This paper provides a review of the policies behind the successful establishment of the biofuel industry in countries around the world. The impact of direct funding programs and excise tax exemptions are examined using the United States as a case study. It is found that the success of five major bioethanol producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota) is closely related to the presence of funding designed to support the industry in its start-up phase, while tax exemptions on bioethanol use do not influence the development of production capacity. The study concludes that successful policy interventions can take many forms, but that success is equally dependent upon external factors, which include biomass availability, an active industry, and competitive energy prices. PMID:17846726

Mabee, W E

2007-01-01

7

Fertility Policy in China: Future Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of social, economic, and demographic criteria are used to evaluate China's present one-child policy and five alternative fertility policies that might guide China's population control efforts until the end of the century when the one-child policy is scheduled to be abandoned. These criteria include the policies' macrodemographic impact on total population size and population aging; their microdemographic

Susan Greenhalgh; John Bongaarts

1987-01-01

8

Language and media policy: exploring the options  

Microsoft Academic Search

FW de Klerk's 1990 announcement of reform has initiated a significant process of policy formulation and debate in SA. In both language and media fields, proposals for policy have been made. Considering the close inter-relationship between language and the media, it is somewhat strange that both the language policy and media policy debates have, up to now, developed almost autonomously.

P. Eric Louw

1993-01-01

9

Transfer of technology to developing countries: Unilateral and multilateral policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes national and international policy options to encourage the international transfer of technology, distinguishing between four major channels of such transfer: trade in products, trade in knowledge, direct foreign investment and intra- national and international movement of people. A typology of country 'types' and appropriate policy rules of thumb is developed as a guide to both national policymakers

Kamal Saggi; Keith E. Maskus

2005-01-01

10

Energy policy options for Illinois. Proceedings. [26 papers  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-six papers presented at the Fifth Annual Oil Illinois Energy Conference are categorized into five sections, namely: An overview of U.S. and Illinois Energy Policy; Energy Policy; Conservation--Solar--Biomass and Solid Wastes; Energy Policy; Petroleum and Natural Gas; Energy Policy; Coal and Electric Utilities; and Economic and Consumer Concerns. One paper, A Perspective on Long-Range Nuclear Energy Options, by William O. Harms has previously appeared in EAPA 4: 1364. (MCW)

Not Available

1977-01-01

11

Impacts of Federal Policy Options for Nonmilitary Cryptography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study accomplished by SRI International under contract with the Commerce Dept., NTIA, in support of work toward developing a U.S. policy for cryptography. The report provides an analysis of the policy options based on a projection of evolving private se...

V. C. Walling D. B. Parker C. C. Wood

1981-01-01

12

Substitution Criteria and Policy for Major Items.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lack of adequate guidance and policy and, in some cases, conflicting guidance in the processing of major items that are used as substitutes for authorized items have created problems in the management of these items. This report investigates the exist...

U. R. Poskus

1979-01-01

13

Major Issues in Japan'S Security Policy Debate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines Japanese views on major aspects of Japan's security policy debate: (a) The Self-Defense Forces--their legal status, proper level and kind of armament, and the permissibility of their overseas deployment. (b) The proper interpretation a...

Y. C. Kim

1969-01-01

14

Housing Policies in China: Issues and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists in three parts. The first part deals with theory. We evaluate the pros and cons of government involvement in urban housing and of renting versus ownership. In the second part, we summarize the different housing policies that have been implemented in the United States, Europe, and Asia. We draw some conclusions. In particular, we show that there

Yves Zenou

2010-01-01

15

Housing Policies in China: Issues and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists in three parts. The first part deals with theory. We evaluate the pros and cons of government involvement in urban housing and of renting versus ownership. In the second part, we summarize the different housing policies that have been implemented in the United States, Europe, and Asia. We draw some conclusions. In particular, we show that there

Yves Zenou

2011-01-01

16

New US Policy Options for South Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since Pakistan and India gained independence in the late 1940s, U.S. policies toward South Asia have shown little consistency. Washington rarely saw the region as important in its own right; rather, the United States tended to treat it as a pawn in the su...

J. Murphy

1991-01-01

17

Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) may soon be licensed. In contrast to most vaccine-preventable diseases, which are transmitted by air or casual contact, HPV is primarily transmitted by sexual contact. An analysis that applies ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, rule of double effect, and principlism, is needed for policy considerations. These analyses reveal that HPV vaccination can be recommended universally,

Richard K. Zimmerman

2006-01-01

18

Options, Sustainability Policy and the Spontaneous Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the implications for sustainability policy of environmental uncertainty and indeterminacy, and relates the associated problems with a conventional understanding of sustainable development to Hayek's critique of collective planning. It suggests that the appropriate recourse is not, however, a Hayekian endorsement of the free…

Foster, John

2005-01-01

19

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans  

SciTech Connect

This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

Doris, E.

2011-09-01

20

A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms,…

Phelps, James L.

2011-01-01

21

Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options.  

PubMed

Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) may soon be licensed. In contrast to most vaccine-preventable diseases, which are transmitted by air or casual contact, HPV is primarily transmitted by sexual contact. An analysis that applies ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, rule of double effect, and principlism, is needed for policy considerations. These analyses reveal that HPV vaccination can be recommended universally, including at ages 11-12 years. However, given concerns for autonomy, justice, as not all persons are at risk, and non-maleficence, HPV vaccine should not be mandated for school entry. Economic justice indicates a need to provide vaccination for the disadvantaged. PMID:16603278

Zimmerman, Richard K

2006-03-23

22

Early Childhood Programs and Policy in the Northwest and Hawaii: Early Childhood Policy Issues and Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are early childhood policy issues and options for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. Section I explores federal and state directions in terms of levels of policy making, federal and state issues, and interested parties. Section II focuses on policy issues in its discussions of the political climate, long-term…

Conklin, Nancy Faires; And Others

23

Stem Cell Research: An Ethical Evaluation of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 2004, South Korean researchers became the first in the world to successfully harvest stem cells and establish a stem cell line from a cloned human embryo. This is just one of eight possible policy options concern- ing human embryonic stem cell research. In practice, every kind of stem cell research can be done in one country or another.

Nikolaus Knoepffler

2004-01-01

24

Policy options in a worst case climate change world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic changes more rapid and extreme than assessed by the IPCC cannot be excluded, because of the possibility of positive\\u000a earth system feedbacks and thresholds. Do today’s policy makers have to take these into account, and if so, are the options\\u000a different from those considered today? The paper briefly summarizes the types of extreme climatic changes noted in the literature

Rob Swart; Natasha Marinova

2010-01-01

25

Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.  

PubMed

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability. PMID:21866177

Pomeranz, Jennifer L

2011-08-25

26

Language Policy at Major Sporting Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, are linguistically complex events that require large-scale language planning and policy. This chapter focuses on the Olympic Games and looks at the practicalities of the attitudes and responses to multilingualism and the language policies employed in this particular international event to…

Djite, Paulin G.

2009-01-01

27

Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but

Harald Winkler

2005-01-01

28

Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China’s biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing.

Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

2010-10-01

29

Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.  

PubMed

By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Wang, H; Zhai, F

2013-11-01

30

Alleviating water scarcity in Northern China: balancing options and policies among Chinese decision-makers.  

PubMed

Water scarcity is mostly a man-made problem that increasingly affects people's lives and questions economic output in Northern China. Policy options addressing the serious water shortages in the region include conservation and water management reform, which is unpopular; grain imports and the downsizing of agriculture; derivation of Yangze water; derivation of the Amur and other international rivers. All solutions present major difficulties, whether domestic or international, for the Chinese authorities. While major decisions have not yet been taken, evidence shows major works such as water transfers from the Yangze or water pricing are not only unavoidable, but will not be enough to meet the growing demand for water in the region. PMID:12731785

Lasserre, F

2003-01-01

31

OPTIMAL SHOUTING POLICIES OF OPTIONS WITH STRIKE RESET RIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reset right embedded in an option contract is the privilege given to the option holder to reset certain terms in the contract according to specified rules at the moment of shouting, where the time to shout is chosen optimally by the holder. For example, a shout option with strike reset right entitles its holder to choose the time to

Min Dai; Yue Kuen Kwok; Lixin Wu

2004-01-01

32

60 FR 27779 - Change in Location of Workshop on Proposed Policy Options for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Policy Options for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Natural Gas and Oil Resource Management AGENCY: Minerals Management...proposed policy options for Outer Continental Shelf natural gas and oil resource management at its Gulf of Mexico...

1995-05-25

33

Agricultural 'Crisis' in Pakistan: Some Explanations and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is about public policy and agricultural growth in Pakistan. The author takes the position that, in a historical perspective, public policy has been a large part of the erratic, maybe unsustainable, growth of agriculture in Pakistan. The most important policy issue, therefore, is to radically restructure the existing bureaucratic, patronage-ridden, rent-seeking, and wasteful system of institutions and services.

Mahmood Hasan Khan

1997-01-01

34

Policy options for prevention: the case of alcohol.  

PubMed

Reducing the availability of alcohol through alcohol control policies such as excise taxes and the minimum legal drinking age has been effective in reducing a wide range of alcohol-related problems, including traffic crashes, liver cirrhosis, and violence. Alcohol control policies may be classified into two overlapping categories--public and institutional policies. Some policies such as alcohol server training may be either mandated by governmental jurisdictions or voluntarily adopted by individual institutions, which include alcohol retail establishments, other businesses, worksites, schools, colleges/universities, law enforcement agencies, religious institutions, insurance agencies, and alcohol producers. Public policies may be mandated by national, state/provincial, or local governments to regulate where, when, and how alcohol is sold and consumed. This paper describes the wide array of public and institutional policies available to reduce alcohol-related problems. Summaries of research evaluating specific alcohol control policies are provided when available. PMID:10408171

Toomey, T L; Wagenaar, A C

1999-01-01

35

A Continuous Review Inventory Ordering Policy with an Expedited Shipping Time Option.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A continuous review policy for ordering inventory stockage items with the option of expediting the shipping time is formulated. Demand is assumed to have a Poisson distribution with a stationary demand rate. Inventory holding costs, ordering costs, shorta...

D. M. Eggleston

1970-01-01

36

Managing household waste in Ireland: behavioural parameters and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulating efficient waste management policy requires data on market conditions. Data on household waste management behaviour in Ireland is scarce, and policy making could benefit from improved data and market analysis. In this paper we estimate models of household waste management behaviour in Ireland using econometrics and simple comparison of average effects, but we find that some important parameters cannot

John Curtis; Sean Lyons; Abigail OCallaghan-Platt

2011-01-01

37

Informal Sector Pollution Control: What Policy Options Do We Have?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, urban clusters of informal firms such as brick kilns and leather tanneries can create severe pollution problems. These firms are, however, quite difficult to regulate for a variety of technical and political reasons. Drawing on the literature, this paper first develops a list of feasible environmental management policies. It then examines how these policies have fared in

Allen Blackman

2000-01-01

38

Turkey's foreign policy options: Europe, the USA or Central Asia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accession to the European Union (EU) constitutes one of Turkey's primary foreign policy objectives. However, to establish whether the country would benefit from becoming part of an integrated Europe, its foreign policy alternatives to EU membership must also be examined. The first part of this article analyses Turkey's changing relations with Europe. Against this backdrop, the article then moves to

Christos Kassimeris

2010-01-01

39

A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate change  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 of this report evaluated generic policy instruments according to the criteria of efficiency information requirements, distributional effects, political sustainability, and applicability to greenhouse gas issues. This volume describes policies specific to the various components of the private sector and evaluates options for the implementation of policies according to a further set of screening criteria more suitable for specific instances or applications of the instruments. The description of the private sector in this volume is confined to qualitative analysis of the constraints and opportunities arising from existing materials, processes, markets, and regulatory frameworks that are likely to shape its response to the prospect of global warming. Materials include fuels as well as other substantive material and energy inputs and outputs for the sector. For example, steel production involves iron ore, coal, perhaps electricity, and the finished product. Processes are the activities by which a sector satisfies demands for its goods and services. For example, fossil fuel combustion is a major process in the utilities sector, while fertilizer production and application are both important processes for agriculture. Markets in this context include both capital markets which finance the activities of the private sector and the markets in which commodities and services are traded and consumed. The regulatory framework quite simply is the nexus of legal constraints on entry to an activity and the rules by which the government, or alternative regulatory agency, for example, a public utility commission, controls the activities of a sector. 387 refs., 15 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

40

Evaluation of 21st-century risks of smallpox vaccination and policy options.  

PubMed

The United States stopped vaccinating against smallpox in 1972 because the risks were judged to outweigh the benefits. The possibility of a terrorist attack using smallpox has led to renewed interest in a vaccination program. Smallpox vaccination carries considerable risks, which may be of greater concern today than in the late 1960s because of the increased prevalence of immunosuppression and atopy in the population. This paper reviews the clinical presentations of major adverse events after vaccination and the rates of occurrence of these events observed in the 1960s. The normal dynamics of the spread of smallpox is slow, and usually only persons who have had close personal contact with an overtly ill patient are affected. There are several preattack vaccination policy options, but immunization of medical workers, especially those who might have close contact with infected patients, is sufficient in the absence of a known threat of a bioterrorist attack or the identification of a smallpox-infected person. PMID:12639083

Lane, J Michael; Goldstein, Joel

2003-03-18

41

When Capital Inflows Come to a Sudden Stop: Consequences and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present evidence that capital account reversals have become more severe for emerging markets. Because policy options are limited in the midst of a capital market crisis and because so many countries have already had crises recently, we focus on some of the policies that could reduce the incidence of crises in the first place, or at

Carmen Reinhart; Guillermo Calvo

2000-01-01

42

Periodic Abstinence in Developing Countries. Update and Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph provides information about periodic abstinence and is intended for those who set policy or implement programs in the areas of health and family planning, particularly in developing countries. It attempts to clarify what is meant by periodic ...

C. B. Hermann N. E. Williamson M. McCann J. M. Spieler B. Janowitz

1986-01-01

43

Integrated analysis of policy options for protection of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is directed at providing an integrated framework that a regional authority should use when assessing the potential impacts of any policy initiative directed at improving groundwater quality. In particular, a policy model is developed relying on three decision components (a farm-level production decisions model, a household decisions model and a regional policy decision model) where the objective is one of identifying the trade-offs that a regional authority will be confronted with as it strives to balance the preferences of farmers and households while endeavoring to maximize net economic welfare. The basic rule developed indicates that the regional authority must choose a policy whereby any increase (decrease) in regional income is just equal to the decrease (increase) in net benefits to households.

Uri, Noel D.; Huang, Wen-Yuan

1990-05-01

44

Decision analytic framework for evaluating acid deposition control policy options  

SciTech Connect

The study convened a series of sessions in Wisconsin, Colorado and Ohio to determine: (1) whether agreement on acid deposition policy can be reached among a group of diverse interested parties through the use of a decision analytic framework; and (2) the usefulness of the methodology to policy makers charged with making decisions about complex policy issues such as acid deposition. Three different types of assessment sessions were utilized: (1) group sessions which utilized nominal and interactive group techniques plus a decision analytic framework; (2) individual assessments which utilized a decision analytic framework; and (3) interactive group sessions which did not utilize a decision analytic framework. This research design permitted testing of the influence of utilizing a decision analytic framework in group assessment sessions. The study resulted in the following conclusions: (1) utilization of a decision framework and group analysis does not bring policy makers to consensus but it does lead to shifts in their preference for policy alternatives and moderation of extreme positions. (2) Group analysis and utilization of a decision analytic framework are an effective means of raising the level of discourse about complex problems among a group of diverse interested parties so that participants are better able to understand the implications of different policies on factors which do not reflect their particular interests.

Zieve, C.R.

1986-01-01

45

Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologies may be an interesting option. In this paper, several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed. These possibilities are identified in different areas, notably economic, spatial, institutional, social\\/psychological and technological

Sytze A. Rienstra; Jaap M. Vleugel; Peter Nijkamp

1996-01-01

46

Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologies may be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this article. These possibilities are identified in different areas, notably economic, spatial, institutional,

S. A. Rienstra; J. M. Vleugel; P. Nijkamp

1995-01-01

47

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

48

Local Option Sales Tax (LOST) Policy on the Urban Fringe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many state legislatures grant local governments the authority to enact sales taxes on retail sales transactions that occur within local juris- dictions. Local government reliance on these local option sales tax (LOST) revenues is increa sing. In many states, including Oklahoma, municipal governments are unrestricted as to the LOST rate that can be imposed. The ability to generate LOST revenues,

Cynthia L. Rogers

2004-01-01

49

Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

1987-01-01

50

Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

1987-01-01

51

Drooling: Are Botulinum Toxin Injections Into the Major Salivary Glands a Good Treatment Option?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are several treatment options available for drooling; botulinum toxin injections into the major salivary glands are one. There is no consensus as to how many and which glands should be injected. A research project on this topic was terminated because of adverse effects. Individual results and the adverse effects are described and discussed in this article. Six individuals with

Hilde Nordgarden; Ingvild Østerhus; Anne Møystad; Pamela Åsten; Ulf L-H Johnsen; Kari Storhaug; Jens Øyvind Loven

2012-01-01

52

Castro, Cuba, and the Future: U.S. Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Castro's Cuba has and remains a thorn in the side of the United States. Our policy of total isolation and economic embargo as left the Island nation to our south in a complete economic disaster. The demise of the Soviet empire freed Eastern Europe, and ma...

W. F. Schless

1993-01-01

53

An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

1995-01-01

54

Energy Options and Policy Issues in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews the energy resources of developing countries, with particular emphasis on those which import oil. It discusses the nature of these resources, the cost of developing them and the policy issues raised in doing so. The need for and impleme...

D. G. Fallen-Bailey T. A. Byer

1979-01-01

55

Environmental Policies to Reduce College Drinking: Options and Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an over- view of environmental strategies that may reduce college drinking. Drinking behavior is influenced by many environmental factors, includ- ing messages in the media, community norms and attitudes, public and institutional policies and practices and economic factors. College stu- dent drinking may be influenced by environmental factors on and off

TRACI L. TOOMEY; ALEXANDER C. WAGENAAR

56

Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity: Cyprus national findings.  

PubMed

A multifaceted public health policy approach is required for reversing the current obesity epidemic. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project aimed to explore the consistency and/or variability of the perspectives of key stakeholders towards a range of different options to respond to the growing challenge of obesity among nine participating European member states. The multi-criteria mapping technique was used. Cyprus national data, when analysed in the public health and public policy context of Cyprus, collectively indicate that no single policy option appears to be unique in combating obesity, but rather need to be combined with other policy options. Specifically, measures are needed to improve levels of knowledge and understanding regarding food, diet, health and fitness beginning from early childhood with health professionals having an important role in this regard. These measures should be coupled with informational initiatives emphasizing the improvement of nutritional information labelling system, and the control of food and drink advertising. There was also a consensus regarding the need for modifying the supply of and demand for foodstuffs, but not via economic instruments. Practical feasibility, social acceptability, efficacy and social benefits but not the economic costs of the options were deemed the most important criteria for a successful implementation. PMID:17371306

Savva, S C; Chadjioannou, M; Tornaritis, M J

2007-05-01

57

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

58

Energy policies and the greenhouse effect volume two: Country studies and technical options  

SciTech Connect

This book is the second volume based on a 4-year study by the Energy and Environmental Programme at the Royal Institute of Interantional Affairs in the United Kingdom. First, the book provides an integrated discussion of the country studies and technical options that contain information for policy analysis. The second part explains how political, rather than technical or economic, constraints have inhibited widespread adoption of abatement policies in USA, UK, Japan, the former Soviet Union, China, and India.

Grubb, M.

1993-01-01

59

China's brain drain problem: Causes, consequences and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brain drain has become a growing problem for China's overseas education, especially after the Tiananmen Incident of June 1989. Brain drain is a symptom of a home country's social, economic, or political problems. In China, political alienation, low income, poor living conditions, insufficient research facilities, and mismanagement of high?level manpower are the major factors pushing intellectuals to seek development

Zhiduan Deng

1992-01-01

60

Closing the eye: Looking overseas for Australian newspaper policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier this year, Australia’s most recent independently-owned news and features magazine, The Eye, ceased publication. It was just one publication in a long list of independent failures in Australia - recent history would indicate that only publications owned by the major chains are able to survive in the contemporary news media environment. But not all countries in the Western world

S. Forde

2000-01-01

61

Elders with serious mental illness: lost opportunities and new policy options.  

PubMed

This article reviews key federal Medicaid policies affecting older adults with serious, long-term mental illness: (a) the Medicaid exclusion of coverage for Institutions for Mental Diseases, (b) the Preadmission Screening and Resident Review Process, and (c) the Medicaid Home and Community Based Services waiver policy. Documenting the incentives and restrictions in these policies provides an historical context for understanding the current gaps in treatment for elders with mental illness. New federal options under the Deficit Reduction Act may provide opportunities for reducing the institutional bias for older adults with mental illness and for improving mental health services for elders under Medicaid. PMID:19333839

O'Connor, Darlene; Little, Faith; McManus, Richard

62

Latin American universities and the third mission : trends, challenges, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universities in Latin America are increasingly considered instruments of social and economic development and face rising expectations in regard to supplying relevant skills, undertaking applied research, and engaging in commercial activity. The paper discusses trends and challenges within Latin American universities, as well as policy options available for strengthening their contributions to social and economic development. The so-called third mission

Kristian Thorn; Maarja Soo

2006-01-01

63

Stock Options and Firm Dividend Policy: Evidence from Toronto Stock Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have examined the relationship between managerial incentives and firm dividend payout. Executive Share Options (ESOs) have attracted a great deal of attention from financial economists... The objective of my study is to investigate how corporate policy is affected by managerial stock incentives. In particular, I develop a model based on agency theory whereby managerial quality and effort are

Mondher Kouki

64

White Flight from School Desegregation: Magnitude, Sources, and Policy Options. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed in this report are the extent and causes of white flight from school desegregation and policy options for controlling it. After an introductory section, the report considers the extent of white flight from desegregating schools, taking into account the effects of suburbanization, interregional migration, and differentials in…

Rossell, Christine H.; Hawley, Willis D.

65

Indonesian Economic Issues and Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1971 study was undertaken to examine a number of major economic issues and policy choices that Indonesia faces, the options open to U.S. programs and policies, and the connections between the two sets of choices.

C. Wolf J. Koehler A. Williams

1972-01-01

66

Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.  

PubMed

Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made. PMID:23600192

Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

2013-03-01

67

Conservation biology in Asia: the major policy challenges.  

PubMed

With about half the world's human population and booming economies, Asia faces numerous challenges to its biodiversity. The Asia Section of the Society for Conservation Biology has identified some key policy issues in which significant progress can be made. These include developing new sources of funding for forest conservation; identifying potential impacts of energy alternatives on the conservation of biodiversity; curbing the trade in endangered species of plants and animals; a special focus on the conservation of mountain biodiversity; enhancing relevant research; ensuring that conservation biology contributes to major international conventions and funding mechanisms; using conservation biology to build a better understanding of zoonotic diseases; more effectively addressing human-animal conflicts; enhancing community-based conservation; and using conservation biology to help address the pervasive water-deficit problems in much of Asia. These challenges can be met through improved regional cooperation among the relevant stakeholders. PMID:19627311

McNeely, Jeffrey A; Kapoor-Vijay, Promila; Zhi, Lu; Olsvig-Whittaker, Linda; Sheikh, Kashif M; Smith, Andrew T

2009-08-01

68

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.  

PubMed

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

2004-02-01

69

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-01

70

Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far. PMID:23897413

Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

2013-07-30

71

Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.  

PubMed

This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV. PMID:21925786

Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

2011-09-16

72

Expanding the Pool of Federal Policy Options to Promote Industrial Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Cox, Matthew [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL

2011-01-01

73

A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate changes  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming an issue of significant public concern. Recent scientific research results combined with a very warm decade have led to growing apprehension that we may be on the brink of global warming inadvertently induced by human activity. As one manifestation of increasing concern, several Congressional Committee hearings on issues deriving from potential climate change have been held. Additionally, in 1986 Congress requested two studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the effects of climate change and on policy options to stabilize the atmosphere. Those reports currently are being reviewed by Federal agencies prior to submission to Congress. In the report language accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriations Act, 1989, the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Conference Committee also requested four studies on climate change from the Department of Energy (DOE). The four reports are Alternative Energy R D -- to assess the state and direction of Federal R D on alternative energy sources, including conservation; Greenhouse Gas Data Collection -- to assess how greenhouse gas emission and climate trends data are coordinated, archived, and made available to scientists, both within and outside of government, Carbon Dioxide Inventory and Policy -- to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 5-10 years and a 50% reduction in 15-20 years as well as provide an inventory of emission sources; and Study of Options to Mobilize the Private Sector -- to assess policy options for encouraging the private sector to cooperate in mitigating, adapting, and preventing global climate change. 286 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

74

Securing water for wetland conservation: A comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe—a national wetland nature reserve in China—using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options.

Jian Wu; JunJie Wu; Xiaoxia Wang; Ma Zhong

75

Test-Optional Admission Policies and Their Effect on the Composition of the Student Body at King's College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined test-optional admission policies and their effect on the composition of the student body at King's College. According to the College Board (2009), students from underrepresented populations do not perform as well as White students on standardized tests. Therefore, higher education institutions have established test-optional

Schmude, Michelle

2011-01-01

76

Alternative Work Options for Older Workers: Part III-- The Union and Professional Association View. Part IV--Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parts three and four of a four-part series on alternative work options for older workers are presented. Union and professional association representatives identify job transfers as the most feasible alternative work option; and recommendations for changes in employers' practices public policies, labor unions, and professional associations are…

Kaplan, Barbara Hade; Fleisher, Dorothy

1981-01-01

77

Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options  

PubMed Central

Background Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? Methods We interviewed a small sample of émigré South African physicians (n = 7) and a larger purposive sample of representatives of Canadian federal, provincial, regional and health professional departments/organizations (n = 25); conducted a policy colloquium with stakeholder organizations (n = 21); and undertook new analyses of secondary data to determine recent trends in health human resource flows between sub-Saharan Africa and Canada. Results Flows from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada have increased since the early 1990s, although they may now have peaked for physicians from South Africa. Reasons given for this flow are consistent with other studies of push/pull factors. Of 8 different policy options presented to study participants, only one received unanimous strong support (increasing domestic self-sufficiency), one other received strong support (increased health system strengthening in source country), two others mixed support (voluntary codes on ethical recruitment, bilateral or multilateral agreements to manage flows) and four others little support or complete rejection (increased training of auxiliary health workers in Africa ineligible for licensing in Canada, bonding, reparation payments for training-cost losses and restrictions on immigration of health professionals from critically underserved countries). Conclusion Reducing pull factors by improving domestic supply and reducing push factors by strengthening source country health systems have the greatest policy traction in Canada. The latter, however, is not perceived as presently high on Canadian stakeholder organizations' policy agendas, although support for it could grow if it is promoted. Canada is not seen as "actively' recruiting" ("poaching") health workers from developing countries. Recent changes in immigration policy, ongoing advertising in southern African journals and promotion of migration by private agencies, however, blurs the distinction between active and passive recruitment.

Labonte, Ronald; Packer, Corinne; Klassen, Nathan

2006-01-01

78

41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the major components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40...MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are...

2013-01-01

79

Teaching Health Policy in an Economic Framework to Non-Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A policy course requires a set of evaluation tools to explore the effects of proposed and existing policy initiatives. This paper offers an economic approach for teaching health policy to students who are not economics majors. The author provides a model that uses a graduate-level elective course as an example. In this course, an economics \\

Monica Cain

80

Analysis of Major Item Redistribution/Substitution Policies. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prevalent utilization of substituted major items for authorized major items requires that the management of these substitutes be improved throughout DARCOM. This report investigates four primary areas of interest to HQ DARCOM: the cost of redistributi...

U. R. Poskus

1980-01-01

81

The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

Marangos, John

2012-01-01

82

The effectiveness of recycling policy options: waste diversion or just diversions?  

PubMed

Recycling is becoming ever more important as waste generation rates increase globally. Policy-makers must decide which recycling practices to implement from the host of options at their disposal to best divert waste from landfill. This study strived to determine the most important characteristics in recycling programs that were associated with higher material recovery rates, including bag limits, user pay programs, the number of materials collected, curbside collection frequency, promotion and education (P&E) activities, Best Practice principles, and the type of recycling collection stream. Data collected from 223 recycling programs in Ontario during 2005-2010 were used to perform multiple regression analyses. The findings of this study suggest that attributes of convenience are more important to encourage recycling than those that penalize disposal, thus providing important implications for waste policy-makers, both in Ontario and in other jurisdictions. PMID:23312779

Mueller, William

2013-01-10

83

Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

1992-12-01

84

Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2009-06-01

85

How to Buy a Medical Home? Policy Options and Practical Questions  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we describe a range of payment options to support the PCMH, identifying their conceptual strengths and weaknesses. These include enhanced FFS payment for office visits to the PCMH; paying additional FFS for “new” PCMH services; variations of traditional FFS combined with new PCMH-oriented per patient per month capitation; and combined capitation payments for traditional primary care medical services as well as new medical home services. In discussing options for PCMH payment reform we consider issues in patient severity adjustment, performance payment, and the role of payments to community service organizations to collaborate with the PCMH. We also highlight some of the practical challenges that can complicate reimbursement reform for primary care and the PCMH. Through this discussion we identify key dimensions to provider payment reform relevant to promoting enhanced primary care through the patient centered medical home. These consist of paying for the basic medical home services, rewarding excellent performance of medical homes, incentivizing medical home connections to other community health care resources, and overcoming implementation challenges to medical home payments. Each of these overarching policy issues invokes a substantial subset of policy relevant research questions that collectively comprise a robust research agenda. We conclude that the conceptual strengths and weaknesses of available payment models for medical home functions invoke a complex array of options with varying levels of real-world feasibility. The different needs of patients and communities, and varying characteristics of practices must also be factors guiding PCMH payment reform. Indeed, it may be that different circumstances will require different payment approaches in various combinations.

Berenson, Robert A.

2010-01-01

86

Stress and Health: Major Findings and Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty decades of sociological stress research offer five major findings. First, when stressors (negative events, chronic strains, and traumas) are measured comprehensively, their damaging impacts on physical and mental health are substantial. Second, differential exposure to stressful experiences is a primary way that gender, racial-ethnic, marital status, and social class inequalities in physical and mental health are produced. Third, minority

Peggy A. Thoits

2010-01-01

87

Limiting air pollution from transport: economic evaluation of policy options for the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies addressing air pollution from transport have in the past mainly focused on SO>SUB align=right>2>\\/SUB>, NO>SUB align=right>x>\\/SUB> and VOC through vehicle emission and fuel quality regulation. More recently however, CO>SUB align=right>2>\\/SUB> emissions and particulates have come on the agenda because of global warming and the perception of the major role of particulates in health damage. This shift is also reflected

Stef Proost; Denise Van Regemorter; Frederic Lantz; Valerie Saint-Antonin

2000-01-01

88

Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model (http:\\/\\/www.feeimodel.org\\/). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and

Hong Huo; Michael Wang; Xiliang Zhang; Kebin He; Huiming Gong; Kejun Jiang; Yuefu Jin; Yaodong Shi; Xin Yu

2012-01-01

89

Reducing smoking prevalence in Australian prisons: a review of policy options.  

PubMed

Smoking of tobacco products is a major public health challenge in prison settings in most countries. Although tobacco use was tolerated by custodial authorities for many decades, the overwhelming evidence of the adverse public health effects of tobacco on both the smokers and those in the vicinity of exhaled or passive smoke, coupled with the risk of litigation by inmates involuntarily exposed to tobacco smoke, has recently prompted custodial authorities to implement tobacco control strategies to minimise both health and legal risks. The author examines the appropriateness of common policy initiatives put forward for reducing smoking prevalence in Australian prisons and suggests that, currently, apart from total prohibition and restriction on brands of tobacco, several policies and strategies may be utilised in combination to reduce smoking prevalence in prison settings, subject to their appraisal in terms of both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, careful adaptation to prison conditions, and consistent implementation. PMID:14619250

Awofeso, Niyi

2002-01-01

90

Encouraging re-mining and reclamation of abandoned mined lands in Appalachia: Policy options  

SciTech Connect

Abandoned mined lands (AML) are areas that were mined prior to implementation of federal controls over coal-mined land reclamation and were inadequately reclaimed. The majority of the US`s AML acreages were produced by coal mining in the Appalachian areas. Environmental problems include lands in barren or semi-barren condition, excessive sedimentation, acid water discharges, and unstable slopes. This article address the potential to reclame AMLs in the Appalachian region by creating incentives for environmental enhancement through re-mining. Background information of AML and on current policies affecting re-mining are reviewed and the results of a survey of individuals who are knowledgeable in remining policy issues are reported. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Santopietro, G.D. [Ranford Univ., VA (United States); Zipper, C.E. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1996-01-01

91

The Challenges and Policy Options for Integrating Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle into the Electric Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle may be prime candidates for the next generation of vehicles, but they offer several technological and economical challenges. This article assesses current progress in PHEV technology, market trends, research needs, challenges ahead and policy options for integrating PHEVs into the electric grid.

Anurag K. Srivastava; Bharath Annabathina; Sukumar Kamalasadan

2010-01-01

92

Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E. A.

2001-01-01

93

Variation in Staple Food Prices in Eastern and Southern Africa: Causes, Consequences and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

AAMP Policy Briefing 1 January, 2010 This brief summarizes the policy implications of three thematic papers and seven country background papers prepared for the COMESA-ACTESA policy seminar on “Variations in staple food prices: Causes, consequences, and policy implications.” There is little controversy about the need for governments to support staple food markets with infrastructure, market information, agricultural research, and other

Anonymous

2010-01-01

94

Reactor-Based Management of Used Nuclear Fuel: Assessment of Major Options  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms).

Phillip J. Finck; Roald A. Wigeland; Robert N. Hill

2011-01-01

95

Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). PMID:21399411

Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

2011-01-01

96

Regional disparities in employment of high-skilled foreigners: Determinants and options for migration policy in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the regional disparities in high-skilled foreign employment in Germany. The importance of different factors which attract highly qualified migrants to specific regions and the role of labour-migration policy is analysed. Our results show that labour-market variables as well as the supply of tertiary education are important for the location choice. Based on these empirical results we discuss options

Carola Burkert; Annekatrin Niebuhr; Rüdiger Wapler

2007-01-01

97

Pharmaceuticals in wastewater streams: Disposal practices and policy options in Santa Barbara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Option A. Apply for a DEA exemption for drop-off box collec- tion at pharmacies. This program option would allow for permanent drop-off box collection of both controlled and non-controlled medications. The boxes would be located at pharmacies and serviced by a reverse distributor. Option B. Collection at police stations. Another solution for a permanent collection program that includes controlled substances

James Kallaos; Kaleena Wheeler; Crispin Wong; Matthew Kotchen

98

Psychotic major depression: a benefit-risk assessment of treatment options.  

PubMed

Numerous studies in the past three decades have characterised 'psychotic major depression', a subtype of major depression which is accompanied by delusions or other psychotic features. Evidence from phenomenological and neurobiological investigations indicates that this is a unique disorder with clinical and biological characteristics that are distinct from those of nonpsychotic depression and from other psychotic disorders. Treatment studies have provided evidence of small placebo effects and good responses to electroconvulsive therapy or combination treatment with an antidepressant plus an antipsychotic agent. However, until recently, there were only a few small, prospective, double-blind, controlled trials investigating the efficacy of antidepressant-antipsychotic combination pharmacotherapy, yet this constitutes the currently accepted and most universally applied 'standard of care' for psychotic depression. Treatment guidelines have been based largely on uncontrolled investigations of electroconvulsive therapy and studies using tricyclic antidepressants and first-generation antipsychotic drugs, which are not frequently chosen as first-line agents today because of concerns regarding tolerability and risks. However, recent open-label studies and large controlled trials of newer antidepressants and antipsychotics have yielded very divergent results thus far, so that the best treatment approach remains elusive. This review discusses the phenomenology and treatment of psychotic depression with a focus on the benefits and risks of various treatment approaches. Problems with this literature are highlighted, and strategies for future research are suggested. PMID:16752932

Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Mello, Marcelo F; Mello, Andrea F; Carpenter, Linda L

2006-01-01

99

Dual Containment in the Persian Gulf: Strategic Considerations and Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is a critical analysis of US foreign policy toward Iran and Iraq known as a policy of dual containment. The objective of dual containment is to isolate these regimes politically, economically and militarily. This thesis evaluates American cond...

J. L. Mraz J. P. McCallen

1996-01-01

100

Transcatheter coil embolotherapy: a safe and effective option for major colonic haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background—The management of major colonic bleeding is problematic. A proportion of patients require emergency surgery which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous embolotherapy, previously considered a high risk procedure in the colon, may provide an alternative treatment in this group of patients. ?Aims—To assess the safety and efficacy of embolotherapy in the treatment of life threatening colonic haemorrhage. ?Patients and methods—Thirty eight patients with fresh haemorrhage per rectum were referred for surgery because of failed conservative treatment. All underwent angiography; in 14 a bleeding site or vascular abnormality was detected. A coaxial catheter was directed to the most distal bleeding artery and this was embolised with platinum coils. ?Results—Detection of a bleeding site correlated with haemodynamic stability at the time of angiography (r=1 for a systolic blood pressure less than 100 mm Hg). Bleeding sites or vascular abnormalities were detected and embolised in 14 patients (37%). In 12/14 there was immediate and sustained haemodynamic improvement; two continued to bleed and required emergency hemicolectomy (14%). Three developed ischaemic complications (21.4%); these were managed conservatively and required no intervention. The 30 day mortality was 7.1% in the embolotherapy group and 10.5% in the overall group of 38patients. ?Conclusion—Colonic embolotherapy for life threatening haemorrhage is an effective, relatively safe procedure with a low incidence of major complications. Its use depends on the identification of a focal bleeding point or vascular abnormality, which in turn depends on the haemodynamic stability of the patient at the time of angiography. ?? Keywords: colonic haemorrhage; embolisation; angiography; angiodysplasia; diverticular disease

Nicholson, A; Ettles, D; Hartley, J; Curzon, I; Lee, P; Duthie, G; Monson, J

1998-01-01

101

Modeling SSI financial eligibility and simulating the effect of policy options.  

PubMed

This article simulates eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) among the elderly, analyzes factors affecting participation, and looks at the potential effects of various options to modify financial eligibility standards for the federal SSI program. We find that in the estimated noninstitutional elderly population of 30.2 million in the United States in 1991, approximately 2 million individuals aged 65 or older were eligible for SSI (a 6.6 percent rate of eligibility). Our overall estimate of the rate of participation among eligible elderly is approximately 63 percent, suggesting that more than a third of those who are eligible do not participate in the program. The results of our analysis of factors affecting participation among the eligible elderly show that expected SSI benefits and a number of demographic and socioeconomic variables are associated with the probability of participation. We also simulate the effects of various policy options on the poverty rate, poverty gap, annual program cost, the number of participants, and the average estimated benefits among participants. The simulations consider the potential effects of five policy alternatives: Increase the general income exclusion (GIE) from $20 to $80. Increase the earned income exclusion (EIE) from $65 to $260. Increase the federal benefit rate (FBR) by $50 for individuals and $75 for couples and eliminate the GIE. Increase the asset threshold to $3,000 for individuals and $4,500 for couples. Increase the asset threshold to $6,000 for individuals and $9,000 for couples. Using 1991 microdata from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security Administration administrative records and making adjustments reflecting aggregate program statistics, we present the results of our simulations for December 1999. The results show substantial variation in the simulated effects of the five policy alternatives along the various outcome dimensions considered. The simulated effects on the poverty gap of the elderly population range from a 7.9 percent reduction ("Increase the GIE from $20 to $80") to a 0.1 percent reduction ("Increase the EIE from $65 to $260"). All simulated interventions are expected to increase the rate of SSI participation among the elderly from a high of 20.3 percent ("Increase the GIE from $20 to $80") to a low of 0.5 percent ("Increase the EIE from $65 to $260"). We also find that the interventions that have greater estimated effects in terms of increased participation and reduced poverty tend to cost more. At the high end, we estimate that increasing the GIE from $20 to $80 could raise annual federal SSI cash benefit outlays by about 46 percent, compared with only 0.9 percent for increasing the EIE from $65 to $260. Similar to the EIE intervention, raising the resource thresholds by 50 percent would reduce the overall poverty gap of the elderly by only 0.2 percent, would increase SSI participation only modestly (by 1.3 percent), but would entail slightly higher program costs (by 1.4 percent). Increasing the asset threshold by 200 percent would have higher estimated effects on all three outcomes, but it would still be associated with relatively low increases in both costs and benefits. Finally, the simulated effects on the three key outcomes of increasing the FBR by $50 for individuals and $75 for couples, combined with eliminating the GIE, are relatively large but are clearly less substantial than increasing the GIE from $20 to $80. This work relies on data from the SIPP matched to administrative data on federal SSI benefits that provide a more accurate picture of SSI participation than has been feasible for previous studies. We simulate eligibility for federal SSI benefits by applying the program rules to detailed information on the characteristics of individuals and couples based on the rich array of demographic and socioeconomic data in the SIPP, particularly the comprehensive information SIPP provides on assets and monthly income. A probit model is estimated to anal

Davies, P S; Huynh, M; Newcomb, C; O'Leary, P; Rupp, K; Sears, J

102

PHQ-8 Days: a measurement option for DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) severity  

PubMed Central

Background Proposed draft diagnostic criteria for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) suggest that dimensional assessments can supplement dichotomous diagnoses by incorporating measures of severity, frequency, and duration, providing the ability to monitor changes in symptoms over time and to guide appropriate treatment. Methods This report is based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2006 from 198,678 survey participants who responded to all eight Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) items. We evaluated use of the days version of the PHQ-8 to determine an optimal cut-point for identifying respondents with depression and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the PHQ-8 at this cut-point. Results A PHQ-8 score of 55 or more days was determined to be the optimal cut-point when compared to the DSM-derived PHQ-8 algorithm for a major depressive episode (five or more symptoms present "more than half the days," at least one of which must be anhedonia or depression). In the full sample, the sensitivity and the specificity of this cut-point were 0.91 (0.90-0.93) and 0.99 (0.99-0.99), respectively. Conclusion The days version of the PHQ-8 may be a valuable dimensional alternative to the traditional PHQ-8 by offering finer granularity of dimensionality (a score of 0 to 112).

2011-01-01

103

Policy Options for Energy Conservation (82), a Checklist of Legislation to Conserve Energy Prepared for Consideration of Legislation Leaders of the Northeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This checklist of legislation contains policy options for the conservation of energy in the Northeast. The 82 recommendations were made for conservation in the following areas: (1) saving energy in all buildings; (2) saving energy in residential construct...

1977-01-01

104

Saving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse from the Sea: Options and Policy Implications,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The committee's task was to evaluate and develop several options for preserving Cape Hatteras Lighthouse from the encroaching Atlantic Ocean. The committee's charge was how best to preserve the lighthouse, not whether to preserve it. In an interim report ...

L. Paulson

1988-01-01

105

Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect

The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

1996-03-01

106

The Role of EU Internal Policies in Implementing Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options to Achieve Kyoto Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the role of internal European Union (EU) policies and measures in implementing the target for greenhouse gas mitigation in the Kyoto Protocol. It starts with a discussion of the EU Burden Sharing Agreement, which distributes the target between Member States. This leads to a review of the appropriate level of implementation of policies, i.e. at the EU

Terry Barker; Tom Kram; Sebastian Oberthür; Monique Voogt

2001-01-01

107

Economics and the Environment: A Survey of Issues and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over the pace, scope and causes of environmental degradation have led to a renewed interest in the way environmental and economic policies interact. This paper first reviews the main causes for excessive use of environmental resources in a market economy, and how governments may conduct policies to counter environmental degradation. The focus of the paper then shifts towards the

Jon Nicolaisen; Peter Hoeller

1990-01-01

108

Policy Options for State Pension Systems and Their Impact on Plan Liabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the present value of state pension liabilities under existing policies, and separately under policy changes that would affect pension payouts including cost of living adjustments (COLAs), retirement ages, and buyout schedules for early retirement. Liabilities if plans were frozen as of June 2009 would be $3.2 trillion if capitalized using taxable municipal curves, which credit states for a

Joshua Rauh; Robert Novy-Marx

2010-01-01

109

Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on three prior…

Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

2009-01-01

110

Adoption Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications Catalog Resources ... Stay Connected Home » Adoption Options: A Factsheet ...

111

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

112

Nuclear Challenges and Policy Options for the Next U.S. Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three months before the November 2008 U.S. presidential election, the Monterey Nonproliferation Strategy Group (MNSG), an international body of approximately two dozen experienced policy makers and prominent analysts, convened to consider nuclear challeng...

J. D. Preez

2008-01-01

113

Solving China's environmental problems: policy options from the Working Group on Environment in U.S.-China Relations.  

PubMed

This article describes the main themes, funding needs, and policy options of the Working Group on the Environment in US-China Relations that was created in November 1996. Meetings are chaired by members of the Council of Foreign Relations and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The 40+ member Working Group is coordinated by the Environmental Change and Security Project and the Woodrow Wilson Center's Asia Program. It offers a forum for discussion of environmental and foreign policy concerns. The aims are to identify important environmental and sustainable development issues related to US and Chinese interests; to develop creative strategies for government and nongovernment projects between the US and China; and to discuss strategies for using environmental issues for building improved relations between countries. Monthly meetings focus on energy issues, water quantity and quality, funds for environmental protection, and biodiversity issues. The group meetings emphasize the themes of multilateral cooperation, local Chinese environmental issues of significance to the US, and obstacles to cooperation on US-led projects within China. Improved relations may be achieved by articulation of a coherent China policy with explicit goals and guidelines, provision of funding, and linking local environmental problems with global ones. The US should support private business in marketing environmental technology and assist in the development of policy changes in the energy and water sectors in China. China needs improved irrigation techniques and comprehensive watershed management plans. PMID:12321722

Frank, A

1998-01-01

114

Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual

Marilyn Ann Brown; Jess Chandler; Melissa Voss Lapsa; Moonis Ally

2009-01-01

115

The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.  

PubMed

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government. PMID:10133097

Gilson, L; Sen, P D; Mohammed, S; Mujinja, P

1994-03-01

116

Development of On-Orbit Servicing Concepts, Technology Option and Roadmap (Part III) - Policy Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific policy challenges of On-Orbit Servicing threaten to stagnate this potential industry. One subject that must be addressed is that of the standardization: how the space industry and policy makers alike need to ensure spacecraft are manufactured with design standards in mind. Encouragement of standards can come from government or voluntary practices of industry, such as adherence to a commercial space standards board. Ultimately, standardization will encourage an On-Orbit Servicing industry and provide an alternative to discontinuing space services in failing spacecraft.

Weeden, C.; Pastena, M.; Morley, S.; Abbasi, V.; Cree, D.; Grover, D.; Hay, J.; He, W.; Huang, X.; Jacobs, S.; Jun, Z.; Kearney, S.; Kuwahara, T.; Lenzi, F.; Mirahmetoglu, H.; Otani, M.; Pinni, M.; Schwartz, J.; Shala, K.; Shi, J.-F.; Singh Khoral, J.; Steinkellner, M.; Treat, D.; Ulrich, S.; Verheyden, P.; Wang, X. V.

117

How to Buy a Medical Home? Policy Options and Practical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a range of payment options to support the PCMH, identifying their conceptual strengths and weaknesses.\\u000a These include enhanced FFS payment for office visits to the PCMH; paying additional FFS for “new” PCMH services; variations\\u000a of traditional FFS combined with new PCMH-oriented per patient per month capitation; and combined capitation payments for\\u000a traditional primary care medical

Robert A. Berenson; Eugene C. Rich

2010-01-01

118

Protecting Privacy on the Canadian Information Highway: Policy Developments and Regulatory Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of statutory and non-statutory data-protection provisions currently governing the processing of personal data in Canada's private sector, including federal and provincial legislation and efforts at self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice. Considers a more comprehensive system of regulation, contemporary policy

Bennett, Colin J.

1996-01-01

119

Fertile ground? Options for a science-policy platform for land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) remains the only ‘Rio Convention’ that is not well served by the scientific community and lacks the equivalent of an IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) or the proposed IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services). The mounting pressures on land (and water) that can drive its degradation include population

R. J. Thomas; M. Akhtar-Schuster; L. C. Stringer; M. J. Marques Peres; R. Escadafal

120

Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy

Edward A. Holt; Ryan Wiser; Mark Bolinger

2006-01-01

121

Drinking and Its Burden in a Global Perspective: Policy Considerations and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To identify the policy implications of the magnitude and characteristics of alcohol consumption and problems, viewed globally, and to summarize conclusions on the effectiveness of the strategies available to policymakers concerned with reducing rates of alcohol problems. Design\\/Methods\\/Setting: This summative article draws on the findings of the articles preceding it and of reviews of the literature. Findings and Conclusions:

Robin Room; Kathryn Graham; Jürgen Rehm; David Jernigan; Maristela Monteiro

2003-01-01

122

Confronting the Reality of a Nuclear North Korea: The Challenge of Shrinking Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the narrowing range of policy choices for dealing with a nuclear-armed North Korea. One of the central themes of my argument is that diplomacy has failed to constrain Pyongyang from proceeding across the nuclear threshold. North Korea's strategic worldview, in particular the regime's ingrained perception of the US as a threat to its very existence, has meant

Andrew O’Neil

2004-01-01

123

Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

Worsley, Anthony

2006-01-01

124

Policy and technological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent assessment of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has demonstrated significant potential for mitigation, but suggests that the full mitigation will not be realized due to significant barriers to implementation. In this paper, we explore the constraints and barriers to implementation important for GHG mitigation in agriculture. We also examine how climate and non-climate policy in different regions of

Pete Smith; Daniel Martino; Zucong Cai; Daniel Gwary; Henry Janzen; Pushpam Kumar; Bruce McCarl; Stephen Ogle; Frank O’Mara; Charles Rice; Bob Scholes; Oleg Sirotenko; Mark Howden; Tim McAllister; Genxing Pan; Vladimir Romanenkov; Uwe Schneider; Sirintornthep Towprayoon

2007-01-01

125

Using the nuclear option to find middle Ground on energy policy  

SciTech Connect

President Obama's actions promoting the construction of new U.S. nuclear power plants could be the first of many moves designed to create a middle ground on energy policy and ultimately lead to the passage of the first bill designed specifically to reduce emissions of greenhouse gas. (author)

Wodka, Nancy A.; Zelermyer, Salo L.

2010-05-15

126

Selecting the "Best Applicant(s)" with Limited Options and Policy Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study examines issues related to teacher hiring and accountability policies, including the adequate yearly progress and highly qualified teacher provisions of the "No Child Left Behind" act. The focus of the case study is the nexus among findings from the teacher-quality research, realities of teacher labor markets, and accountability…

Ingle, William Kyle; Rutledge, Stacey A.

2010-01-01

127

Worker Adjustment to Plant Shutdowns and Mass Layoffs: An Analysis of Program Experience and Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The American economy is in a state of flux; it will probably generate more displaced workers; and it has yet to determine a policy to assist such workers in preparing for and locating new jobs. Although the extent of the problem is not entirely known, a low estimate is that some 2.2 million workers may have been affected by plant closings and…

Barth, Michael C.; Reisner, Fritzie

128

New policies, new options: learning from changing student transitions at two ends of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transitions of young people into adult life in most Western nations have been significantly transformed as a result of the new economic and education policy settings. In both Norway and Australia these changes have been the subject of extensive analysis, and quite independently researchers from each nation have identified new patterns of student transitions that have much more than

Kare Heggen; Peter Dwyer

1998-01-01

129

Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch), provides an…

Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

130

Carrot, Stick, or Sledgehammer: U.S. Policy Options for North Korean Nuclear Weapons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons has shaken the foundations of U.S. policy in Northeast Asia. Because of North Korea'a record of state- sponsored terrorism, illicit activities, human rights violations, arms sales, and fiery rhetoric, its developme...

D. J. Orcutt

2004-01-01

131

U.S. Tax ReformAn Overview of the Current Debate and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of the current tax policy debate in the United States, this paper reviews and discusses some of the main recurrent themes, as well as some of the most important tax reform proposals put forward over the past two decades. It finds that although there seems to be widespread agreement that the current tax system is too complex,

Thomas Dalsgaard

2005-01-01

132

Food Self-Reliance and Food Self-Sufficiency: Evaluating the Policy Options,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper is to clarify the costs and benefits of using food imports to meet domestic food needs. Three types of food policies are delineated: (1) self-sufficiency - food needs are met entirely from domestic consumption; (2) trade-dependenc...

S. R. Pearson T. E. Josling W. P. Falcon

1986-01-01

133

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: How Much Does this Uncertain Option Affect Near-Term Policy Choices?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main issues in the climate policy agenda, the timing of abatement efforts, hinges on the uncertainties of climate change risks and technological evolution. We use a stochastic optimization framework and jointly explore these two features. First, we embed in the model future potential large-scale availability of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies. While non-CCS mitigation that reduces

Valentina Bosetti

2005-01-01

134

Policy Options to Improve Water Allocation Efficiency: Analysis on Egypt and Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of political risk, economic feasibility, and cultural concerns, it has been a great challenge for economists to provide palatable remedies to governments to promote water allocation efficiency. Considering the limitation of water pricing to irrigation water, this research addresses questions of which strategic policy alternatives to water pricing might improve irrigation water allocation efficiency. An empirical framework is provided

Lixia He; Wallace E. Tyner; Rachid Doukkali; Gamal Siam

2006-01-01

135

Biofuels, Policy Options, and Their Implications: Analyses Using Partial and General Equilibrium Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biofuel industry has been experiencing a period of extraordinary growth, fueled by a combination of high oil prices, ambitious renewable fuel standards, subsidies, and import protection. This rapid growth has important consequences for the US and global economies. In this paper, we examine these consequences from partial and general equilibrium perspectives. We first examine US biofuel policy backgrounds to

Wallace Tyner; Farzad Taheripour

2008-01-01

136

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications.  

PubMed

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City's MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

2007-03-26

137

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW.

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

2008-01-01

138

Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

2012-08-01

139

Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have\\u000a a profound effect on the country’s population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination\\u000a in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination.\\u000a Using a population simulation

Quanbao Jiang; Shuzhuo Li; Marcus W. Feldman

2011-01-01

140

Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

1990-03-01

141

Deterrence of biological and chemical warfare: a review of policy options.  

PubMed

The deployment of biological and chemical weapons by aggressor states is not a hypothetical scenario but a life-threatening contingency. Although Iraq was deterred from using its biological and chemical weapons during Operation Desert Storm, what forms of deterrence must be considered in preventing the use of these weapons of mass destruction in the future? Traditional deterrents against their use have ranged from the threat of a military response to the ratification of diplomatic treaties and agreements. An overall strategy to deter the use of these weapons includes an additional, less frequently discussed approach-force protection-which encompasses defensive biomedical countermeasures (e.g., antibiotics, drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tests) and nonmedical protective devices (e.g., masks, specialized clothing/shelters, detectors). A combined, integrated approach to deterrence is reviewed in this article with regard to current policies and the roles played by Department of Defense research and development programs for biological and chemical defense. PMID:9121658

Lebeda, F J

1997-03-01

142

In Search of Policy Options for Transforming Bhutanese Refugee Problem in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 100,000 refugees from Bhutan have been languishing in the UNHCR managed camps in Eastern Nepal since early 1990s. Sixteen rounds of bilateral talks between Bhutan and Nepal yielded no tangible solution. Bhutan has insisted that only a fraction of the total refugee population qualify for Bhutanese citizenship. The documentary evidences with the refugees suggest that the overwhelming majority have

Deo D. Sharma

2008-01-01

143

Public utility and solar energy interface: an assessment of policy options. Executive summary. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing research and on-going activity in the interface between the public utility industry and solar energy systems for buildings are reviewed and assessed. The state-of-the-art is presented as both an exhaustive comparison of studies-to-date concerning methods of evaluating the performance of solar buildings in the interface, and present state legislation in solar demonstration and research projects. Major technology configuration of

S. L. Feldman; B. Anderson

1976-01-01

144

Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Trade-Policy Options for the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the Michigan Model of World Production and Trade to simulate the economic effects on the United States, Japan, and other major trading countries\\/regions of the Doha Round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations and a variety of regional\\/bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) involving the United States and Japan. We estimate that an assumed reduction of post-Uruguay Round tariffs

Drusilla K. Brown; Alan V. Deardorff; Robert M. Stern

2003-01-01

145

Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.  

PubMed

There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs. PMID:20660208

Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

2010-07-21

146

Storage of spent fuel from the nation's nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the spent fuel'' elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

Not Available

1989-10-01

147

Storage of spent fuel from the nation`s nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the ``spent fuel`` elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

Not Available

1989-10-01

148

Antenatal HIV screening and treatment in South Africa: social norms and policy options.  

PubMed

South Africa has one of the highest prevalence of HIV and AIDS in the world, with mother-to-child transmission being an important route for spread of the infection. For years, AIDS scientists and activists locally and internationally have been working desperately for the people of South Africa to have access to treatment for HIV and AIDS. Policymakers in South Africa have consistently maintained that HIV infection is not responsible for AIDS, thus creating the biggest obstacle to implementation of appropriate prevention and therapeutic programmes, including antiretroviral therapy for HIV positive persons. Only recently, people within the government and ruling party, defying previous policy, have agreed that antiretroviral drugs should be given to pregnant women with HIV. The social fabric of South African society is markedly different from that of Western countries. In this paper, the author analyses the likely implications of antenatal testing and treatment of pregnant women in South Africa, in light of the socio-economic and cultural status of women in that society. PMID:15623122

Hasnain, Maemoona

2004-08-01

149

TRIPS, the Doha Declaration and increasing access to medicines: policy options for Ghana  

PubMed Central

There are acute disparities in pharmaceutical access between developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries make up approximately 80% of the world's population but only represent approximately 20% of global pharmaceutical consumption. Among the many barriers to drug access are the potential consequences of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. Many developing countries have recently modified their patent laws to conform to the TRIPS standards, given the 2005 deadline for developing countries. Safeguards to protect public health have been incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement; however, in practice governments may be reluctant to exercise such rights given concern about the international trade and political ramifications. The Doha Declaration and the recent Decision on the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health may provide more freedom for developing countries in using these safeguards. This paper focuses on Ghana, a developing country that recently changed its patent laws to conform to TRIPS standards. We examine Ghana's patent law changes in the context of the Doha Declaration and assess their meaning for access to drugs of its population. We discuss new and existing barriers, as well as possible solutions, to provide policy-makers with lessons learned from the Ghanaian experience.

Cohen, JC; Gyansa-Lutterodt, M; Torpey, K; Esmail, LC; Kurokawa, G

2005-01-01

150

POLICY AND REGULATORY OPTIONS ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: WHY USA AND EU HAVE DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND HOW WTO NEGOTIATIONS CAN BE INVOLVED?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the trade implications of the different policy and regulatory options currently adopted for managing the main issues raised by the recent large diffusion of the Genetically Modified (GM) crops. Though many different national regulatory approaches can be observed worldwide, USA and EU are the most relevant and cited cases of alternative (strongly permissive vs. strongly preventive)

Roberto Esposti; Alessandro Sorrentino

151

Effect of Major Organizational Policy on Employee Attitudes Toward Graduate Degrees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leaders initiate policies not only to improve the success of their organizations, but to influence employee performance, whereby employee attitudes toward a policy objective can influence their resulting behaviors. One group of employees, Air Force office...

F. R. Hughes

2006-01-01

152

Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring  

PubMed Central

Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM) has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that will eventually lead to the formulation of a variety of policy relevant risk reduction options. Conclusion Although the usefulness of this approach still needs to be tested, and potential fine-tuning of the procedure may be necessary, approaching the policy implications of HBM in an objective framework will prove to be essential.

Smolders, R; Koppen, G; Schoeters, G

2008-01-01

153

From public health research to health promotion policy: on the 10 major contradictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rise of evidence-based medicine has given impetus to calls for more research evidence to be incorporated into health policy. The difficulty in effecting this research transfer has often been attributed to the different “worlds” of researchers and policy-makers. There are other contradictions, however, that must be addressed in attempting to bridge public health research and health promotion policy.

Vivian Lin

2004-01-01

154

A Policy Option To Provide Sufficient Funding For Massive-Scale Sequestration of CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global emissions of CO2 now are nearly 30 billion tons per year, and are growing rapidly due to strong economic growth. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have reached 380 ppm and recent reports suggest the rate of increase has gone from 1% per year in the 1990's to 3% per year now - with potential to cross 550ppm in the 2020 decade. Without stabilization of atmospheric CO2 below 550ppm, climate models predict unacceptably higher average temperatures with significant risk of runaway global warming this century. While there is much talk about reducing CO2 emissions by switching to non-fossil energy sources, imposing energy efficiency, and a host of other changes, there are no new large-scale energy sources on the horizon. The options are to impose draconian cuts in fossil energy consumption that will keep us below 550ppm (devastating the global economy) - or to adopt massive-scale sequestration of CO2. Three approaches are feasible: biological ocean sequestration, geologic sequestration, and biological terrestrial sequestration. Biological sequestration is applicable to all CO2 sources, whereas geologic sequestration is limited to fossil-fuel power plants and some large point-source emitters such as cement plants and large industrial facilities. Sequestration provides a direct mechanism for reducing atmospheric levels of CO2, whereas offsetting technologies such as wind power or improved efficiency, reduce the need for more fossil fuels but do not physically remove CO2 from the environment. The primary geologic technique, carbon capture & sequestration (CCS), prevents CO2 from entering the atmosphere but likewise does not reduce existing levels of atmospheric CO2. Biological sequestration (ocean or terrestrial) physically removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Since we cannot shut down our global economy, urgent action is needed to counteract CO2 emissions, and avoid catastrophic climate change. Given the long lead time and/or small impact of offsetting energy sources, sequestration is the only way to achieve near and medium-term reductions in atmospheric CO2 levels. To finance massive-scale sequestration of CO2, we propose the World Trade Organization (WTO) become an active player in the sequestration market. Given the WTO's role as overseer of international trade agreements annually representing 30 trillion in imports and exports of goods and services, it is by far the largest global economic force and therefore offers the broadest economic base. Absent a real solution to CO2 emissions, the global economy - and world trade - will shrink dramatically. The WTO can jumpstart the market for CO2 sequestration by issuing long term contracts to purchase bona fide sequestration-derived CO2 credits. Under this proposal, an initial price of 100 per ton which steps-down by 5% per year could bring forth the sequestration investment needed to achieve upwards of 10 billion tons sequestered CO2 per year by 2025 (seven billion tons from biological ocean sequestration and at least three billion tons from geologic and terrestrial sequestration). Assuming a contract term of 40 years, and a parallel commodity market continues to develop for CO2 credits, at some time in the future the WTO's contractual price will be less than the commodity market price - and the WTO begins to recover its investment. Under one set of assumptions, the net WTO annual subsidy would peak at $86 billion by 2022, equal to an across-the-board WTO tariff on imports and exports of about 1.01%, then become positive a few years later as the market price climbed above WTO's contracted price. Under this proposal, the WTO effectively subsidizes CO2 sequestration in the near to medium term and then recoups its investment and reaps large profits over the long term.

Kithil, P. W.

2007-12-01

155

A policy analysis of major decisions relating to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the blood supply  

PubMed Central

CREUTZFELDT–JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) IS THE FIRST major challenge that the blood system has faced since the completion of the Krever inquiry in 1997. We report the results of a detailed policy analysis comparing 2 CJD-related decisions: a 1995 recall of blood from a donor with classic CJD and the 1999 decision to defer donations from individuals with a 6-month travel history to the UK between 1980 and 1996 due to concerns related to variant CJD. Overall, we observed that decision-making improved significantly from 1995 to 1999. In 1998/99 the potential threat of variant CJD was identified at an early stage, and a systematic risk assessment process was initiated. Decision-making was consultative and involved consumers. However, the perception existed that further improvement could take place in the areas of transparency of process and interaction of organizations. We observed that the presence of a second operator had an important impact on decision-making in 1998/99.

Wilson, Kumanan; Hebert, Paul C.; Laupacis, Andreas; Dornan, Christopher; Ricketts, Maura; Ahmad, Nadya; Graham, Ian

2001-01-01

156

Major depressive disorder in the perinatal period: using data linkage to inform perinatal mental health policy.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate hospital admission of major depressive disorders (MDD) before and after birth. Population data for all primiparous women admitted to the hospital with depressive disorders before and after birth were used. The comparison group consisted of 10 % of primiparous women not admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder or substance use. A total of 728 women had a first admission with depressive disorders (501 in the first postpartum year). The rate of first hospital admission for depressive disorders decreased during pregnancy and increased markedly in the first three months after birth (peaking in the second month with a rate of 10.74/1,000 person year and rate ratio of 12.56) compared with the 6 months prior to pregnancy. Admission remained elevated in the second postpartum year. Older maternal age, smoking, elective caesarian section and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit or special care nursery were associated with a higher rate of admission. Women born outside Australia and those most socioeconomically disadvantaged were less likely to be admitted to the hospital in the first postpartum year. Overall risk of hospital admission with depressive disorders rose significantly across the entire first postpartum year. This has significant implications for policy and service planning for women with mood disorders in the perinatal period. PMID:22643848

Xu, Fenglian; Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Hilder, Lisa; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

2012-05-27

157

The federal communications commission and major policy matters affecting computer communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a time of great change in FCC regulatory policies affecting computer communication. Over the next several months, the FCC will be called upon to consider and decide many issues which may well shape the nation's data communications for years to come. This paper briefly reviews the important FCC cases which set the stage for today's policy issues. These

Frank J. Martin Jr.

1976-01-01

158

Where Does Policy Analysis Belong in the Undergraduate Public Administration Major?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that a required course in public policy analysis can serve as a natural capstone experience for undergraduate curricula in public administration. By teaching analysis, rather than teaching about analysis, undergraduate programs can integrate other elements of the curriculum and prepare students to understand the policy process more…

Carver, Robert H.

1996-01-01

159

Admissions Policies Governing the Declaration of Academic Major and Academic Advising Models Relating to Student Outcomes in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to analyze admissions policies pertaining to the declaration of academic majors for incoming students and structures of academic advising at American universities and how they relate to student outcomes. The student outcomes considered for the study were first to second year retention rates and graduation rates. …

Workinger, Heather A.

2011-01-01

160

A Policy of Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Energy Research and Development Administration's program to deal with the relationship of energy and the environment is examined. Alternatives include the development of new energy sources that offer a viable choice for the future for economically feasible and environmentally acceptable technologies. (BT)|

Fri, Robert W.

1975-01-01

161

Preparing elementary education majors to teach science using an inquiry-based approach: the Full Option Science System.  

PubMed

Science education traditionally has received insufficient attention. As a literature review shows, teacher preparation in science will be best served by improvements in pedagogy and in the content of required undergraduate science courses. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993, 1995) and the National Research Council (1993, 1995) have addressed this need in advocating a "science for all" that is highly significant for diverse learners. The No Child Left Behind Act emphasizes that reform of teacher preparation is part of an urgent national commitment to bring high-quality teacher candidates into the classroom. The Gallaudet University undergraduate teacher education program has developed an inquiry-based course that emphasizes integration of the sciences. Acquisition of the Full Option Science System, and its adaptation to and integration into the course, has resulted in specific curricular changes and positive results. PMID:15552340

Mangrubang, Fred R

2004-01-01

162

Trade Diversification Away from the U.S. or North American Customs Union? A Review of Canada’s Trade Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines Canada’s key strategic trade policy options – whether pushing for further economic integration with the U.S., or diversifying to non-U.S. markets and reducing the degree to which Canada’s economy depends on the U.S. In particular, this study compares the economic benefits of implementing a North American customs union with the benefits of increasing Canada’s trade with either

Patrick Georges

2012-01-01

163

National Government Policy Options for Contributing to Regional Economic Stability: The US Department of Energy's Major Nuclear Weapons Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted economic simulation, historical, and survey research that considers the national government's obligation to the regions that surround the places where it developed and tested nuclear weapons. The research shows that the strongest case for an obligation is at four site regions: Hanford (Washington), Idaho, Oak Ridge (Tennessee), and Savannah River (Georgia, South Carolina). These four are dependent

MICHAEL GREENBERG; KAREN LOWRIE; MICHAEL FRISCH; DAVID LEWIS

2003-01-01

164

Scheduled announcements and volatility patterns: The effects of monetary policy committee announcements on LIBOR and short sterling futures and options  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Both the UK spot and futures markets in short term interest rates are found to react strongly to surprises in the scheduled announcements,of the repo rate and RPI. Therefore these announcements,should also affect the market for options on short ,term interest rates. Because the repo rate and RPI announcements are scheduled, the options market can predict the days on

Peng Sun; Charles Sutcliffe

2003-01-01

165

Conservation focus on Europe: major conservation policy issues that need to be informed by conservation science.  

PubMed

Europe is one of the world's most densely populated continents and has a long history of human-dominated land- and seascapes. Europe is also at the forefront of developing and implementing multinational conservation efforts. In this contribution, we describe some top policy issues in Europe that need to be informed by high-quality conservation science. These include evaluation of the effectiveness of the Natura 2000 network of protected sites, implications of rapid economic and subsequent land-use change in Central and Eastern Europe, conservation of marine biodiversity and sustainability of fisheries, the effect of climate change on movement of species in highly fragmented landscapes, and attempts to assess the economic value of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Broad policy issues such as those identified are not easily amenable to scientific experiment. A key challenge at the science-policy interface is to identify the research questions underlying these problem areas so that conservation science can provide evidence to underpin future policy development. PMID:19627313

Pullin, Andrew S; Báldi, András; Can, Ozgun Emre; Dieterich, Martin; Kati, Vassiliki; Livoreil, Barbara; Lövei, Gabor; Mihók, Barbara; Nevin, Owen; Selva, Nuria; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

2009-08-01

166

When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

2012-01-01

167

NRRI summary of Florida Public Service Commission: Fraud control policies of seven major Florida utilities  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Staff recently completed an audit of fraud control policies and programs at the State`s largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities. The purpose of the audit was to examine the ability of Florida`s largest regulated utilities to deter, detect, and resolve occurrences of fraud. The Staff audited the state`s seven largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities: Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power and Light, Gulf Power Corporation, Tampa Electric Company, GTE-Florida, BellSouth Telecommunications (Southern Bell), and Sprint United/Centel. The audit scope was limited to fraudulent acts committed by employees, contractors, suppliers, or agents of the seven utilities. Information regarding the utilities` fraud control policies and programs was obtained through surveys, document requests, and interviews with managers and officers.

NONE

1995-12-31

168

Coalition formation on major policy dimensions: The Council of the European Union 1998 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data of contested decisions in the Council of the European Union, combined with data on the position of member states\\u000a on the left-right and support for European integration dimensions, this paper provides an overview of winning coalitions formed\\u000a in the council in the 1998 to 2004 time span. It shows distance between the combined policy positions of winning coalitions

Peter van Roozendaal; Madeleine O. Hosli; Caspar Heetman

169

Interaction and Trends of Major Power Relations and International Order: China's Related Strategy and Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major power relations, an important international relations per se, is hence an important factor that impacts the world configuration and international order, especially at this important juncture of envisioning and constructing a new international order. Building international order in peacetime is proved to be a long, interwoven, complicated and professional endeavor. Major power cooperation and competition mainly involve regimes, organizations,

YANG Jiemian

2006-01-01

170

Corn and Sorghum Herbicides and Water Quality: An Evaluation of Alternative Policy Options, CEEPES Project Research Memo 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policies restricting the use of atrazine and other triazines to achieve desirable water quality standards are analyzed in a CEEPES framework. Five policies, including atrazine post restriction, restricting atrazine to meet MCL and HAL standards in runoff, a complete ban on atrazine, and also a ban on all triazines, were evaluated. The results suggest a $764 million total economic

P. G. Lakshminarayan; Aziz Bouzaher; Toshitsugu Otake; Todd Campbell; Philip W. Gassman

1994-01-01

171

Local Options on Global Stocks: How the States are affecting the U.S. Debate on Climate Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the implications of local policy-making with regard to the global issue of climate change. First, we assess what one may expect when small open economies, such as states, implement policies designed to affect global pollutants. Next, we briefly analyze some of the legal constraints on state actions. We then catalog some of the specific technologies

Dallas Burtraw; William Shobe

2007-01-01

172

Fair valuation of life insurance liabilities: The impact of interest rate guarantees, surrender options, and bonus policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes one of the most common life insurance products—the so-called participating (or with profits) policy. This type of contract stands in contrast to unit-linked (UL) products in that interest is credited to the policy periodically according to some mechanism which smoothes past returns on the life insurance company’s (LIC) assets. As is the case for UL products, the

Anders Grosen; Peter Løchte Jørgensen

2000-01-01

173

Educational Policy and the Two Major Approaches to Disaster Relief in the Third World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, two major schools of thought regarding disaster and disaster assistance are identified and examined in order to bring to light their underlying assumptions about assistance and development in the Third World. The first section discusses the context of the problem, citing figures and presenting charts to illustrate the scope and…

Harris, Christopher

174

Adjusting Hours to Increase Jobs: An Analysis of the Options. A Special Report of the National Commission for Manpower Policy. Special Report No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This fifteenth special report of the National Commission for Manpower Policy examines the interplay between the forces determining work schedules and the incidence and prevalence of unemployment. In the first chapter the author sets forth the major trends in hours of work and in the changing structure of the labor force that has led increasingly…

Clark, Robert

175

Youth with Disabilities in Transition: Health Insurance Options and Obstacles. Healthy & Ready To Work (HRTW) Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper highlights the public and private health insurance options for young people with disabilities or chronic health conditions including several recent Federal initiatives to increase access to health care for working adults with disabilities. Discussion of public health insurance eligibility and coverage focuses on aspects of Medicaid and…

Schulzinger, Rhoda

176

An Illustrative Analysis of Medicare Options Compare: What's There and What's Not? Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicare Options Compare, a website maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), helps beneficiaries choose among available Medicare Advantage plans. This AARP brief identifies strengths and weaknesses of the site. On one hand, it helps beneficiaries identify health plan choices available in their zip code and provides an extensive amount of information on these choices. On the

Marsha Gold

2009-01-01

177

Policy needs and options for a common transatlantic approach towards measuring adoption, usage and benefits of eHealth.  

PubMed

The European Union (EU) sponsored ARGOS project analysed current eHealth policy thinking in both the EU and the USA, compared strategic challenges and outcomes in selected fields, and drafted roadmaps towards developing advanced global approaches for these issues. This policy brief focuses on better understanding the benefits and costs of eHealth investments, assessing their overall socio-economic impact, identifying challenges and success factors, as well as measuring and globally benchmarking the concrete usage of eHealth solutions. These are by now key policy priorities not only of national governments and the European Commission, but also of international institutions like WHO or OECD. There is a strong felt transatlantic need for stocktaking, identifying lessons learned, sharing of experience, and working together to advance these issues for the benefit of health systems. A growing number of national and international activities can be taken advantage of. Recommendations on how to proceed with such transatlantic activities are proposed. PMID:21893898

Stroetmann, Karl A; Middleton, Blackford

2011-01-01

178

Cost Analysis and its Use in Simulation of Policy Options: The Papua New Guinea Education Finance Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the structure and operations of a computer simulation model used in Papua New Guinea, developed with technical assistance from UNESCO. Notes that model establishes baseline data on student enrollments, teacher posts, and costs of education, and can be used to simulate policies under consideration and provide output on student flows,…

Webster, Thomas

1997-01-01

179

Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.  

PubMed

Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America. PMID:17612322

Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

2007-06-01

180

Kindergarten Educational Policies: Separating Myth from Reality. [Revised].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article: (1) profiles kindergarten policies and practices currently implemented in district schools; (2) analyzes the research supporting the major policy alternatives for six common kindergarten and school entry age issues that all school districts must address; and (3) identifies the optimum policy option alternative for each issue based…

Siegel, Donna Farrell; Hanson, Ralph A.

181

Analysis of policy options for meeting the demand for wood fuels in the province of Ilocos Norte, the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

Ilocos Norte is the second most deforested province in the Philippines. It has a high demand for wood fuels for household cooking and tobacco curing. The government has constructed a 3-MW wood-fired electric power plant and is planning two pig iron furnaces that will require large amounts of wood charcoal. Key options for producing or saving large quantities of wood fuels are tree farming, improved woodstoves, bamboo substitution, and kerosene substitution. At realistic rather than ideal implementation effectiveness, the present value of net economic benefits (PVNB) is highest for woodstoves. Tree farming has the second highest PVNB when fuelwood is valued at the market price, but bamboo substitution does when fuelwood is shadow priced at the value of collection time. Kerosene substitution has a negative PVNB, and LPG or electricity are even more expensive fuels.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01

182

Report: treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste in North Rhine-Westphalia: policy-making and operation options.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes a long-term-investigation of the mechanical treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste materials in North Rhine-Westphalia in the light of applied operation standards and a disposal ban on untreated waste. It is shown how both the allocation of output materials from mechanical treatment plants and the subsequent treatment channels have changed since enforcement of the ban in 2005. Based on the findings of the investigation, two waste management scenarios offering alternative policies have been defined and are discussed. It is suggested that consistent enforcement of the ban affects both the diversion of waste to incineration and the recovery of materials on a regional scale. On the other hand, potential energy recovery may be fully exploited only insofar as operators of mechanical treatment plants concentrate their business on the production of refuse-derived fuel. PMID:17439054

Karavezyris, Vassilios

2007-04-01

183

Sustainable Power Sector Reform in Emerging Markets - Financial Issues and Options. Joint World Bank/USAID Policy Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is based on analysis of 20 successful power financing case studies and from discussions with major international power investors and lenders active in emerging markets. In addition, this report was informed by a large body of literature that h...

2004-01-01

184

Why have CO2 emissions increased in the transport sector in Asia ? underlying factors and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly increasing emissions of carbon dioxide from the transport sector, particularly in urban areas, is a major challenge to sustainable development in developing countries. This study analyzes the factors responsible for transport sector CO2 emissions growth in selected developing Asian countries during 1980-2005. The analysis splits the annual emissions growth into components representing economic development; population growth; shifts in transportation

Govinda R. Timilsina; Ashish Shrestha

2009-01-01

185

A window of opportunity for the transformation of national mental health policy in Turkey following two major earthquakes.  

PubMed

Striking at the nation's highly populated industrial heartlands, two massive earthquakes in 1999 killed over 25,000 people in Turkey. The economic cost and the humanitarian magnitude of the disaster were unprecedented in the country's history. The crisis also underscored a major flaw in the organization of mental health services in the provinces that were left out of the 1961 reforms that aimed to make basic health services available nationwide. In describing the chronology of the earthquakes and the ensuing national and international response, this article explains how the public and governmental experience of the earthquakes has created a window of opportunity, and perhaps the political will, for significant reform. There is an urgent need to integrate mental health and general health services, and to strengthen mental health services in the country's 81 disparate provinces. As Turkey continues her rapid transformation in terms of greater urbanization, higher levels of public education, and economic and constitutional reforms associated with its projected entry into the European Union, there have also been growing demands for better, and more equitably distributed, health care. A legacy of the earthquakes is that they exposed the need for Turkey to create a coherent, clearly articulated national mental health policy. PMID:15371066

Munir, Kerim; Ergene, Tuncay; Tunaligil, Verda; Erol, Nese

186

A Window of Opportunity for the Transformation of National Mental Health Policy in Turkey Following Two Major Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

Striking at the nation’s highly populated industrial heartlands, two massive earthquakes in 1999 killed over 25,000 people in Turkey. The economic cost and the humanitarian magnitude of the disaster were unprecedented in the country’s history. The crisis also underscored a major flaw in the organization of mental health services in the provinces that were left out of the 1961 reforms that aimed to make basic health services available nationwide. In describing the chronology of the earthquakes and the ensuing national and international response, this article explains how the public and governmental experience of the earthquakes has created a window of opportunity, and perhaps the political will, for significant reform. There is an urgent need to integrate mental health and general health services, and to strengthen mental health services in the country’s 81 disparate provinces. As Turkey continues her rapid transformation in terms of greater urbanization, higher levels of public education, and economic and constitutional reforms associated with its projected entry into the European Union, there have also been growing demands for better, and more equitably distributed, health care. A legacy of the earthquakes is that they exposed the need for Turkey to create a coherent, clearly articulated national mental health policy.

Munir, Kerim; Ergene, Tuncay; Tunaligil, Verda; Erol, Nese

2011-01-01

187

Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are for the aged care sector. Conclusions There is an urgent need for a national strategy that promotes a common approach to aged care leadership and management development, one that is sector-appropriate and congruent with the philosophy of person-centred care now predominant in the sector. The onus is on aged care industries as a whole and various levels of Government to make a concerted effort to establish relevant regulation, legislation and funding.

2010-01-01

188

Relativized Options: Choosing the Right Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativized options combine model mini- mization methods and a hierarchical rein- forcement learning framework to derive com- pact reduced representations of a related family of tasks. Relativized options are de- ned without an absolute frame of reference, and an option's policy is transformed suit- ably based on the circumstances under which the option is invoked. In earlier work we ad-

Balaraman Ravindran; Andrew G. Barto

2003-01-01

189

Optional Testing: The Emperor's New Clothes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experience of Bates College with optional testing, summarizing results of optional Scholastic Aptitude Tests over five years and presenting snapshot of totally optional testing over one year. Discusses enrollment, predictive, and ethical implications of an optional testing policy. Concludes with some brief speculations on definitions of…

Hiss, William C.

1992-01-01

190

Rehabilitation Options  

MedlinePLUS

... up? Login here Please leave this field empty Rehabilitation Options SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments ... Finish Home > Care and Treatment > Spectrum of Care > Rehabilitation Options Listen Beginning the Healing Process After undergoing ...

191

The Effect of the Lowered Age of Majority and Relaxed Dormitory Policies on Drug Usage by Dormitory Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1973, the state of Minnesota passed legislation lowering the legal age of adulthood from 21 to 18; this gave 18-year olds the opportunity to legally consume alcoholic beverages. At the same time, the University of Minnesota made policy changes which enabled dormitory residents to consume alcoholic beverages in their rooms. To ascertain the…

Kuznik, Anthony

1975-01-01

192

America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

193

Acid rain options  

SciTech Connect

A number of contributions made to a series of seminars on acid rain options held by the Air Pollution Control Association are presented. They include statements on US and Canadian policy and legislation, and views from coal producers, electric utilities and motor vehicle manufacturers on measures to counteract or prevent the effects of acid rain.

Perhac, R.M.

1985-03-01

194

Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

2008-01-01

195

Le développement de l'éducation thérapeutique en France : politiques publiques et offres de soins actuelles The development of therapeutic education in France: current public policies and treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has significantly expanded in the last few years. This article explains the major trends underpinning and supporting its development in France, and how they have rendered it a central place in the system, and provided an integral role for therapeutic education within the wider perspective of medical care and treatment options. The organisation of TPE

Béatrice Grenier; François Bourdillon; Rémi Gagnayre

196

Option Pricing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module analyzes the topic of option pricing. Binomial tree models and the Black-Scholes formulae are used to price call options on an underlying asset. . The put-call parity theorem is used to value put options. Background inFormation on options is provided as well as the theoretical implications of the models. Assessment of the models is evaluated through on an investigation of the strengths and shortcomings of the models compared with their empirical performance. The module evaluates the differences between European and American options using mathematical models. In addition, the module examines expansions of the model including adaptation to stocks that pay dividends, the market for foreign exchange, and options on portfolios such as market indices. In assessing the strengths and shortcomings of the models investigated, the existence of alternative models is introduced to allow the interested student pathways to learning after the module.

Percy, Rick

197

Student response to tuition increase by academic majors: empirical grounds for a cost-related tuition policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on\\u000a the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase\\u000a on enrollment in six academic majors—Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and Education—where disciplinary\\u000a enrollment data were available. The main findings are that students are

Jung Cheol Shin; Sande Milton

2008-01-01

198

When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

199

Public Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

American health care woes are no new phenomena, and recent history demonstrates the intensity of the concomitant debate that arises following the proposal of a new system or a special new element-namely, the public insurance option. Early in his tenure, President Clinton dared to undertake daunting reform efforts (including the creation of a public insurance option). Many argue that losing

Kristin Dolbeare; Nora Heaton; Ellen Thomas; Peter E Visser

2009-01-01

200

Assessing BCG vaccination coverage and incidence of paediatric tuberculosis following two major changes in BCG vaccination policy in France.  

PubMed

We report data on BCG vaccination coverage and paediatric tuberculosis (TB) incidence collected after the disappearance of the multipuncture device for BCG vaccination in January 2006 and the shift from universal to targeted vaccination in July 2007 in France.Vaccination coverage estimates in children for whom BCG is recommended allow assessing whether the recommendations are followed by doctors and/or accepted by the target population. In January and February 2006, BCG sales to the private sector in Îlede-France region were 74.2% and 41.3% of the ones for the same months the previous year. Total sales in 2006 amounted to 57.3% of those in 2005. Coverage decreased immediately after withdrawal of the multipuncture device, and remained generally insufficient in high risk children in the following years. However,the impact on paediatric TB incidence in 2008 seems very limited, although the duration of follow-up is still short. Training of doctors in intra-dermal vaccination and communication on the new vaccination policy should be strengthened PMID:21457685

Guthmann, J P; Antoine, D; Fonteneau, L; Che, D; Lévy-Bruhl, D

2011-03-24

201

AID renews ties with IPPF as major foreign aid policy changes are seen. But UNFPA funds being temporarily withheld.  

PubMed

The United States government and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) reestablished their relationship in November 1993, and the United States Agency for International Development (AID) committed $75 million to IPPF, after nine years of official US hostility because IPPF would not renounce abortion-related research and services. The administration also delivered to Congress a final draft of its rewrite of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA), with significant policy changes for international population aid. Preparations are underway for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, where the US intends to participate in the world debate, AID has awarded IPPF $13.2 million for fiscal 1994. The Reagan and Bush administrations had concluded that the presence of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in China, where coercive abortion does exist, made UNFPA guilty by association. But the Clinton administration determined that UNFPA did not support abortion services at all. Nevertheless, the Justice Department withheld UNFPA's initial fiscal 1994 funds pending a hearing. The administrator of AID expressed his strong support for UNFPA as well as IPPF following the signing of the cooperative agreement between IPPF and AID. He emphasized that support for family planning would remain the core of the US program, and that information about family planning is a fundamental right. The Clinton administration seeks to connect family planning and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood, post-abortion contraceptive service, and the special needs of adolescents. A new FAA bill would encourage sustainable development by promoting economic growth, preserving the global environment, supporting democracy, and stabilizing world population growth. This will be the subject of congressional hearings in early 1994. The administration intends to eliminate the ban on the use of foreign aid funds for abortion, but the bill would continue to prohibit coercive abortion or sterilization. Because of severe budget constraints, AID has decided to close 21 mission offices overseas, reducing AID's presence to about 50 countries. PMID:12345356

1993-12-01

202

California Policy Choices. Volume 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

California Policy Choices seeks to improve the process of public policy making by increasing citizens' and policy makers' understanding of the choices to be made. Contributors assess and describe the impacts of past choices on options currently available ...

J. J. Kirlin D. R. Winkler

1990-01-01

203

Options Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Urges the practice of providing optional assignments within the framework of any given course in order to sustain student interest in foreign language learning. Specific lesson plans are provided. (LG)|

Bornscheuer, Joan H.

1974-01-01

204

Stock Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The participation of employees in the company’s economic success serves to bring the interests of the employees in line with\\u000a the interests of the shareholders in increasing the profit of the company. Stock options and other equity awards may help\\u000a to create an entrepreneurial spirit within the company’s workforce increasing the motivation and loyalty of the staff. Since\\u000a stock options

Martin Heinsius; Pascal R. Kremp

205

Navigating the Child Care Subsidy System: Policies and Practices That Affect Access and Retention. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-50. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brief summarizes the report, "Getting and Retaining Child Care Assistance: How Policy and Practice Influence Families' Experiences," examining subsidy policies and practices that affect subsidy utilization, including those that affect every interaction the parent has with the subsidy agency and those that affect the ease of applying for, and…

Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Sandfort, Jodi R.

206

Changes in Regional Variation of Medicare Home Health Care Utilization and Service Mix for Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Procedures in Response to Changes in Reimbursement Policy  

PubMed Central

Background Significant variation in regional utilization of home health (HH) services has been documented. Under Medicare's Home Health Interim and Prospective Payment Systems, reimbursement policies designed to curb expenditure growth and reduce regional variation were instituted. Objective To examine the impact of Medicare reimbursement policy on regional variation in HH care utilization and type of HH services delivered. Research Design We postulated that the reimbursement changes would reduce regional variation in HH services and that HH agencies would respond by reducing less skilled HH aide visits disproportionately compared with physical therapy or nursing visits. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to examine regional variation in the month-to-month probability of HH selection, and the number of and type of visits among HH users. Subjects A 100 percent sample of all Medicare recipients undergoing either elective joint replacement (1.6 million hospital discharges) or surgical management of hip fracture (1.2 million hospital discharges) between January 1996 and December 2001 was selected. Results Before the reimbursement changes, there was great variability in the probability of HH selection and the number of HH visits provided across regions. In response to the reimbursement changes, though there was little change in the variation of probability of HH utilization, there were marked reductions in the number and variation of HH visits, with greatest reductions in regions with highest baseline utilization. HH aide visits were the source of the baseline variation and accounted for the majority of the reductions in utilization after implementation. Conclusions The HH interim and prospective payment policies were effective in reducing regional variation in HH utilization.

FitzGerald, John D; Boscardin, W John; Ettner, Susan L

2009-01-01

207

Materializing policies for sustainable use and economy-wide management of resources: biophysical perspectives, socio-economic options and a dual approach for the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies for Sustainable Use and economy-wide Management of natural Resources (SUMR) throughout the production and consumption system are faced with environmental and socio-economic requirements and regulatory constraints. Based on empirical findings of ongoing trends of resource use, decoupling from economic growth, and transregional problem shifting, the paper outlines a potentially sustainable biophysical basis for production and consumption in the EU.

Stefan Bringezu

2006-01-01

208

Association between a single-pass whole-body computed tomography policy and survival after blunt major trauma: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Single-pass, whole-body computed tomography (pan-scan) remains a controversial intervention in the early assessment of patients with major trauma. We hypothesized that a liberal pan-scan policy is mainly an indicator of enhanced process quality of emergency care that may lead to improved survival regardless of the actual use of the method. Methods This retrospective cohort study included consecutive patients with blunt trauma referred to a trauma center prior to (2000 to 2002) and after (2002 to 2007) the introduction of a liberal single-pass pan-scan policy. The overall mortality between the two periods was compared and stratified according to the availability and actual use of the pan-scan. Logistic regression analysis was employed to adjust mortality estimates for demographic and injury-related independent variables. Results The study comprised 313 patients during the pre-pan-scan period, 223 patients after the introduction of the pan-scan policy but not undergoing a pan-scan and 608 patients undergoing a pan-scan. The overall mortality was 23.3, 14.8 and 7.9% (P < 0.001), respectively. By univariable logistic regression analysis, both the availability (odds ratio (OR) 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36 to 0.90) and the actual use of the pan-scan (OR 0.28, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.42) were associated with a lower mortality. The final model contained the Injury Severity Score, the Glasgow Coma Scale, age, emergency department time and the use of the pan-scan. 2.7% of the explained variance in mortality was attributable to the use of the pan-scan. This contribution increased to 7.1% in the highest injury severity quartile. Conclusions In this study, a liberal pan-scan policy was associated with lower trauma mortality. The causal role of the pan-scan itself must be interpreted in the context of improved structural and process quality, is apparently moderate and needs further investigation with regard to the diagnostic yield and changes in management decisions. (The Pan-Scan for Trauma Resuscitation [PATRES] Study Group, ISRCTN35424832 and ISRCTN41462125)

2011-01-01

209

Chicago Board Options Exchange Understanding Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Stock Options by the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) provides a good non-technical introduction to options. It explains the benefits of options, differences between options and stocks, the pricing of options, and it provides some basic options strategies. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

1994-01-01

210

Options Study - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2010-09-01

211

Impact of single versus multiple policy options on the economic feasibility of biogas energy production: Swine and dairy operations in Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production was investigated for swine and dairy operations under Nova Scotia, Canada farming conditions, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period (PP) economic decision criteria. In addition, the effects of selected environmental and “green” energy policy schemes on co-generation of on-farm biogas energy production and other co-benefits

Bettina B. Brown; Emmanuel K. Yiridoe; Robert Gordon

2007-01-01

212

Lighting Options for Homes.  

SciTech Connect

This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

Baker, W.S.

1991-04-01

213

Exercising options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

Carlowicz, Michael

214

Family Care or Foster Care? How State Policies Affect Kinship Caregivers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Series A, No. A-34. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1997, the Urban Institute surveyed state foster care administrators to gather information on state policies for identifying, licensing, and financially supporting kinship care families. For purposes of this brief, "kinship care" refers to a child whose placement was arranged by child welfare authorities. States were found to differ in three…

Boots, Shelley Waters; Geen, Rob

215

Energy policy in Iran: domestic choices and international implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book assesses energy-demand patterns, evaluates major energy supply sources, and recommends policy guidelines intended to comprise an integrated national energy plan for Iran. The book also provides some insights for other developing countries facing similar energy options and serves as a reminder that Iran, in addition to the strategic importance of its geography, remains a potential force in international

Mossavar-Rahjmani

1981-01-01

216

Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

2010-01-01

217

Alternative Administrative Strategies for Young Handicapped Children: A Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major and puzzling omissions from the legislative blizzard for the handicapped in the 1960's and 1970's has been the preschool handicapped child, aged 0-3. The present policy analysis explores the preferences of three groups of interested persons in 10 program options that would provide services for young children. A group of educators, mental retardation specialists, and advocates

Shirley Behr; James J. Gallagher

1981-01-01

218

State Policies on Assessment Participation and Accommodations, 2001. Synthesis Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings of an analysis of state policies on student participation in assessments and accommodations for 2001. Major findings include: (1) participation options beyond the usual three (participation without accommodations, participation with accommodations, alternate assessment) have become more evident and include partial…

Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thompson, Sandra; Robey, Jennifer

219

Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

Trask, Newell, J.

1994-01-01

220

Comparing the options for universal coverage.  

PubMed

This paper identifies and evaluates eight legislative policy options for achieving universal coverage. These options are reviewed systematically by addressing three distinct, although related, issues: defining the "universe" covered, defining the nature of the coverage to be provided, and providing legal incentives to assure the coverage and financing. In particular, this paper focuses on the obligations of employers and individuals under these proposals and appropriate governmental policies to promote compliance. PMID:8056394

Grossman, E G

221

Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.  

SciTech Connect

An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

2009-12-01

222

Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.  

PubMed

We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone. PMID:11532360

O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

2001-09-14

223

Real options approach to evaluating genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real options technique has emerged as an evaluation tool for investment under uncertainty. It explicitly recognizes future decisions, and the exercise strategy is based on the optimal decisions in future periods. This paper employs the optimal stopping policy derived from real options approach to analyze and evaluate genetic algorithms, specifically for the new branches namely Estimation of Distribution Algorithms

Sunisa Rimcharoen; Daricha Sutivong; Prabhas Chongstitvatana

2009-01-01

224

Options Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released, this options paper, one in a series of papers from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, is part of a comprehensive review of the 76-year old US deposit insurance system. Because the US banking system is going through a period of healthiness, the FDIC feels that this is the best time to "address the latent flaws in the system." The paper begins with a marvelous introduction to the history and uses of the US deposit insurance system, including a lengthy overview on the need for system reform. The second section examines the pricing of deposit insurance for individual banks. Section three discusses the ways in which deposit insurance losses are funded, and the fourth section considers the extent of insurance coverage. The paper is available in its entirety in HTML format.

225

Ether options  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an assessment of three ether options. Of all the ethers, MTBE is the most versatile and effective in achieving maximum flexibility for the refiner. For oxygenate mandates, MTBE requires the least amount of ether to achieve the required oxygen level in the gasoline. ETBE production can be economical in the U.S. if ethanol's 60 cents per gallon federal tax subsidy is applied to the ethanol feedstock. However, this would cause a refinery operation to be dependent on a tax subsidy that is due to expire at the end of 1991, at which time the unit would be uneconomical. Of all the ethers, TAME can probably provide the most environmental benefit. It reduces tailpipe emissions and converts some very volatile and highly reactive C/sub 5/ olefins in the gasoline pool into a very low RVP and clean burning ether. This RVP reduction will also provide the refiner with added flexibility in meeting the future RVP control regulations.

Miller, D.J.; Piel, W.J. (ARCO Chemical Co., Newtown Square, PA (US))

1989-01-01

226

Of Horse Race and Policy Issues: A Study of Gender in Coverage of a Gubernatorial Election by two Major Metropolitan Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of news coverage of a gubernatorial race suggests (1) gender may be a larger factor in selection of policy stories than in selection of horse race stories; (2) coverage of the horse race, particularly news coverage of advertising strategy, appears to have greater impact on the outcome of the election than coverage of policy issues; (3) a woman

Shirley A. Serini; Angela A. Powers; Susan Johnson

1998-01-01

227

Parisian exchange options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The option to exchange one asset for another is one of the oldest and one of the most popular exotic options. In the present article, we extend the existing literature on options to Parisian exchange options, i.e. the option to exchange one asset for the other contingent on the occurrence of the Parisian time. Thus, these options are a special

An Chen; Michael Suchanecki

2010-01-01

228

Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to

2009-01-01

229

Employment Policy: A Conceptual Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because employment and unemployment are fundamental issues in social welfare, it is useful for social workers to become knowledgeable of various employment policy options and their impacts. To facilitate this process in social work education, this paper presents a conceptual framework which identifies and interrelates a broad range of employment policy options. The framework can be used (1) to clarify

Michael W. Sherraden

1985-01-01

230

Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010-2015  

PubMed Central

Background Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Methods and Findings Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to ‘social, political and economic’ factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to ‘health policy and systems’ scored highest while those related to ‘research for development of new interventions’ scored the lowest. Conclusions We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors. The identified research options capture the need for ‘actionable research’ for advancing the prevention and control of zoonoses in India.

Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

2011-01-01

231

Reprocessing option for spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

The options available to utilities for disposal of fuel discharged from their nuclear reactors is not limited to bury or burn. Many utilities in Europe and Japan have already opted to reprocess their spent fuel in the United Kingdom and/or France. This enables the utility to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium and allows the utilities' countries to formulate a waste disposal policy without the time constraints that would otherwise be placed on them. This paper gives an insight into how and why British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is continuing to provide services to reprocess and recycle spent nuclear fuel. The closed fuel cycle represents the complete irradiated fuel management option and, with its use of well-established technologies, reprocessing of spent fuel is the only option that is available to utilities now.

Woolf, D.N. (British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley (United Kingdom))

1991-11-01

232

Positioning Institutional Research as a Major Player in Policy Decisions: Problems To Solve, Actions To Take. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a project to create and integrate an institutional research function into the executive-level policy decision making process at a private university. The paper identifies ten problems that needed to be overcome; they include: timeliness, consideration of qualitative factors, the limited scope of institutional research…

Lohmann, David

233

WIC Food Packages Policy Options Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children better known as the WIC Program serves to safeguard the health of low-income women, infants, and children up to age 5 who are at nutritional risk. WIC provides nutritious foods to...

I. Nichols-Barrer J. Jacobson M. K. Fox N. Cole

2011-01-01

234

The chinese brain drain and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain drain has become a growing problem in China’s overseas education, especially since the Tiananmen incident of June 1989.\\u000a Many students have found it more difficult to adjust to the home environment. Some are afraid they would be punished for political\\u000a reasons if they went home. Some use the issue as an opportunity to seek permanent overseas residence.\\u000a \\u000a Beijing is

Parris Chang; Zhiduan Deng

1992-01-01

235

Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. PMID:22019449

Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

2011-10-13

236

Renewable resource policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive volume covers the history, laws, and important national policies affecting renewable resource management. The author traces the history of renewable natural resource policy and management in the US, describes the major federal agencies and their functions, and examines the evolution of the primary resource policy areas. Renewable Resource Policy provides valuable insight into the often neglected legal administrative,

1993-01-01

237

Energy Options for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the presentations and discussion at the Energy Options for the Future meeting held at the Naval Research Laboratory in March of 2004. The presentations covered the present status and future potential for coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass energy sources and the effect of measures for energy conservation. The longevity of current major

John Sheffield; Stephen Obenschain; David Conover; Rita Bajura; David Greene; Marilyn Brown; Eldon Boes; Kathyrn McCarthy; David Christian; Stephen Dean; Gerald Kulcinski; P. L. Denholm

2004-01-01

238

But murderers can have all the children they want: Surrogacy and public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

No new ethical issue is created by reproductive technologies. The state should not intervene to suppress individual rights to take advantage of these technologies, including third party donations. Some individuals will view these technologies as the best available option for having and rearing children. The major values to be protected in public policy ought to be compassion, privacy and procreative

Byron Chell

1988-01-01

239

Global Climate Change: Policy Implications for Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. These include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. For fisheries resources, p...

H. Gucinski R. T. Lackey B. C. Spence

1990-01-01

240

Two Exotic Lookback Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper formally analyses two exotic options with lookback features, referred to as extreme spread lookback options and look?barrier options, first introduced by Bermin. The holder of such options receives partial protection from large price movements in the underlying, but at roughly the cost of a plain vanilla contract. This is achieved by increasing the leverage through either floating the

Peter Buchen; Otto Konstandatos

2008-01-01

241

Mortality derivatives and the option to annuitise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most US-based insurance companies offer holders of their tax-sheltered savings plans (VAs), the long-term option to annuitise their policy at a pre-determined rate over a pre-specified period of time. Currently, there is approximately one trillion dollars invested in such policies, with guaranteed annuitisation rates, in addition to any guaranteed minimum death benefit. The insurance company has essentially granted the policyholder

Moshe A. Milevskya; S. David Promislow

2001-01-01

242

Estimating the Effects of Urban Travel Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents models and procedures for quick evaluation of transportation policy options on urban travel behavior. The methods described in this report can be used to estimate the travel demand effects of a wide variety of transportation policy ins...

F. C. Dunbar

1976-01-01

243

Introduction to Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

International Finance and Commodities Institute (IFCI) and Axone Services & Development S.A. of Switzerland have developed an on-line course on options. The course is divided into six parts: Comparing Forward, Futures and Options; Options Basics; Basic Options Pricing; Structure and Functioning of an Options Exchange; Hedging; and Trading Strategies. Many of the lessons take the form of brief introductory remarks and then interactive multiple choice questions. At the end of the course there is an interactive quiz you can take to test your knowledge. Note that some prior knowledge of options is assumed.

1995-01-01

244

Rethinking Worklife Options for Older Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume contains 19 papers that were presented at a conference addressing critical issues related to employment options for older persons. They are arranged in four sections that cover early retirement policies and their implications; older workers of Asia and the Pacific; the impact of technological change on the employment prospects of…

Habib, Jack, Ed.; Nusberg, Charlotte, Ed.

245

Finding the cheapest Clean power options  

SciTech Connect

Speculation about why policies favor high-cost low-carbon generation options could fill a book. Vested interests? Lack of knowledge? Industry lobbying? Cost-plus regulatory mentality? Regardless of reasons, the data show that efficient generation that uses energy twice is largely ignored. While all other generation, both clean and dirty, receives large subsidies, energy recycling is ignored. (author)

Casten, Thomas R.; Smith, Jeffrey A.

2009-12-15

246

Evaluating health policy capacity: Learning from international and Australian experience  

PubMed Central

Background The health sector in Australia faces major challenges that include an ageing population, spiralling health care costs, continuing poor Aboriginal health, and emerging threats to public health. At the same time, the environment for policy-making is becoming increasingly complex. In this context, strong policy capacity – broadly understood as the capacity of government to make "intelligent choices" between policy options – is essential if governments and societies are to address the continuing and emerging problems effectively. Results This paper explores the question: "What are the factors that contribute to policy capacity in the health sector?" In the absence of health sector-specific research on this topic, a review of Australian and international public sector policy capacity research was undertaken. Studies from the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia were analysed to identify common themes in the research findings. This paper discusses these policy capacity studies in relation to context, models and methods for policy capacity research, elements of policy capacity and recommendations for building capacity. Conclusion Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the organisational and individual factors that are likely to contribute to health policy capacity, highlights the need for further research in the health sector and points to some of the conceptual and methodological issues that need to be taken into consideration in such research.

Gleeson, Deborah H; Legge, David G; O'Neill, Deirdre

2009-01-01

247

Uranium enrichment: investment options for the long term  

SciTech Connect

The US government supplies a major portion of the enriched uranium used to fuel most of the nuclear power plants that furnish electricity in the free world. As manager of the US uranium enrichment concern, the Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating a number of technological choices to improve enrichment service and remain a significant world supplier. The Congress will ultimately select a strategy for federal investment in the uranium enrichment enterprise. A fundamental policy choice between possible future roles - that of the free world's main supplier of enrichment services, and that of a mainly domestic supplier - will underlie any investment decision the Congress makes. The technological choices are gaseous diffusion, gas centrifuge, and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS). A base plan and four alternatives were examined by DOE and the Congressional Budget Office. In terms of total enterprise costs, Option IV, ultimately relying on advanced gas centrifuges for enrichment services, would offer the most economic approach, with costs over the full projection period totaling $123.5 billion. Option III, ultimately relying on AVLIS without gas centrifuge enrichment or gaseous diffusion, falls next in the sequence, with costs of $128.2 billion. Options I and II, involving combinations of the gas centrifuge and AVLIS technologies, follow closely with costs of $128.7 and $129.6 billion. The base plan has costs of $136.8 billion over the projection period. 1 figure, 22 tables.

Not Available

1983-01-01

248

Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public Policy Issues, Options, and Strategies. A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers is the result of a project by the Institute for Higher Education Policy designed to explore the public policy aspects of higher education cost measurement (expenditure analysis). Papers come from a 1-day seminar in 1999 that brought together individuals knowledgeable about cost measurement with institutional leaders and…

Wellman, Jane, Comp.; O'Brien, Colleen, Comp.

249

The energy bill. [The Energy Policy Act of 1992  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the major elements of their legislation providing commentary on its overall impact on the US energy policy. Major areas addressed include dependence on foreign oil, energy efficiency, alternative fuels, natural gas, nuclear power, electricity, etc. From a public policy construct, one would hope that the legislation addresses the costs of our policy of reliance on cheap foreign oil and maximizes the supply and demand-size options available to address our energy policy. Thus, to evaluate the legislation, one must assess whether the nation's reliance on foreign supplies of oil will be reduced, whether programs were put into place to cushion the potential economic impacts from an oil price spike, whether the nation's energy policy begins to address the environmental effects of resource production, and whether new programs will sustain options for meeting national energy requirements. If these were the sole analytical criteria by which to evaluate the legislation, the initiative could be considered a failure. In fairness to those who drafted this legislation, however, remember the political obstacles to even debating such far-reaching legislation and admire the leadership of those responsible for getting it enacted. The fact is, the programs included in this bill make incremental improvement to existing law and begin to address many of the problems described.

Rosenzweig, R.H. (Madison Public Affairs Group, Washington, DC (United States))

1993-01-01

250

New direction for non-proliferation policy: Weapons of mass destruction and the Third World. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Third World is a major national security challenge. This paper provides a summary of non-proliferation policies along with discussion of current world realities leading to the conclusion that the existing non-proliferation regime is losing its potency. Three options are provided on potential ways and of halting the spread of these weapons

Kilgore

1993-01-01

251

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

252

A Real Options Model for Workforce Cross-Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we propose using a real options framework to model and financially value a cross-training policy. The cross-training policy involves a dynamic investment on workforce flexibility. We model it as an approximation of an American call option using binomial lattices. Value stems from the merit of dynamic cross-training compared with the deterministic case using traditional discounted cash flow

David A. Nembhard; Harriet Black Nembhard; Ruwen Qin

2005-01-01

253

Telecommunications Regulations and Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Addresses shifts in basic telecommunication common carrier regulatory policies over the past decade; technological and economic changes prompting these policy shifts; major regulatory action resulting from these policy shifts; and the emerging regulatory issue of alternatives to local telephone service and its possible implication for online…

Brimmer, Karl W.

1981-01-01

254

Microenterprise Development: An Employment Option for Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document examines microenterprise development as an employment option for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients. The document begins with a brief discussion of the feasibility of self-employment as an option for TANF recipients, particularly in a slow economy. The next section answers policy questions pertaining to the…

Friedman, Pamela

2001-01-01

255

Forest management options for sequestering carbon in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A “Policy” scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a “Technical Potential” scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a

Omar R. Masera; Mauricio R. Bellon; Gerardo Segura

1995-01-01

256

Agricultural Development Policy Paper.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper sets forth the major policy implications and issues for A.I.D. of a broadly participatory, employment-oriented agricultural production strategy for developing countries. The 'broadly participatory' strategy reflects the major U.S. development a...

1978-01-01

257

Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

1992-03-01

258

Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.  

PubMed

The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

2012-10-01

259

The City House and the Country House: Land-Use Policies and Rural Poverty in the Northeast. Coal, Poverty, and Development Policy in Eastern Kentucky. Development and Management of Forest Resources for Rural Development in the Pacific Northwest. Natural and Human Resources: Major Public Policy and Minority Rural Land Ownership, Management, and Use. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series, Part V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop collection contains four case studies regarding particular relationships between specific resources and clientele or user groups, and three discussions based on those four papers and/or conference discussions. The first paper discusses urban land use origins and compares urban policies with rural policies suggesting that future rural…

Popper, Frank J.; And Others

260

The City House and the Country House: Land-Use Policies and Rural Poverty in the Northeast. Coal, Poverty, and Development Policy in Eastern Kentucky. Development and Management of Forest Resources for Rural Development in the Pacific Northwest. Natural and Human Resources: Major Public Policy and Minority Rural Land Ownership, Management, and Use. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series, Part V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This workshop collection contains four case studies regarding particular relationships between specific resources and clientele or user groups, and three discussions based on those four papers and/or conference discussions. The first paper discusses urban land use origins and compares urban policies with rural policies suggesting that future…

Popper, Frank J.; And Others

261

Analytic Approximations for Spread Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expresses the price of a spread option as the sum of the prices of two compound options. One compound option is to exchange vanilla call options on the two underlying assets and the other is to exchange the corresponding put options. This way we derive a new analytic approximation for the price of a European spread option, and

Carol Alexander; Aanand Venkatramanan

2007-01-01

262

45 CFR 1306.35 - Family child care program option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Policy Council role. The Policy Council must approve or disapprove the addition of family child care as a Head Start or Early Head Start program option. When families are enrolled in the Head Start or Early Head Start family child care program...

2010-10-01

263

45 CFR 1306.35 - Family child care program option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Policy Council role. The Policy Council must approve or disapprove the addition of family child care as a Head Start or Early Head Start program option. When families are enrolled in the Head Start or Early Head Start family child care program...

2009-10-01

264

Approximate option pricing  

SciTech Connect

As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-04-08

265

Food Policy Old and New  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of the food system and the nature of food policy are both changing, as urbanisation, technical change and the industrialisation of the food system transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed in developing countries. This overview presents an evaluation framework and explores new policy options. Some issues feature more prominently in richer, more urbanised, more industrialised

Simon Maxwell; Rachel Slater

2003-01-01

266

Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

See attached file. The purpose of this paper is to review the importance of Iran to US national security interests, review past and current US policy toward Iran, outline options for future US Iran policy, and recommend a course of action. Given Iran's st...

V. L. Russillo

2003-01-01

267

The Costs of Future Polio Risk Management Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio erad- ication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to pro- vide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance,

Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens; Nalinee Sangrujee; Kimberly M. Thompson

2006-01-01

268

Major depression  

MedlinePLUS

Depression - major; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... The exact cause of depression is not known. Many researchers believe it is caused by chemical changes in the brain. This may be due to ...

269

Electricity Real Options Valuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

Broszkiewicz-Suwaj, E.

2006-11-01

270

The Origins of Options  

PubMed Central

Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

2012-01-01

271

Options Study - Phase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2010-01-01

272

Is NPT Membership as a Nuclear Weapon State an Option for India?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, it is necessary for India to respond to the current crisis of the NPT and weigh its options vis-à-vis the Treaty. This paper is an attempt to explore answers to the question of what ought to be India's policy in the light of the new nuclear reality. It analyses three policy options that India could pursue and concludes that

Rajiv Nayan

2007-01-01

273

Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

2013-09-01

274

Impacts of the Global Economic Crisis on Child Poverty and Options for a Policy Response in Cameroon. Incidences de la crise économique mondiale de 2008\\/09 et des options de politiques de réponse sur la pauvreté des enfants au Cameroun  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the potential impacts of the 2008\\/09 global economic crisis on child poverty in Cameroon. It also explores the potential effects that policy responses to such a crisis could have on children. In order to do this, the study uses a macro-micro methodology. A dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used to simulate various scenarios

Christian Arnault Emini; Paul Ningaye; Sami Bibi; John Cockburn; Ismaël Fofana; Luca Tiberti

2010-01-01

275

77 FR 43897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rule Change To Increase Position and Exercise Limits for EEM Options July 20, 2012...Limits) to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the iShares MSCI...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for EEM options to 500,000...

2012-07-26

276

76 FR 44633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rule Change To Increase the Position and Exercise Limits for Options on the Standard...its rules to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the Standard and...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for SPY options from...

2011-07-26

277

Pharmacologic options for the overactive bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To review the current pharmacologic options for treatment of the overactive bladder and to describe potential therapies on the horizon.Methods. The literature on the clinical efficacy and safety of the currently available agents is described.Results. According to the guidelines issued by the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR), anticholinergic agents should be the first-line pharmacologic therapy for

Alan J. Wein

1998-01-01

278

Lighting options for homes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide give...

W. S. Baker

1991-01-01

279

OCD Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

Treatment OCD is a serious, yet treatable anxiety disorder that often occurs with depression and other anxiety disorders. If ... option. If you’re concerned about symptoms of OCD, make an appointment with a therapist or your ...

280

Explore Your Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Their Stories Get More Info Glossary Your quality of life depends on knowing your options Just one food ... may help improve your health care and your quality of life. This site has tips to help you talk ...

281

Pragmatic insurance option pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with theoretical and practical pricing of non-life insurance contracts within a financial option pricing context. The market-based assumption approach of the option context fits well into the practical nature of non-life insurance pricing and valuation. The fundamental characteristics of most insurance markets, such as the apparent variation in insurer price offers for the same risk in the

Jon Holtan

2007-01-01

282

Energy, the biomass options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical survey of the production of fuels and chemicals from plant materials is presented. Critical evaluations of processes in use and options available for biomass are given along with recommendations concerning these options. Prospects for energy and chemicals from biomass are analyzed in terms of feedstocks, conversion processes, and the consequences of new technology. Particular consideration is given to such processes as thermochemical methods, anaerobic digestion, fractionation and pretreatment, fermentation, and photobiological processes. Cost and environmental factors are discussed.

Bungay, H. R.

283

Internet Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, in Red Herring, Charles Conn, CEO of Ticketmaster Online-City-Search explained the difficulties of hiring people in San Francisco: "Everyone seems to know someone whose company just got bought for millions of dollars," and according to Conn, job seekers in the Internet industry put stock options high on their list of benefits and incentives. This week's In The News examines stock options as they affect high-tech companies and their employees. On July 1, 1999, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that 42 local companies, mainly Internet start-ups, had gone public in the preceding six months with the astounding gain of 138 percent. Throughout the Silicon Valley, employees of computer companies are hedging their bets, hoping that the companies they work for will be the next eBay or Amazon. However, the chances of striking it rich through Internet stock options are slim. High-tech employees move from company to company looking for better options at promising start-ups, while computer companies improve their option packages in order to entice their workers to stay. The seven resources discussed provide news, articles, and background information on the lures and pitfalls of Internet stock options.

Missner, Emily D.

284

Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

2009-07-31

285

Nevada Transportatoion Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

2006-05-25

286

Natural gas policy issues and options. A staff analysis prepared at the request of Henry M. Jackson pursuant to S. Res. 45, a national fuels and energy policy study. [Description of natural gas industry, present system of regulation, and factors contributing to natural gas shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the outset of the Senate's National Fuels and Energy Policy Study, there has been general agreement that the existing system of regulating natural gas prices leaves much to be desired. The Interior Committee's studies and hearings have made clear that new approaches to natural gas pricing are an essential element of national energy policy. This analysis of natural gas

P. E. Starratt; A. R. Tussing

1973-01-01

287

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

288

Cervical Radiculopathy: Surgical Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Copyright 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Cervical Radiculopathy: Surgical Treatment Options When symptoms of cervical radiculopathy persist or worsen despite nonsurgical treatments, surgical options ...

289

[Gastroparesis and its treatment options].  

PubMed

Gastroparesis is a disorder of gastric emptying that occurs in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Its cardinal features include nausea, vomiting, bloating, early satiety and discomfort. Weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and malnutrition may develop in severe cases. The majority of cases is idiopathic, long standing diabetes mellitus is responsible for about 25-30% of cases. Diabetic gastroparesis may render glucose control extremely difficult, its treatment represents a major challenge. Besides frequent, small meals and psychological support, several drug options are available, however, their efficacy is limited and only a few randomized studies have been performed to date. Prokinetic agents (erythromycin, domperidone, metoclopramide) and antiemetics (phenothiazines, serotonin antagonists, butyrophenones) are the most wide-spread medicaments. Among the novel, recently developed agents, 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonists and dopamine D2 receptor antagonists are the most promising. Injection of botulinum toxin into the pyloric sphincter resulted in faster gastric emptying and symptom alleviation in some studies. Gastric electric stimulation appears to be one of the most effective options, both low and high-frequency stimulation may alleviate symptoms. Gastrostomy/jejunostomy and other surgical interventions are considered as "last resort". PMID:18292033

Igaz, Péter; Tulassay, Zsolt

2008-03-01

290

A decision support process to compare riparian revegetation options in Scheu Creek catchment in north Queensland.  

PubMed

While riparin vegetation can play a major role in protecting land, water and natural habitat in catchments, there are high costs associated with tree planting and establishment and in diverting land from cropping. The distribution of costs and benefits of riparian revegetation creates conflicts in the objectives of various stakeholder groups. Multicriteria analysis provides an appropriate tool to evaluate alternative riparian revegetation options, and to accommodate the conflicting views of various stakeholder groups. This paper discusses an application of multicriteria analysis in an evaluation of riparian revegetation policy options for Scheu Creek, a small sub-catchment in the Johnstone River catchment in north Queensland, Australia. Clear differences are found in the rankings of revegetation options for different stakeholder groups with respect to environmental, social and economic impacts. Implementation of a revegetation option will involve considerable cost for landholders for the benefits of society. Queensland legislation does not provide a means to require farmers to implement riparian revegetation, hence the need for subsidies, tax incentives and moral suasion. PMID:11400460

Qureshi, M E; Harrison, S R

2001-05-01

291

Global plutonium management: A security option  

SciTech Connect

The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

Sylvester, K.W.B.

1998-12-31

292

National and International Information Policies. IST 682, A Graduate Course.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This course outline begins with a statement of seven objectives which relate to (1) the role of the policy sciences and the policy science literatures; (2) understanding the policy analysis process; (3) identification of major policy issues concerned with...

M. L. Dosa

1983-01-01

293

The hydrogen hybrid option  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

Smith, J.R.

1993-10-15

294

Policies for Strengthening Markets for Recyclables: A Worldwide Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many national, regional, and local governments have introduced policies to encourage recycling. Their varied experiences allow examination of the effectiveness of alternative policy options. The conditions driving recycling, selection of pro-recycling policies, and recycling statistics are compared for 14 countries across Europe, Asia, North America, South America, and Oceana. The best policy for any particular country is a function of

Daniel H. Loughlin; Morton A. Barlaz

2006-01-01

295

Grammatical Computation in the Optional Infinitive Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper gives a survey of some of the major properties of and approaches to the Optional Infinitive stage of linguistic\\u000a development. After a brief account of its first discovery, a description is given of some of its major properties, including\\u000a rates of OI production and how they change over time and vary cross-linguistically. “Surfacy” accounts of the stage are

Ken Wexler

296

Lactose Intolerance: Other Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Us Sign Up for Media Alerts For the Media The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the ... are talking about and join the conversation! Social Media Policy The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics has ...

297

Diagrammatic approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real option valuation requires the combination of financial option pricing methods with business-based optimization techniques. In this article a diagrammatic representation of real option deals is introduced, which allows the full complexity of real option formulations to be discussed with non-technical practitioners. Examples from finance and the energy industry are presented and discussed. .

Leppard, Steve

2001-02-01

298

The valuation of compound options  

Microsoft Academic Search

can be generalized to value many corporate liabilities. The compound call option formula derived herein considers a call option on stock which is itself an option on the assets of the lirm. This perspective incorporates leverage effects into option pricing and consequently the variance of the rate of return on the stock is not constant as Black-&holes assumed, but is

Robert Geske

1979-01-01

299

Policy implications for familial searching.  

PubMed

In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

2011-11-01

300

Policy implications for familial searching  

PubMed Central

In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

2011-01-01

301

A Menu of Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Armed with a few topical and organizational strategies, primary grade teachers can successfully introduce their young scientists to science notebooks. The following overview of notebook methods offers a menu of options to help you develop creative and meaningful science notebook experiences. Choose and customize what works for your classroom to…

Joyner, Valerie

2010-01-01

302

Our Energy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

303

Option Exercise with Temptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes an agent¡¯s option exercise decision under uncertainty. The agent decides whether and when to do an irreversible activity. He is tempted by immediate gratification and suffers from self-control problems. This paper adopts the Gul and Pensendorfer self- control utility model. Unlike the time inconsistent hyperbolic discounting model, it provides an explanation of procrastination and preproperation based on

Jianjun Miaoy

2004-01-01

304

An outside option experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the economic modeling of bargaining, outside options have often been naively treated by taking them as the disagreement payoffs in an application of the Nash bargaining solution. The paper contrasts this method of predicting outcomes with that obtained from an analysis of optimal strategic behavior in a natural game theoretic model of the bargaining process. The strategic analysis predicts

Ken Binmore; Avner Shaked; John Sutton

1989-01-01

305

Alternative Education Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

306

ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

307

Community Options for Elders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the Winnebago County (Wisconsin) Community Options Program, begun in January, 1982, which provides for a comprehensive assessment of all elderly persons within the target area who are at risk of becoming institutionalized. The paper focuses on the planning activities for the first year of the pilot program including community…

Poulsen, Joyce G.

308

Environmental Policy in Majoritarian Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds new light on the determination of environmental policies in majoritarian federal electoral systems such as the U.S., and derives implications for the environmental federalism debate on whether the national or local government should have authority over environmental policies. In the absence of majority bias, the socially preferred policy would be federal district-level taxation which accounts both for

Per G. Fredriksson; Xenia Matschke; Jenny Minier

2008-01-01

309

Handbook of Education Policy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

2009-01-01

310

Handbook of Education Policy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

2009-01-01

311

48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

2012-10-01

312

Making Cost Effective Security Decision with Real Option Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major challenges in IT security management is determining how much to spend and where to spend. This requires understanding of the economic issues regarding IT security. Real option analysis presents a viable alternative to traditional economic tools in planning and valuing security investment in uncertain environment. This paper illustrates how decision makers can use real option thinking

Jingyue Li; Xiaomeng Su

2007-01-01

313

Operational options for green ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

2012-09-01

314

A policy portfolio approach to biodiversity protection on private lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although arguments about biodiversity policy frequently frame the options as either top-down regulation or voluntary incentive-based approaches, in fact a broad spectrum of biodiversity conservation strategies are available. Drawing largely on examples from the United States to support broader conclusions, this article examines the range of policy options and the metrics that should be used to evaluate them. Because the

Holly Doremus

2003-01-01

315

Economic policy instruments for controlling vehicular air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

When continuous monitoring of individual emissions is not feasible, policy makers need to investigate what other options are available and how best to provide appropriate incentives for pollution reduction. This paper offers an analysis of some such options with a view to identifying and suggesting appropriate policy measures for emission control from automobiles in Delhi.

RITA PANDEY

2004-01-01

316

Option exercise with temptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper adopts the Gul and Pensendorfer self-control utility model to analyze an agent’s option exercise decision under\\u000a uncertainty over an infinite horizon. The agent decides whether and when to do an irreversible activity. He is tempted by\\u000a immediate gratification and suffers from self-control problems. The cost of self-control lowers the benefit from continuation\\u000a or stopping and may erode the

Jianjun Miao

2008-01-01

317

The safeguards options study  

SciTech Connect

The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

318

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

Lipo, T. A.

1995-05-01

319

On the Mother Tongue Education Policy in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper integrates public opinion with research findings on Nigeria's mother tongue education policy by examining the historical antecedents of the policy; its specifications and implications; and the major arguments for and against the policy. In addition to highlighting major obstacles that might hamper the implementation of the policy, the findings reveal that mother tongue education policies in ex?colonial nations

F. Niyi Akinnaso

1991-01-01

320

Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply  

SciTech Connect

State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-12-01

321

Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop  

PubMed Central

Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

2012-01-01

322

The WTO and Climate Change: Challenges and Options1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing WTO system will come in conflict with the world future 'system' of climate policies unless action is taken. This backg round paper highlights potential areas of conflict and explores options for managing or avoiding future conflict. The paper is based on the much more detailed analys is of key GATT articles, WTO agreements, and the decisions of GATT

Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Jisun Kim

323

A Critical Assessment of Disposition Options for Mentally Ill Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate three disposition options for mentally ill offenders: abolishing the insanity defense, substituting a guilty but mentally ill verdict, or retaining the insanity defense with a conditional release. We review the foundations of each position and the research on implementation and policy outcomes. We also discuss the political support behind each position. We argue that retaining the insanity defense

Donald M. Linhorst

1999-01-01

324

Wake Forest U. Joins Ranks of Test-Optional Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wake Forest University will no longer require applicants to submit standardized test scores, the university announced last week. The move makes Wake Forest, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, one of the most prominent institutions with a "test optional" admissions policy. The university's decision reveals the increasing complexity of the national…

Hoover, Eric; Supiano, Beckie

2008-01-01

325

Gas option: America's least-cost energy strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public energy policy which acknowledges the gas option as having significant potential will increase supply incentives while decreasing demand restraints. The arguments developed by the Mellon Institute and others confirm the need to reject the Title II incremental pricing and the need to implement the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). Positive evidence that proved reserves are higher than was thought

1980-01-01

326

Pricing and Hedging Spread Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the theoretical and the computational problems associated with the pricing of spread options. These options are ubiquitous in the financial markets, whether they be equity, fixed income, foreign exchange, commodities, or energy markets. As a matter of introduction, we present a general overview of the common features of all the spread options by discussing in detail their roles

Rene Carmona; Valdo Durrleman

2003-01-01

327

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

328

Energy and Security: Implications for American Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interactions between energy policy and national security are discussed. Topic areas covered include: Energy policy options available to the U.S.; energy security problems of U.S. allies; monetary and trade implications of existing and near-term energy flo...

U. B. Arad M. Hudson D. Robison R. H. Shatz B. J. Smernoff

1974-01-01

329

Chapter 7 Policy Making in Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter highlights the current state of affairs in regard to health policy under the decentralization arrangements introduced in 1995. It contrasts the achievements of the health sector during the pre-independence, centralized system with the decentralized systems of governance implemented after independence. It then presents a set of options for policy makers to consider in their endeavour to rectify the

Jane Thomason; Pascoe Kase

330

Treatment options for hyperhidrosis.  

PubMed

Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond what is expected for thermoregulatory needs and environmental conditions. Primary hyperhidrosis has an estimated prevalence of nearly 3% and is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Most cases of hyperhidrosis involve areas of high eccrine density, particularly the axillae, palms, and soles, and less often the craniofacial area. Multiple therapies are available for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Options include topical medications (most commonly aluminum chloride), iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injections, systemic medications (including glycopyrrolate and clonidine), and surgery (most commonly endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy [ETS]). The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the literature on the subject, with a focus on new and emerging treatment options. Updated therapeutic algorithms are proposed for each commonly affected anatomic site, with practical procedural guidelines. For axillary and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, topical treatment is recommended as first-line treatment. For axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin injections are recommended as second-line treatment, oral medications as third-line treatment, local surgery as fourth-line treatment, and ETS as fifth-line treatment. For palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, we consider a trial of oral medications (glycopyrrolate 1-2 mg once or twice daily preferred to clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily) as second-line therapy due to the low cost, convenience, and emerging literature supporting their excellent safety and reasonable efficacy. Iontophoresis is considered third-line therapy for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high although so are the initial levels of cost and inconvenience. Botulinum toxin injections are considered fourth-line treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high though the treatment remains expensive, must be repeated every 3-6 months, and is associated with pain and/or anesthesia-related complications. ETS is a fifth-line option for palmar hyperhidrosis but is not recommended for plantar hyperhidrosis due to anatomic risks. For craniofacial hyperhidrosis, oral medications (either glycopyrrolate or clonidine) are considered first-line therapy. Topical medications or botulinum toxin injections may be useful in some cases and ETS is an option for severe craniofacial hyperhidrosis. PMID:21714579

Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

2011-10-01

331

Adolescent pregnancy options.  

PubMed

The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

Resnick, M D

1992-09-01

332

Major Depression Can Be Prevented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have…

Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

2012-01-01

333

Retrieval options study  

SciTech Connect

This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

Not Available

1980-03-01

334

Management options for cavernous sinus meningiomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meningiomas involving the cavernous sinus have traditionally posed a major challenge for neurosurgeons and neuro-oncologists.\\u000a Recent advancements in surgical techniques and radiotherapy have led to new treatment strategies for these difficult tumors.\\u000a In this article, we review the current literature with respect to treatment options for cavernous sinus meningiomas. Additionally,\\u000a we review the recent results of our experience at the

Michael T. Walsh; William T. Couldwell

2009-01-01

335

Watch for pitfalls when analyzing lease options.  

PubMed

Seemingly minor provisions included in leases of major equipment can substantially increase a healthcare organization's expenses. When reviewing lease bids, financial managers should beware of commitment fees, progress payment interest, residual value, and other variables in the agreement. On the whole, the costs of leasing options should be viewed for their effects on a hospital's cash flow at various points during the rental period. PMID:10145277

Grant, L; O'Donnell, D

1990-07-01

336

Current treatment options for the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optional statement  The metabolic syndrome is defined as a condition characterized by a set of clinical criteria: insulin resistance, visceral\\u000a obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to the epidemic of this syndrome in the\\u000a United States are visceral obesity, physical inactivity, and an atherogenic diet. The available current evidence suggests\\u000a that the first step in management of

Prakash C. Deedwania; Natalia Volkova

2005-01-01

337

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01

338

Chinese Foreign Policy Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.

339

7 CFR 1753.5 - Methods of major construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Methods of major construction. 1753.5 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.5 Methods of major construction. (a) All major...

2013-01-01

340

Long-term risk management of nuclear waste: a real options approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the optimal timing for deep geological disposal of nuclear waste. Our model is based on the real options approach to investment under uncertainty. In this context, the problem is similar to the optimal exercise policy for a perpetual American spread option. The potential usefulness of such a model for actual decision-making on a sensitive issue

Henri Loubergé; Stéphane Villeneuve; Marc Chesney

2002-01-01

341

Fair Valuation of a Guaranteed Life Insurance Participating Contract Embedding a Surrender Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we deal with the problem of pricing a guaranteed life insurance participating policy, sold in the Italian market, which embeds a surrender option. This feature is an American-style put option that enables the policyholder to sell back the contract to the insurer at the cash surrender value. Employing a recursive binomial formula patterned after the Cox, Ross,

Anna Rita Bacinello

2003-01-01

342

BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPATING LIFE INSURANCE CONTRAC TS WITH AMERICAN-STYLE OPTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a Bayesian approach is utilized to analyze the role of the underlying asset and interest rate model in the market consistent valuation of life insurance policies. The focus is on a novel application of advanced theoretical and computational methods. A guaranteed participating contract embedding an American-style option is considered. This option is valued using the regression method.

Arto Luoma; Anne Puustelli; Lasse Koskinen

343

Making Sat Scores Optional in Selective College Admissions: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite heightened scrutiny of the use of standardized tests in college admissions, there has been little public empirical analysis of the effects of an optional SAT score submission policy on college admissions. This paper examines the results of the decision by Mount Holyoke College to make SAT scores optional in the admissions process. We find…

Robinson, M.; Monks, J.

2005-01-01

344

Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options  

SciTech Connect

During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

2011-07-01

345

Exploring VOC control options  

SciTech Connect

Since the refineries and chemical plants handle large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some emissions of these compounds are likely during normal operations. Based on studies in the US, the largest source of VOCs is from fugitive emissions from piping and other fluid handling components. VOCs also come from storage tanks, loading operations, and wastewater treatment. The most applicable and economic control system will depend on the specific emission source, the level of controls already in place, and the target emission level. Controls range from increased monitoring and maintenance frequency for valve leaks, to replacing rim seals on floating roof tanks, to installing a complete vapor control system at a loading facility. The costs can vary widely. A table lists options for controlling VOC emissions. The paper describes a few of these in more detail.

Siegell, J.H. [Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Florham Park, NJ (United States)

1996-06-01

346

Full Scope of Options  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of Clinical Problem Solving articles is to present management challenges to give practicing neurosurgeons insight into how field leaders address these dilemmas. This illustration is accompanied by a brief review of the literature on the topic. PRESENTATION The case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with headaches is presented. The patient is found to have a typical colloid cyst at the foramen of Monro. Bilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement had been performed as an initial treatment of the patient before presentation. RESULTS Surgeons experienced in open and endoscopic surgery discuss their individual approaches to colloid cysts, in the context of previous shunting, providing a varied perspective on the clinical challenges posed by these lesions. CONCLUSION Both open and endoscopic options remain viable for excision of a colloid cyst. Each has associated potential complications, as illustrated by the current case.

Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Schuette, Albert J.; Boulis, Nicholas; Hao, Charlie; Barrow, Daniel L.; Teo, Charles

2010-01-01

347

Abnormal scars, management options.  

PubMed

Scar management has always been important but never as much as today. People are now more aware of their scars, given the hype in the media about looking good. They are more likely than ever to seek treatment for scars from the cosmetic point of view. But scars can be problematic, they can itch and be uncomfortable and painful, they can be disfiguring and aesthetically unpleasant, and may cause sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression and disruption of daily activities. If they lay over the bone joint they can limit its function, so we should not always look at scars from the cosmetic point of view. This article aims to provide a physiological overview of wound repair, describing the options of therapy. PMID:20654000

Edriss, A S; Mesták, J

2010-01-01

348

Treatment Options (for Keratoconus)  

MedlinePLUS

... E-Updates Products Press Releases Papers About Us What Is The NKCF? Our Mission Statement History Of The NKCF Major Sponsors Advisory Board Contact Us Donations Donate Online Mail A Check Or Money Order Gift Planning Other Ways ...

349

Peak load management: Potential options  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

1989-10-01

350

Using System Dynamics to Extend Real Options Use: Insights from the Oil & Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work examines the application of system dynamics to real options through work with a major energy firm to apply real options. Five key challenges facing the real options community are presented and potential system dynamics contributions to these challenges are discussed. Two cases from a BP research project illustrate how system dynamics can be used to develop and

Scott T Johnson; Tim Taylor; David N Ford

351

Options for Change: A Flexible Vehicle for Curriculum Evolution and Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we examine a flexible curricular approach known as the "Option." The Option enables students to supplement traditional majors with a coherent set of courses and other educational experiences in a related, often interdisciplinary field. Options can act as curricular bridges between mainstream academic fields and problems of…

Baldwin, Roger G.; Baumann, Melissa J.

2005-01-01

352

Acquisition Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A policy to insure acquisition of primary international libraries' collections for a library system pertaining to the environmental sciences was prepared by a newly formed Technical Processes Section, ESSA. The policy was developed to be useful not only t...

H. L. De Vore

1970-01-01

353

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Moderate & Binge Drinking Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorders ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Alcohol Policy General Alcohol Policy A combination of Federal, ...

354

14 CFR 1214.303 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Payload Specialists for Space Transportation System (STS) Missions § 1214.303 Policy. (a) General. (1) The Challenger accident marked a major change in the U.S. outlook and policies with respect to the flight of other than NASA...

2012-01-01

355

48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the procedures in 517.207...competition. (b) Market information review. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market...

2011-10-01

356

48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the procedures in 517.207...competition. (b) Market information review. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market...

2012-10-01

357

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2009-10-01

358

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2011-10-01

359

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2012-10-01

360

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2010-10-01

361

The need for economic policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States: Policy recommendations for the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Better policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States is urgently needed in order to restore economic growth and to diminish mutual trade imbalances. Using the EC Compact model it is shown how coordinated fiscal policies can contribute to reaching these goals in the 1990s. For Europe, the most plausible fiscal policy option seems to be a combination of

Anthonie Knoester

1994-01-01

362

Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.  

PubMed

Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors - the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, obtaining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services. PMID:18026628

Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

2007-09-01

363

Closed Form Approximations for Spread Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article expresses the price of a spread option as the sum of the prices of two compound options. One compound option is to exchange vanilla call options on the two underlying assets and the other is to exchange the corresponding put options. This way we derive a new closed form approximation for the price of a European spread option

Aanand Venkatramanan; Carol Alexander

2011-01-01

364

Some support policy options for cotton in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the economic arguments for and against raising the tariff on imports of cotton into China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews first the possible arguments for raising the tariff, and particularly the possibility that such an increase in tariffs would have a favorable distributional effect by redistributing from those involved in

William Martin

2009-01-01

365

PROLIFERATION OF REGIONAL GROUPINGS: POLICY OPTIONS FOR THE OIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Far from being the two sides of the same coin, globalism and regionalism are in fact polar opposites. Powerful economic groupings, exceptions notwithst anding, may even impede world trade liberalisation rather than promote it. T his paper discusses the notions of regionalism and globalism and explores the comple x and often conflicting nature of the relationship between them. In the

Mohamed Ariff

366

Federal Support of Graduate Nursing Education: Rationale and Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Medicare funding of graduate medical education should be expanded from payments to hospitals to include graduate nursing education. Strategies include capped entitlement, eligibility tied to full-time status, reimbursement of actual versus average costs, and limitation to the clinical training component. (JOW)|

Aiken, Linda H.; And Others

1996-01-01

367

Managing Household Waste in Ireland: Behavioural Parameters and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ireland has signed up to ambitious targets for diverting municipal solid waste from landfill. These targets are likely to be very difficult to meet without substantial changes to the way household waste is collected and managed. Data on household waste management behaviour in Ireland is scarce, and policymaking could benefit from improved data and market analysis. In this paper we

John Curtis; Sean Lyons; Abigail OCallaghan-Platt

2009-01-01

368

Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: Background and Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Critical infrastructure consists of systems and assets so vital to the United States that their incapacity would harm the nation's physical security, economic security, or public health. Critical infrastructure is often geographically concentrated, so it ...

P. W. Parfomak

2007-01-01

369

State options for low-carbon coal policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing state-level interest in the USA in accelerating the development of low-carbon coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS). Many states have adopted greenhouse gas emission targets and made commitments to low-carbon energy, and believe that these polices will result in job creation, air quality improvements, and reliable low-cost energy supplies. This paper provides an overview of

Richard Cowart; Shanna Vale; Joshua Bushinsky; Pat Hogan

2008-01-01

370

Reducing demand for private vehicle transport: Options for government policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although New Zealand has made commitments under the Kyoto Protocol to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions, there has been little progress in this direction to date and in some sectors emissions are increasing. This is particularly evident in the transport sector and this report focuses specifically on private road vehicle transport. Some effort has been made by central, regional and

Martha Trodahl

371

Regional Options and Policies for Enhancing Intermodal Freight Transport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the potential role of regional Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs), state departments of transportation, and other public sector agencies in enhancing intermodal truck-rail freight transport. Following...

E. K. Morlok L. N. Spasovic F. M. Vanek

1997-01-01

372

Federal Policy Options for Indoor Air Pollution from Combustion Appliances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In fiscal year 1988 the Environmental Protection Agency spent approximately 260 million dollars to reduce the levels of pollutants in the outdoor atmosphere. For reduction of indoor pollutants, it spent only three million dollars. The average person spend...

L. Kandarjian

1988-01-01

373

Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a

Toufic Mezher; Gihan Dawelbait; Zeina Abbas

2012-01-01

374

Cundy's Harbor Working Waterfront Study Village Profile and Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a profile of the Cundys Harbor village and its working waterfront. It also sets out some strategies for protecting the character and vitality of Cundys Harbors working waterfront and for addressing some of the challenges facing working...

2004-01-01

375

POLICY OPTIONS FOR ENHANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ROAD TRANSPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. BACKGROUND Road transport causes vast environmental, planning and sociological problems in modern society. The increasing dominance of motor vehicles throughout the 20th century as a means of transport has caused poor air quality in urban areas, declining quality of life in inner city areas as a result of traffic congestion and the slow decline of public transport. This has

Adrian Bradbrook

376

Policy Options for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. A CBO Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the next 10 years, the Department of Defense (DoD) plans to purchase about 730 new medium-sized and large unmanned aircraft systems based on designs currently in operation, while also improving the unmanned aircraft already in service. By the Congres...

B. Kempinski D. Arthur

2011-01-01

377

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

2004-10-03

378

Choosing the cooperative option  

SciTech Connect

Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

1999-06-01

379

Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables through the pricing system. Based on past policy experience, it is unlikely that such an approach would allow PV to compete in Delaware as an energy supply option in the next ten to twenty years. Alternatively, a market-based, or green pricing, approach will not create significant market opportunities for PV as a centralized energy supply option. However, structural policies designed to encourage the explicit recognition of the localized benefits of distributed resources could result in PV being introduced into the electrical system early in the next century.

Letendre, Steven Emery

380

The tramadol option.  

PubMed

Tramadol is an option for the treatment of rheumatological pain. Its mode of action and safety profile distinguishes it from other opioids. Tramadol differs from other opioids by combining a weak opioid and a monoaminergic mode of action. It is effective in different types of moderate-to-severe pain, including neuropathic pain. Moreover, as the mode of action of tramadol does not overlap with that of NSAIDs, it is a useful agent to be combined with these drugs. Tramadol induces fewer opioid adverse reactions for a given level of analgesia compared with traditional opioids. Common adverse reactions of tramadol such as nausea and dizziness, which usually occur only at the beginning of therapy and attenuate over time, can be further minimized by up-titrating the drug over several days. Dose adjustment is only necessary in patients over 75 years of age, or in those with either hepatic or renal insufficiency. Tramadol should be avoided or used with caution in epileptics, or in individuals who are receiving seizure-threshold lowering drugs. Finally, tramadol has a low risk of abuse because it has only a weak opioid effect and its monoaminergic action could inhibit the development of dependence. The low abuse potential of tramadol has been demonstrated by postmarketing surveillance data. PMID:11310478

Desmeules, J A

2000-01-01

381

AFCI Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2009-09-01

382

Food and nutrition policy at the local level: Key factors that influence the policy development process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little empirical work has been undertaken examining the policy process at the local level, where the majority of public health professionals work. This has resulted in a lack of understanding of how the policy development process works at this level and of the relevance of policy theory to local policy processes and outcomes. This paper discusses the findings of four

Heather R. Yeatman

2003-01-01

383

Energy Options for Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Produced for public interest, the Environmental Education Group has prepared this two-part review of the current state of energy utilization, the nature of the energy crisis, and approaches to energy production. The major section is a presentation of alternative sources of energy that are neglected, are of possible aid in the near future, or are…

Tratner, Karen Lee

384

Energy Options for Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Produced for public interest, the Environmental Education Group has prepared this two-part review of the current state of energy utilization, the nature of the energy crisis, and approaches to energy production. The major section is a presentation of alternative sources of energy that are neglected, are of possible aid in the near future, or are…

Tratner, Karen Lee

385

Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository. There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected.

Dixon, B.W.; Piet, S.J.

2004-10-03

386

NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration: Policy vs. practice  

SciTech Connect

Overwhelmed with environmental protection documentation requirements, a number of Federal agencies are grappling with the complexities of attempting to integrate'' the documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). While there is some overlap between the general environmental policy objectives of NEPA, and the much more specific waste cleanup objectives of CERCLA and RCRA, there are also major differences and outright conflicts. This paper identifies both problems and opportunities associated with implementing emerging and evolving Federal agency policy regarding integration of the procedural and documentation requirements of NEPA, CERCLA, and RCRA. The emphasis is on NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration policy and practice at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The paper provides a comparative analysis of NEPA, CERCLA, and RCRA processes and discusses special integration issues including scoping, development and analysis of alternatives, risk assessment, tiering, scheduling, and the controversy surrounding applicability of NEPA to CERCLA or RCRA cleanup activities. Several NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration strategy options are evaluated and an annotated outline of an integrated NEPA/CERCLA document is included.

Hansen, R.P. (Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)); Wolff, T.A. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01

387

Which Interest Rate Option Model?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares Black?s model with three types of HJM models specified with different implied volatility functions. Empirical performance in terms of their predicting option prices is investigated using Eurodollar futures and options prices across strike prices and maturities for the period 1 Jan 2000 and 31 Dec 2002. These models are potential candidates for measuring, controlling, and supervising interest

I-Doun Kuo; You-Chien Chang

388

Identity Options in Russian Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

2004-01-01

389

Martingale approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options. .

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail

2001-02-01

390

Problem Patrons: Reviewing Your Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers possible options for public librarians dealing with problem patrons. Highlights include considering the safety of the patrons and staff; general considerations of library security, including security guards, legal responsibility for patrons and staff safety; and working through possible options ahead of time to be more prepared. (LRW)

Shuman, Bruce A.

2002-01-01

391

Treatment options for fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Fecal incontinence is a socially devastating disorder which affects at least 2.2 percent of community dwelling adults and 45 percent of nursing home residents. Most incontinent patients can be helped, but physicians are poorly informed about treatment options. The aim of this study was to develop a consensus on treatment options by convening a conference of surgeons, gastroenterologists, nurses,

William E. Whitehead; Arnold Wald; Nancy J. Norton

2001-01-01

392

Notes: Installation vs. Echelon Stock Policies for Multilevel Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares installation and echelon stock policies for multilevel inventory control. The major results are for serial and assembly systems. For (Q, r)-rules, echelon stock policies are, in general, superior to installation stock policies. A Kanban-policy is identified as a restricted type of installation stock (Q, r)-policy.

Sven Axsäter; Kaj Rosling

1993-01-01

393

Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies  

SciTech Connect

NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

1986-08-01

394

American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Workshop Focus The purpose of this workshop is to provide a collegial forum for a small and select group of foreign policy and regional experts to formulate and recommend new directions for American foreign policy for each of the major regions of the worl...

R. M. Lloyd W. B. Ruger

2009-01-01

395

Policy and Regulatory Dimensions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Past and evolving coastal management policies and their application through planning and regulation in the Rookery Bay Area of Collier County, Florida, is the focus of this study. A case study of a major shoreline development proposal adjacent to the Rook...

T. M. Alexander J. J. Bosley

1975-01-01

396

Policy Review Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

This issue of the Policy Review Section contains a single major article by Bob McKean of the consultancy firm PEIDA and Andrew Coulson of the Institute of Local Government Studies. It reviews the role of enterprise boards and focuses in particular on their investment activities. In recent years enterprise boards have been set up by various local authorities as a

J. Mawson; B. McKean; A. Coulson

1987-01-01

397

Implementing Educational Policies in Tanzania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the initial evolution and implementation of educational policies through the Tanzania government five-year development plans. From 1969-1978, the Education for Self-Reliance (ESR) program became the basis for all major educational polic...

C. J. Galabawa

1990-01-01

398

Policy Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A nonprofit and nonpartisan enterprise, the Policy Library seeks to "place public policy knowledge in the public domain." It does this by linking to an array of policy papers and resources available for free from think tanks, governments, and universities. The focus is on UK think tanks, but visitors will find content from a range of international organizations. The database currently contains over 700 policy and research papers, with additions made daily. Papers may be keyword searched by subject, author, country, institution, or title or browsed by topic under four categories: social policy, economic policy, international issues, and political thought. Each topical resource page also includes a varying number of related links. This is a solid resource that should find ready use by researchers, students, and the interested public.

399

Overview: Navigating the Policy Landscape: Education, Training and Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to present a brief overview of the process of policy formulation applied to technical and vocational\\u000a education and training (TVET). It draws from policy research in the social sciences, international development and workforce\\u000a preparation. In any policy field, there are as many different policy options as there are ways of structuring education and\\u000a training

Dennis R. Herschbach; Chris Chinien

400

It's time: Petroleum policy change for sustainable development in the Australian offshore upstream petroleum sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that Australia’s present petroleum policy does not encourage the sustainable development of State-owned offshore petroleum resources. It outlines the development of Australia's petroleum policy, highlighting the current commercial policy focus on international competitiveness, which fails to contribute to the sustainable development of the petroleum resources for present and future generations. In order to generate policy options for

Tina Hunter

2009-01-01

401

Kidney transplant options for the diabetic patient.  

PubMed

For patients with diabetes and progressive chronic kidney disease, kidney transplantation is the optimal mode of renal replacement therapy, with or without a pancreas transplant. Additional benefits of pancreas transplant have become increasingly apparent due to advances in surgical outcomes and immunosuppression, and may be reasonably considered even in selected patients with type 2 diabetes. In general, pancreas transplantation is associated with long-term survival advantages despite an increased short-term morbidity and mortality risk. This is true with simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation or pancreas after kidney transplantation compared to kidney transplantation alone, regardless of kidney donor status (living or deceased). Individual patient preferences, comorbidities, and expected waiting time influence selection of transplant modality, rather than a clear survival benefit of one strategy versus the other. In selected patients with type 2 diabetes, recent outcomes data support cautious utilization of simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation when a living kidney donor transplant is not an option. The purpose of this review is to summarize current data regarding kidney and pancreas transplant treatment options in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes and the influence of current organ allocation policies to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of each of these strategies. PMID:23927899

Wiseman, Alexander C

2013-08-06

402

Hormesis: policy implications.  

PubMed

Protecting workers and the public from toxic chemicals, particularly carcinogens, has been a principal focus of public policy. Uncertainty regarding the toxicity of particular chemicals and their dose-response relationship has led to the use of the 'precautionary principle' in which regulators are willing to accept more costly regulation than necessary in order to prevent exposure and disease from these toxic chemicals. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) current policy of using 'mechanism of action' to set regulations means that hormesis could be used by the EPA without any change in policy if hormesis is accepted as scientifically valid. Hormesis could result in a qualitative change in regulatory policy. Because exposure to toxic chemicals conveys no health benefit in the current dose-response model, public risk aversion leads to a Delaney Clause-like 'no-risk' model for policy: ban toxic chemicals or lower exposure to trivial levels. Hormesis implies that individuals benefit from low exposure to toxicants. Although hormesis may not be relevant for individuals with compromised immune systems, it would be expected to help the vast majority of people. If so, permitting exposure levels that provided the greatest health benefit to most people would be balanced against these same levels hurting the most immune-compromised individuals. Public health routinely makes these trade-offs using a 'risk-risk' model. Thus, hormesis could transform the 'no-risk' approach into a 'risk-risk' approach that could tolerate much higher exposures to toxic chemicals than the current policy. PMID:10715612

Lave, L B

403

Options to make PATRICIA symplectic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various options to ''symplectify'' the off-momentum linear transformations used in PATRICIA are presented. Strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed. Numerical results from each method are outlined, and a recommendation for a 7-point Lagrange ...

D. Douglas

1985-01-01

404

Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Tips Medication Bowel Management Dealing with Anal Discomfort Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Talking to Your ... changes Dietary changes Medication Bowel management/retraining program Biofeedback therapy Surgical treatments Newer procedures or devices Talking ...

405

Fibromyalgia Pain: Options for Coping  

MedlinePLUS

... Options for coping If you have fibromyalgia, difficult days are inevitable. Coping strategies range from meditation to ... Tell someone when you're having a difficult day You might be tempted to keep it to ...

406

Policy Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Policy institutions around the United States spend a staggering $1.5 billion on research each year. Many of them do an excellent job in terms of putting their policy papers, working papers, factsheets, and so on online for use by the public and scholars. Of course, it can be very difficult to locate some of them, and that's where the Policy Archive steps in. Sponsored by the Center for Governmental Studies (CGS) and the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Library, the Policy Archive site brings together thousands of full text documents, reports, videos, and multimedia material generated by these various think tanks and institutions. Additionally, policy institutions and the like can learn how to submit their own work to the archive. Visitors can also sign up to receive email newsletters about the latest research in the topic areas that are of interest to them.

407

32 CFR 746.2 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Policy. 746.2 Section 746...DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.2 Policy. (a) A major premise...Statement fo Government Patent Policy, August 23, 1971...parties and serves to promote competition in industry, if the...

2013-07-01

408

Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

2011-01-01

409

Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

2011-01-01

410

Soviet nuclear energy: domestic and international policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on Soviet nuclear export policies comprises one element of Rand's studies of comparative nuclear nonproliferation policies of major supplier nations. Soviet views on the dispersion of nuclear technology and attitudes toward the spread of nuclear weapons are rarely accorded more than a passing reference in discussions of nuclear energy and international security. But Soviet nuclear export policies are significant

1979-01-01

411

Option Contracts in Supply Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This article investigates the pricing of options when the demand,curve is downward,sloping. Our speciÞc application arises in a supply chain setting, where a manufacturer offers the retailer the right to reorder items at a Þxed price and\\/or the right to return unsold goods for a predetermined salvage value. We show that the introduction of option contracts causes the wholesale

Apostolos Burnetas; Peter Ritchken

412

Perpetual American options within CTRWs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

Montero, Miquel

2008-06-01

413

Pseudospectral methods for pricing options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models with two or more risk sources have been widely applied in option pricing in order to capture volatility smiles and skews. However, the computational cost of implementing these models can be large—especially for American-style options. This paper illustrates how numerical techniques called ‘pseudospectral’ methods can be used to solve the partial differential and partial integro-differential equations that apply to

Sangwon Suh

2009-01-01

414

7 CFR 1753.4 - Major and minor construction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Major and minor construction. 1753.4 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.4 Major and minor construction. RUS's general...

2013-01-01

415

Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa  

SciTech Connect

Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

Makundi, Willy R.

1998-06-01

416

Treatment options for glioblastoma.  

PubMed

Following the seminal trial conducted by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC), concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy has become the new standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Investigation of emerging therapies (which are now used as salvage therapy) such as small-molecule inhibitors (for example, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors) and convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of targeted toxins (for example, interleukin-13/pseudomonas exotoxin) is likely to build on the EORTC/NCIC treatment platform and will, it is hoped, improve survival rates in patients with GBM. The majority of adjuvant Phase I and II trials being conducted by the brain tumor consortia are based on the EORTC/NCIC treatment platform and have added a targeted therapy in an effort to find a promising synergistic treatment. Furthermore, researchers in the consortia are continuing to explore treatments for recurrent GBM, not otherwise eligible for local therapies, such as CED. The treatments under study include novel cytotoxic chemotherapy as well as small-molecule inhibitors; these are being assessed in a variety of Phase I or II trials. PMID:16709025

Chamberlain, Marc C

2006-04-15

417

78 FR 7997 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...regulations generally provide that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not...regulations generally provide that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not...recommendations relating to (1) the issuance and exercise of noncompensatory options; (2)...

2013-02-05

418

78 FR 17868 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BA53 Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by...that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not cause the recognition of...

2013-03-25

419

78 FR 35559 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BA53 Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by...that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not cause the recognition of...

2013-06-13

420

24 CFR 206.19 - Payment options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...payable earlier under § 206.27(c). (b) Tenure payment option. Under the tenure payment option, equal monthly payments are...limit set asides. (1) Under the term or tenure options, the mortgagee shall, if...

2013-04-01

421

Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

Klem, M.J.

1996-10-23

422

48 CFR 552.217-71 - Notice Regarding Option(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Notice Regarding Option(s). 552.217-71 Section 552...Clauses 552.217-71 Notice Regarding Option(s). As prescribed in 517.208...following provision: Notice Regarding Option(s) (NOV 1992) The General...

2011-10-01

423

Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

2004-07-01

424

Administrative Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Administrative policies and procedures to be observed by the board of trustees, committees, and staff of the North Shore Health Planning Council, Peabody, Massachusetts are set forth. The roles of the board and committees are defined, and the responsibili...

1975-01-01

425

Current debates on infrastructure policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the major current debates on infrastructure policy. It reviews the evidence on the macroeconomic significance of the sector in terms of growth and poverty alleviation. It also discusses the major institutional debates, including the relative comparative advantage of the public and the private sector in the various stages of infrastructure service delivery as well

Marianne Fay; Antonio Estache

2007-01-01

426

Getting from Facts to Policy: A California Education Policy Convening (Sacramento, California, October 19, 2007). Policy Briefs and Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|EdSource hosted an unprecedented forum on October 19, 2007 in Sacramento, California for the presentation and sharing of research-based education policy options offered by a range of K-12 organization and opinion leaders in California with diverse perspectives. Invitees included highly respected state policymakers, education leaders, researchers,…

EdSource, 2007

2007-01-01

427

How procurement options influence risk management in construction projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before proceeding with a project, a client has to choose an appropriate procurement option that facilitates an effective project organization in general and a thorough risk management process in particular. By identifying three procurement variables that have a major influence on risk management: project delivery method, form of payment, and use of collaboration or partnering arrangements, the effect of each

Ekaterina Osipova; Per Erik Eriksson

2011-01-01

428

New frontiers in solar and other energy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opposition to nuclear power is gaining momentum in recent years because of reliability, security, safety, and radiactive and thermal pollution. The paper presents a review of several alternative approaches of otherwise unconventional energy systems, especially those nonpolluting sources available naturally as geothermal, waves and tidal, wind, and solar power. Solar energy is definitely considered a major option for large-scale supply

M. F. Abdel-Hameed; A. A. El-Difrawi

1976-01-01

429

Linking global market segmentation decisions with strategic positioning options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the relationship between positioning strategies and bases of segmentation in international markets. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A principal component analysis was conducted to determine the major macro- as well as micro-bases of segmentation that are linked with strategic positioning decision options. Further, a regression analysis was used to examine the effect

Salah S. Hassan; Stephen H. Craft

2005-01-01

430

Confronting China: An Evaluation of Options for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Great power competition never takes a holiday. Even during the Global War on Terror, the United States must prepare for confrontation with China. How should the United States confront the considerable growth of Chinese power? This article considers the advantages and risks of four major options available to the United States: 1) economic sanctions against key goods imported by China

BRADLEY A. THAYER

2005-01-01

431

How Much Uncertainty is Too Much and How Do We Know? A Case Example of the Assessment of Ozone Monitor Network Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited time and resources usually characterize environmental decision making at policy organizations such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In these climates, addressing uncertainty, usually considered a flaw in scientific analyses, is often avoided. However, ignoring uncertainties can result in unpleasant policy surprises. Furthermore, it is important for decisionmakers to know how defensible a chosen policy option is over other

Cynthia H. Stahl; Alan J. Cimorelli

2005-01-01

432

A comparison of policies to mitigate US greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Congress of the United States requested that the Secretary of Energy: Prepare a report for the Congress that comprehensively inventories the sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and arranges the policy options to be formulated in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (including, but not limited to, energy pricing, energy efficiency requirements, alternative fuels, alternative end use, and supply technology) which would lead to a substantial reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper summarizes work in progress to respond to the Congressional request. Further, it builds on the DOE`s first National Energy Strategy (NES) (DOE 191). As a result of the substantial research effort in support of this report, five major conclusions are drawn and discussed.

Edmonds, J.A.; McDonald, S.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bradley, R.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-07-01

433

A comparison of policies to mitigate US greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Congress of the United States requested that the Secretary of Energy: Prepare a report for the Congress that comprehensively inventories the sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and arranges the policy options to be formulated in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (including, but not limited to, energy pricing, energy efficiency requirements, alternative fuels, alternative end use, and supply technology) which would lead to a substantial reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper summarizes work in progress to respond to the Congressional request. Further, it builds on the DOE's first National Energy Strategy (NES) (DOE 191). As a result of the substantial research effort in support of this report, five major conclusions are drawn and discussed.

Edmonds, J.A.; McDonald, S.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-07-01

434

Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

2005-09-15

435

Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

1992-09-01

436

Global health and foreign policy.  

PubMed

Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

2010-04-27

437

Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

438

Family-Friendly Policies and the Research University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Institutions of higher education nationwide have been adopting policies to help faculty members with primary caregiving roles to attain tenure, and much research has been devoted to their effectiveness. The range of policies and programs has expanded dramatically since the 1970s. Among the options now available are family leave, elder-care…

Quinn, Kate; Lange, Sheila Edwards; Olswang, Steven G.

2004-01-01

439

Regulating the Rave Scene: Exploring the Policy Alternatives of Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the recent interest in raves by municipal officials across North America, the intent behind this manuscript is to explore the various policy alternatives that government might consider in response to rave culture and the “threat” of Ecstasy on youth. In particular, the paper focuses on three policy options: tolerance, prohibition, and harm reduction. A discussion of the alternatives and

Troy D. Glover

2003-01-01

440

Offering stock options to gauge managerial talent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides the commonly cited reasons for the use of stock options, including motivating employees, conserving cash, exploiting favorable accounting and tax treatment, and retaining managers, we demonstrate a complementary benefit of option-based compensation: options also prove efficient in matching managerial pay to ability. Options are useful because they force a manager to put his pay on the line. If a

Anil Arya; Brian Mittendorf

2005-01-01

441

Risk Management, Real Options, Corporate Social Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship of corporate social responsibility to risk management has been treated sporadically in the business society literature. Using real options theory, I develop the notion of corporate social responsibility as a real option its implications for risk management. Real options theory allows for a strategic view of corporate social responsibility. Specifically, real options theory suggests that corporate social responsibility

Bryan W. Husted

2005-01-01

442

Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)|

Amara, Muhammad Hasan

2003-01-01

443

Copyright and Fair Use: A Policy Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes potential changes in federal copyright law and the fair use doctrine in the digital age. Discusses three policy options for balancing the rights of copyright owners and users--maintaining the status quo; adopting the Information Infrastructure Copyright Act; and adopting proposed revisions of the Digital Future Coalition--using the…

Rupp-Serrano, Karen

1997-01-01

444

Energy policy in a changing social order  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

Schaller, D.A.

1981-01-01

445

Policy Alternatives for Minimizing White Flight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The context and effects of desegregation on the racial composition of school districts are described with the characteristics and causes of White flight from the schools involved. Federal and state policy options are presented in terms of desegregation plan design, public information needs, metropolitan-wide programs and incentives for voluntary,…

Rossell, Christine H.; Hawley, Willis D.

1982-01-01

446

Hiring Relatives as Caregivers in Two States: Developing an Education and Research Agenda for Policy Makers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meeting the long-term care needs of the growing aging population is a priority policy issue in the United States. Yet, hiring relatives as caregivers remains a controversial policy issue. This two-state case study reports findings about views from policy experts regarding a policy option to hire family caregivers in home- and community-based long-term care programs. Policy makers also discussed information

Lori Simon-Rusinowitz; Genevieve Martínez García; Dana Martin; Michele Debarthe Sadler; Jane Tilly; Lori N. Marks; Dawn M. Loughlin; Kevin J. Mahoney

2009-01-01

447

Assessment of HIV-Related School Policy in North Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results from a content analysis of HIV-related school policy in North Carolina. A policy assessment tool was developed and applied based on recommendations drawn from the professional literature. Four major policy content areas were identified: (1) access, (2) confidentiality\\/communication, (3) medication issues, and (4) HIV education. Of 79 responding school systems, 68 had established policies which were

Cynthia Fair; Dara Garneredwards; Mary McLeeslane

2006-01-01

448

Integrating policy issues into a university space weather curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The integration of science and policy has been a challenge, or even absent, in graduate research programs at universities. While some universities offer science policy courses on a broad scale, offering science policy courses catered to graduate science students has been a major challenge for various reasons. This presentation will discuss a project aimed at integrating policy into a space

G. Fisher

2004-01-01

449

Deaf Education Policy as Language Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Sweden and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study offers a cross-national, comparative analysis of deafeducation policies in Sweden and the United States and examines the ways in which these countries address status planning and acquisition planning for sign languages. Major policy documents were selected from each polity, reflecting key national legislative policies, as well as the primary texts that guide educational implementation: for Sweden, the

Francis M. Hult; Sarah E. Compton

2012-01-01

450

Greenhouse gas mitigation policies and the transportation sector: The role of feedback effects on policy effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US transportation sector is a major contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As such, policymakers and stakeholder groups have proposed a number of policy instruments aimed at reducing these emissions. In order to fully evaluate the effectiveness of these policies, policymakers must consider both the direct responses associated with policy actions, and the indirect responses that occur through

Matthew D. Stepp; James J. Winebrake; J. Scott Hawker; Steven J. Skerlos

2009-01-01

451

Market Environmentalism, New Environmental Policy Instruments, and Climate Policy in the United Kingdom and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for effective and efficient climate policy has led to a major expansion in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary agreements (New Environmental Policy Instruments [NEPIs]) at national and international levels. Yet, despite the prevalence of these instruments as an outcropping of the broader shift toward neoliberal approaches to environmental policies, tremendous diversity exists in the way signatories

Ian Bailey

2007-01-01

452

External shocks and policy change: Three Mile Island and Swedish nuclear energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of the dynamics of policy change, the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) has attracted much attention. The ACF hypothesizes that external perturbations are a necessary condition for major policy change. Despite the import- ance of this insight, this article argues that it is still necessary to conduct research to uncover the micro-level processes at work when policies change

Daniel Nohrstedt

2005-01-01

453

Energy policies, liberalization and the framing of climate change policies in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change has emerged a new environmental issue affecting developing countries particularly after the signing of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in June 1992. This dissertation focuses on the factors which motivate Indian responses to global climate change at the international level. The study evaluates the relative impacts of two policy frames in the formulation of India's national climate change policy stance. The concept of "policy frames" refers to the idea that the definition of, and responses to a particular problem are constructed in terms of another more pressing and salient policy concern. A "policy frame" is an analytically constructed policy filter comprised of key, identifiable, policy features and existing resource constraints in a sector. The study traces the evolution of national energy (coal power and renewable energy) and environment sector policies under centralized planning based on a survey of a series of Five Year Plans (1970-1997). Characteristic sectoral policies are identified as constituting an "energy-related development policy frame" and an "environment-related development policy frame" under two distinct phases of national economic development--a managed economy and a liberalized economy. The study demonstrates that the 1991 shift towards phased economic liberalization resulted not only in a new set of energy (coal, power and renewable energy) policies and consequently an altered energy policy frame, but also in a largely unchanged set of environmental sector policies and consequently only a marginally altered environmental policy frame. The study demonstrates that the post-1991 energy policy changes together with existing energy resource constraints, constitute the dominant policy frame driving both the formulation of Indian policy stances at international climate change negotiations and also Indian responsiveness to coal, power, renewable energy, and climate change projects funded by the World Bank and GEF. The study also demonstrates that key features of the energy policy frame functions as a shared cognitive reference for a select group of national policy actors (comprising both policy makers and policy experts), responsible for formulating climate change policy responses. The study highlights the influential role played by very small set of national policy experts who construct national climate change options on the basis of features of the energy policy frame.

Cherian, Anilla

454

Landfill-gas-development options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas recovery from municipal landfills offers local governments an opportunity to produce energy from a necessary nuisance. New York City is exploring private company development, but municipal and joint-venture development are two other options. New York City receives royalty payments and assumes no risk; the city could receive a greater share of revenues if it contributes to capital costs. In-kind

J. Myers; E. R. Bogardus

1981-01-01

455

Options in energy wood farming  

SciTech Connect

A brief description is given of a study sponsored by the US Air Force (Huff, W.J.; Bronson, L.; McConnell, W.V.; Steadman, P.E. (1982) Report, National Technical Information Service No. FESA-T-2124. 26pp. Springfield, Virginia, USA). Five management options were examined for woody biomass production at Eglin Air Force Base (with over 400 000 acres of forest) to determine the feasibility of achieving self sufficiency in energy. Options were: (a) high energy subsidy, intensive crop management (broadleaves); (b) as (a) except that sewage effluent would be used for irrigation and fertilization; (c) low energy subsidy, single species (pine), modified conventional management - shortened rotations (40 years) dense stocking, artificial sowing (or natural regeneration), and an early thinning used for energy; (d) low energy subsidy, dual species management - widely spaced, genetically improved longleaf pine grown on a sawlog rotation (50 years) with multiple cropping of underplanted short rotation (10 years) Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa var. immuginata); and (e) low energy subsidy, short rotation (10 years) P. clausa. Option (e) was preferred as the most productive of the low energy subsidy options.

McConnell, W.V.

1984-01-01

456

77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...commenters noted that there are many non-ECP market participants who currently rely on...primarily addressing the proposed definition of ECP,\\29\\ that there [[Page 25325...of two categories. The offeror may be an ECP, which assures that option grantors...

2012-04-27

457

Tank waste technical options report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document, Tank Waste Technical Options Report, assesses technologies that can be applied to treat and dispose of all Hanford Site tank waste including the cesium and strontium capsules. This effort continues the single-shell tank systems engineering work that began at the urging of a National Academy of Science subpanel. The study develops data on specific technologies that are combined

K. D. Boomer; S. K. Baker; A. L. Boldt; J. D. Galbraith; J. S. Garfield; C. E. Golberg; B. A. Higley; L. J. Johnson; M. J. Kupfer; R. M. Marusich; R. J. Parazin; A. N. Praga; G. W. Reddick; J. A. Reddick; E. J. Slaathaug; L. M. Swanson; T. L. Waldo; C. E. Worcester

1993-01-01

458

Treatment Options for Photodamaged Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodamage of the skin can be a detriment to physical and psychological health with a consequent negative impact on both personal and professional life. Medical treatments for photodamaged skin include topical all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) as well as moisturizers, chemical peels, dermabrasion, ? hydroxy acids and cosmetic surgery. Of these treatment options, only tretinoin has been subjected to large-scale, controlled studies

Christopher E. M. Griffiths

1997-01-01

459

Gay Marriage: The Third Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

:When the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled in October 2006 that gay and lesbian couples must be guaranteed the same rights and benefits as heterosexual couples, the legislature saw only two possibilities: establishing civil unions or legalizing same-sex marriages. They chose the first alternative without considering a possible third option: civil unions for all couples and no marriages performed by

Murray Hausknecht

2007-01-01

460

Exploring higher education financing options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and outcomes. As an illustration, it then uses the

Kofi K. Nkrumah-Young; Philip Powell

2011-01-01

461

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder about the connection between history and contemporary policymaking. Well, the passionate and dedicated individuals at the History & Policy organization are committed to looking at the intersection of these two areas of inquiry and research. History & Policy is a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. It is managed by its four founding historians, and visitors to the site can browse their papers by theme, author, or keyword. The papers offer a wide range of perspectives on history and policy-related matters, and recent works have included papers on social housing and tenant participation, genocide in the twentieth century, and "The Prime Minister as World Statesman". Practicing historians can also sign up to join their network, and anyone is welcome browse through their events calendar and register for email updates.

2008-01-01

462

Policy Options for Incremental Housing: Report on a Practice Workshop and Round Table Policy Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent longitudinal field studies of incremental housing were financed by the IDB. The studies' findings describe the building strategies of households over time and compare settlement types to reach conclusions. El Salvador's 40 years of experience with incremental housing is a particularly important and rich laboratory, which offers a valuable opportunity for international housing practitioners to see firsthand the

2012-01-01

463

Advising Students about Participating in the Science and Policy Interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will first address general principles that I have found useful in guiding physics graduate students and post-docs in choosing options for their future careers. In this context, we discuss careers in science that are connected to society and careers in policy that affect science. Finally we discuss options for careers that involve both the pursuit of science and the involvement of science policy. The presentation will draw from my experience in mentoring graduate students and postdocs on these topics and from my own rewarding career which combined science and science policy.

Dresselhaus, Mildred

2007-03-01

464

Population policy.  

PubMed

Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program. PMID:12341036

1987-03-01

465

30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

2013-07-01

466

Keeping Doors Open: The Effect of Unavailability on Incentives to Keep Options Viable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the options available to decision makers, such as college majors and romantic partners, can become unavailable if sufficient effort is not invested in them (taking classes, sending flowers). The question asked in this work is whether a threat of disappearance changes the way people value such options. In four experiments using \\

Jiwoong Shin; Dan Ariely

2004-01-01

467

Process options and projected mass flows for the HTGR refabrication scrap recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two major uranium recovery processing options reviewed are (1) internal recovery of the scrap by the refabrication system and (2) transfer to and external recovery of the scrap by the head end of the reprocessing system. Each option was reviewed with respect to equipment requirements, preparatory processing, and material accountability. Because there may be a high cost factor on

S. M. Tiegs

1979-01-01

468

Influence of system integration options on the performance of an integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) plant consists of a power block and a gasifier block, and a smooth integration of these two parts is important. This work has analyzed the influences of the major design options on the performance of an IGCC plant. These options include the method of integrating a gas turbine with an air separation unit and

Jong Jun Lee; Young Sik Kim; Kyu Sang Cha; Tong Seop Kim; Jeong L. Sohn; Yong Jin Joo

2009-01-01

469

Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda: knowledge, perceptions and policy development  

PubMed Central

Background Integrated vector management (IVM) is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. Methods The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policy-making levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. Results All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC) methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80%) felt there was inter-sectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidence-based decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to enforce IVM in development projects. Conclusion Integrated management of malaria vectors in Uganda remains an underdeveloped component of malaria control policy. Cooperation between the health and other sectors needs strengthening and funding for MVC increased in order to develop and effectively implement an appropriate IVM policy. Continuous engagement of communities by government as well as monitoring and evaluation of vector control programmes will be crucial for sustaining IVM in the country.

2012-01-01

470

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

471

Future perspectives on space exploration and options for Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is intended as a first step in paving the way towards further reflection on the future position and role of Europe in space exploration. It provides a contribution to strategic policy-making at the European level by highlighting some of the variables influencing the evolution of the international system in which Europe will have to operate until 2025, as well as plans and ambitions for major and emerging space actors. Space exploration is an emblematic domain of space activities where traditionally only established space powers have been active. But, following the evolution of the space context new actors are increasingly interested to be involved in those activities principally for international prestige reasons. An increasing number of actors are thus taking on ambitious plans with orbiters, robotic landers, sample return and human exploration missions. However, complementing national endeavours international cooperation has over the years become a central element of the strategy of most countries involved in space exploration since it is a demanding effort. Human and robotic space exploration endeavours are embedded in a complex system of different "earthly" factors. These determinants will influence the decisions taken today for programmes which will be carried out in the future. It is therefore indispensable to be prepared for the on-going changes in the world which might affect the planning and the aspirations of space-faring countries. Europe's long-term exploration programme thus cannot be decoupled from emerging global trends and the plans of other major space-faring actors who shape the global environment for space exploration. The development of Europe into a fully-fledged actor in space exploration plans requires consequently a shared assessment of the future challenges, threats and opportunities with which it will be confronted with. Europe will have to take into account the evolution of key structural factors affecting changes over the two decades to come (demography, economy, environment, energy etc.) and the development of future potential partners to derive the best options for leading and anticipate rather than following and enduring change.

Peter, N.

2009-04-01

472

Industrial Policy and Competition Law and Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This afternoon - and it's nearly evening - I would like us to try to rethink industrial policy. I think it makes no sense to speak of industrial policy and competition policy as distinct, one from the other, let alone as antagonistic policies. I would rather define industrial policy as one which frames the structural conditions necessary to ensure economic

Neelie Kroes

2006-01-01

473

Policy forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This editorial will contend that the execution of people convicted of drug trafficking and other drug-related offences is a penalty that should be abolished, as it is both ineffective as a policy measure and abhorrent in terms of human rights violation (Lines, 2007). That conclusion will be offered after due examination of contrary arguments, and with respectful acknowledgement of the

Griffith Edwards; Tom Babor; Shane Darke; Wayne Hall; John Marsden; Peter Miller; Robert West

2009-01-01

474

Policy Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the extent to which conditions for the 'representative party government' model of representation exist in the EU. It suggests that, although application of the model is obviously limited, there is some support for its relevance. Using surveys of voters and candidates for the European Parliament the paper shows that some policy positions of representatives are constrained more

Jacques Thomassen; Hermann Schmitt

1997-01-01

475

Petroleum electronic data reporting option (PEDRO)  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the major collector of reliable and comprehensive data on energy supply and demand in this country. During its 16-year history, EIA has tried steadily to reduce the data-collection burden placed on business, industry, and the general public. Four years ago, EIA embarked on the creation of flexible, user-friendly, portable, state-of-the-art tool that would allow those petroleum companies that submit data to EIA to save time and money in the preparation and submission of their forms. This effort was undertaken in cooperation with the petroleum industry and resulted in the development of the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Today, more than 20 forms are available for electronic filing. Further, the technology embodied in PEDRO has been adopted by other government agencies in various forms for their individual data collection systems.

Heath, C.C.; Lippert, A.A.

1994-01-01

476

Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes  

PubMed Central

Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

2008-01-01

477

The reconstruction of British regional policy: 2. Towards a new agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this second of two papers on rethinking British regional policy for the 1980s a number of policy options and suggested reforms around which a new agenda might be constructed are put forward for debate. Following on from the critique of current policy and the discussion of changed economic conditions given in the first paper, a range of key issues

R L Martin; J S C Hodge

1983-01-01

478

European small states' military policies after the Cold War: from territorial to niche strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the evolution of European small states' military policies after the Cold War. Traditionally, small states faced a security dilemma between favouring influence and guaranteeing sovereignty. These security options were embodied by the strategy of alliance and the policy of neutrality. This article argues that in today's unipolar world small states' security policy must be cooperative either

Jean-Marc Rickli

2008-01-01

479

Report on the APCA international seminar series - Acid rain options  

SciTech Connect

The APCA Board of Directors has initiated program themes focused on key environmental issues. Thus far, this initiative has resulted in special programming in the areas of acid rain, hazardous waste management, and indoor air pollution and its control. Programming efforts in the area of acid rain led in 1984 to the highly successful International Seminar Series on Acid Rain Options. The seminars were presented in five cities: Pittsburgh, Chicago, Newark, Boston, and Columbia, Maryland during the period May 1984 through January 1985. The series addressed the various policy options proposed for dealing with acid rain in the U.S. and Canada. Appropriate consideration was given to scientific, economic, social, and environmental aspects. This book presents the papers discussed in these seminars.

Not Available

1985-01-01

480

Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army  

SciTech Connect

This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

Alexander, J.B.

1994-04-01

481

Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

1994-05-01

482

Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered  

SciTech Connect

Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

DOE

2002-05-02

483

Space transportation - Options and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development space transportation options to earth orbit and beyond are summarized. The performance of available launch systems is reviewed, including the Scout, Delta, Long March 3, Atlas Centaur, Ariane 3, Titan 34D, Proton, the Japanese M-3S-II, N-1, and H-1, and the Space Shuttle. Launch vehicle which are planned or are under development are examined, including the Conestoga, Industrial Launch

J. P. Loftus Jr.; R. C. Ried; R. B. Bristow

1988-01-01

484

Pouchitis in children: Therapeutic options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Pouchitis is an unfortunate common complication of the ileal pouch-anal anastomosis procedure, an otherwise very attractive\\u000a surgical option in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The fact that the same pouch in familial polyposis is hardly complicated\\u000a by pouchitis suggests that the basic inflammatory process in UC might participate in the pathophysiology. We review the clinical\\u000a features of pouchitis, the

Jean Perrault

2002-01-01

485

Pulmonary embolism: Current treatment options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optional statement  The initial treatment of patients with acute pulmonary embolism has traditionally involved unfractionated heparin. Given the\\u000a more predictable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of low molecular weight heparins, their simpler (fixed) dosing\\u000a regimens, and few or no laboratory monitoring requirements, low molecular weight heparins are gradually replacing heparin\\u000a for the initial treatment of most patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary embolism,

Marc Meysman; Patrick Haentjens

2005-01-01

486

Treatment Options in Cushing's Disease  

PubMed Central

Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is a grave disease that requires a multidisciplinary and individualized treatment approach for each patient. Approximately 80% of all patients harbour a corticotroph pituitary adenoma (Cushing’s disease) with excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropin-hormone (ACTH) and, consecutively, cortisol. The goals of treatment include normalization of hormone excess, long-term disease control and the reversal of comorbidities caused by the underlying pathology. The treatment of choice is neurosurgical tumour removal of the pituitary adenoma. Second-line treatments include medical therapy, bilateral adrenalectomy and radiation therapy. Drug treatment modalities target at the hypothalamic/pituitary level, the adrenal gland and at the glucocorticoid receptor level and are commonly used in patients in whom surgery has failed. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the second-line treatment for persistent hypercortisolism that offers immediate control of hypercortisolism. However, this treatment option requires a careful individualized evaluation, since it has the disadvantage of permanent hypoadrenalism which requires lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy and bears the risk of developing Nelson’s syndrome. Although there are some very promising medical therapy options it clearly remains a second-line treatment option. However, there are numerous circumstances where medical management of CD is indicated. Medical therapy is frequently used in cases with severe hypercortisolism before surgery in order to control the metabolic effects and help reduce the anestesiological risk. Additionally, it can help to bridge the time gap until radiotherapy takes effect. The aim of this review is to analyze and present current treatment options in Cushing’s disease.

Rizk, Ahmed; Honegger, Juergen; Milian, Monika; Psaras, Tsambika

2012-01-01

487

Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma;\\u000aEnergy Option Analyses;\\u000a;\\u000aIn 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribes energy vision. The overarching goals

M. Matlock; K. Kersey; C. Riding In

2009-01-01

488

(Greenhouse gases and national energy options)  

SciTech Connect

Dr. L. D. Hamilton and Mr. G. A. Goldstein attended the 1st Workshop International Energy Agency (IEA), Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) Annex IV, Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options: Technologies and Costs for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, Energy Study Center, Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten, The Netherlands, April 9--11, 1990. As global interest in evaluating the impacts of policies for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases at national and international levels increases, the IEA ETSAP group could be in a good position to make a direct contribution. The group, applying the MARKAL energy/environment linear program as its primary modeling tool, was a forum for international collaboration on energy issues for over a decade. The purpose of this trip was to reassert US DOE interest in the activities of ETSAP Annex IV; obtain knowledge as to the current status of various national efforts; demonstrate the PC version of the US energy system the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model, together with the Brookhaven developed MARKAL Users Support System (MUSS), as a tool to improve greatly MARKAL usability for upcoming analysis and by non-IEA countries, especially developing countries; and participate in establishing a Work Plan for Annex IV.

Hamilton, L.D.

1990-04-18

489

Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

2011-01-01

490

Gas option: America's least-cost energy strategy  

SciTech Connect

Public energy policy which acknowledges the gas option as having significant potential will increase supply incentives while decreasing demand restraints. The arguments developed by the Mellon Institute and others confirm the need to reject the Title II incremental pricing and the need to implement the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). Positive evidence that proved reserves are higher than was thought has prompted the gas industry to fight incremental pricing as a barrier to a least-cost national energy strategy. BEPS, on the other hand, encourages more efficient use without eliminating industrial use. (DCK)

Lawrence, G.H.

1980-05-17

491

Majority Gate Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methods for realizing simple threshold functions of n arguments by networks of k-input majority gates, where k?n. An optimal network realization of the 5-argument majority function using 3-input majority gates is given, and it is then generalized by steps with realizations for the (2n-l)-argument majority function (where n = 3, 4, ...) using (2n-3)-input majority gates, and

S. Amarel; G. Cooke; R. O. Winder

1964-01-01

492

Budgeting Your Child Care Options Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

... Aware? Manage My Subscriptions Daily Parent Archives Home Calculator Budgeting Your Child Care Options: The Child Care Aware Budgeting Child Care Options calculator allows families to examine their financial situation both ...

493

Internet Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

494