Sample records for major policy options

  1. Room Policies Printing Options

    E-print Network

    must be returned immediately at the end of the reservation period. Rooms must be left clean and tidyW-426G Room Policies Printing Options Video Capture Whiteboard Capture #12;Policies for using the Whiteboard lab In room W-426G Thank you for using the MSU Libraries Collaborative Technology Labs. If you

  2. International Civil Aviation Policy Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher C. Findlay

    1981-01-01

    Welfare of air transport consumers depends on the money price of travel and the quality of service. These aspects are summarised in a consumer welfare measure which, combined with measures of producer rents, is used to compare some international civil aviation policy options. These are the current regime, open skies (with subsidies where necessary), deregulation of fares and deregulation of

  3. EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    , PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL ZONE OF NAYARIT, MEXICO Report PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL ZONE OF NAYARIT, MEXICO. Volume, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL ZONE OF NAYARIT, MEXICO Volume 2: EMergy Analysis and Public Policy

  4. Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Frank W.

    The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

  5. EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    , PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL ZONE OF NAYARIT, MEXICO Report to The Cousteau Society and the Government of Nayarit, Mexico Volume 1: Coastal Zone Management Plan, MEXICO. Volume 1: Coastal Zone Management Plan and Development Guidelines TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

  6. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  7. Learning Exercise Policies for American Options Dept. of Computing Science

    E-print Network

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    Learning Exercise Policies for American Options Yuxi Li Dept. of Computing Science University)--for the problem of learning exercise policies for American options. We develop finite-time bounds community. Our em- pirical results show that the exercise policies discovered by LSPI and FQI gain larger

  8. MAJORS, OPTIONS, AND DEGREES This is a list of the majors, options, and degrees

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    program. A three-position numerical code is assigned to each major for statistical and data processing School of Business Ed School of Education Engr College of Engineering SOHE School of Human Ecology IES

  9. Child Care 2000: Policy Options for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubeck, Sally; Garrett, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for considering policy alternatives for child care based on whether and to what extent an option supports child rearing by family members, or by others. Argues the need for a comprehensive, national policy supported with Federal funds. (FMW)

  10. Policy Iteration for Learning an Exercise Policy for American Options

    E-print Network

    Schuurmans, Dale

    Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta Abstract. Options are important financial instruments Introduction Options are an essential financial instrument for hedging and risk management, and therefore. For example, Hull [8] provides an introduction to options and other financial derivatives and their pricing

  11. Analysis of state solar energy policy options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Jones; H. M. Sramek; J. M. Pelster

    1976-01-01

    Criteria needed by state governments for considering actions to stimulate the solar market are evaluated. Discussed in this report are solar market economics, tax incentives, and solar energy and electric utilities. The results of this study strongly imply that the state policy most significantly affecting solar thermal market penetration rates is the establishment of electric utility rate structures. A second

  12. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  13. Stem Cell Research: An Ethical Evaluation of Policy Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Knoepffler

    2004-01-01

    In February 2004, South Korean researchers became the first in the world to successfully harvest stem cells and establish a stem cell line from a cloned human embryo. This is just one of eight possible policy options concern- ing human embryonic stem cell research. In practice, every kind of stem cell research can be done in one country or another.

  14. "THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY

    E-print Network

    "THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY: A RENAISSANCE OR A DJA VUE" by RAPHAEL MOISSIS? · the Commission: · Recognizes the contribution of nuclear energy in CO2 emission reduction. · Underlines of nuclear energy generation is reduced, it is essential that this reduction be phased

  15. Neurotoxicants: emerging issues and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Hulebak, K.L.

    1987-03-01

    Neurotoxicants are increasingly seen as significant public health hazards, the resolution of which is influenced by science as well as economics, politics, and emotions. Three topical issues are presented to illustrate the application or abuse of scientific data in the political arena and to suggest appropriate responsibilities of scientists beyond the generation of data. The examples include regulation of occupation-related neurotoxic exposure, transfer of neurotoxic pollutants among environmental media, and export of neurotoxic hazards to Third World countries. These examples illustrate the variety of ways in which neurotoxicants impinge on policy questions--from international trade, through ecosystem effects, to personal occupational health and safety.

  16. Policy options in a worst case climate change world

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Swart; Natasha Marinova

    2010-01-01

    Climatic changes more rapid and extreme than assessed by the IPCC cannot be excluded, because of the possibility of positive\\u000a earth system feedbacks and thresholds. Do today’s policy makers have to take these into account, and if so, are the options\\u000a different from those considered today? The paper briefly summarizes the types of extreme climatic changes noted in the literature

  17. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b) policy options.

    PubMed

    Kadvany, John

    2002-05-01

    This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Section 316(b) addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs) in the context of Section 316(b) decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b), but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b) decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1) a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b) regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2) a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3) an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s proposed 316(b) new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA's proposed August 2000 new facilities rule itself. The simplified policy positions are compared using the three dimensions of the comparative policy framework: (1) the role of CWA philosophy or vision, such as the use of technology-forcing rules, (2) regulatory policy implementation, and (3) the role for scientific information and the knowledge base. Strengths and weaknesses of all three 316(b) policy approaches are identified. The U.S. EPA's final new facilities rule of November 2001 is briefly characterized using the comparative policy framework and used to further illustrate the approach. PMID:12805939

  18. Language Policy at Major Sporting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    2009-01-01

    International sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, are linguistically complex events that require large-scale language planning and policy. This chapter focuses on the Olympic Games and looks at the practicalities of the attitudes and responses to multilingualism and the language policies employed in this particular international event to…

  19. QAre there public policy options that reward linking the growing bioeconomy to environmental stewardship?

    E-print Network

    Debinski, Diane M.

    stewardship? AThree public policy options that show promise for linking the bioeconomy with environmental stewardship involve the corn check-off, tax credits, and compliance requirements. Background The proposed policy options for meeting the growing environmental stewardship needs that arise from large

  20. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China’s biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing.

  1. The Unsafe School Choice Option: A Model for School Choice: Policy Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, John S.; Harrington, Sonja Y.; Findlay, Hyacinth E.; King, Gwendolyn V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine nine states' policy responses to the Unsafe School Choice Option between 2002 and 2007. These states had 199 schools designated as "persistently dangerous schools" since 2002. Unsafe School Choice Option is one of the school choice options of the No Child Left Behind law that required states to…

  2. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. PMID:25677377

  3. Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zhai, F

    2013-11-01

    By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  4. [Major revisionposted 9/9/10] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    Board Rules and Regulations - Approval of Off-Campus and Self- Supporting Courses and Programs for delivery in self- supporting or off-campus formats must be approved by the Distributed Learning Council[Major revision­posted 9/9/10] Operating Policy and Procedure OP 36.06: Self-Supporting and In

  5. Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Berks Campus

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    166 Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Berks Campus and Analytic Geometry, or higher 3 HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science 3 HORT 202 Plant Propagation 3 ENGL 015 300 Horticultural Crop Diseases may be substituted) 3 HORT Production Selection (Note B Below) 3 Arts

  6. Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Business/Production Option (HORT/BSPRD) University Park

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Business/Production Option (HORT and Analytic Geometry, or higher 3 CHEM 111 (GN) Experimental Chemistry I 1 HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science Environmental Effects on Horticultural Crops 3 SOILS 101 (GN) Introductory Soil Science 3 ENT 313 Introduction

  7. Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Commonwealth Campuses (not including Berks)

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Commonwealth Credits: 13-17 Total Credits: 16 Semester 5 Credits Semester 6 Credits HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science Supporting Science Selection (see Note A Below) 3 HORT 232 Horticultural Systematics 3 International Cultures

  8. Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Business/Production Option (HORT/BSPRD) Berks Campus

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Business/Production Option (HORT/BSPRD) Berks Geometry 3 CHEM 111 (GN) Experimental Chemistry I 1 HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science 3 HORT 202 Plant HORT 455 Retail Horticulture Business Management 3 Hort Production Selection (Note B Below) 3 HORT 238

  9. Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) University Park Campus

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) University Park Chemistry I 1 HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science 3 HORT 202 Plant Propagation 3 ENGL 015 (GWS) Rhetoric) Introductory Soil Science 3 HORT 232 Horticultural Systematics 3 Arts (GA) 3 STAT 240 (GQ) Introduction

  10. Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

  11. Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major -Design/Build Option (LSCPE/DESGN) Commonwealth Campuses

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major - Design/Build Option (LSCPE 5 HORT 368 Landscape Planting Design 4 HORT 131 Herbaceous Perennial and Annual Identification 3) Horticultural Science if HORT 101 has already been completed 3 HORT 464 Landscape Construction I 4 HORT 137

  12. Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major -Management Option (LSCPE/MGMT) Commonwealth Campuses

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    217 Landscape Soil and Water Management 3 HORT 250 Landscape Contracting Design/Build Principles 3Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major - Management Option (LSCPE Applications for Landscape Contracting 2 MKTG 220 Introduction to Selling Techniques or AG BM 220 Agribusiness

  13. Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major -Management Option University Park

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Landscape Plant Establishment and Maintenance 4 HORT 250 Landscape Contracting Design/Build Principles 3Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major - Management Option University Park LARCH 060 (GA) History of Design on the Land 3 ENGL 015 (GWS) Rhetoric and Composition or ENGL 030

  14. Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major -Design/Build Option (LSCPE/DESGN) University Park

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major - Design/Build Option (LSCPE Credits HORT 466 Landscape Construction II 5 HORT 368 Landscape Planting Design 4 HORT 131 Herbaceous LARCH 060 (GA) History of Design on the Land 3 ENGL 015 (GWS) Rhetoric and Composition or ENGL 030

  15. OPTIMAL EXERCISE POLICIES AND SIMULATION-BASED VALUATION FOR AMERICAN-ASIAN OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    Fu, Michael

    - ular exotic options traded over the counter. The purposes of this paper are to rigorously establish in a quite general set- ting, we rigorously show that the optimal exercise policy for a fixed strike American

  16. Carbon Capture and Sequestration: how much does this uncertain option affect near-term policy choices?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration: how much does this uncertain option affect near-term policy Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) as a key option to avoid costly emission reduction. While Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technologies are receiving increasing atten- tion, mainly

  17. The Pacific Islands. Policy options for telecommunications investment.

    PubMed

    Jussawalla, M; Ogden, M R

    1989-03-01

    The Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (Maitland Commission) reported that telecommunication networks, including public telephone systems, are an infrastructure which aids economic development throughout the world. The Commissions objective is to bring the majority of the world's population within easy access of a telephone and, in time, other communications services. Development in the Pacific Islands region is slowed by a lack of efficient communications. The islands are spread over 29 million square kilometers of ocean and extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Pacific Island Nations (PINs) have problems of foreign exchange, skill shortages, and poor credit terms. Telecommunications infrastructure audits showed the overall regional teledensity of 3 telephones per 100 population. The individual countries vary form 8.3 in Fiji to 1.5 in Papua New Guinea and 25.2 in New Zealand. The population of the developing island countries is in mostly rural areas where there is a chronic shortage of telephones. The constraints on radio systems can be overcome with satellite technology. The new technologies are coming on the market faster than these countries can afford to handle them. By using satellite technology and sharing facilities PINs can greatly reduce the cost of telecommunications systems. Fiber optic cables will be used to carry large volumes of traffic over major routes while satellites can be used for a array of services for the smallest PIN nation to the largest route rim country. Work is being done to standardize the equipment specifications and to develop policies for the coordination of regional telecommunications training. To further facilitate communications development in this area, changes need to be made in international funding priorities for development, and recommendations by the Maitland Commission must be taken seriously. PMID:12283234

  18. SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

  19. Informal Sector Pollution Control: What Policy Options Do We Have?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen Blackman

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, urban clusters of informal firms such as brick kilns and leather tanneries can create severe pollution problems. These firms are, however, quite difficult to regulate for a variety of technical and political reasons. Drawing on the literature, this paper first develops a list of feasible environmental management policies. It then examines how these policies have fared in

  20. Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas

    E-print Network

    @ecn.nl, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, Policy Studies department. Abstract A more sustainable energy consensus concerning the impacts of policies aimed at sustainable energy systems. The empha- sis is placed for each of the individual transition pathways. #12;3 Executive summary A more sustainable energy system

  1. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Rienstra; J. M. Vleugel; P. Nijkamp

    1995-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologies may be an interesting option. In this context several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed in this article. These possibilities are identified in different areas, notably economic, spatial, institutional,

  2. Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sytze A. Rienstra; Jaap M. Vleugel; Peter Nijkamp

    1996-01-01

    If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologies may be an interesting option. In this paper, several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed. These possibilities are identified in different areas, notably economic, spatial, institutional, social\\/psychological and technological

  3. The Farm Credit Crisis: Policy Options and Consequences. 

    E-print Network

    Duncan, Marvin; Harrington, David H.; Brake, John; Boehlje, Michael; Lee, Warren; Barry, Peter J.; Penson, John B.; Hughes, Dean W.; Knutson, Ronald D.: Richardson, James W.; Jolly, Robert W.; Lins, David A.; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Guither, Harold D.; Marshall, J. Paxton; Barkley, Paul W.

    1986-01-01

    prices for other farmers. Probably a more useful approach is to view short term policies as transition programs to aid in an ongoing adjustment process. An important perspec tive is that such programs: ? help those who have a reasonable chance... Conditions . by John B. Penson, Texas A&M University and Dean W. Hughes, Texas Tech University ................................................... 31 Commodity Price and Income Policies by Ronald D. Knutson, Texas A&M University; James W. Richardson...

  4. Stress and health: major findings and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Thoits, Peggy A

    2010-01-01

    Forty decades of sociological stress research offer five major findings. First, when stressors (negative events, chronic strains, and traumas) are measured comprehensively, their damaging impacts on physical and mental health are substantial. Second, differential exposure to stressful experiences is a primary way that gender, racial-ethnic, marital status, and social class inequalities in physical and mental health are produced. Third, minority group members are additionally harmed by discrimination stress. Fourth, stressors proliferate over the life course and across generations, widening health gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged group members. Fifth, the impacts of stressors on health and well-being are reduced when persons have high levels of mastery, self-esteem, and/or social support. With respect to policy, to help individuals cope with adversity, tried and true coping and support interventions should be more widely disseminated and employed. To address health inequalities, the structural conditions that put people at risk of stressors should be a focus of programs and policies at macro and meso levels of intervention. Programs and policies also should target children who are at lifetime risk of ill health and distress due to exposure to poverty and stressful family circumstances. PMID:20943582

  5. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. PMID:24425694

  6. Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

  7. AVIATION AND THE BELGIAN CLIMATE POLICY: INTEGRATION OPTIONS AND IMPACTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim Festraets; Cathy Macharis; Sandrine Meyer

    integrated analysis of issues related to the inclusion of national and international air transport into European and international climate policy. Since the publication of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change special report on aviation (1999), the international scientific community has become aware of the importance of the impacts of emissions from the aviation sector on global warming. The possibility of

  8. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    PubMed

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

  9. Policy Strategies for Iowa in Making Major Road Investments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Forkenbrock

    2002-01-01

    This monograph was designed as a practical guide to assist policy-makers at the Iowa Department of Transportation in pursuing policy objectives through transportation investments. It looks at how the state can best deploy available resources to achieve priority policy objectives. Focusing on road investments, by far the largest category of transportation projects, we examine this goal in the context of

  10. Major by Option Major/Option College Degree 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    /OPTIONS (by college) Agricultural Short Course AG Bachelor's 1 3 Agronomy AG Bachelor's 1 2 4 13 Agronomy AG Master's 1 2 10 7 6 12 14 12 Agronomy - Agronomy AG Bachelor's 3 Agronomy - Crop & Soil Mgmt AG Bachelor's 1 3 7 11 13 12 Agronomy - Crop Science AG Bachelor's Agronomy - Plant Protection AG Bachelor's 2 1 4

  11. The Health Equity and Effectiveness of Policy Options to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in England: Policy Forecast

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Duncan O. S.; Allen, Kirk; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Moreira, Patricia; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Diggle, Peter J.; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. Methods We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education). To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts’ predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect. Results Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900–6,100) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300–700) deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200–5,000) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (?100–600) deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400–500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality. Conclusions Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity. PMID:26131981

  12. Electricity demand-side management for an energy efficient future in China : technology options and policy priorities

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to identify robust technology and policy options which achieve substantial reductions in electricity demand in China's Shandong Province. This research utilizes a scenario-based ...

  13. Expanding the Pool of Federal Policy Options to Promote Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Cox, Matthew [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL] [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  14. Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Business/Production Option (HORT/BSPRD) Commonwealth Campuses (not including Berks)

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Business/Production Option (HORT;Semester 5 Credits Semester 6 Credits HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science 3 HORT 390 Junior Seminar 1 HORT Horticultural Systematics 3 SOILS 101 (GN) Introductory Soil Science 3 HORT 315 Environmental Effects

  15. The Information Society--A Challenge for Education Policies? Policy Options and Implementation Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraut, Michael

    Intended to clarify the nature of the curriculum debate and to indicate the issues that need to be considered when formulating curriculum policy, this paper begins with a review of the educational reasons for using the New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT) and the thinking and experiences which lie behind them. Ways in which the…

  16. Milk marketing policy options for the dairy industry in New England.

    PubMed

    Doyon, M; Criner, G; Bragg, L A

    2008-03-01

    New England dairy farmers are under intense price pressure resulting from important growth in milk production from lower cost of production Southwest states as well as by retailers' market power. Agricultural officials and legislative bodies in New England and in other Northeast US states are aware of these pressures and have been reacting with emergency dairy farm aid, following a very low 2006 milk price, and with state legislations in an attempt to address perceived excess retailing margins for fluid milk. In this paper, we suggest that a sigmoid demand relationship exists for fluid milk. This demand relationship would explain fluid milk asymmetric price transmission, high-low pricing, and the creation of a large retailing margin (chain surplus) often observed for fluid milk. It is also argued that a sigmoid demand relationship offers an opportunity for state legislators to help Northeast dairy farmers capturing a larger share of the dollar of the consumers through various policy options. Therefore, 5 milk market channel regulatory mechanisms (status quo, price gouging, supply control, fair share policy, and chain surplus return) are discussed and compared. The supply control mechanism was found the most effective at redistributing the chain surplus, associated with the sigmoid demand relationship for fluid milk, to dairy farmers. However, this option is unlikely to be politically acceptable in the United States. Second-best options for increasing dairy farmers' share of the consumers' dollar are the fair price policy and the chain surplus return. The former mechanism would distribute the chain surplus between retailers, processors, and farmers, whereas the latter would distribute it between consumers, retailers, and farmers. Remaining mechanisms would either transfer the chain surplus to retailers (status quo) or to consumers (price gouging). PMID:18292281

  17. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  18. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  19. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  20. [Major revisionposted 10/17/11] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    phases of all major construction projects to ensure the associated costs for the required telephone systems are properly included in the cost of the project and the equipment is properly installed. 5 Planning and Construction, Communication Services shall be included during the requirements/design/construction

  1. CHANGES IN MAJORS, DEGREES AND OPTIONS BY TERM January 27, 2011

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    's Studies "Women's Studies" to "Gender and Women's Studies"Rename: 975 Women's Studies/Gender Studies Graduate Major "Women's Studies/Gender Studies" to "Gender and Women's Studies"Rename: PhD Major " Medical discontinued effective spring 2010End: 993 Women's Studies Undergraduate Major "Women's Studies" to "Gender

  2. List of Major Options Major Option Requirement

    E-print Network

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    MAP after completing ECE 356) Global and Cultural Awareness Earth and Space Science Education (recorded on MyMAP after completing Geol 210) Physical Science Earth and Space Science Education (recorded on My

  3. This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss

    E-print Network

    Sura, Philip

    activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career.planning.org Imaging & Geospatial Information Society - Bethesda, MD www.asprs.org National Council for Geographic

  4. Trade Policy Options for a Food-Security Commodity in Southern Africa: A Case Study of Maize in Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul W. Gallagher

    2012-01-01

    We examine the performance of maize import policy options in one of the poorest countries in Southern Africa. The results are shaped by unique features of Zambia’s maize market: production that is limited by risk and highly variable returns, and local marketing margins that increase with imports and limit consumer trade gains. Results suggest that the market-stabilizing protection with the

  5. Technoeconomic evaluation of the major telecommunication investment options for European players

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borgar Tørre Olsen; Dimitris Katsianis; Dimitris Varoutas; Kjell Stordahl; Jarmo Harno; Nils Kristian Elnesgaard; Ilari Welling; François Loizillon; Thomas Monath; Philippe Cadro

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the major results from European projects drawing final conclusions and recommendations from the technoeconomic evaluation of three telecommunications market studies. It presents an analysis addressing a wide range of crucial telecommunications questions debated today. The business cases are: seamless mobile IP service provision, 3G mobile virtual network operators (MVNO), and fixed networks for broadband IP services. Extensive

  6. Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

  7. [The development of therapeutic education in France: current public policies and treatment options].

    PubMed

    Grenier, Béatrice; Bourdillon, François; Gagnayre, Rémi

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has significantly expanded in the last few years. This article explains the major trends underpinning and supporting its development in France, and how they have rendered it a central place in the system, and provided an integral role for therapeutic education within the wider perspective of medical care and treatment options. The organisation of TPE is analysed and numerous initiatives in hospitals, medical and health care structures, social centres, cities, and non-profit organisations are described. This analysis suggests a range of proposals in order to structure and integrate TPE in a sustainable manner for the long term, as well as to expand the existing initiatives to have a broader reach across the country. PMID:17933380

  8. Brandeis University Health: Science, Society and Policy current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Fraden, Seth

    and Culture," "Behavioral Health," "managing medicine," "Health Psychology," "Inequalities in Health Care, the United Kingdom, Denmark and the World Health organization in geneva. student research Daniel Liebman '12Brandeis University Health: Science, Society and Policy fast facts current number of majors

  9. [Major revision--posted 6/16/09] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    [Major revision--posted 6/16/09] Operating Policy and Procedure OP 34.08: Undergraduate Credit understanding and a standardized approach to issuing undergraduate credit by examination. REVIEW: This OP actual performance in organized classes. Students are given the opportunity to receive credit by special

  10. Global HIV epidemic fueled by UN policies. Study says major funding, changes needed soon.

    PubMed

    2004-05-01

    New HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and China are spreading fast due to injection drug use transmission, and these epidemics will continue to escalate unless the United Nations and individual countries make major policy changes, a new report charges. PMID:15206355

  11. PHQ-8 Days: a measurement option for DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) severity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proposed draft diagnostic criteria for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) suggest that dimensional assessments can supplement dichotomous diagnoses by incorporating measures of severity, frequency, and duration, providing the ability to monitor changes in symptoms over time and to guide appropriate treatment. Methods This report is based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2006 from 198,678 survey participants who responded to all eight Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) items. We evaluated use of the days version of the PHQ-8 to determine an optimal cut-point for identifying respondents with depression and to evaluate the performance characteristics of the PHQ-8 at this cut-point. Results A PHQ-8 score of 55 or more days was determined to be the optimal cut-point when compared to the DSM-derived PHQ-8 algorithm for a major depressive episode (five or more symptoms present "more than half the days," at least one of which must be anhedonia or depression). In the full sample, the sensitivity and the specificity of this cut-point were 0.91 (0.90-0.93) and 0.99 (0.99-0.99), respectively. Conclusion The days version of the PHQ-8 may be a valuable dimensional alternative to the traditional PHQ-8 by offering finer granularity of dimensionality (a score of 0 to 112). PMID:21527015

  12. In-Situ Exploration of Venus: Major Science Objectives, Investigations, and Mission Platform Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, K. H.; Limaye, S. S.; Hall, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Bullock, M. A.; Crisp, D.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Russell, C. T.; Webster, C. R.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    In-situ missions to Venus have been recommended by both the 2011 and 2003 Decadal Studies of the NRC and have been proposed numerous times to NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers programs as well as to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Such missions would revolutionize our understanding of Venus, as they address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state via high precision measurements of (1) noble gases and their isotopes, and (2) reactive trace gases and aerosol associated with Venus's active photo- and thermo-chemistry and sulfur cycle, including components potentially responsible for the poorly-understood uv-absorbing haze layer. Fundamental questions, as promoted in recent VEXAG documents, include: (1) Did Venus, Mars, and Earth have a common origin? (2) What roles did comets from the outer Solar System play in delivering volatiles to Venus? (3) Did Venus once have and lose a global ocean? (4) How much has Venus outgassed, and what is the current rate of outgassing, particularly of sulfur, the major driver of Venus clouds? and (5) Through the deposition of energy within them, what role do these clouds play in (a) driving the cloud-level thermal structure and (b) generating and maintaining the super-rotating zonal windfield that covers the globe? Fundamental answers could be uniquely provided through in-situ sampling via mass spectrometry of the noble gases and their isotopes - in particular of the 8 stable Xe isotopes, the bulk abundances of Kr, and the 3 isotopes of Ne. Measurements of the relative abundances of the light isotopes of N, O, H, S and O, by, for example, tunable laser spectrometry, would provide additional insights into Venus's origin, surface outgassing and planetary escape. Such measurements could be performed by probes, landers, or balloons. On descent through the uv-absorbing layer and the surrounding H2SO4 cloud, each of these platforms could explore both the absorber and sulfur-cycle-associated reactive species and aerosols, thus addressing VEXAG desires for enhanced understanding of Venus' chemical cycles, aerosol properties, and radiative transfer. On descent to the surface, probes and landers can provide vertical profiles of temperatures and species abundances, as well as provide near-surface measurements of sulfur isotopes and trace sulfuric gases indicative of outgassing. Additional major in-situ goals dealing with Venus's global circulation and local dynamics can be addressed by a balloon platform floating within the convective middle cloud near ~55-km altitude. Drifting over a wide range of latitudes and all times-of-day and longitudes, such a floating platform could accurately measure (1) motions in all three dimensions - zonal, meridional, and vertical, including motions associated with convection and gravity waves, (2) simultaneous measurements of cloud particle size, their parent molecules, the local temperature, and vertical velocity, to study cloud formation/dissipation processes, and (3) the power and frequency of local lightning. Altogether, such in-situ measurements would potentially revolutionize our understanding of (1) Venus's circulation, including the role of waves and solar cloud heating in powering the planet's poorly-understood super-rotation, (2) Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Earth's neighbor formed and evolved over the aeons.

  13. Overview of graduate medical education. Funding streams, policy problems, and options for reform.

    PubMed

    Young, J Q; Coffman, J M

    1998-05-01

    In this article, we examine the financing mechanisms for graduate medical education (GME) in the United States. In so doing, we identify Medicare as the single largest contributor to GME and the most important barrier to producing a physician workforce that is appropriately sized, balanced, and skilled. Until passage of the 1997 Budget Reconciliation Agreement, the structure of Medicare payments promoted overproduction and skewed production toward training specialists in tertiary settings. We then examine the various reform proposals put forward by major health care organizations and policy bodies. These organizations generally agree on seven policy objectives: Remove incentives that promote expanded resident production; Base the GME subsidy on actual costs and distribute it more uniformly; Focus reductions on specialty residency positions; Provide GME payments for training provided in ambulatory, community, and managed care sites; Decouple Medicare GME reimbursement from payments to health maintenance organizations for patient care; Require all health insurers to contribute to GME; and Ensure that reductions in the GME subsidy do not reduce access to care for low-income persons. A myriad of different mechanisms for achieving these objectives have been recommended, many of which could be melded together to form a comprehensive approach to GME reform. The prospects for meaningful GME reform are dim in the absence of broader Medicare reform. The costs to stake-holders are too concentrated while the benefits to the public are too diffuse for GME reform to stand alone. But the political imperative to deal with the federal budget's short-term deficit and Medicare's long-term solvency will likely create an opportunity for GME reform. An addendum has been added that shows how the 1997 Budget Reconciliation Agreement addresses most of the major reform objectives identified but that several important issues remain unresolved. PMID:9614800

  14. Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2009/2010 As the cost of housing is different for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the total

    E-print Network

    Smith, Marc L.

    housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2009/2010 As the cost of housing is different for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated

  15. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Family and Consumer Sciences Education The major in family and consumer sciences education is offered jointly by the College of Family and Consumer for a teacher's certificate in family and consumer sciences to teach in grades 7-12. Family and Consumer

  16. This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    occupations and skills in O*Net: www.onetonline.org · Use the FSU Career Portfolio to document transferableFilm This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You

  17. This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    occupations and skills in O*Net: www.onetonline.org · Use the FSU Career Portfolio to document transferableMusic This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career

  18. This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    occupations and skills in O*Net: www.onetonline.org · Use the FSU Career Portfolio to document transferableTheatre This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career

  19. This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    occupations and skills in O*Net: www.onetonline.org · Use the FSU Career Portfolio to document transferableEnglish This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career

  20. Elders with Serious Mental Illness: Lost Opportunities and New Policy Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darlene M. OConnor; Faith C. Little; Richard H. McManus

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews key federal Medicaid policies affecting older adults with serious, long-term mental illness: (a) the Medicaid exclusion of coverage for Institutions for Mental Diseases, (b) the Preadmission Screening and Resident Review Process, and (c) the Medicaid Home and Community Based Services waiver policy. Documenting the incentives and restrictions in these policies provides an historical context for understanding the

  1. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

  2. Alcohol identification and brief advice in England: A major plank in alcohol harm reduction policy.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Don

    2010-11-01

    Screening and brief interventions form a vital plank in England's plans to reduce alcohol-related harm. This article clarifies the use of terminology in England to describe various drinking categories and screening and brief interventions. It details efforts to implement these interventions, including recent incentive packages that have been put in place to encourage primary care to implement these interventions. It describes the Screening and Intervention Programme for Sensible Drinking research program that is underway to clarify tools and methods to introduce and support these interventions.[Lavoie D. Alcohol identification and brief advice in England: A major plank in alcohol harm reduction policy. PMID:20973844

  3. Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Henke; G. Klepper; N. Schmitz

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable

  4. Education Policy as a Practice of Power: Theoretical Tools, Ethnographic Methods, Democratic Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Bradley A. U.; Sutton, Margaret; Winstead, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines some theoretical and methodological parameters of a critical practice approach to policy. The article discusses the origins of this approach, how it can be uniquely adapted to educational analysis, and why it matters--not only for scholarly interpretation but also for the democratization of policy processes as well. Key to…

  5. Education and Training for Middle-Aged and Older Workers: Policy Issues and Options. Worker Education and Training Policies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Julia R.

    The population of the United States is aging and will age even more rapidly in the coming years. Yet our public and private retirement and benefits policies continue to favor early retirement--in spite of clear demographic trends, in spite of legislation raising the mandatory retirement age from 65 to 70, in spite of the fact that many of our…

  6. Network Access Regulation and Competition Policy: An Assessment of the “Direct-Plus-Opportunity Cost” Regime and Policy Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshy Z. Easaw

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental issue when determining competition policy, especially in vertically integrated industries, is the formulation of interconnection charges. Recently an influential set of theories on network access price has been put forward under the broad heading of “direct-plus-opportunity cost regime” (DOCR). This paper deals with two distinct but related aspects of DOCR. The first part of the paper considers the

  7. Pricing Formulae for Financial Options and Guarantees Embedded in Profit Sharing Life Insurance Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilberto Castellani; Massimo De Felice; Franco Moriconi; Claudio Pacati

    Summary In the QIS3 Pre-Test Technical Specifications, CEIOPS is providing examples of valuation models for small life-insurance firms, proposing Black-Scholes type pricing formulae for financial options and guarantees (FOG). If this kind of approach is considered viable by CEIOPS, a large set of closed form solutions is readily available, allowing small firms to easily compute price and risk of a

  8. How to Buy a Medical Home? Policy Options and Practical Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Berenson; Eugene C. Rich

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a range of payment options to support the PCMH, identifying their conceptual strengths and weaknesses.\\u000a These include enhanced FFS payment for office visits to the PCMH; paying additional FFS for “new” PCMH services; variations\\u000a of traditional FFS combined with new PCMH-oriented per patient per month capitation; and combined capitation payments for\\u000a traditional primary care medical

  9. Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

    This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch), provides an…

  10. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Holt; Ryan Wiser; Mark Bolinger

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy

  11. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    PubMed

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed. PMID:21147432

  12. The Unsustainable Rise of the Disability Rolls in the United States: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options

    E-print Network

    Autor, David

    2012-01-24

    Two ailments limit the effectiveness and threaten the long-term viability of the U.S. Social Security Disability Insurance program (SSDI). First, the program is ineffective in assisting the vast majority of workers with ...

  13. Factors Affecting Option Premium Values 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

    1999-06-23

    Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

  14. The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia: Considering U.S. Options. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…

  15. U-M DEPARTMENT PARKING APPLICATION Use this application to request department parking options (annual or Department Pre-Paid Daily Parking). Please read the policies for

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    2010­2011 U-M DEPARTMENT PARKING APPLICATION Use this application to request department parking options (annual or Department Pre-Paid Daily Parking). Please read the policies for Permit Use certify that the parking permits will be used in accordance with the Permit Use and Restrictions stated

  16. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  17. Medicaid and State Health Care Reform: Process, Programs, and Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    Rotwein, Suzanne; Boulmetis, Maria; Boben, Paul J.; Fingold, Helaine I.; Hadley, James P.; Rama, Kathy L.; Van Hoven, Debbie

    1995-01-01

    Health care reform is a continuously evolving process. The States and the Federal Government have struggled with policy issues to combat escalating Medicaid expenditures while ensuring access and quality of care to an ever-expanding population. In the absence of national health care reform, States are increasingly relying on Federal waivers to develop innovative approaches to address a myriad of issues associated with the present health care delivery system. This article provides a summary of State health care reform efforts that have been initiated under Federal waiver authority. PMID:10142572

  18. Positioning the Indian coal-power sector for carbon mitigation: key policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Chikkatur, A.P.; Sagar, A.D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Kennedy School of Government

    2009-01-15

    The report continues the series of Pew Center papers that explore strategies for addressing CO{sub 2} emissions from using coal to provide electricity. The domestic and international steps outlined in this paper could greatly advance the development and implementation of a GHG-mitigation strategy in the Indian coal-power sector, while allowing the sector to contribute suitably to the country's energy needs. The key to success will be adopting a deliberate approach, with short- and long-term perspectives in mind, that allows for the development of an integrated energy and climate policy. 58 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Reducing Energy Costs in the Texas State Agencies: Conservation and Policy Options: Volume II – Final Report 

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Subramanian, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    . Major State Agencies The energy data for the remaining major state agencies and some of the units within these agencies are listed in Table 1. As mentioned earlier, it is perhaps unfair to list the prison units along with the other state agencies. Many..., most of the agencies average a unit consumption of around 200,000 Btu/sf/yr or more. The potential for conservation savings exists at most of the state agencies. Tables 2 and 3 are different representation of the data contained in Table 1 . Table 2...

  20. Vocational Education as a Participant in the Economic Development Enterprise: Policy Options for the Decade Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecht, Leonard A.

    In the coming decade, three major developments will become important factors for change in vocational education. These are changes in the demographic profile and retirement practices, regional shifts in economic activity and in employment, and renewal of the industrial sector as a key ingredient in economic growth. Because of inflation, greater…

  1. Policies To Help Disadvantaged Children: Financing Options for the 1990s. Changing Domestic Priorities Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Roberta Ott; And Others

    This paper estimates the costs of several approaches to increasing federal assistance to disadvantaged children and evaluates major funding strategies that could overcome the restrictions posed by the federal budget deficit. Approaches favored by conservatives, such as strengthening behavioral standards for children, sponsoring demonstration…

  2. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). Results In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE). Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita), compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of NHA data into policy is suggested for future researchers. PMID:25750545

  3. The Benin experience: How computational modeling can assist major vaccine policy changes in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Schreiber, Benjamin; Wateska, Angela R; Connor, Diana L; Dicko, Hamadou M; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Levin, Carol; Avella, Mélanie; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T

    2015-06-01

    While scientific studies can show the need for vaccine policy or operations changes, translating scientific findings to action is a complex process that needs to be executed appropriately for change to occur. Our Benin experience provided key steps and lessons learned to help computational modeling inform and lead to major policy change. The key steps are: engagement of Ministry of Health, identifying in-country "champions," directed and efficient data collection, defining a finite set of realistic scenarios, making the study methodology transparent, presenting the results in a clear manner, and facilitating decision-making and advocacy. Generating scientific evidence is one component of policy change. Enabling change requires orchestration of a coordinated set of steps that heavily involve key stakeholders, earn their confidence, and provide them with relevant information. Our Benin EVM+CCEM+HERMES Process led to a decision to enact major changes and could serve as a template for similar approaches in other countries. PMID:25900134

  4. Energy Demand and Emissions in Building in China: Scenarios and Policy Options

    E-print Network

    Kejun, J.; Xiulian, H.

    2006-01-01

    AND SCENARIO DEFINITION 3.1 Model assumptions The major assumptions used in this study (including population, GDP growth and mix) are given in the following tables. The assumptions for population come from other studies by reviewing papers and reports.... The assumed GDP growth rate is consistent with government targets and research by the different research teams[9][10][11][12][13]. Beside GDP growth and population in China, there are several other important factors to be considered in the scenario study...

  5. GLOBAL DYNAMICS, DOMESTIC COALITIONS AND A REACTIVE STATE: MAJOR POLICY SHIFTS IN POST-WAR TURKISH ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziya Öni

    The main objective of this study is to propose an analytical framework to explain the major policy shifts that has characterized post-war Turkish economic development; divided into four phases, starting respectively in 1950, 1960, 1980, and 2001. Its main contribution is to incorporate external and internal factors into this framework within a broadly political economy perspective, attaching particular significance to

  6. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  7. Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, R; Koppen, G; Schoeters, G

    2008-01-01

    Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM) has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that will eventually lead to the formulation of a variety of policy relevant risk reduction options. Conclusion Although the usefulness of this approach still needs to be tested, and potential fine-tuning of the procedure may be necessary, approaching the policy implications of HBM in an objective framework will prove to be essential. PMID:18541068

  8. Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs. PMID:20660208

  9. A Policy Option To Provide Sufficient Funding For Massive-Scale Sequestration of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kithil, P. W.

    2007-12-01

    Global emissions of CO2 now are nearly 30 billion tons per year, and are growing rapidly due to strong economic growth. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have reached 380 ppm and recent reports suggest the rate of increase has gone from 1% per year in the 1990's to 3% per year now - with potential to cross 550ppm in the 2020 decade. Without stabilization of atmospheric CO2 below 550ppm, climate models predict unacceptably higher average temperatures with significant risk of runaway global warming this century. While there is much talk about reducing CO2 emissions by switching to non-fossil energy sources, imposing energy efficiency, and a host of other changes, there are no new large-scale energy sources on the horizon. The options are to impose draconian cuts in fossil energy consumption that will keep us below 550ppm (devastating the global economy) - or to adopt massive-scale sequestration of CO2. Three approaches are feasible: biological ocean sequestration, geologic sequestration, and biological terrestrial sequestration. Biological sequestration is applicable to all CO2 sources, whereas geologic sequestration is limited to fossil-fuel power plants and some large point-source emitters such as cement plants and large industrial facilities. Sequestration provides a direct mechanism for reducing atmospheric levels of CO2, whereas offsetting technologies such as wind power or improved efficiency, reduce the need for more fossil fuels but do not physically remove CO2 from the environment. The primary geologic technique, carbon capture & sequestration (CCS), prevents CO2 from entering the atmosphere but likewise does not reduce existing levels of atmospheric CO2. Biological sequestration (ocean or terrestrial) physically removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Since we cannot shut down our global economy, urgent action is needed to counteract CO2 emissions, and avoid catastrophic climate change. Given the long lead time and/or small impact of offsetting energy sources, sequestration is the only way to achieve near and medium-term reductions in atmospheric CO2 levels. To finance massive-scale sequestration of CO2, we propose the World Trade Organization (WTO) become an active player in the sequestration market. Given the WTO's role as overseer of international trade agreements annually representing 30 trillion in imports and exports of goods and services, it is by far the largest global economic force and therefore offers the broadest economic base. Absent a real solution to CO2 emissions, the global economy - and world trade - will shrink dramatically. The WTO can jumpstart the market for CO2 sequestration by issuing long term contracts to purchase bona fide sequestration-derived CO2 credits. Under this proposal, an initial price of 100 per ton which steps-down by 5% per year could bring forth the sequestration investment needed to achieve upwards of 10 billion tons sequestered CO2 per year by 2025 (seven billion tons from biological ocean sequestration and at least three billion tons from geologic and terrestrial sequestration). Assuming a contract term of 40 years, and a parallel commodity market continues to develop for CO2 credits, at some time in the future the WTO's contractual price will be less than the commodity market price - and the WTO begins to recover its investment. Under one set of assumptions, the net WTO annual subsidy would peak at $86 billion by 2022, equal to an across-the-board WTO tariff on imports and exports of about 1.01%, then become positive a few years later as the market price climbed above WTO's contracted price. Under this proposal, the WTO effectively subsidizes CO2 sequestration in the near to medium term and then recoups its investment and reaps large profits over the long term.

  10. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    PubMed

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship. PMID:17625644

  11. National Government Policy Options for Contributing to Regional Economic Stability: The US Department of Energy's Major Nuclear Weapons Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL GREENBERG; KAREN LOWRIE; MICHAEL FRISCH; DAVID LEWIS

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted economic simulation, historical, and survey research that considers the national government's obligation to the regions that surround the places where it developed and tested nuclear weapons. The research shows that the strongest case for an obligation is at four site regions: Hanford (Washington), Idaho, Oak Ridge (Tennessee), and Savannah River (Georgia, South Carolina). These four are dependent

  12. Pragmatic policy options for monitoring the movement of carbon dioxide derived from fossil and bio-fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fehr; A. L. S. Costa; A. P. Martins; P. C. A. Oliveira; M. K. A. Silva

    2011-01-01

    At a municipal level it was required to determine the course of environmental action that would respond to international directives\\u000a regarding air quality control through interference in carbon dioxide movement. Two options were considered, namely bio-fuels\\u000a and ecological compensation. The bio-fuel option was examined by way of ethanol produced from sugar cane. The compensation\\u000a option was examined by way of

  13. Population policy options.

    PubMed

    Treisman, M

    1994-05-01

    In the review by Kristie Macrakis of Beyond the Wall: Memoirs of an East and West German Spy by Werner Stiller, with Jefferson Adams (editor and translator) [Brassey's (US), McLean, VA, 1992; Maxwell Macmillan, London, UK, 1992] (17 Dec., p. 1908), it is stated that physicist Rolf Dobbertin, who denies any spying, was "sent to Paris in 1956 to study at the expense of the Stasi," was "sentenced to 12 years in prison," and "sat in a French jail for five years before he was released in 1991." Legal documents show that Dobbertin, who was arrested in January 1979 for acts of "communication with agents of a foreign power, dealings that could be harmful [intelligence de nature à nuire] to the military or diplomatic situation of France or to its essential economic interest," was jailed until May 1983. He was subsequently tried in 1990 and sentenced to 12 years in prison, but was acquitted of the above charge by a special Assize Court in a second trial in November 1991. According to Dobbertin, he studied continuously at the University of Rostock from 1952 until 1958, and then taught at the University of Berlin for one year before beginning his work in 1959 at the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifigue in France, where he continues to be employed. PMID:8171327

  14. When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

  15. US government policy — the major factor shaping the international commercial space launch marketplace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Heydon

    1996-01-01

    In this Viewpoint — an edited version of a statement made to the US House Committee on Science's Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics' hearing on ‘US launch strategy’ — the President of Arianespace, Inc analyses the overriding importance of US government policies and executive decisions on the shaping and behavior of the international market in commercial space launch services. Chief

  16. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  17. [Major revisionposted 6/13/12 (replaces 4/26/12 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    by the vice chancellor for institutional advancement (VCIA). Changes regarding financial procedures request a copy of the company's most recent audited financial statement or financial appraisal will be made with the concurrence of the chief financial officer (CFO). POLICY/PROCEDURE 1. General To promote

  18. Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2011/2012 As the cost of housing is different for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial

    E-print Network

    Smith, Marc L.

    housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2011/2012 As the cost of housing is different for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated

  19. Financial Aid Meal & Housing Policy 2010/2011 As the cost of housing is different for the various housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial

    E-print Network

    Smith, Marc L.

    housing options available to Vassar students, the total amount of financial aid that students couldFinancial Aid Meal & Housing Policy ­ 2010/2011 As the cost of housing is different for the various regardless of the housing option chosen by the student. In the example below a student has a calculated

  20. Policy Related to Creating, Changing, and Terminating Degree Programs, Majors, Minors, Areas of Emphasis, Certificate Programs,

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    as the degree program). A bachelor's degree program requires a minimum of 120 credits, and a master's degree program requires a minimum of 30 credits beyond the bachelor's degree. New degree programs require the program title and the major. An undergraduate major requires a minimum of 30 credits. Minors Definition

  1. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions....

  2. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions....

  3. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions....

  4. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations...engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government...instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions....

  5. Currently, there is no grape insurance policy for New Jersey. If you are interested how-ever, in protecting your investment there are some options. If you have 3 years of prior

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Currently, there is no grape insurance policy for New Jersey. If you are interested how- ever, in protecting your investment there are some options. If you have 3 years of prior yield records for grapes that your agent will help you request RMA (Risk Management Agency) to transfer a grape crop insurance policy

  6. P:\\Policy & Procedures\\FP\\FP#14-Recordretent-Arch-Major.doc Facilities Planning

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    #14 TITLE: RECORD RETENTION AND ARCHIVING ­ MAJOR PROJECT OBJECTIVE AND PURPOSE To ensure all project ACTION PROJECT MANAGER At final completion of the project verify that A copy of the Project Program is in the Program Library (FP Director's office shelf) and an additional copy is in the project files. Retain

  7. Educational Policy and the Two Major Approaches to Disaster Relief in the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    In this paper, two major schools of thought regarding disaster and disaster assistance are identified and examined in order to bring to light their underlying assumptions about assistance and development in the Third World. The first section discusses the context of the problem, citing figures and presenting charts to illustrate the scope and…

  8. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  9. Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success. A Study of State and Institutional Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document was designed to inform members of the policy, education, and research communities about existing state and institutional policies and practices associated with four accelerated learning programs: Advanced Placement (AP), dual/concurrent enrollment, the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program, and Tech-Prep. This effort was…

  10. Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

  11. Room Technology Printing Options

    E-print Network

    , and an audio jack. Rooms must be left clean and tidy; please return furniture to its original location. PleaseRoom W-217 Policies Room Technology Printing Options #12;3/2013 Policies for using the lab In room reservations must arrive within 15 minutes of the reservation start time, or the room will be released

  12. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    - http://www.hbi.org/ UGA Family and Consumer Science Cooperative Extension - http://www.fcs.uga.edu/extension/ College of Family & Consumer Sciences Student Services - http://www.fcs.uga.edu/ss/index.html To find to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Consumer Economics The Consumer Economics

  13. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Human Development and Family Science The Department of Human Development and Family Science offers a comprehensive and multidisciplinary undergraduate School For Boys Casey Family Programs Centers for Family Research Community Bridges Consumer Protection

  14. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Journalism with a Publication Management's watchdog. Researching Job Titles and Careers O*NET http://online.onetcenter.org (click on Find Occupations Insider: Vault Guides http://career.uga.edu/resources/online_resources (Under the "Resources" tab

  15. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    assisting individuals to affecting social policies. The profession's unifying element is its commitment and Family Therapist Clinican Community Assistant Community Development Specialist Community Educator Lead Clinician Medical Social Worker Non-Residential Director Oncology Social Worker Outpatient

  16. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Hee Jeon; Nicholas J Glasgow; Teri Merlyn; Emily Sansoni

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy

  17. Policy Options Regarding Information Supplied to Decisionmakers to Determine the Least Restrictive Environment Appropriate for Each Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Scottie; Ross, John W.

    Policy issues related to the concept of least restrictive environment (LRE) as required in P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act are reviewed and alternatives considered. Relevant legislation and litigation are reviewed in Chapter I, while the evolution of educational practice is illuminated in Chapter II in such special…

  18. Major Improvements in the Quality of Malaria Case-Management under the “Test and Treat” Policy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Zurovac, Dejan; Githinji, Sophie; Memusi, Dorothy; Kigen, Samuel; Machini, Beatrice; Muturi, Alex; Otieno, Gabriel; Snow, Robert W.; Nyandigisi, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Monitoring implementation of the “test and treat” case-management policy for malaria is an important component of all malaria control programmes in Africa. Unfortunately, routine information systems are commonly deficient to provide necessary information. Using health facility surveys we monitored health systems readiness and malaria case-management practices prior to and following implementation of the 2010 “test and treat” policy in Kenya. Methods/Findings Between 2010 and 2013 six national, cross-sectional, health facility surveys were undertaken. The number of facilities assessed ranged between 172 and 176, health workers interviewed between 216 and 237 and outpatient consultations for febrile patients evaluated between 1,208 and 2,408 across six surveys. Comparing baseline and the last survey results, all readiness indicators showed significant (p<0.005) improvements: availability of parasitological diagnosis (55.2% to 90.7%); RDT availability (7.5% to 69.8%); total artemether-lumefantrine (AL) stock-out (27.2% to 7.0%); stock-out of one or more AL packs (59.5% to 21.6%); training coverage (0 to 50.2%); guidelines access (0 to 58.1%) and supervision (17.9% to 30.8%). Testing increased by 34.0% (23.9% to 57.9%; p<0.001) while testing and treatment according to test result increased by 34.2% (15.7% to 49.9%; p<0.001). Treatment adherence for test positive patients improved from 83.3% to 90.3% (p?=?0.138) and for test negative patients from 47.9% to 83.4% (p<0.001). Significant testing and treatment improvements were observed in children and adults. There was no difference in practices with respect to the type and result of malaria test (RDT vs microscopy). Of eight dosing, dispensing and counseling tasks, improvements were observed for four tasks. Overall AL use for febrile patients decreased from 63.5% to 35.6% (p<0.001). Conclusions Major improvements in the implementation of “test and treat” policy were observed in Kenya. Some gaps towards universal targets still remained. Other countries facing similar needs and challenges may consider health facility surveys to monitor malaria case-management. PMID:24663961

  19. Telecommunication technologies development in countries of the former Yugoslavia : history, needs and policy options for the future

    E-print Network

    Sulejmanpašić , Adnan, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis I give an overview of the political-economic and telecommunications sector developments in major western economies, as well as some of the advanced Eastern European countries. I use this ...

  20. In the wake of the Newtown tragedy, Washington is preparing for what may be a major legislative battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence.

    E-print Network

    battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence. Research into the causes and correlates of gun violence will undoubtedly play a major role in legislative debates. To contribute to this discussion and showcase the work of Yale scholars and national innovators on issues relating to gun violence

  1. Majors Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

    2012-01-05

    Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

  2. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-01-22

    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  3. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major Information Center http://www.gcic.peachnet.edu (accessible only on campus computers) Career Insider: Vault & Insights Scientist Product Innovator Project Manager Quality Assurance Technician Quality Control

  4. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    , language, culture, and linguistics for professions in international business, banking, trade, travel graduate study, education, Foreign Service, and international business. Students majoring in Chinese Embassies Focus on the Family Hospitals Immigration Services Import / Export Companies International Banking/Business

  5. Efficiency of alternative policy options for screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J; Dezateux, C; Karnon, J; Parnaby, A; Arthur, R

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess, using a decision model, the efficiency of ultrasound based and clinical screening strategies for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Methods: The additional cost per additional favourable outcome was compared for the following strategies: clinical screening alone using the Ortolani and Barlow tests; addition of static and dynamic ultrasound examination of the hips of all infants (universal ultrasound) or restricted to infants with defined risk factors (selective ultrasound); "no screening" (that is, clinical diagnosis only). Results: Ultrasound based screening strategies are predicted to be more effective but more costly than clinical screening or no screening. Estimated total costs per 100 000 live births are approximately £4 million for universal ultrasound, £3 million for selective ultrasound, £1 million for clinical screening alone, and £0.4 million for no screening. The relative efficiency of selective ultrasound and clinical screening is poorly differentiated, and depends on how infants are selected for ultrasound as well as the expertise of clinical screening examiners. If training costs less than £20 per child screened, clinical screening alone would be more efficient than selective ultrasound. Relative to no screening, each of the 16 additional favourable outcomes achieved as a result of selective ultrasound costs approximately £0.2 million, while each of the five favourable outcomes achieved through universal ultrasound screening, over and above selective ultrasound, costs approximately £0.3 million. Conclusions: Policy choice depends on values attached to the different outcomes, willingness to pay to achieve these and total budget. PMID:12937092

  6. Peripheral Canal Design and Implementation Options: Appendix G

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    1 Peripheral Canal Design and Implementation Options: Appendix G Jay Lund, UC Davis Supported financial costs of facility construction and operations #12;4 Many Implementation Decisions Infrastructure Design Options Operating Policy Options Environmental Management Ownership, Governance, Regulatory

  7. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    may also enter programs that grant a master's degree in education, as well as certification Outlook Handbook http://www.bls.gov/oco (type in general term for career of interest) Georgia Career.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Early Childhood

  8. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    The value of the food processing industry is about a hundred billion dollars in the United States alone. This major will prepare students for jobs in the management of organizations in the food processing of the food industry and the processes and standard operations involved in the food processing, restaurant

  9. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major stresses research and analysis to understand consumer behavior and then uses that analysis to design, price lead to careers in market research, advertising, retail management, merchandising/buying, product

  10. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Hall, Daniel

    , and management tools and concepts applied in forest management. The curriculum stresses "hands-on" fieldThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major of sustainably managing forestlands to meet society's demands for wood, clean water, wildlife habitat, recreation

  11. This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    , and veterinary). They may also directly assume positions in government, education, industry, or certain technical/Ophthalmologist Parasitologist Pharmaceutical Sales Rep. Physician Assistant Public Health Specialist Research Immunologist Leuven Medical Laboratories UT Health Science Center OSI Pharmaceuticals What can I do with a major

  12. Ordering Social Objectives: National Health Service and National Health Insurance as Policy Options in Organizing the Medical Care System

    PubMed Central

    Silver, George A.

    1978-01-01

    For many years, a sharp distinction was made between NHS and NHI on the basis of payment and program focus. First, NHS was defined as a program essentially based on Congressional appropriations (general revenues); while NHI would be based on premiums largely derived from the insured. Second, NHS guaranteed service while NHI guaranteed only payment for services rendered. The distinctions were later extended from these definitions to include differences in response to resource needs, changing task descriptions and personnel assignments, more equitable redistribution of manpower, centralized administration and consumer participation. In general, if the goal were equity, NHS seemed more responsive than NHI. However, in recent years, the approach to NHI has been modified in response to criticism as well as increasing recognition of changed needs, and proposals for NHI like the Kennedy-Corman bill have become more like proposals for a NHS. In short, the difference today is largely one of immediate as against eventual transformation of the medical care system into a social instrument aiming to achieve equity. The major disagreement is whether the present medical care system lends itself to modification so as to achieve that end. PMID:685298

  13. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  14. ACS Certified Chemistry Majors at the University of Utah Complete Core and one of the options below or see www.chem.utah.edu for more emphases.

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    ) Math and Physics Core (required of all majors): MATH 1210, 1220 Calculus I, II (4, 4) or MATH 1250 AP Calculus I (4) all QR MATH 2210 Calculus III (3) or MATH 1260 AP Calculus II (4) both QR PHYS 2210, 2220 by the American Chemical Society) Core courses, plus: MATH 2250 Differential Equations and Linear Algebra (4) (or

  15. Is irrigation with partial desalinated seawater a policy option for saving freshwater in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, Sebastian; Alquwaizany, Abdulaziz S.; Lehnert, Karl-H.; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The agriculture sector consumes with 88 % a majority of the almost fossil water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Irrigation with saline water has been highlighted to be a promising technique to reduce fresh water consumption. Current desalination techniques, further developments, salt tolerant crop types and improved irrigation systems can potentially redesign future perspectives for irrigation agriculture, in particular by considering the growing desalination capacity in KSA (5 million m3 day-1 in 2003). Hence, we have analyzed the potential of using desalinated and partial desalinated seawater for growing crops in KSA by considering scenarios of salinity levels and desalination costs. The desalination process has been modelled with the ROSA© software considering a reverse osmosis (RO) plant. The spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER has been applied to assess the water footprint of crops (WFcrop). In order to maintain high crop yields, salts need to be washed out from the rooting zone, which requires the application of additional salt-free water. Therefore, high crop yields come along with additional water requirements and increased desalination effort and increased costs for proving high quality water. As an example, growing wheat with partial desalinated seawater from the Arabian Gulf with a RO plant has been investigated. Desalination reduces the salinity level from 76 dS m-1 to 0.5 dS m-1 considering two RO cycles, with cost of desalinized water in the range of 0.5 to 1.2 m-3. We acknowledge that cost only refer to desalination without considering others such as transport, water pumping or crop fertilization. The study shows that Boron is the most problematic salt component, because it is difficult to remove by RO and toxic in high concentrations for crops (wheat threshold of 0.5 to 1.0 mg l-1). The nationwide average WFcrop of wheat under surface irrigation is 2,628 m3 t-1 considering high water quality of 1 dS m-1 and 3,801 m3 t-1 at 12 dS m-1. Using sprinkler or drip irrigation systems the WFcrop decreases of about 20 % and 34 %, respectively. It can be shown that a salinity level larger than 9 dS m-1 increases leaching water requirement of wheat over proportional and that a salinity level of 9 dS m-1 reduces cost for irrigation water by about 11 % in comparison to the irrigation with nearly fresh water quality of 1 dS m-1. A trade-off analyses reveals that making desalinated seawater use profitable, cost need to be reduced below 0.2 m-3 for sprinkler and drip irrigation and even below 0.1 m-3 for widespread used surface irrigation systems. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia, for funding the research Project No. 33-900 entitled 'Technology for desalinated seawater use in agriculture'.

  16. Service options

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses customer service options. These are actions that consumers can take on their side of the electric meter to obtain energy efficiencies and provide load management options for utilities. Customer service options also include actions consumers can take to use electricity to improve their productivity and quality of life. TVA`s catalog of customer service options contains traditional demand-side management, self-generation, beneficial electrification, and rate options. TVA designed the options to take advantage of existing and emerging technologies that could be effectively integrated into programs to meet varying customer and TVA needs. These options were ranked by total resource cost as well as other evaluation criteria and combined into blocks of options suitable for analysis with power supply options. TVA`s long and short-term plans will include those customer service options that integrate well with desirable supply-side options and meet TVA`s evaluation criteria.

  17. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  18. Background Report: Employee Stock Options

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This publication from the Financial Markets Center offers a closer look at the rise of stock options. The report "summarizes the key trends in the use of stock options and highlights the broader implications of this practice for measuring earnings and conducting national economic policy." Five points are discussed in this nine-page document, allowing readers to understand the basic principles and problems surrounding stock options. Anyone wanting to gain a basic understanding of stock options will enjoy this easy-to-read report.

  19. Option Pricing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rick Percy

    This module analyzes the topic of option pricing. Binomial tree models and the Black-Scholes formulae are used to price call options on an underlying asset. . The put-call parity theorem is used to value put options. Background inFormation on options is provided as well as the theoretical implications of the models. Assessment of the models is evaluated through on an investigation of the strengths and shortcomings of the models compared with their empirical performance. The module evaluates the differences between European and American options using mathematical models. In addition, the module examines expansions of the model including adaptation to stocks that pay dividends, the market for foreign exchange, and options on portfolios such as market indices. In assessing the strengths and shortcomings of the models investigated, the existence of alternative models is introduced to allow the interested student pathways to learning after the module.

  20. Academic Majors Undergraduate Majors

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences Aging/Cancer · Body Composition · Cardiovascular HealthAcademic Majors Undergraduate Majors Food & Nutrition Sciences Dietetics Exercise Science Athletic Training Masters Majors Nutrition & Food Sciences Exercise Physiology Sports Sciences Doctoral Majors

  1. System evaluations of laser power beaming options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV

    1992-01-01

    The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

  2. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

  3. Modeling Money-Back Guarantees As Financial Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhua Zhao; David Zilberman; Amir Heiman; Bruce McWilliams

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we model money-back guarantees (MBGs) as put options. This use of option theory provides retailers with a framework to optimize the price and the return option independently and under various market conditions. This separation of product price and option value enables retailers to offer an unbundled MBG policy, that is, to allow the customer to choose whether

  4. Valuation Of Segregated Funds: Shout Options With Maturity Extensions

    E-print Network

    Forsyth, Peter A.

    be viewed as insurance policies with embedded financial options. Although these products have been availableValuation Of Segregated Funds: Shout Options With Maturity Extensions H. Windcliff \\Lambda , P. Segregated funds have very complex option features. These contracts contain multiple embedded shout options

  5. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

  6. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  7. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  8. Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing Graduate Degree Program Clinical Manual 2012....................................................................................................................1 Clinical Nurse Leader Major Role Function?.........................................................................2 Clinical Nurse Leader

  9. Numa Option Calculator: The Original Option Webulator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly. For those interested in pricing their own options, this Option Calculator, provided by Numa Financial Systems Ltd., calculates the adjusted Black-Scholes model to value European options.

  10. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-05-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

  11. Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    be re-evaluated in the department's self-study for its next external review and all subsequent reviews in the review of proposals motivated by resource impaction is limited primarily to the approval of the selection

  12. State Policy Initiatives for Reducing Teen and Adult Nonmarital Childbearing: Family Planning to Family Caps. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A, No. A-43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Jager, Justin; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    This paper presents data from a survey of all 50 states that examined specific programs and policies being pursued at the state level to discourage teenage and nonmarital childbearing. Overall, the teen childbearing rate has continued to fall, and in 1999 it was the lowest on record. Some research points to a relationship between welfare policies

  13. Navigating the Child Care Subsidy System: Policies and Practices That Affect Access and Retention. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-50. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Sandfort, Jodi R.

    This brief summarizes the report, "Getting and Retaining Child Care Assistance: How Policy and Practice Influence Families' Experiences," examining subsidy policies and practices that affect subsidy utilization, including those that affect every interaction the parent has with the subsidy agency and those that affect the ease of applying for, and…

  14. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  15. DCTD — Major Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Major Initiatives Search Grants Search Clinical Trials Ongoing Projects NCI Grants Policies Grant Application and Review Process DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

  16. Parisian exchange options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An Chen; Michael Suchanecki

    2010-01-01

    The option to exchange one asset for another is one of the oldest and one of the most popular exotic options. In the present article, we extend the existing literature on options to Parisian exchange options, i.e. the option to exchange one asset for the other contingent on the occurrence of the Parisian time. Thus, these options are a special

  17. Patient-friendly financial options.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    1999-03-01

    Having flexible payment options ensures that patients will have all of the motivation and information they need to accept care in your office. The HCCC simply offers the chance to make more expensive treatment available to those who need or want it. The small cost of using a HCCC program more than pays for itself--in fact, it costs less than one-third of what you would spend if you were to bill these patients instead. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options can dramatically increase your office's productivity and profitability, while expressing your commitment to customer service and high-quality dentistry. PMID:10344121

  18. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  19. Child Care Subsidy Policies and Practices: Implications for Child Care Providers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Tout, Kathryn

    This brief summarizes the report "Essential but Often Ignored: Child Care Providers in the Subsidy System," examining child care subsidy policies and practices shaping experiences of providers serving subsidized children, particularly those affecting providers' payments and their overall experience with the subsidy system. Research on the voucher…

  20. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, Newell J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

  1. Reconstruction options for acetabular revision

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Erica D; Browne, James A

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes reconstruction options available for acetabular revision following total hip arthroplasty. A thoughtful methodology to the evaluation and treatment of patients with implant failure after joint replacement is essential to guarantee accurate diagnoses, appropriate triage to reconstruction options, and optimal clinical outcomes. In the majority of patients who undergo acetabular revision, factors such as bone loss and pelvic discontinuity provide a challenge in the selection and implementation of the proper reconstruction option. With advanced evaluation algorithms, imaging techniques, and implant designs, techniques have evolved to rebuild the compromised acetabulum at the time of revision surgery. However, clinical outcomes data for these techniques continue to lag behind the exponential increase in revision hip arthroplasty cases predicted to occur over the next several years. We encourage those involved in the treatment of patients undergoing hip replacement surgery to participate in well-designed clinical studies to enhance evidence-based knowledge regarding revision acetabular reconstruction options. PMID:22816064

  2. Reprocessing option for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Woolf, D.N. (British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley (United Kingdom))

    1991-11-01

    The options available to utilities for disposal of fuel discharged from their nuclear reactors is not limited to bury or burn. Many utilities in Europe and Japan have already opted to reprocess their spent fuel in the United Kingdom and/or France. This enables the utility to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium and allows the utilities' countries to formulate a waste disposal policy without the time constraints that would otherwise be placed on them. This paper gives an insight into how and why British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is continuing to provide services to reprocess and recycle spent nuclear fuel. The closed fuel cycle represents the complete irradiated fuel management option and, with its use of well-established technologies, reprocessing of spent fuel is the only option that is available to utilities now.

  3. Choosing a Major

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joslyn Heiniger

    2009-09-27

    By completing this tutorial, you should be able to: Find resources to help you find the correct business major for you. Access your business major options. Congratulations on choosing Utah State University and the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business as your educational partner. Now that you have been admitted to USU, you may have a few questions about where to go from here. Below you will find many resources that will help you ...

  4. Options Strategy Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Numa Financial Systems provide an easy-to-use Options Strategy Guide where the options strategies are categorized to the user's expectations of the stock price. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

  5. Public opinion on water reuse options

    SciTech Connect

    Bruvold, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Public policy on waste water reuse options must be informed by public opinion because it is the public who must pay the cost of developing the option and who will be served by the option in the future. For public policy on reuse, guidance for innovative reuse is not as simple as first believed. It seems that public opinion regarding actual community reuse options is affected by the linkage of several factors, including water conservation, health protection, treatment and distribution costs, and environmental enhancement. Probability sampling was used in 7 studies to select respondents who were queried regarding their opinions on various reclaimed water uses such as ranging from cooling tower water to full domestic use. These 7 are briefly reviewed.

  6. Syllabus Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Syllabus ­ Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration FNR and related natural resources administration and policies in the United States; policy components; policy of the course, you should be able to: State the key provisions of major natural resource policies Explain

  7. Syllabus Natural Resource Policy & Economics 1 Natural Resource Policy & Economics

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    of concepts and theories of natural resource policy and economics Further your knowledge of major naturalSyllabus ­ Natural Resource Policy & Economics 1 Natural Resource Policy & Economics FOR6934 (3 natural resources administration and policies in the United States; policy components; policy formation

  8. Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) Option Clinical Manual

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) Option Clinical Manual 2011-2012 Reviewed August, 2011 Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Education #12;Table of Contents Introduction...................................................................................................................................1 Clinical Nurse Leader Major Role Function

  9. MATHEMATICS MAJORS

    E-print Network

    Carla Floyd

    2006-02-24

    Careers involving computers are available in almost every industry, business, branch and level of government, in basic and applied research, in education, and in ... Students fulfilling the requirements of this option also qualify to receive their.

  10. Option Pricing Andrea Gagliano

    E-print Network

    Morrow, James A.

    Option Pricing Andrea Gagliano June 3, 2011 Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Terminology 3 2.1 Financial of these unusual trading techniques are referred to as financial derivatives. Options, a type of financial, it is important in the financial realm to approximate the value of options. Option valuation is also a useful

  11. AUGUST 2014 POLICY PAPER | Why did major global health institutions scale up ACTs but ignore combination zinc/oral rehydration therapy? | 1 Why did major global health institutions scale up artemisinin-based

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    from major global health institutions, such as the World Bank, the Global Fund, and bilateral donor and campaign, backed by international attention, funding, and national management capacity. This concerted treatment, boosting their knowledge of and demand for zinc/L-ORS. Second, zinc scale-up will be impossible

  12. New direction for non-proliferation policy: Weapons of mass destruction and the Third World. Study project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kilgore

    1993-01-01

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Third World is a major national security challenge. This paper provides a summary of non-proliferation policies along with discussion of current world realities leading to the conclusion that the existing non-proliferation regime is losing its potency. Three options are provided on potential ways and of halting the spread of these weapons

  13. The majority rule in individual decision making

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiao Zhang; Christopher K. Hsee; Zhixing Xiao

    2005-01-01

    This research investigates an understudied decision heuristic, the majority rule. By using the rule, decision makers choose the option superior on most of the available cues. Cues are broadly defined, including advisors and attributes. We propose that decision makers are more likely to use the majority rule when encouraged to employ intra-cue comparison as opposed to intra-option inte- gration, and

  14. Room Policies Videoconferencing

    E-print Network

    the room reservation. Rooms must be left clean and tidy. Please ask for help if equipment is not workingW-426H Room Policies Videoconferencing Video Camera Using the Equipment Printing Options #12;June2014 Policies for using the collaborative lab In room W-426H Thank you for using the MSU Libraries

  15. Room Policies Videoconferencing

    E-print Network

    the room reservation. Rooms must be left clean and tidy. Please ask for help if equipment is not workingW-426H Room Policies Videoconferencing Video Camera Using the Equipment Printing Options #12;Sept2014 Policies for using the collaborative lab In room W-426H Thank you for using the MSU Libraries

  16. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step. PMID:23230285

  17. Australian health policy and end of life care for people with chronic disease: an analysis.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Teresa; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Crawford, Gregory B; Beilby, Justin

    2014-03-01

    End of life care for people with advanced chronic disease is a growing international imperative, with the majority of deaths in the world now related to chronic disease. The provision of care that meets the needs of people with advanced chronic disease must be guided by appropriate policy. The key policy areas impacting directly on end of life care are related to chronic disease, palliative care and, increasingly, aged care. This paper describes the outcomes of an audit of Australian chronic disease and end of life/palliative care policies. We identified that chronic disease health policies/strategies demonstrate a focus on prevention, early intervention and management, with scant recognition of end of life care needs. The majority assume that a referral to palliative care will address end of life care needs for people with chronic disease. By contrast, palliative care policies recognise the need for the incorporation of a palliative approach into advanced chronic disease care, but there are few connections between these two policy areas. Whilst palliative care policies intersect with carer and advance care planning policies, chronic disease policy does not. Key concerns requiring consideration when developing policy in this area are discussed and possible policy options identified. PMID:23992757

  18. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  19. B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option Course Title Course # Credits

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation 472 05 Intro to Food Engr. Process Design BEE 473 03 OPTION: FERMENTATION SCIENCE Food Science Major Core (91-95 Cr.) FERMENTATION SCIENCE OPTION Additional Supporting Courses (8 Cr.) NUTR225 may

  20. Finding the cheapest Clean power options

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, Thomas R.; Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2009-12-15

    Speculation about why policies favor high-cost low-carbon generation options could fill a book. Vested interests? Lack of knowledge? Industry lobbying? Cost-plus regulatory mentality? Regardless of reasons, the data show that efficient generation that uses energy twice is largely ignored. While all other generation, both clean and dirty, receives large subsidies, energy recycling is ignored. (author)

  1. Expanding Policy Options for Educating Teenagers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stern

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between

  2. Expanding Policy Options for Educating Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading…

  3. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    the city in coming years. No current estimate of the square footage was discovered in the literature search for this analysis. 4 To estimate the square footage, electricity use per...

  4. Cybersecurity: Stakeholder incentives, externalities, and policy options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes M. Bauer; Michel J. G. van Eeten

    2009-01-01

    Information security breaches are increasingly motivated by fraudulent and criminal motives. Reducing their considerable costs has become a pressing issue. Although cybersecurity has strong public good characteristics, most information security decisions are made by individual stakeholders. Due to the interconnectedness of cyberspace, these decentralized decisions are afflicted with externalities that can result in sub-optimal security levels. Devising effective solutions to

  5. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post-certification polio immunization. The break-even price of switching to IPV compared with continuing with OPV immunizations is US$ 0.50 per dose of IPV. However, this doses not account for the cost of vaccine-derived poliovirus cases resulting from the continued use of OPV. In addition to financial costs, risk assessments related to the re-emergence of polio will be major determinants of policy decisions. PMID:15106295

  6. Supply-side options

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Over 100 different supply-side options were identified during the course of Energy Vision 2020. These options represent a broad spectrum of options-both in terms of fuel source and operating characteristics. While the full range of supply-side options is nearly unlimited, this set provides a reasonable representation of the options that are available. In some cases, two or more similar options were defined in order to better evaluate specific differences. In most cases, however, the options represent a {open_quotes}typical{close_quotes} configuration and not necessarily the only design that could be considered. This document provides additional descriptions and characterizations of each of the options that have been identified.

  7. Earth Sciences Geography Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geography Option Geography is the study of Earth's environments, landscapes, international development, diplomacy, military service; · Teaching and research. #12;Earth Sciences with Geography Option What to know about Oregon State University Student Services & Advising College of Earth

  8. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 May 2004 This image of Syrtis Major was acquired August 20, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.8, Longitude 79.5 East (280.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Forest management options for sequestering carbon in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omar R. Masera; Mauricio R. Bellon; Gerardo Segura

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A “Policy” scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a “Technical Potential” scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a

  10. Microenterprise Development: An Employment Option for Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    This document examines microenterprise development as an employment option for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients. The document begins with a brief discussion of the feasibility of self-employment as an option for TANF recipients, particularly in a slow economy. The next section answers policy questions pertaining to the…

  11. Option market making under inventory risk Sasha Stoikov

    E-print Network

    Stoikov, Sasha

    - ture, Vega Stoikov acknowledges support from the Morgan Stanley Equity Market Microstructure ResearchOption market making under inventory risk Sasha Stoikov Mehmet Saglam February 15, 2009 Abstract We propose a mean-variance framework to analyze the optimal quoting policy of an option market maker

  12. Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

  13. Understanding Index Option Returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Broadie; Mikhail Chernov; Michael Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Previous research concludes that options are mispriced based on the high average returns, CAPM alphas, and Sharpe ratios of various put selling strategies. One criticism of these conclusions is that these benchmarks are ill suited to handle the extreme statistical nature of option returns generated by nonlinear payoffs. We propose an alternative way to evaluate the statistical significance of option

  14. Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    one LEI3843 Commercial Tourism, MAN4301 Human Resource Management, or LEI4570 Revenue Resources (internships, temporary work, etc.) Fall FNR 4660 Natural Resource Policy and Economics 3 credits FOR 4020Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation Specialization: Recreation Resources Management

  15. Using Homomorphisms to Transfer Options across Continuous Reinforcement Learning Domains

    E-print Network

    Baveja, Satinder Singh

    dynamics and reward functions. Any homomorphism between two MDPs allows us to take a policy from one MDP domains. We use these functions to transfer a learned policy in the first domain into an option in the new to transfer is vi- able in a complex domain with a continuous state space by evaluating it in the Robosoccer

  16. Rolling Up a Put Option as Prices Increase

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jason; Polk, Wade

    2008-10-07

    options to protect themselves against price declines that can occur during the production year. A put option on a futures contract gives the buyer the right to sell the underlying com- modity at a specified price (its strike price) for a fixed period... there is more trading activity. A producer?s liability when purchasing a put option is limited to the premium paid for the put option. The premium is equivalent to the premium paid for an insurance policy. No mat- ter how much the price of the underlying com...

  17. Supply-side options

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report addresses the supply-side options considered in this report. Even with medium load growth, the need for additional capacity is both clear and substantial, and new generating capability is needed. A central issue in this discussion was a decision on the status of the nuclear units in construction or restart. Several options were considered for the nuclear units, and it was concluded that TVA will not complete or restart any of these units without a financial partner. TVA also created an extensive list of other generating options spanning the full range of current and near-term developing technologies. TVA has also identified options that would give greater flexibility. These options include the purchase of competitively priced power from other suppliers. All the supply-side options were catagorized by performance, cost, and relevant environmental emission.

  18. 77 FR 65600 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Granting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ...1 Thereto, To Increase Position and Exercise Limits for EEM Options October 23, 2012...rule change to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the iShares MSCI...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for EEM options to 500,000...

  19. 77 FR 43897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...Rule Change To Increase Position and Exercise Limits for EEM Options July 20, 2012...Limits) to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the iShares MSCI...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for EEM options to 500,000...

  20. 76 FR 44633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...Rule Change To Increase the Position and Exercise Limits for Options on the Standard...its rules to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the Standard and...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for SPY options from...

  1. The Costs of Future Polio Risk Management Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens; Nalinee Sangrujee; Kimberly M. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio erad- ication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to pro- vide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance,

  2. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  3. Policy Handbook PUBLIC POLICY

    E-print Network

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    1 Policy Handbook PUBLIC POLICY GRADUATE PROGRAM 2009-2010 Public Policy Graduate Office Brigham available to you. This Handbook is published by the Public Policy Department as a sup- plement in Public Policy. The purpose of the Handbook is to provide this additional information as a guidance

  4. Options Study - Phase II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-01-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel

  5. Electricity Real Options Valuation

    E-print Network

    Ewa Broszkiewicz-Suwaj

    2006-08-16

    In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

  6. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  7. Active Management of Real Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom W. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Business opportunities to introduce new products at a later date are treated as real options. These real options are modeled as exchange options for which both the underlying and strike assets are risky. The distance to breakeven for an exchange option measures how far a real option is currently expected to be from having a net present value of zero

  8. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

  9. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

  10. PEBB Dental Benefits Summary Preferred Option Plan

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    PEBB Dental Benefits Summary Preferred Option Plan How To Use this Dental Plan (Revised April 1% 50% 50% Implants MAJOR - Deductible Applies 3rd year-100% Endodontic (pulp therapy & root canal from a dental provider not in the Preferred Professional Panel, Out of Network coverage levels apply

  11. Degree options MBiochem (Integrated Masters Degree)

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    and Geology Biology and Logic and Philosophy of Science BSc"With"Degrees Honours in which the majority68 Biology Degree options MBiochem (Integrated Masters Degree) Biochemistry BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Behavioural Biology Biochemistry Biology Biomolecular Science (offered by the School of Chemistry

  12. APPENDIX B, Page B1 OPTION DESCRIPTION

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    of specific course credits (i.e., exclusive of 600 thesis credits, culminating experience credits, internship credits, etc.) that are distinct to the option. The minimum number of these credits is the lesser of 18 credits or one-third of the course credits required for the major. For example, in the case of a 30 credit

  13. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...only intended to include options that require financial settlement and other financial...such.'' Treating all options, financial and physical, as swaps...in either physical or financial settlement of the option. The Commission...

  14. Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

  15. Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected

    E-print Network

    June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

  16. of Social Work and Social Policy

    E-print Network

    O'Mahony, Donal E.

    School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

  17. Cogeneration System Design Options 

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    COGENERATION SYSTEM DESIGN OPTIONS Joel S. Gilbert, Dames & Moore, Bethesda, Maryland The commercial or industrial firm contemplating cogeneration at its facilities faces numerous basic design choices. The possibilities exist for fue1ing...

  18. ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

  19. Accommodation Options Darwin

    E-print Network

    Accommodation Options ­ Darwin Charles Darwin University #12;· Welcome-campusAccommodationatCDU . . . . . 5 · InternationalHouseDarwin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 · iHomestayNetwork . . . . . . . . . . 20 Contents #12;3 Welcome to Charles Darwin University. We congratulate you for making the decision

  20. Insecticide Options for

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    Insecticide Options for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer Daniel A. Herms, Deborah G. Mc for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer (Second Edition) is funded in part by the USDA-NIFA North Central for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer #12;InsectIcIde OptIOns fOr prOtectIng Ash trees frOm emerald Ash

  1. Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options

    MedlinePLUS

    Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options Updated:Jun 1,2015 Understanding the Medical Situation Having advanced heart failure does ... need in the future. Treatment Options for Advanced Heart Failure Major Interventions Open-heart surgery: For patients ...

  2. On Option-Pricing Models in Real Estate: A Critique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Shilling; C. F. Sirmans; John D. Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    This paper considers the problems peculiar to options on real estate, because of the special set of institutional factors influencing real estate markets. It is intended to serve as a reply to Johnson and Wofford [15] as well as provide an overall critique of option-pricing models in a real estate context. Our major point is that a variety of real

  3. New direction for non-proliferation policy: Weapons of mass destruction and the Third World. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgore, D.W.

    1993-02-26

    The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Third World is a major national security challenge. This paper provides a summary of non-proliferation policies along with discussion of current world realities leading to the conclusion that the existing non-proliferation regime is losing its potency. Three options are provided on potential ways and of halting the spread of these weapons as Third World nations search for their niche in Post Cold War world. The options include the impact of continuing with current policies; an aggressive military-oriented forced compliance policy; and third, an approach that envisions nation building and developing economic power as a counter to seeking regional influence through mass destruction weapons.

  4. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

  5. 14.74 Foundations of Development Policy, Spring 2004

    E-print Network

    Duflo, Esther, 1972-

    Explores the foundations of policy making in developing countries. Goal is to spell out various policy options and to quantify the trade-offs between them. Special emphasis on education, health, gender, fertility, adoption ...

  6. Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappu, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

  7. Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shouhuai

    Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options Format Test Information 1. Enter a Name for the Test. 2. Choose a color for the title text of the Test. (Optional) 3. Enter a Description in the Text Box. The description is visible to Students before they click on the link to take the Test. (Optional) 4. If you want

  8. Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

    2005-07-01

    Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

  9. Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major The Department of Health and Human://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health- human-development/health-human-development/food-nutrition-major- dietetics-option) is designed and Human Development advising office located in the Hosaeus PE Complex. The nutrition science option (http://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health-human

  10. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  11. Reconsidering California Transport Policies: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Uncertain Future

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keefe, Ryan

    2012-02-24

    Over the past decade, the state of California has set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions targets across all sectors of the economy. The first major target occurs in 2020, when the state hopes to have reduced statewide greenhouse gas emission from their current levels to 1990 levels. This 320-page paper from RAND researcher Ryan Keefe takes a critical look at the policies adopted by California in its attempt to achieve these long-term goals. Visitors can look over the complete document if they are so inclined, but there is a brief summary available as well. The paper provides a history of climate policy in California, sections on policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles, and new methods for evaluating California's light-duty transportation policies. Finally, the paper also includes a wealth of graphs, charts, and technical appendices.

  12. 48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

  13. 48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

  14. 48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

  15. 48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

  16. 48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

  17. 7 CFR 1753.5 - Methods of major construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Methods of major construction. 1753.5 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.5 Methods of major construction. (a) All major...

  18. 7 CFR 1753.5 - Methods of major construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Methods of major construction. 1753.5 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.5 Methods of major construction. (a) All major...

  19. 7 CFR 1753.5 - Methods of major construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Methods of major construction. 1753.5 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.5 Methods of major construction. (a) All major...

  20. 7 CFR 1753.5 - Methods of major construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Methods of major construction. 1753.5 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.5 Methods of major construction. (a) All major...

  1. 7 CFR 1753.5 - Methods of major construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Methods of major construction. 1753.5 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.5 Methods of major construction. (a) All major...

  2. Web Policies

    Cancer.gov

    Web and Digital Policies Accessibility Policy Copyright and Reuse of Graphics and Text Disclaimer of Endorsement and Liability Freedom of Information Act NCI Comment Policy Privacy and Security Policy Website Linking Policy

  3. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

  4. Asian Options with the American Early Exercise Lixin Wu, \\Lambda Hong Yu y and YueKuen Kwok z

    E-print Network

    Wu, Li-Xin

    Asian Options with the American Early Exercise Feature Lixin Wu, \\Lambda Hong Yu y and Yue in the dimensionality of the par­ tial differential equation formulation of an American style Asian option model. The exercise policy of Asian options with the early exercise provision can then be examined. \\Lambda Lixin Wu

  5. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  6. Space station propulsion options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.; Valgora, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    The selection of the propulsion system for the Space Station represents a complex issue. The present paper provides a summary of the Station design factors which dictate the propulsion requirements, taking into account approaches for meeting these requirements. Factors which affect propulsion system selection are related to thrusting strategy, volume and mass limitations, safety and contamination, electrical power, time phasing, synergistic opportunities, propellant scavenging, water electrolysis, and free-flyers. In a discussion of propulsion systems, attention is given to monopropellant options, bipropellant options, and resistojets.

  7. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  8. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

  9. Policy Scientificity 3.0: Theory and Policy Analysis in-and-for This World and Other-Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemologies and ontologies of education policy studies. Our aim is to posit a reinvigoration of policy studies to hedge against undue ossification and co-option of critical policy studies. We do so by arguing for the need to develop new concepts for policy studies using the "posts" (e.g., post-structuralism and…

  10. ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

  11. DIETETICS OPTION STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-print Network

    DIETETICS OPTION STUDENT HANDBOOK Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences College.D., R.D., Program Director Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences Agricultural Sciences) ................................................................................................... 14 Applying for an Internship or AP4 Program - Suggested Time Frame Food Science Human Nutrition

  12. Computer Science Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    82 Computer Science Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Computer Science and one of: Economics Logic and Philosophy of Science Management Management Science MSci (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science Entrance Requirements (see also pages 164 - 205

  13. Earth Sciences Geology Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its, mountain building, land surface evolution, and mineral resource creation over the Earth's 4.6 billion-year history. A geologist contributes to society through the discovery of earth resources, such as metals

  14. Our Energy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  15. Art History Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    66 Art History Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Art History MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Art knowledge of this subject? ­ No. Subject enquiries E: art.history@st-andrews.ac.uk Features * The School interest include: late mediaeval art; Italian Renaissance architecture, painting and sculpture; the history

  16. A Menu of Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Armed with a few topical and organizational strategies, primary grade teachers can successfully introduce their young scientists to science notebooks. The following overview of notebook methods offers a menu of options to help you develop creative and meaningful science notebook experiences. Choose and customize what works for your classroom to…

  17. Physics & Astronomy Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    148 Physics & Astronomy Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics MPhys AND HL7 in Mathematics Physics and Astronomy (Gateway and International Gateway) Entry For UK students. Physics&Astronomy Subject enquiries Dr Kenny Wood E: physics@st-andrews.ac.uk Features * The nature

  18. Energy, Product, and Economic Implications of Environmental Compliance Options- A Southern California Case Study

    E-print Network

    Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Dennison, W. J.

    to selecting an option to implement. We discuss how the options are assembled into an array of coping strategies for environmental compliance. This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a database of regulations and technology options. (A major Southern...

  19. Options for Change: A Flexible Vehicle for Curriculum Evolution and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Roger G.; Baumann, Melissa J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine a flexible curricular approach known as the "Option." The Option enables students to supplement traditional majors with a coherent set of courses and other educational experiences in a related, often interdisciplinary field. Options can act as curricular bridges between mainstream academic fields and problems of…

  20. Options for Change: A Flexible Vehicle for Curriculum Evolution and Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger G. Baldwin; Melissa J. Baumann

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine a flexible curricular approach known as the “Option.” The Option enables students to supplement traditional majors with a coherent set of courses and other educational experiences in a related, often interdisciplinary field. Options can act as curricular bridges between mainstream academic fields and problems of professional practice. They can also give students experience with emerging

  1. 14 CFR 21.289 - Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration...CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Delegation Option Authorization Procedures § 21.289 Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration... (a) After finding that a major repair or major...

  2. 14 CFR 21.289 - Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration...CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Delegation Option Authorization Procedures § 21.289 Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration... (a) After finding that a major repair or major...

  3. 46 CFR 308.519 - Standard optional endorsement No. 2, Form MA-300-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.519 Standard optional endorsement No. 2, Form...

  4. Used nuclear fuel storage options including implications of small modular reactors

    E-print Network

    Brinton, Samuel O. (Samuel Otis)

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses two aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle system with significant policy implications. The first is the preferred option for used fuel storage based on economics: local, regional or national storage. The ...

  5. Effects of Optional Laboratory and Lecture Attendance in a Medical Physiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Janet L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This is the report of a study of the effects of an optional attendance policy on actual lecture and laboratory attendance and on cognitive examination performance in the medical physiology course at the University of Kansas Medical Center. (Editor)

  6. Comparative evaluation of various energy options using qualitative multi-attribute models

    E-print Network

    Bohanec, Marko

    about Strategic evaluation Sustainability appraisal #12;Common expressions on sustainability · Brutland to "strategic assessment"? #12;Energy options ­ Sustainability ­ Decision Making Electric energy production of sustainability appraisal ­ participation! #12;What is a decision about? vision strategy policy plan program

  7. Appropriate Management Responses to Wildland Fire: Options and Costs1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Appropriate Management Responses to Wildland Fire: Options and Costs1 G. Thomas Zimmerman2 Abstract The Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review, chartered and completed in 1995, represents the latest stage in the evolution of wildland fire management. The concept of appropriate management response

  8. COURSE OF STUDY: DISTANCE OPTION MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    COURSE OF STUDY: DISTANCE OPTION MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM Three-year curriculum grid example First Year ­ 19 credits Fall Winter Spring SW 520 Social Work and Social Welfare Policy (4 credit hours) SW 550 Foundation of Social Work Research (3 credit hours) SW 551 Data Analysis in Social Work

  9. Sociology and School Busing Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armor, David J.

    This paper cites some of the contributions that sociology has made to desegregation policy. The major contribution, made by public opinion research, is establishing the level of support or opposition to busing policy. A second contribution to desegregation policy has been made by those sociologists and social psychologists who have studied the…

  10. Handbook of Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

  11. Economic impact of accelerated cleanup on regions surrounding the U.S. DOE's major nuclear weapons sites.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Solitare, L; Frisch, M; Lowrie, K

    1999-08-01

    The regional economic impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's accelerated environmental cleanup plan are estimated for the major nuclear weapons sites in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The analysis shows that the impact falls heavily on the three relatively rural regions around the Savannah River (SC), Hanford (WA), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ID) sites. A less aggressive phase-down of environmental management funds and separate funds to invest in education and infrastructure in the regions helps buffer the impacts on jobs, personal income, and gross regional product. Policy options open to the federal and state and local governments are discussed. PMID:10765427

  12. Universalism and Income Testing in Family Policy: New Perspectives on an Old Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamerman, Shelia B.; Kahn, Alfred J.

    1987-01-01

    Contends traditional debate on whether a social services program should be universalistic or selective limits the policy options. Reviews current debate on policy options including a policy package that can permit income testing without stigmatizing the poor. Reports findings of a comparative sudy of eight countries that examined income transfers…

  13. Small Satellite Propulsion Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Curran, Francis M.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced chemical and low power electric propulsion offer attractive options for small satellite propulsion. Applications include orbit raising, orbit maintenance, attitude control, repositioning, and deorbit of both Earth-space and planetary spacecraft. Potential propulsion technologies for these functions include high pressure Ir/Re bipropellant engines, very low power arcjets, Hall thrusters, and pulsed plasma thrusters, all of which have been shown to operate in manners consistent with currently planned small satellites. Mission analyses show that insertion of advanced propulsion technologies enables and/or greatly enhances many planned small satellite missions. Examples of commercial, DoD, and NASA missions are provided to illustrate the potential benefits of using advanced propulsion options on small satellites.

  14. Essential Tremor (ET): Surgical Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dressing, working, or enjoying their hobbies. Essential Tremor (ET) Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery ... over) Surgical Options for Essential Tremor: Essential Tremor (ET) Surgical Options This information was reviewed by Kelly ...

  15. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  16. Climate Change & Mitigation Options

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nummedal, Dag

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation from Dag Nummedal of the Colorado Energy Research Institute on climate change and mitigation options. This presentation is intended for users with a background knowledge on the topic and includes graphical representations of important data. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  17. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  18. Theory of Rational Option Pricing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Merton

    1973-01-01

    The long history of the theory of option pricing began in 1900 when the French mathematician Louis Bachelier deduced an option pricing formula based on the assumption that stock prices follow a Brownian motion with zero drift. Since that time, numerous researchers have contributed to the theory. The present paper begins by deducing a set of restrictions on option pricing

  19. Solid Target Options S. Childress

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Solid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Solid Target Options · The choice of a primary beam to demonstrate basic feasibility #12;Solid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Case for a Solid Target power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite

  20. Paying attention to real options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    The strategy literature is increasingly focused on the need to create dynamic capabilities to respond with innovative product offerings in ‘hypercompetitive’ environments. The real options approach offers hope for managers facing such threatening environments by highlighting methods to hold options on a variety of possible future states, thereby reducing risk without bearing all the costs. However, extant real options literature,

  1. Learning Goals for Undergraduate Forestry and Natural Resources Majors Undergraduate Student Learning Initiative

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    Learning Goals for Undergraduate Forestry and Natural Resources Majors Undergraduate Student Learning Initiative University of California ­ Berkeley The Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) major-changing world. The FNR major includes a professional option (Forestry and Natural Sciences, Professional

  2. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  3. A cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Younis, Mustafa; Jabr, Samer; Al-Khatib, Abdallah; Forgione, Dana; Hartmann, Michael; Kisa, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HD), are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16,277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16,085 per year--nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life. PMID:25765018

  4. Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

    2007-01-01

    Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors-the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, optining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services. PMID:18269103

  5. Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

    2007-09-01

    Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors - the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, obtaining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services. PMID:18026628

  6. STAFF POLICY ICYSTAFF POLICY

    E-print Network

    and personal develop- ment as well as job satisfaction. The staff policy also reflects the kind of workplace or not the staff member in question is a permanent employee and whether the case involves academic staff. They permit the staff policy to contribute to general job satisfaction and help the university realise its

  7. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness–feasibility loop

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach. PMID:23226897

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  9. Renewable Energy in United States Foreign Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Karnrnen

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the root-causes of the United States' oil-induced myopia, and highlights the synergies that could exist between a low-carbon and a high-security national energy policy and how such synergies might reshape foreign policy dynamics and options.

  10. Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013)

    E-print Network

    Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013) The purpose of this policy is to provide or repository for both non-credit and credit bearing internships. Employers and organizations wishing to post an internship opportunity have the option to contact the Career Center and indicate their interest in a Siena

  11. A Futures Approach to Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    An approach to policy analysis for college officials is described that is based on evaluating and using information about the external environment to consider policy options for the future. The futures approach involves the following tasks: establishing an environmental scanning system to identify critical trends and emerging issues, identifying…

  12. Syrtis Major Windstreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03053 Syrtis Major Windstreaks

    These windstreaks are located on the downwind side of impact craters located in Syrtis Major.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 0.1N, Longitude 70.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Chemistry II 4 NUTR 221CS - Basic Human Nutrition 3 PHSX 205 - College Physics I 4 PHSX 207 - CollegeMontana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Nutrition Science Option The nutrition science option is designed to prepare a student for admission to medical (allopathic

  14. current number of majors and minors: 82

    E-print Network

    Fraden, Seth

    Popular second majors: anthropology; biology; economics; fine arts; health: science, society and policy in government, academics, international relations, international business, journalism, trade, finance, economics, art and language of the major areas of east asia. at the crux of the program is the language

  15. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  16. Revisiting Graduation Requirements and Diploma Options for Youth with Disabilities: A National Study. Technical Report 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a national study on the current status of state graduation policies and diploma options for youth with disabilities. It examines state policies in relation to their intended benefits as well as possible unintended consequences, and compared the findings with a similar study conducted by Johnson and Thurlow in…

  17. 7 CFR 1753.4 - Major and minor construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Major and minor construction. 1753.4 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.4 Major and minor construction. RUS's general...

  18. 7 CFR 1753.4 - Major and minor construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Major and minor construction. 1753.4 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.4 Major and minor construction. RUS's general...

  19. 7 CFR 1753.4 - Major and minor construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Major and minor construction. 1753.4 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.4 Major and minor construction. RUS's general...

  20. 7 CFR 1753.4 - Major and minor construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Major and minor construction. 1753.4 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.4 Major and minor construction. RUS's general...

  1. 7 CFR 1753.4 - Major and minor construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Major and minor construction. 1753.4 Section 1753...AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.4 Major and minor construction. RUS's general...

  2. Abstract--The distribution system provides major opportunities for smart grid concepts. One way to approach

    E-print Network

    1 Abstract-- The distribution system provides major opportunities for smart grid concepts. One way blackout [1]. The distribution system provides major opportunities for smart grid concepts. Public policies

  3. NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

  4. PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --1 PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --2

    E-print Network

    Sanders, Matthew

    PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University D. Facilities E. Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology 2. Department Faculty and Staff

  5. Fall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    /Pictorial Arts 15 BFA Art/Spatial Arts 49 BA Art/Art History and Visual Culture 51 BA Art Design 201 BS Industrial Design 77 BFA Graphic Design 168 BFA Interior Design 453 BA Art/Design Studies English 408 BAFall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total 164 BA Art/Studio Practice

  6. Modeling Toole for Financial Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rüdiger U. Seydel

    What do we mean by option? An option is the right (but not the obligation) tobuy or sell a risky asset at a prespecified fixed\\u000a price within a specified period.An option is a financial instrument that allows —amongst other things— to make a bet on rising\\u000a or falling values of an underlying asset. The underlying asset typically is a stock,

  7. Modeling Tools for Financial Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rüdiger Seydel

    What do we mean by option? An option is the right (but not the obligation) to buy or sell a risky asset at a prespecified\\u000a fixed price within a specified period. An option is a financial instrument that allows —amongst other things— to make a bet\\u000a on rising or falling values of an underlying asset. The underlying asset typically is

  8. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  9. Lower Cost Energy Options

    E-print Network

    Maze, M. E.

    LOWER COST ENERGY OPTIONS Malcom E. Maze Manager, Corp. Energy Management Abbott Laborator1es Abbott Park, Ill1no1s Before I start talk1ng about lower cost energy opt10ns, wh1ch 1s the subject of my talk today, I'd 11ke to tell you a 11...ttle b1t about Abbott Laborator1es. Abbott 1s a world-w1de health care company w1th 27 manufactur1ng and research fac111t1es 1n the U.S. and Puerto R1co totall1ng more than 10,000,000 square feet of floor space. The company has also has manufactur1...

  10. Lower Cost Energy Options 

    E-print Network

    Maze, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    LOWER COST ENERGY OPTIONS Malcom E. Maze Manager, Corp. Energy Management Abbott Laborator1es Abbott Park, Ill1no1s Before I start talk1ng about lower cost energy opt10ns, wh1ch 1s the subject of my talk today, I'd 11ke to tell you a 11...ttle b1t about Abbott Laborator1es. Abbott 1s a world-w1de health care company w1th 27 manufactur1ng and research fac111t1es 1n the U.S. and Puerto R1co totall1ng more than 10,000,000 square feet of floor space. The company has also has manufactur1...

  11. Northwest Energy Policy Project. Energy conservation policy evaluation: study module IA. Final report. Volume I. Summary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Berney; W. R. Butcher; L. F. Carter; L. B. Craine; R. C. Dunlap; G. W. Hinman; K. A. Bergstresser

    1977-01-01

    This summary report identifies potential energy conservation measures and evaluates measures and policy options not likely to be suitable for adoption in the Pacific Northwest. Potential and incentives for energy conservation are specifically identified in the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors and through urban design. Selection of preferable policies and estimation of response to policies are next discussed. Finally,

  12. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

  13. Trade Policy

    E-print Network

    Ashford, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

  14. Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

    2014-01-15

    Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system. PMID:24374463

  15. Rural Health Option The Rural Health Option requires

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Rural Health Option The Rural Health Option requires: Membership in StORM Club, the Students for Osteopathic Rural Medicine Club (contact Rachael Pattison, President, e-mail: Rachael.pattison@okstate.edu) Early clinical experience in a rural site for 2 hours credit (SRE or ERE) (contact Morgan Farquharson

  16. Selected Energy Conservation Options for Homeowners: Options, Expenses and Payoffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This publication is a check list for homeowners and renters to help them reduce energy costs. The list consists of 126 energy conservation options. These options range from "change clothes instead of adjusting thermostat" and "air conditioners turned off when not home" to "use sink stopper" and "weatherstripping and caulking applied." For each…

  17. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  18. Faculty Executive Committee Approved Regulations and Policies Outlining the Technical Breadth Requirement Technical Breadth Areas (as of 5/21/14) Students must satisfy a Technical Breadth Area (TBA) outside their major's department.

    E-print Network

    Koehler, Carla

    Requirement Technical Breadth Areas (as of 5/21/14) Students must satisfy a Technical Breadth Area (TBA) outside their major's department. Example: students in the bioengineering major can not choose the TBA is part of a schoolwide TBA (e.g. Engineering Mathematic) and not being used to satisfy other degree

  19. Chinese Foreign Policy Net

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.

  20. Stealth Trading in Options Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amber Anand; Sugato Chakravarty

    2007-01-01

    We investigate how price discovery occurs in the options markets through traders' trade size choice. By employing transactions data on all options traded on a sample of 100 firms, we show that informed traders fragment their orders into small (medium) trades for low (high) volume contracts. We also find that almost 60% of the price discovery occurs in the exchange

  1. Communication Needs and Integration Options

    E-print Network

    Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Future Grid Initiative White System #12;Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Prepared for the Project the current state of communications for the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and recommends

  2. Communication Needs and Integration Options

    E-print Network

    Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Future Grid Initiative White System #12;Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Prepared for the Project #12;ii Executive Summary This white paper analyzes the current state of communications

  3. Optional Games for Racquetball Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Several optional game ideas are offered to help teachers of intermediate and advanced racquetball classes by providing a break in the monotony of teaching the traditional games. These optional games help students develop skills and enable them to observe and play individuals of different skill levels and playing styles. (IAH)

  4. Policy change and network termination: The role of farm groups in agricultural policy making in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Courtenay Botterill

    2005-01-01

    As the National Farmers' Federation (NFF) celebrated its 25th anniversary in 2004, it is timely to reflect on the role of farm groups in agricultural policy making in Australia and revisit the policy changes of the 1970s which provided a major impetus for the NFF's formation. Agricultural policy is often presented as the classic case of policy developed by tight

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Grant Resources NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements Cross-Cutting Public Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training ... Grant Closeout NCI Grants Management Legal Requirements Cross-Cutting Public Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find ...

  6. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  7. Notes: Installation vs. Echelon Stock Policies for Multilevel Inventory Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Axsäter; Kaj Rosling

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares installation and echelon stock policies for multilevel inventory control. The major results are for serial and assembly systems. For (Q, r)-rules, echelon stock policies are, in general, superior to installation stock policies. A Kanban-policy is identified as a restricted type of installation stock (Q, r)-policy.

  8. Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

    2008-04-01

    This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries. PMID:18193318

  9. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  10. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  11. Policies for advancing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard Geller; Roberto Schaeffer; Alexandre Szklo; Mauricio Tolmasquim

    2004-01-01

    This article first reviews energy trends and energy policy objectives in Brazil. It then proposes and analyzes 12 policy options for advancing energy efficiency and renewable energy use. The policies are analyzed as a group with respect to their impacts on total energy supply and demand as well as CO2 emissions. It is determined that the policies would provide a

  12. Expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable groups: a systematic review of options.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingyue; Yuan, Beibei; Jia, Liying; Wang, Jian; Yu, Baorong; Gao, Jun; Garner, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Vulnerable groups are often not covered by health insurance schemes. Strategies to extend coverage in these groups will help to address inequity. We used the existing literature to summarize the options for expanding health insurance coverage, describe which countries have tried these strategies, and identify and describe evaluation studies. We included any report of a policy or strategy to expand health insurance coverage and any evaluation and economic modelling studies. Vulnerable populations were defined as children, the elderly, women, low-income individuals, rural population, racial or ethnic minorities, immigrants, and those with disability or chronic diseases. Forty-five databases were searched for relevant documents. The authors applied inclusion criteria, and extracted data using pre-coded forms, on contents of health insurance schemes or programmes, and used the framework approach to establish categories. Of the 21,528 articles screened, 86 documents were finally included. Descriptions about the USA dominated (72), with only five from Africa, six from Asia and two from South America. We identified six main categories: (1) changing eligibility criteria of health insurance; (2) increasing public awareness; (3) making the premium more affordable; (4) innovative enrollment strategies; (5) improving health care delivery; and (6) improving management and organization of the insurance schemes. All six categories were found in the literature about schemes in the USA, and schemes often included components from each category. Strategies in developing countries were much more limited in their scope. Evaluation studies numbered 25, of which the majority were of time series design. All studies found that the expansion strategies were effective, as assessed by the author(s). In countries expanding coverage, the categories identified from the literature can help policy makers consider their options, implement strategies where it is common sense to do so and establish appropriate implementation monitoring. PMID:20813837

  13. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  14. 114 Animal and Sciences PhD Major Code Major College Bachelor's Master's Doctor's

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    114 Animal and Sciences PhD Major Code Major College Bachelor's Master's Doctor and Business CAFLS BS 110 Policy Studies PhD 112 Animal and Veterinary Sciences CAFLS BS 113 Plant and Environmental Sciences CAFLS MS PhD 114 Animal and Veterinary Sciences (MS

  15. The Test-Optional Movement at America's Selective Liberal Arts Colleges: A Boon for Equity or Something Else?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Andrew S.; Rosinger, Kelly O.; Hearn, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The test-optional movement in the United States emerged largely in response to criticism of standardized admissions tests as inadequate and potentially biased measures of postsecondary promise. Although anecdotal reports suggest that test-optional policies have improved campus diversity, empirical research has not yet confirmed this claim.…

  16. Federal Tax Policy Towards Energy

    E-print Network

    Metcalf, Gilbert E.

    On Aug. 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PL 109-58). This was the first major piece of energy legislation enacted since 1992 following five years of Congressional efforts to pass energy ...

  17. School of Art -Montana State University GRAPHIC DESIGN OPTION

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    School of Art - Montana State University GRAPHIC DESIGN OPTION 120 credits are required must be taken in sequence. Graphic Design majors must pass portfolio review before going on to 300, GDSN 371 Motion Graphics, GDSN 372 Adv. Web Design, GDSN 373 Illustration, GDSN 374 Digital

  18. Environmental policy in majoritarian systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per G. Fredriksson; Xenia Matschke; Jenny Minier

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds new light on the determination of environmental tax policies in majoritarian federal electoral systems, such as the U.S., and derives implications for the environmental federalism debate on whether the national or local government should have authority over environmental taxes. In the absence of majority bias, the socially preferred policy would be federal district-level taxation which accounts both

  19. 78 FR 7997 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...option recipient. Under open transaction principles applicable to noncompensatory options...option. D. Application of General Tax Principles in Certain Situations In the event that...holder's partnership interest, general tax principles, including the disguised sale...

  20. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen...

  1. Modeling aviation's global emissions, uncertainty analysis, and applications to policy

    E-print Network

    Lee, Joosung Joseph, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) fuel burn results below 3000 ft. For emissions, the emissions indices were the most influential uncertainties for the variance in model outputs. By employing the model, this thesis examined three policy options for ...

  2. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... replacement. In this condition, the mitral valve allows oxygenated blood to flow backwards into the lungs instead ... step interactive guide explaining your valve issue and treatment options with helpful videos, text summaries and links ...

  3. Transfer Worksheet for Women's Studies Majors If you are planning to transfer from Portland Community College (PCC) and major in Women's Studies

    E-print Network

    Caughman, John

    Transfer Worksheet for Women's Studies Majors If you are planning to transfer from Portland Community College (PCC) and major in Women's Studies through the Women, Gender, & Sexuality Studies Program a second major. Talk with an academic adviser to determine your options. 1. WOMEN'S STUDIES MAJOR

  4. Hydroelectricity, an option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Chamberland; S. Levesque

    1996-01-01

    Fossil-fueled power plants for electricity generation are a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). These plants can be replaced effectively by nuclear power, hydroelectricity and other less significant options such as biomass, hydrogen, wind and solar power. Among the replacement options, nuclear power is unpopular for various reasons. Hydrogen must be produced from either natural gas or electrolysis, and might

  5. Process options and projected mass flows for the HTGR refabrication scrap recovery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Tiegs

    1979-01-01

    The two major uranium recovery processing options reviewed are (1) internal recovery of the scrap by the refabrication system and (2) transfer to and external recovery of the scrap by the head end of the reprocessing system. Each option was reviewed with respect to equipment requirements, preparatory processing, and material accountability. Because there may be a high cost factor on

  6. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  7. Capital mobility and sudden stops: consequences and policy options 

    E-print Network

    Ball, Christopher Patrick

    2004-09-30

    This dissertation attempts in three essays to contribute to the growing body of research on the problems associated with sudden stops of capital inflows, known to have been at the heart of many recent emerging market crises. ...

  8. DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    is competitive even as a base-load electricity generation resource, that is, to operate at high capacity factors Paper 94-41 August 11, 1994 Introduction Lower natural gas prices, apparently adequate gas supplies to meet loads during most conditions. Considering the use of natural gas-fired generation for meeting base-load

  9. Adolescent Health--Volume 1: Summary and Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report is part one of three volumes to be published by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in response to the request of members of Congress to review the physical, emotional, and behavioral health status of contemporary U.S. adolescents, including adolescents in groups who might be more likely to be in special need of health-related…

  10. Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years…

  11. Capital mobility and sudden stops: consequences and policy options

    E-print Network

    Ball, Christopher Patrick

    2004-09-30

    . This allows one to start making sense of maturity bunching (when a country's debt all matures around a given date) which is known to exacerbate sudden-stop related problems. The model shows that maturity bunching can occur endogenously when both risk premia...

  12. Castel Gandolfo report on renewable energy: policies and options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Strong; M. ul Haq

    1981-01-01

    A North South Rountable was convened to debate the issues and gather new ideas concerning the topics to be presented at the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy. This report evaluates those discussions. A perspective of 24 issues to be presented at the Nairobi meeting is presented. Then the main text of the conference issues are

  13. Rice markets, agricultural growth, and policy options in Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Goletti; Nicholas Minot

    1997-01-01

    Viet Nam has undergone a profound transformation in recent years and, as a result of a series of macroeconomic and institutional reforms since 1986, it has made substantial progress toward becoming a market economy. As this transition continues, Viet Nam faces the challenge of formulating and implementing a growth strategy which is both economically and politically feasible. Critical to this

  14. The Farm Credit Crisis: Policy Options and Consequences.

    E-print Network

    Duncan, Marvin; Harrington, David H.; Brake, John; Boehlje, Michael; Lee, Warren; Barry, Peter J.; Penson, John B.; Hughes, Dean W.; Knutson, Ronald D.: Richardson, James W.; Jolly, Robert W.; Lins, David A.; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Guither, Harold D.; Marshall, J. Paxton; Barkley, Paul W.

    1986-01-01

    Extension Service. Zerle L Carpenter, Director. The Texas A&M University System. College Station, Texas Foreword The enclosed articles represent a response by the Extension Service. the Economic Research Service and the Land Grant University System...: Extent and Causes Marvin Duncan, Farm Credit Administration David H. Harrington, Economic Research Service, USDA Financial conditions of many farmers and farm lenders have deteriorated significantly during the past four years. Large supplies and weak...

  15. MAJOR: Consumer and Community Studies (CCS) Minimum CCS Major Hours: 35 (at least 18 semester hours for the CCS major

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Family Economic Issues (QI/BF) -or- FCS 3500 Consumer and Family Finance 3 F, S, SU FCS 3600 Consumer the Human Development and Family Studies major, other areas of Social & Behavioral Science, Business Family and Social Policy 3 S FCS 5430 Families, Consumers, & Health 3 F FCS 5450 Nonprofit Community

  16. Water Optimizer Suite: Tools for Decision Support and Policy Analysis

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    , irrigation system options, well and pump characteristics and water supply. Irrigation options include center costs and crop prices. One of the strengths of Water Optimizer is that it can be easily used to evaluate1 Water Optimizer Suite: Tools for Decision Support and Policy Analysis Water Optimizer is a suite

  17. Research Outcomes of Prenatal Substance Exposure and the Need To Review Policies and Procedures Regarding Child Abuse Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Clarifies policy options for reporting and serving children testing positive at birth for controlled substances. Advocates the strengthening of existing state policies regarding child abuse reporting and response. (JPB)

  18. Evaluation of large scale industrial development using real options analysis : a case study

    E-print Network

    Ariizumi, Tatsuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Recently, real-option analysis has gained attention as an innovative valuation method for complex real estate projects. However, considering its potential, this method has not become as popular as it should have. One major ...

  19. Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process.

    PubMed

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

    2006-02-01

    In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policymaking is also somewhat specialized in relation to health policy. Taking these differences into consideration the authors provide their definition of pharmaceutical policy. The knowledge base for good pharmaceutical policymaking needs to be broad and include approaches and methodologies ranging from the highly quantitative and experimental to the purely qualitative. Other policy questions such as those concerned with rational use of medicines and economics illustrate that pharmaceutical policy needs more varied approaches than randomized clinical trials alone can provide. The importance of gaining a thorough overview and understanding of the available design and methodological options for policy analysis is emphasized. Research into pharmaceutical policy has many commonalities with evaluation and policy analysis. Some of the main pitfalls that policymakers, researchers and analysts can fall into when formulating and evaluating pharmaceutical policy are discussed and include: using too narrow evaluation questions; choosing inappropriate methods/designs; and the problem of bias and self-censorship. The authors conclude this series by advocating a strong focus on research and an international evaluation culture around pharmaceutical policy. They emphasize the importance of pharmaceutical specialists' (i.e., pharmacists') involvement in pharmaceutical policy analysis and the policy consultative process. PMID:16810452

  20. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  1. Abstract--Unilateral export controls in United States policy have not been adequately modified during the last decade to keep up with

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hai

    foreign policy, and economic objectives by ensuring an effective export control and treaty compliance1 Abstract-- Unilateral export controls in United States policy have not been adequately modified TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. POLICY PROBLEMS 3 III. POLICY GOALS 6 IV. POLICY OPTIONS 6 V

  2. Majority Gate Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Amarel; G. Cooke; R. O. Winder

    1964-01-01

    This paper presents methods for realizing simple threshold functions of n arguments by networks of k-input majority gates, where k?n. An optimal network realization of the 5-argument majority function using 3-input majority gates is given, and it is then generalized by steps with realizations for the (2n-l)-argument majority function (where n = 3, 4, ...) using (2n-3)-input majority gates, and

  3. Revenue Management: A Real Options Approach

    E-print Network

    Marcotte, Patrice

    , 1999). The theory of real options in turn uses the framework of modern financial options pricingRevenue Management: A Real Options Approach C.K. Anderson Richard Ivey School of Business 13, 2004 Subject Classification: Operations Management. Finance -securities and real options

  4. Options in the Dewey Decimal Classification System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan S. Mitchell

    1995-01-01

    Options currently provided in the Dewey Decimal Classification system are reviewed. Options are an appropriate mechanism in a general purpose classification used by different kinds and sizes of libraries around the world. Dewey provides the universal option of close versus broad classification. Options also are provided to give emphasis to jurisdiction; racial, ethnic, or national group; language; topic; or other

  5. Administration Policy Complete Policy Title

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    and an unincorporated business, who is not an employee of the University at the relevant time, engaged to provideAdministration Policy Complete Policy Title: Engagement of Independent Contractors Policy Number Employees [most recent approval: October 18, 2008] Responsible Executive: Vice-President (Administration

  6. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  7. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-10-24

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  8. Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

  9. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

  10. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

  11. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

  12. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

  13. 30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

  14. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  15. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  16. The Role of Public Policy in the New Television Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumler, Jay G.

    This paper, the first in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, argues that there is a continuing role for public policy in the electronic media marketplace. It contends that the role of television in our society is too important for it to be regarded as just another business, and the…

  17. CTIC Cablebooks. Volume 2: A Guide for Local Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesuale, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    The second in a two-part series, this volume presents 13 chapters discussing many of the most pressing cable policy issues facing local government, describing alternative policy options, and suggesting regulatory procedures successfully used by decision makers in the United States. Topics covered are (1) "The Rationale for Regulation," Bruce…

  18. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  19. Major Rock Groups

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource from the University of Saskatchewan contains general information on the major rock groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Describes the rock cycle and the properties and formation of each major rock group.

  20. A study of phamaceutical policies in the EU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    This paper identifies and explores some of the major current policy developments in the EU pharmaceutical environment. The policies considered are: the new pan?EU drug licensing system; changes to the rules of the system over time; the BSE crisis as it affects Pharmaceuticals; member states' pricing and reimbursement policies and the EU Directive; companies calling government policy into account; governments

  1. Among all the colleges on the Berkeley campus, you'll find the most number of biology-based major options in the College of Natural Resources. So if you know biology is your thing, think about what flavor of biol-

    E-print Network

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    .g., what are the risks or benefits of genetically modified organisms?). You would like opportunities to do and toxins affect human health and disease. You are interested in how food constituents are processed It Major Indicators Genetics and Plant Biology (GPB) http://pmb.berkeley.edu Staff Advisors: Kyle Dukart

  2. Strategic pricing of financial options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Bieta; Udo Broll; Hellmuth Milde; Wilfried Siebel

    2009-01-01

    The mainstream model of option pricing is based on an exogenously given process of price movements. The implication of this assumption is that price movements are not affected by actions of market participants. However, if we assume that there are indeed impacts on the price movements it no longer possible to apply the standard pricing models. As a result we

  3. Pricing Options With Curved Boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Kunitomo; Masayuki Ikeda

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a general valuation method for the European options whose payoff is restricted by curved boundaries contractually set on the underlying asset price process when it follows the geometric Brownian motion. Our result is based on the generalization of the Levy formula on the Brownian motion by T. W. Anderson in sequential analysis. We give the explicit probability

  4. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  5. Option Pricing with Genetic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-heng Chen; Chia-hsuan Yeh; Woh-chiang Lee

    1998-01-01

    One of the most recent applications of GP to finance is to use genetic programming to derive option pricing formulas. Earlier studies take the Black-Scholes model as the true model and use the artificial data generated by it to train and to test GP. This paper may be regarded as the first attempt to provide some initial evidence of the

  6. Meridian Digital Telephones and Options

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Meridian Digital Telephones and Options M2006 M2008/M2008HF M2616 M2216ACD M2016S Secure Set Quick Digital Telephone Your Meridian Digital Telephone provides easy access to a wide range of business features. Your telephone system administrator assigns features to your feature keys, and provides you

  7. CONCENTRATIONS CAREER OPTIONS DEGREE REQUIREMENTS

    E-print Network

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    & Policy in the Telecommunication Industry TM 615 Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing TM 630 information and communication technology (ICT) systems. The Master of Science in Telecommunications Management is a 36-credit degree designed for communications industry professionals looking for advanced technical

  8. Volatility and dividend risk in perpetual American options

    E-print Network

    Montero, M

    2006-01-01

    American options are financial instruments that can be exercised at any time before expiration. In this paper we study the problem of pricing this kind of derivatives within a framework in which some of the properties of the underlaying stock --volatility and dividend policy-- can change at a random instant of time, but in such a way that we can forecast the final conditions. These peculiar assumptions can still model some actual market conditions: a relevant fact may have sharp predictable consequences and still remain uncertain whether the firm will be eventually affected. We will show the effects of this potential risk on perpetual American derivatives, a topic connected with a wide class of recurrent problems in physics: holders of American options must look for the fair price and the optimal exercise strategy at once, a typical question of free absorbing boundaries. We present explicit solutions to the most common contract specifications and derive analytical expressions concerning the mean and higher mo...

  9. External shocks and policy change: Three Mile Island and Swedish nuclear energy policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Nohrstedt

    2005-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics of policy change, the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) has attracted much attention. The ACF hypothesizes that external perturbations are a necessary condition for major policy change. Despite the import- ance of this insight, this article argues that it is still necessary to conduct research to uncover the micro-level processes at work when policies change

  10. The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

  11. Deaf Education Policy as Language Policy: A Comparative Analysis of Sweden and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis M. Hult; Sarah E. Compton

    2012-01-01

    The present study offers a cross-national, comparative analysis of deafeducation policies in Sweden and the United States and examines the ways in which these countries address status planning and acquisition planning for sign languages. Major policy documents were selected from each polity, reflecting key national legislative policies, as well as the primary texts that guide educational implementation: for Sweden, the

  12. Multiculturalism as an Educational Policy. ESA 842, Policy Development and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    The monograph that begins this volume analyzes multiculturalism as an educational policy in order to identify the broader values and interests that are served by its promotion. It begins with a historical review of Australia's post-World-War-II immigration policies. In the next two sections, the major elements of the policy of assimilation, a…

  13. The impact of CEO option grants on firm value: determinants of the effectiveness of option grants

    E-print Network

    Weber, Catherine Krueger

    2007-04-25

    The significance of stock options as a component of executive compensation has fluctuated dramatically over the past decade. The purpose of this study is to investigate determinants of the effectiveness of stock option grants. These option grants...

  14. Social Policy: Safety Net or Springboard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitta, Cosmas, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Cooperation South" looks at recent experiences in protecting and advancing human welfare in the south as well as the north. It presents a shared learning exercise about an array of social policy options; which decision makers in the south can consider in their efforts to shape a caring society, alleviate poverty, promote human…

  15. European transport: Emission trends and policy responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Bleijenberg; J. M. W. Dings

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in the main emissions to air by European road transport. Following this overview, policy options are discussed which can bring the emissions down to levels which meet environmental targets.Of the so called “classical” pollutant emissions (NOx, HC, CO, particulates and SO2) HC, CO and SO2 can both quite well be tackled by technical measures. The

  16. Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Muhammad Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

  17. United States space policy and international partnership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth K. Newton; Michael D. Griffin

    2011-01-01

    Has the current US space policy improved the USA's overall strategic position? Does it affect favorably international partnerships? These questions are examined in terms of security, political economy, and influence. In today's context, where there are more space players, more options, more potential for unintended consequences, and higher stakes, unilateral action is more limited in its effectiveness than in earlier

  18. Rhetorical divergence; Real convergence? The economic policy debate in the 2002 French presidential and legislative elections 

    E-print Network

    Howarth, D.

    2004-01-01

    Why, despite considerable convergence in the economic policy preferences and policies of the mainstream Left (principally Socialist Party) and Right, did economic policy remained a major subject of debate during the 2002 ...

  19. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  20. Giving "Credit When It's Due": A Case Study of Reverse Transfer Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    More states are considering what kinds of policies or processes can be put in place to successfully improve the degree attainment of their postsecondary students, and one popular option is a reverse transfer policy. Reverse transfer policies usually involve authorizing community colleges to award a degree or certificate to students that have…

  1. 75 FR 18931 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...Add a Note to Rule 4.11 Advising the Delta-Based Equity Hedge Exemption Is Not Currently...and Policy .04 (c) to Rule 4.11, Delta-Based Equity Hedge Exemption, advising...sic] Amendment No. 1, to extend the delta hedging exemption from equity option...

  2. Responding to the threat of global warming: Options for the Pacific and Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Streets; T. A. Siddiqi

    1989-01-01

    In June 1989, Argonne National Laboratory and the Environment and Policy Institute of the East-West Center jointly sponsored a workshop that was held at the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. The primary goal of the workshop was to explore the options that the countries of the Pacific and Asia have for dealing with the threat of global warming. The countries

  3. Introduction! Carbon capture and storage (CCS) may be a key option

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Introduction! Carbon capture and storage (CCS) may be a key option against climate change). A scalable infrastructure model for carbon capture and storage: SimCCS. Energy Policy 37(3), 1052 with a network for higher storage goals? SimCCS model A cost surface, i.e. a raster grid of the cost to lay

  4. The Strategic Exercise of Options: Development Cascades and Overbuilding in Real Estate Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R Grenadier

    1996-01-01

    This article develops an equilibrium framework for strategic option exercise games. The author focuses on a particular example: the timing of real estate development. An analysis of the equilibrium exercise policies of developers provides insights into the forces that shape market behavior. The model isolates the factors that make some markets prone to bursts of concentrated development. The model also

  5. Anterior Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Diverse Disease with Evolving Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Zebala, Lukas P; Schoenecker, Perry L; Clohisy, John C

    2007-01-01

    Anterior femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a major etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of hip arthritis. In this condition, mechanical abnormalities of the hip joint lead to early hip dysfunction, inflammation, cartilage injury, and eventual joint degradation. FAI is now more commonly diagnosed and there is an increasing need for a thorough understanding of the broad spectrum of clinical presentation for the disease as well as more precise definition of the possible surgical options. PMID:17907434

  6. Adult Education Policy Between Utopia and Fatalism: A Review Essay of Policy-related Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Giere

    1994-01-01

    For the purpose of this review essay on international policy-related English language literature on adult education from the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, the following models of recent adult education policy options, aiming at social change and redistribution of power under varying conjunctures, have been constructed from the literature available: the revolutionary/transformational model, the humanist model, the rationalist economic model, the

  7. Major by Option Major/Option College Degree 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Course AG Bachelor's 1 3 Agronomy AG Bachelor's 1 2 4 13 Agronomy AG Master's 1 2 10 7 6 12 14 12 Agronomy - Agronomy AG Bachelor's 3 Agronomy - Crop & Soil Mgmt AG Bachelor's 1 3 7 11 13 12 Agronomy - Crop Science AG Bachelor's Agronomy - Plant Protection AG Bachelor's 2 1 4 7 2 4 Agronomy - Science AG

  8. Breast reconstruction options following mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Risal; Gage, Earl; Bernard, Steven

    2008-03-01

    Breast reconstruction can help to address the disfigurement and sense of loss that often follow mastectomy. The decision whether to pursue reconstruction and the choice of reconstructive strategy are individualized decisions that must take into account the patient's body characteristics, overall health, breast cancer treatment plan, and personal preferences. Options for reconstruction broadly include placement of breast implants or use of the patient's own tissue (autologous reconstruction). Both saline-filled and silicone gel-filled implants are safe and effective options for implant-based reconstruction. Autologous reconstruction usually involves transfer of tissue from the abdomen, with recent advances allowing preservation of the abdominal muscles. Both implant-based and autologous procedures have advantages and drawbacks, and both types of reconstruction may be compromised by subsequent radiation therapy. For this and other reasons, consultation with a plastic surgeon early in treatment planning is important for women considering postmastectomy reconstruction. PMID:18457193

  9. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  10. Emerging options for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-02-18

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  11. Prototype solar power satellite options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sperber, B. R.; Drexler, K. E.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of options for the prototype solar power satellite is addressed relative to risk and cost. Emphasis is placed on the reduction of the risk of failure. Risk is the program cost multiplied by the reduction in probability of program success due to the risky action. Four classes of risk are identified. It is suggested that prototyping would reduce the technical risk as well as reduce the effects of the other three types of risk by allowing them to be quantified earlier. Prototype demonstration requirements addressed include electromagnetic power link feasibility demonstration, component integration verification, construction technology verification, and cost performance verification. Specific prototype requirements are listed and prototyping options are given in tabular form.

  12. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in §...

  13. 48 CFR 53.302 - Optional forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.302 Optional forms. This section illustrates the optional forms that are specified by the FAR for...

  14. 48 CFR 53.302 - Optional forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.302 Optional forms. This section illustrates the optional forms that are specified by the FAR for...

  15. 48 CFR 53.302 - Optional forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.302 Optional forms. This section illustrates the optional forms that are specified by the FAR for...

  16. Hydropower major rehabilitation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Norlin, J.A. [Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Corps of Engineers has developed an active Major Rehabilitation Program to handle large, long duration restoration projects. These projects are funded by specific appropriations and subsequently are required to have detailed rehabilitation plans to justify the work. The emphasis of the Major Rehabilitation Program is correcting reliability problems. Papers that were presented at Waterpower `93 discussed the basic concepts that are required in preparing a Major Rehabilitation Evaluation Report. This paper will cover the current status of each of the current major rehabilitation projects that the Corps of Engineers has in progress.

  17. EHF options for contested SATCOM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Schiavone; David Hendry

    2011-01-01

    The capacity limitations and jamming vulnerability of transponder satellites, both commercial and military, are of increasing concern to warfighters heavily dependent on SATCOM for beyond-line-of-sight connectivity. EHF payloads offer a robust, jam-resistant waveform but capacity is limited and both satellites and terminals are expensive. This paper will explore options for incorporating the essential anti-jam features of EHF waveforms outside of

  18. Today's treatments options for onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2010-11-01

    Onychomycosis can be cured even if fungi are sometimes difficult to eradicate; the treatment is often lengthy and requires patience. The choice of agents should be based on numerous factors including patient's age and health, causative organism, clinical type of onychomycosis, number of affected nails and severity of nail involvement. We review current and future treatments for onychomycosis. We will also consider treatment options in patients with poor prognostic factors suggesting possible treatment failure. PMID:20738460

  19. Options in Renal Replacement Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex M. Davison

    Since the introduction over forty years ago of regular dialysis therapy for the management of end stage renal failure there\\u000a have been dramatic changes in the way this treatment is provided. In pioneering days only a few highly selected patients were\\u000a considered for treatment and only one treatment option was available (9). Generally, patients were treated twice weekly by haemodialysis

  20. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Matlock; K. Kersey; C. Riding In

    2009-01-01

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma;\\u000aEnergy Option Analyses;\\u000a;\\u000aIn 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribes energy vision. The overarching goals

  1. Stochastic skew in currency options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Carr; Liuren Wu

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of over-the-counter currency option prices across moneyness, maturity, and calendar time on two of the most actively traded currency pairs over the past eight years. We find that, on any given date, the conditional risk-neutral distribution of currency returns can show strong asymmetry. This asymmetry varies greatly over time and often switches signs. We develop and

  2. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples.

  3. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-03-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

  4. A Strategic Approach to Financial Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfried Siebe; Hellmuth Milde; Udo Broll; Volker Bieta

    2006-01-01

    To explain the strategic dimension in pricing options, it will be helpful to go back to the heart of the idea behind the concept of an option: options open up the possibility to postpone current decisions to a future point of time. Because of this flexibility additional information and new experiences can be taken into consideration. There are advantages and

  5. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  6. Stock option compensation and equity values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panu Kalmi

    2006-01-01

    I present a model where increasing employee participation in a stock option scheme leads to higher performance but with a cost to shareholders. I show that firms with higher market values per employee are more likely to have an option scheme and they offer stock options to a broader group of employees. The model yields empirical predictions that are consistent

  7. Pricing Asian Options with Fourier Convolution

    E-print Network

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    1 Pricing Asian Options with Fourier Convolution Cheng-Hsiung Shu Department of Computer Science transform-based pricing algorithm for discrete Asian options by Benhamou [1]. We compare it with other. The disadvantages of the algorithm are also discussed. #12;4 Chapter 1 Introduction Asian options are path

  8. On Asian Options of American Type

    E-print Network

    Heil, Matthias

    On Asian Options of American Type G. Peskir and N. Uys Exotic Option Pricing and Advanced L. Statist. Aarhus (19 pp) We show that the optimal stopping boundary for the early exercise Asian call of the early exercise Asian call option with floating strike is given as V in (2.1) below where I / denotes

  9. On Asian Options of American Type

    E-print Network

    Heil, Matthias

    On Asian Options of American Type G. Peskir # and N. Uys ## Exotic Option Pricing and Advanced L. Statist. Aarhus (19 pp) We show that the optimal stopping boundary for the early exercise Asian call of the early exercise Asian call option with floating strike is given as V in (2.1) below where I # /# denotes

  10. Acquisitions as a Real Options Bidding Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han T. J. Smit; Ward A. van den Berg; Wouter De Maeseneire

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a unified treatment of real options and game theory to examine value appropriation in takeovers within a competitive environment of imperfect information. The integrated model considers a potential target as a shared real option on a bundle of resources. Competing potential buyers may sequentially perform due diligence and incur costs (option premium) to become informed about their

  11. Acquisitions as a Real Options Bidding Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. J. Smit; Berg van den W. A; Maeseneire de W

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unified treatment of real options and game theory to examine value appropriation in takeovers within a competitive environment of imperfect information. The integrated model considers a potential target as a shared real option on a bundle of resources. Competing potential buyers may sequentially perform due diligence and incur costs (option premium) to become informed about their

  12. The Analytic Valuation of American Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In Joon Kim

    1990-01-01

    No analytic solutions exists for the valuation of American options written on futures contracts and foreign currencies for which early exercise may be optimal. This article formulates the American option valuation problem in economically and mathematically meaningful ways. This enables us to derive valuation formulas for American options. The properties associated with the optimal exercise boundary are examined, and a

  13. Montana State University 1 Photography Option

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Photography Option The Photography option offers both artistic of Art and Design, the Photography option sets high standards for production and is one of the few comprehensive four-year photography degree programs in a sizable geographical area of the north central

  14. Pilot Plant Options for the MFE Roadmap

    E-print Network

    Pilot Plant Options for the MFE Roadmap Hutch Neilson Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory plant ­ mission, motivation, and description. · Role of pilot plants on the Roadmap to Demo. Pilot Plant Options / H. Neilson / Int'l Roadmapping Workshop / 10 September 2011 #12;Pilot Plant Options / H. Neilson

  15. Montana State University 1 Paleontology Option

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Paleontology Option The paleontology option focuses-on fieldwork. The paleontology option in the Department of Earth Sciences is designed for those students who). Students who study paleontology find employment with colleges and universities (e.g., teaching paleontology

  16. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Dichman, Don; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these designs can be restricted by the selection of the Cubesat subsystem design such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be designed with have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several design options including deployment into low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfer orbits. In addition to direct transfer options from these initial orbits, we also investigate the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory. In this article we examine several design options that meet the above limited deployment and subsystem drivers. We study ways that both impulsive and low-thrust Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) engines can be used to place the Cubesat first into a highly eccentric Earth orbit, enter the Moon's Sphere of Influence, and finally achieve a highly eccentric lunar orbit. We show that such low-thrust transfers are feasible with a realistic micro-thruster model, assuming that the Cubesat can generate sufficient power for the SEP. Two examples are shown here: (1) A Cubestat injected by Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) then employing low thrust; and (2) a CubSat deployed in a GTO, then employing impulsive maneuvers. For the EM-1 injected initial design, we increase the EM-1 targeted lunar flyby distance to reduce the energy of the lunar flyby to match that of a typical lMoon system heteroclinic manifold. Figure 1 presents an option that encompasses the similar dynamics as that of the ARTEMIS mission design. Low-thrust maneuvers are used along the manifold trajectory to raise perigee to that of a lunar orbit, adjust the timing with respect to the Moon, rotate the line of apsides, and target a ballistic lunar encounter. In this design a second flyby decreases the orbital energy with respect to the Moon, so that C3 -0.1 km2s2. Another design, shown in Figure 2 emanates from a GTO then uses impulsive maneuvers to phase onto a local Earth-Moon manifold, which then transfers the CubeSat to a lunar encounter.

  17. Dean's List Policy Academic Policy

    E-print Network

    Frean, Marcus

    .1 General (a) The Deans List recognises and celebrates excellence in academic achievement in undergraduateDean's List Policy Academic Policy © Victoria University of Wellington Page 1 Effective From: 21 November 2013 1 Purpose The Deans List will be published annually to recognise excellence in academic

  18. LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in laboratories or research is responsible for reporting laser acquisition to the Office of Laboratory Safety, selecting a departmental deputy laser safety officer, mandating training for its laser operators

  19. Analysis of Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options within a Multi-sector Economic Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, Ronald D.; Mccarl, Bruce A.; Gillig, Dhazn; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Gale, J.; Kaya, Y.

    2003-01-01

    National-scale analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options is generally carried out using top-down economic models with moderate energy detail but very limited detail in agriculture and forestry. However, a complete analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options requires an improved representation of agriculture within the top-down economic models used for analysis of climate policy. Greenhouse gas mitigation options within the agricultural sector include changes in afforestation of agricultural lands, crop and livestock management practices, harvesting of biomass crops for fuel, and the sequestration of carbon in agricultural soils. Analysis of such options is usually carried out in a bottom-up model such as the Agricultural Sector Model (ASM). We report on activities to combine the bottom-up agricultural detail from ASM with the top-down economic and energy structure used at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which has been used extensively for analysis of alternative carbon mitigation strategies.

  20. Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Jeff

    2002-05-01

    In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

  1. Combining Financial Double Call Options with Real Options for Early Curtailment of Electricity Service

    E-print Network

    Combining Financial Double Call Options with Real Options for Early Curtailment of Electricity. This paper describes a particular financial instrument referred to as a "double call" option and derives@IEOR.Berkeley.edu Abstract In a competitive electricity market traditional demand side management options offering customers

  2. Page 1 of 28 Budget Options Group (BOG) Options Summary & Analysis

    E-print Network

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Page 1 of 28 Budget Options Group (BOG) ­ Options Summary & Analysis February 26, 2014 The Budget Options Group (BOG), appointed by Chancellor Brian Rogers and convened in January 2014, was charged in the sense that it is expected to change as ideas are vetted and new options are developed. The BOG

  3. Students' use of optional learning resources 1 Running head: STUDENTS' USE OF OPTIONAL LEARNING RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Inglis, Matthew

    ), online lectures (OLs) and mathematics learning support #12;Students' use of optional learning resources 4Students' use of optional learning resources 1 Running head: STUDENTS' USE OF OPTIONAL LEARNING RESOURCES Individual Differences in Students' Use of Optional Learning Resources Matthew Inglis, Aruna

  4. Publishing Options for Princeton University Dissertations ProQuest Traditional/DataSpace Open Access Option

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    Publishing Options for Princeton University Dissertations ProQuest Traditional/DataSpace Open Access Option · ProQuest Traditional Publishing, no embargo Dissertation will be available in full text for ProQuest (additional fee for optional copyright registration*) Embargo Option · ProQuest

  5. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Vikram; Srivastava, Alok; Chandy, Mammen

    2014-12-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplant remains the only curative option for ?-thalassemia major. In patients with good risk features it is reasonable to anticipate a greater than 90% chance of a successful transplant outcome. The conventional risk stratification system has limitations and alternative systems are being explored to better identify subsets that require innovative approaches. Several novel regimens have been evaluated to reduce treatment-related morbidity and mortality. There remain challenges in improving the clinical outcome of high-risk patients. There are limited data on the role of splenectomy before transplantation or optimal posttransplant chelation and care of these patients. PMID:25459187

  6. Cybersquatting and Your Legal Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon; Salomon, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing problem of cybersquatting, the practice of registering an Internet domain name that is confusingly similar to a well-known name or institution (including colleges and universities). Explains two remedies: (1) the recent Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act and the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy of the Internet…

  7. UG Curriculum Proposal 1/17/07 1 Majors Curriculum

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Steve

    Curriculum Proposal 1/17/07 7 99 Credit BS Option Math 124,125,126,324 (calculus) 18 credits Math 308, 318 & 228 2.3 GPA in physics and math #12;UG Curriculum Proposal 1/17/07 8 The Works ­ 108 credits Math 124UG Curriculum Proposal 1/17/07 1 Majors Curriculum: Proposal from the Curriculum Committee

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING MAJOR SELECTION BY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS STUDENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Crampton; Thomas P. Schambach

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major. Factors related to familiarity with possible career options and sources of information were examined. In addition, traditional factors, such as those related to career outcomes, characteristics of the profession itself, and referent groups, were also examined. Respondents

  9. Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Human Nutrition 3 NUTR 226 - Food Fundamentals 3 NUTR 227 - Food Fundamentals Lab 2 Year Total: 30Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Dietetics Option The dietetics by the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND) of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

  10. Evaluation of TechnologiesEvaluation of Technologies and Regulatory Policies forand Regulatory Policies for

    E-print Network

    Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Storage Pittsburgh, PA May 11, 2010 #12;E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Policies for COCO22 Capture and StorageCapture and Storage Edward S. Rubin and Haibo Zhai Department/fuel gas treatment systems CO2 capture and storage options (pre- and post-combustion, oxy- combustion

  11. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site. Financial incentives for project development are generally structured to provide tribes with access to conventional financing mechanisms. Grant funding for project construction is currently difficult to obtain. Substantial new opportunities for bio-fuel development may exist in the next few years with passage of the 2007 Farm Bill, and through opportunities made available through Oklahoma’s new Bio-energy Center. A review of potential alternatives to Pawnee Nation’s current electricity supply scenario revealed that a range of options could be viable. These include the following scenarios: business as usual, alternative supply, negotiate lower rates with City of Pawnee, focus on reducing energy usage, develop electric utility organization. Under any circumstances, Pawnee Nation should purse strategies to reduce energy usage, as this is the simplest means of reducing electric costs and environmental impacts. The research team also recommends that Pawnee Nation initiate some focused discussions with the City of Pawnee, with GRDA, and with IEC to discuss its wholesale supply purchase options. These discussions will better inform the Pawnee Energy Team of the specific pros and cons of its wholesale power supply options, and will assist the Team’s broader decision-making on utility-related issues. The ultimate path chosen by Pawnee Nation will depend on further consideration of priorities and potential barriers by Pawnee Nation’s Energy Team.

  12. Options and Instruments for a Deep Cut in CO2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Capture or Renewables, Taxes or Subsidies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reyer Gerlagh; Bob van der Zwaan

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares both the main physical options and the principal policy instruments to realize a deep cut in carbon dioxide emissions necessary to control global climate change. A top-down energy-economy model is used that has three emission reduction options: energy savings, a transition towards less carbon-intensive or non-carbon energy resources, and the use of carbon dioxide capture and storage

  13. Options and Instruments for a Deep Cut in CO 2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Capture or Renewables, Taxes or Subsidies?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reyer Gerlagh; Bob van der Zwaan

    This paper compares both the main physical options and the principle policy instruments to realize a deep cut in carbon dioxide emissions necessary to control global climate change. A top-down energy-economy model is used that has three emission reduction options: energy savings, a transition towards less- carbon-intensive or non-carbon energy resources, and the use of carbon dioxide capture and storage

  14. Online CME options: an update.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan

    2006-01-01

    Online options for continuing medical education (CME) are multiplying, thanks to technologies such as really simple syndication (RSS) feeds, podcasts, and blogs. As with traditional CME modalities, there are issues of accreditation, quality, cost, and relevance. Physician-directed syndication technologies are especially significant in the area of relevance, because they provide subscriber-side filtering of the growing amount of information available online. As the medical education community embraces the technologies enabling targeted dissemination of information, physicians can expect more and better focused medical education experiences. PMID:16986645

  15. Earth vicinity trades and options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, William R.; Babb, Gus R.; Davis, Hubert P.

    1986-01-01

    The options for recovering a returned manned Mars spacecraft are surveyed. Earth parking orbits from libration point to low circular are discussed, with a 500 km perigee, 24 hour period elliptical orbit chosen as a baseline for further calculation. Several techniques for recovering up to 100 metric tons of returned spacecraft are investigated, including recovery by a low Earth orbit (LEO) based orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) pushing the spacecraft to LEO, and OTV transporting and aerobrake to the spacecraft, and an OTV delivering propellant to the spacecraft. Methods utilizing OTVs results in less total mass in LEO, but may not be the minimum cost solutions if significant development and testing are required.

  16. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR

    E-print Network

    HANDBOOK FOR MECHANICAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE MAJOR Old Dominion University Department of Mechanical Engineering Batten College of Engineering and Technology Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0247 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

  17. for Undergraduate CHEMISTRY MAJORS

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    and Petroleum Chemistry, Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Pulp and Paper Chemistry, RHANDBOOK for Undergraduate CHEMISTRY MAJORS DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY Fall 2010 #12;#12;TABLE OF CONTENTS A Career in Chemistry - What It Means ___________________________________________ 4 What do

  18. The Accounting Major

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joslyn Heiniger

    2009-12-04

    By completing this tutorial, you should be able to: Find resources to aid in your research of the Accounting Major. Identify key aspects of an accounting career. Congratulations on choosing Utah State University and the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business as your educational partner. Now that you have been admitted to USU and selected accounting as your Huntsman major, you may have a few questions about where to go from here. Below you will ...

  19. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

  20. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

  1. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

  2. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

  3. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

  4. Gender and National ICT Policy in Africa: issues, strategies, and policy options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wole Michael Olatokun

    2008-01-01

    The paper commences with a review of the concept of Information Communication technology (ICT) and points out how it has become a potent force in transforming social, economic and political life globally. It then discusses the linkage between gender and ICT especially how ICT has widened the digital divide gap between Africa and the rest of the world on one

  5. Policy options for climate policy in the residential building sector: The case of Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Schröer

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve the climate protection goals in the building sector, a higher rate of building refurbishment is necessary to improve the energy standard of residential building stock in the European Union. Although subsidisation seems to be necessary, optimal measures concerning cost effectiveness are unclear. Using a stylised model of the German residential building stock, we analyse different refurbishment

  6. Lack of an energy policy remains a major barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports that the war with Iraq provided a new dimension to the ongoing oil industry struggle to cope with oppressive government action and regulation. Coming as it did just before the administration was to announce guidelines for a long-awaited National Energy Strategy (NES), the war created a renewed and dramatic focus on the national energy security question. Now, numerous congressmen, senators and administration leaders are taking a fresh look at how the U.S. can extricate itself from excessive dependence on Middle East oil imports. For example, the planned free-trade agreement with Mexico could figure prominently in an alliance that would bring much more Mexican oil to the U.S. Meanwhile, the wild card is proposals to open up U.S. drilling offshore and in the Arctic National Wildlife Region (ANWR). Prior to hostilities, Middle East tensions brought on significant increases in the price of oil, and with it a large gain in oil company profits for fourth-quarter 1990. Result: talk in Congress of a new windfall profits tax.

  7. Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Summer B FOR3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3 credits SWS3022 Introduction to Soils in the Environment 3 credits SWS3022L Introduction to Soils in the Environment Lab (Optional) 1 credit (Optional) FNR

  8. Majoring in Forest Resources & Conservation

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    3200C Foundations in Natural Resources and Conservation 3 credits FOR3434C Forest Resources Information Systems 3 credits Fall FNR3410C Natural Resource Sampling 3 credits SWS3022 Introduction to Soils in the Environment 3 credits SWS3022L Introduction to Soils in the Environment Lab (Optional) 1 credit (Optional) FNR

  9. Integrating emissions transfers into policy-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Net emissions transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries have increased fourfold in the past two decades--from 0.4 GtCO2 in 1990 to 1.6 GtCO2 in 2008. Consumption of goods and services in developed countries is one of the main driving forces of those emissions transfers. Therefore several proposals have been made to assign the responsibility for those emissions to the beneficiary, that is, to the consumer. Although consumption-based analyses have become popular, few proposals have been made for integrating emissions transfers into actual policy making. This study advances and critically evaluates three potential policy options that could be integrated in the climate-policy framework of developed countries. An energy-economic model with global coverage is used for the analysis. I find that connecting emissions transfers to international offset responsibilities is the most promising option from an environmental and economic perspective and may provide another rationale for international climate finance. The two alternative policy options of adjusting domestic emissions targets in developed countries and of implementing carbon-related tariffs and export subsidies are found to be environmentally ineffective in the latter case and economically detrimental, especially for developing countries, in both cases.

  10. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  11. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  12. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  13. 48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

  14. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the extent that supplies are...

  15. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the extent that supplies are...

  16. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the extent that supplies are...

  17. 48 CFR 8.502 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Helium 8.502 Policy. Agencies and their contractors and subcontractors must purchase major helium requirements from Federal helium suppliers, to the extent that supplies are...

  18. Rural Policy Formulation in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard W.; And Others

    The major participants in the formation of policy and programs for rural areas include agricultural interest groups, nonfarm groups, certain legislators, and--less directly--the media. Policy is developed in many institutional arenas: the local community and state governments, the Department of Agriculture, the White House, and the Congress and…

  19. USC School of Policy, Planning, and

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    airports, railroad systems and harbors. They build healthy, sustainable communities, lead major nonprofit such as: sustainability and the environment, health care policy, nonprofit management, housing and real undergraduate degree with tracks in nonprofit management, public policy and law, sustainable planning, health

  20. Putin's India Policy: Mutual Gains for Future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biju Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The importance of India in the foreign policy of Russia increased after Putin became the president. Despite Putin's westward orientation much of the contradictions remain. In the east, the improvement of relations with China is accompanied by views of China's possible geopolitical domination in Far East and Central Asia. Putin's policy is to retain India as a major strategic partner