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1

Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

2

International Civil Aviation Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welfare of air transport consumers depends on the money price of travel and the quality of service. These aspects are summarised in a consumer welfare measure which, combined with measures of producer rents, is used to compare some international civil aviation policy options. These are the current regime, open skies (with subsidies where necessary), deregulation of fares and deregulation of

Christopher C. Findlay

1981-01-01

3

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND  

E-print Network

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL: EmergyAnalysis and Public Policy Options By Mark T. Brown Pamela Green, Agustin Gonzalez, and Javier Road Gainesville, Florida Tel (904) 392-2424 Fax (904) 392-3624 #12;EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES

Slatton, Clint

4

Personnel Preparation Options: Ideas from a Policy Options Conference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes discussions from a policy options conference devoted to the needs for personnel preparation related to the implementation of Public Law 99-457, Part H, which provides services to infants and toddlers with handicapping conditions and their families. The three policy questions identified as the most significant were: (1) what…

Gallagher, James J.; And Others

5

Synthesizing Teacher Testing Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines key points to consider in developing policy on teacher testing. A summary is presented of the four underlying purposes that may be served, in part, by testing: (1) limiting the number of incompetent teachers; (2) encouraging teacher professionalism; (3) promoting public confidence in teachers; and (4) promoting excellence in…

Murray, Stephen L.

6

Option values of low carbon technology policies  

E-print Network

this `non?convexity’’, a support policy should be sufficiently important in order to ensure that LCTs are competitive. These policies constitute a bet; whether the cost to subsidize LCTs today is worth will depend on their relative cost tomorrow. Many... uncertainties surround these relative costs among which the uncertainty of the future price of greenhouse gas emissions. The terms of this bet should be acknowledged. A support to LCT opens an option to face high carbon price...

Finon, Dominique; Meunier, Guy

2012-06-19

7

Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

Norwood, Frank W.

8

DEGREES, MAJORS, AND OPTIONS This is a list of the degrees, majors, and options  

E-print Network

L&S College of Letters and Science Med Medical School Nur School of Nursing Pharm School of Pharmacy&S) Classical Humanities* (L&S)(Cert: Ed) Classics* (L&S) Communication Arts* (L&S) Option: Communication Science and Rhetorical Studies Option: Radio-Television-Film Option: Radio-TV-Film/Communication Sci

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

9

Fertility Policy in China: Future Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide range of social, economic, and demographic criteria are used to evaluate China's present one-child policy and five alternative fertility policies that might guide China's population control efforts until the end of the century when the one-child policy is scheduled to be abandoned. These criteria include the policies' macrodemographic impact on total population size and population aging; their microdemographic

Susan Greenhalgh; John Bongaarts

1987-01-01

10

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice  

E-print Network

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice A white paper for participants of the 2008 James L. Oberstar Forum The Next Authorization: Transforming Transportation Policy? April 6­7, 2008 Minneapolis, Minnesota Sponsored by Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota

Minnesota, University of

11

Considering Policy Options for Testing Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses specifically on paper and pencil testing as a tool contributing to a quality teaching force. Information is presented for those who have responsibility or interest in state level policies for using such tests to promote educational quality. Using institutional stages of a teacher's career as an organizing scheme for test use,…

Murray, Stephen L.

12

Policy Options to Support Distributed Resources  

E-print Network

supplemented and replaced by alternative energy. Efficiency gains no longer come from increasing generating Fellow Center for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware January 2005 #12;Forward For most of its history, the electricity sector followed the model established by Samuel Insull. Last

Delaware, University of

13

Housing Policies in China: Issues and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists in three parts. The first part deals with theory. We evaluate the pros and cons of government involvement in urban housing and of renting versus ownership. In the second part, we summarize the different housing policies that have been implemented in the United States, Europe, and Asia. We draw some conclusions. In particular, we show that there

Yves Zenou

2010-01-01

14

Housing Policies in China: Issues and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article consists in three parts. The first part deals with theory. We evaluate the pros and cons of government involvement in urban housing and of renting versus ownership. In the second part, we summarize the different housing policies that have been implemented in the United States, Europe, and Asia. We draw some conclusions. In particular, we show that there

Yves Zenou

2011-01-01

15

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans  

SciTech Connect

This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

Doris, E.

2011-09-01

16

Stem Cell Research: An Ethical Evaluation of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 2004, South Korean researchers became the first in the world to successfully harvest stem cells and establish a stem cell line from a cloned human embryo. This is just one of eight possible policy options concern- ing human embryonic stem cell research. In practice, every kind of stem cell research can be done in one country or another.

Nikolaus Knoepffler

2004-01-01

17

"THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY  

E-print Network

"THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY: A RENAISSANCE OR A DJA VUE" by RAPHAEL MOISSIS? · the Commission: · Recognizes the contribution of nuclear energy in CO2 emission reduction. · Underlines of nuclear energy generation is reduced, it is essential that this reduction be phased

18

Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China  

PubMed Central

By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

2014-01-01

19

Nonprofit conversion: theory, evidence, and state policy options.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the contributions of nonprofit hospitals and health plans to healthcare markets and to analyze state policy options with regard to the conversion of nonprofits to for-profit status. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary national and state data from a variety of sources, 1980-present. STUDY DESIGN: Policy analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Development of a conceptual economic framework; analysis of empirical, legal, and theoretical literature; and review of statutes, rules, and court decisions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three main rationales support special status for nonprofits, especially hospitals: charity care, other community benefits, and consumer protection. The main social rationale for for-profits is their incentives for better efficiency. There are reasons to expect that nonprofit and for-profit goals differ; however, measured differences in community hospital cost, prices, and quality between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals are undetectable or inconclusive. Nonprofit hospitals do provide more uncompensated care than for-profit hospitals. Similarities between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals may exist because nonprofits may set norms that for-profits follow to some degree. States have substantial power and discretion in overseeing nonprofit conversions. Some have regularized oversight through new legislation that constrains, but does not eliminate, state officials' discretion. These statutes may be deferential to converting entities and their buyers or may be very restrictive of them. CONCLUSIONS: Overseeing the appropriate disposition of nonprofit assets in individual conversions is extremely important. States should also monitor local market conditions through community benefits assessments and other data collection, however, to accurately assess (and possibly redress) what is lost or gained from conversion. Local market conditions are likely more important in determining hospital behavior than ownership form. Potentially, a mix of for-profit and nonprofit hospitals in a given market may improve market performance due to constraints the two ownership types may exercise over one another. If nonprofits disappear, the states may need to maintain quality and access norms through regulation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9865231

Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M

1998-01-01

20

Transition study plans for current G&G students OPTION 1: Majors -Geology, Geophysics and Spatial Information Major  

E-print Network

Transition study plans for current G&G students OPTION 1: Majors - Geology, Geophysics and Spatial Approved Level II Remote Sensing III Geology Summer Sch GIS for Environmental Management III Geophysics Semester 1 Tectonics III Igneous & Metamorphic Geology III Geophysics III Exploration Methods III Semester

21

Teaching Policy Analysis as Research: Consideration and Extension of Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching policy analysis is compared to teaching research skills. Both involve the selection of an appropriate analytical tool to be used with multiple units of analysis; and in both, the selected instrument must fit the purpose of the analysis or the product is not useful. Policy analysis frameworks characteristically address policy process,…

O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

2008-01-01

22

Reducing Energy Costs in the Texas State Agencies: Conservation and Policy Options: Volume II – Final Report  

E-print Network

REDUCING ENERGY COSTS IN THE TEXAS STATE AGENCIES: CONSERVATION AND POLICY OPTIONS Vol. 2 - Final Report ENERGY SYSTEMSLABORATORY Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University College Station Texas... 77843 ESL-TR-84/08-01 REDUCING ENERGY COSTS IN THE TEXAS STATE AGENCIES: CONSERVATION AND POLICY OPTIONS Vol. 2 - Final Report Submitted to: Energy Efficiency Division Texas Public Utility Commission 7800 Shoal Creek Blvd., Suite 400N Austin, TX 78757...

Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Subramanian, S. T.

1984-01-01

23

Excellence at Work. Policy Option Papers for the National Governors' Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains an introduction and four policy option papers that explore key issues affecting the economy and state options to address the issues within the context of the U.S. workplace. "Introduction" (David Bedford, Evelyn Ganzglass) discusses the issues identified in the first phase of the governors' initiative on Excellence at Work and…

Ganzglass, Evelyn, Ed.

24

A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate change  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 of this report evaluated generic policy instruments according to the criteria of efficiency information requirements, distributional effects, political sustainability, and applicability to greenhouse gas issues. This volume describes policies specific to the various components of the private sector and evaluates options for the implementation of policies according to a further set of screening criteria more suitable for specific instances or applications of the instruments. The description of the private sector in this volume is confined to qualitative analysis of the constraints and opportunities arising from existing materials, processes, markets, and regulatory frameworks that are likely to shape its response to the prospect of global warming. Materials include fuels as well as other substantive material and energy inputs and outputs for the sector. For example, steel production involves iron ore, coal, perhaps electricity, and the finished product. Processes are the activities by which a sector satisfies demands for its goods and services. For example, fossil fuel combustion is a major process in the utilities sector, while fertilizer production and application are both important processes for agriculture. Markets in this context include both capital markets which finance the activities of the private sector and the markets in which commodities and services are traded and consumed. The regulatory framework quite simply is the nexus of legal constraints on entry to an activity and the rules by which the government, or alternative regulatory agency, for example, a public utility commission, controls the activities of a sector. 387 refs., 15 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

25

Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

1987-01-01

26

Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Business/Production Option (HORT/BSPRD) University Park  

E-print Network

Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Business/Production Option (HORT 3 HORT 202 Plant Propagation 3 ENGL 015 (GWS) Rhetoric and Composition or ENGL 030 S (GWS) Honors: 16.5-17.5 Total Credits: 15-18 #12;Semester 5 Credits Semester 6 Credits HORT Production Selection

Guiltinan, Mark

27

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options  

E-print Network

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options Raphae¨l Bille � Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract Ocean acidification has emerged over research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus

Fortunat, Joos

28

Informal Sector Pollution Control: What Policy Options Do We Have?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, urban clusters of informal firms such as brick kilns and leather tanneries can create severe pollution problems. These firms are, however, quite difficult to regulate for a variety of technical and political reasons. Drawing on the literature, this paper first develops a list of feasible environmental management policies. It then examines how these policies have fared in

Allen Blackman

2000-01-01

29

Integrated analysis of policy options for protection of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is directed at providing an integrated framework that a regional authority should use when assessing the potential impacts of any policy initiative directed at improving groundwater quality. In particular, a policy model is developed relying on three decision components (a farm-level production decisions model, a household decisions model and a regional policy decision model) where the objective is one of identifying the trade-offs that a regional authority will be confronted with as it strives to balance the preferences of farmers and households while endeavoring to maximize net economic welfare. The basic rule developed indicates that the regional authority must choose a policy whereby any increase (decrease) in regional income is just equal to the decrease (increase) in net benefits to households.

Uri, Noel D.; Huang, Wen-Yuan

1990-05-01

30

Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to  

E-print Network

the costs both of solar technology and of grid integration, so enabling solar deployment nationwide for PV. We discuss existing energy-policy mixes in those countries leading the development of solar power...................................................................................................................... 8 3.3. GREEN JOBS ...........................................................................ERROR

31

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

32

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively  

E-print Network

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

Liu, Paul

33

Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

34

Panarchy, Adaptive Management and Governance: Policy Options for Building Resilience  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a com...

35

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

36

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.  

PubMed

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

2004-02-01

37

Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.  

PubMed

This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV. PMID:21925786

Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

2012-02-01

38

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-01

39

Major by Option Major/Option College Degree 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993  

E-print Network

/OPTIONS (by college) Agricultural Short Course AG Bachelor's 1 3 Agronomy AG Bachelor's 1 2 4 13 Agronomy AG Master's 1 2 10 7 6 12 14 12 Agronomy - Agronomy AG Bachelor's 3 Agronomy - Crop & Soil Mgmt AG Bachelor's 1 3 7 11 13 12 Agronomy - Crop Science AG Bachelor's Agronomy - Plant Protection AG Bachelor's 2 1 4

Maxwell, Bruce D.

40

Major by Option Major/Option College Degree 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993  

E-print Network

40 39 24 20 22 Agricultural Short Course AG Bachelor's 1 3 Agronomy AG Bachelor's 1 2 4 13 Agronomy - Agronomy AG Bachelor's 3 Agronomy - Crop & Soil Mgmt AG Bachelor's 1 3 7 11 13 12 Agronomy - Crop Science/OPTIONS (by degree) Agronomy - Plant Protection AG Bachelor's 2 1 4 7 2 4 Agronomy - Science AG Bachelor's 1 5

Maxwell, Bruce D.

41

Expanding the Pool of Federal Policy Options to Promote Industrial Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Cox, Matthew [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL] [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

42

A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate changes  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming an issue of significant public concern. Recent scientific research results combined with a very warm decade have led to growing apprehension that we may be on the brink of global warming inadvertently induced by human activity. As one manifestation of increasing concern, several Congressional Committee hearings on issues deriving from potential climate change have been held. Additionally, in 1986 Congress requested two studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the effects of climate change and on policy options to stabilize the atmosphere. Those reports currently are being reviewed by Federal agencies prior to submission to Congress. In the report language accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriations Act, 1989, the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Conference Committee also requested four studies on climate change from the Department of Energy (DOE). The four reports are Alternative Energy R D -- to assess the state and direction of Federal R D on alternative energy sources, including conservation; Greenhouse Gas Data Collection -- to assess how greenhouse gas emission and climate trends data are coordinated, archived, and made available to scientists, both within and outside of government, Carbon Dioxide Inventory and Policy -- to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 5-10 years and a 50% reduction in 15-20 years as well as provide an inventory of emission sources; and Study of Options to Mobilize the Private Sector -- to assess policy options for encouraging the private sector to cooperate in mitigating, adapting, and preventing global climate change. 286 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

43

Implementing Policy Options to Strengthen the Nexus between Postsecondary Education and Workforce Development. Commission Report 08-07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December 2007, the California Postsecondary Education adopted the last in an initial series of reports on the nexus between postsecondary education and workforce development by requesting staff to return with plans and priorities to pursue implementation of ten general policy options, grouped into three categories. One option is already being…

California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

2008-01-01

44

Policy Options for Rural America: An Overview of Research Findings and Policy Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of rural population growth and its economic consequences in California, Wisconsin, North Carolina, and Vermont helps explain the changing conditions in rural America and indicates the direction policy should take. Despite their distance from financial centers and their low density, rural areas are generally characterized by a more…

Bradshaw, Ted K.; Blakely, Edward J.

45

Modeling Life Insurance Liability at Fair Value: An Analysis of Embedded Options in With-Profit Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life insurance contracts are often very complex financial products which embed interest rate guarantee and other implicit options. Focusing on the With-Profit life insurance policy in China, this paper presents a dynamic model to develop suitable fair valuation techniques for liability of this category contract. Unlike traditional actuarial valuation method, the model captures several essential elements of With-Profit policy, such

Xu Nan-nan; Ren Ruo-en; Zheng Hai-tao

2009-01-01

46

Major Issues of University Education Policy in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University education is believed to be one of the most controversial public policies in Hong Kong. Numerous changes have also occurred in the university education sector since the 1990s when the rapid expansion of university places was put into force. The most notable changes may include the institutionalization of quality assurance mechanisms,…

Lee, Michael H.

2005-01-01

47

Major Challenges for Fishery Policy Reform: A Political Economy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A political economy perspective of fisheries governance is presented in this paper. In most countries, formal and informal linkages exist among four components of the governance system. The legislature passes laws that authorise the implementation of policies and programmes by a fisheries agency. The fisheries agency establishes a fisheries management authority. Stakeholders often have a formal role – from advising

Jon G. Sutinen

2008-01-01

48

Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2009-06-01

49

List of Major Options Major Option Requirement  

E-print Network

) Physical Science Dance (recorded on MyMAP after completing Dance 342) Arts Dance (recorded on MyMAP after Studies (recorded on MyMAP after completing Am St 490) Arts Applied Physics (recorded on MyMAP after completing Phscs 222) Physical Science Art Education K12 (recorded on MyMAP after completing Sc Ed 353

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

50

POLICY OPTIONS FOR REDUCING PHOSPHORUS LOADING IN LAKE CHAMPLAIN: FINAL REPORT TO THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN PROGRAM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes the processes and outcomes of the project titled 'Developing and Assessing Policy Options for Reducing Phosphorus Loading in Lake Champlain.' While coordinated by Winrock International, this effort drew heavily on the input of nationally recognized scientists, economists, and p...

51

Valuation of the surrender option in unit-linked life insurance policies in a non-rational behaviour framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we propose a discrete time-based model for the evaluation of the surrender option implicit in a portfolio of single premium unit-linked life policies. We presume that the policyholders do not act rationally. Their behaviour is linked to the credibility of the insurance companies, to the analysis of the economic convenience of a rating agency, as well as

Luca Anzilli; Luigi De Cesare

2007-01-01

52

Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

2001-01-01

53

Community Engagement & Education (CEED) with sub-major: Community-Based Organizations Policy & Leadership  

E-print Network

Techniques for Community Organizers and Community Educators 3 Credits ED POL Cultural Diversity: 3 credits EDCommunity Engagement & Education (CEED) with sub-major: Community-Based Organizations Policy. Community Education (CEED) Core: 9 Credits 6 Credits Required Courses: 3 credits ED POL 601 (401) (F/05 use

Saldin, Dilano

54

An overview of labor markets world-wide : key trends and major policy issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of labor market trends, and key policy issues worldwide. It begins with a statistical overview of major indicators relating to the labor market, highlighting the diverging experiences between the high-income countries, and many developing regions. It then reviews four global trends that are rapidly changing labor markets, and affecting workers all over the world. These

Gordon Betcherman

2002-01-01

55

Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). PMID:21399411

Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

2011-01-01

56

Reactor-Based Management of Used Nuclear Fuel: Assessment of Major Options  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms).

Phillip J. Finck; Roald A. Wigeland; Robert N. Hill

2011-01-01

57

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Management The Terry College Bachelor is a general business major and graduates with this degree work in a variety of industries: banking hospitality

Arnold, Jonathan

58

In-Situ Exploration of Venus: Major Science Objectives, Investigations, and Mission Platform Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ missions to Venus have been recommended by both the 2011 and 2003 Decadal Studies of the NRC and have been proposed numerous times to NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers programs as well as to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Such missions would revolutionize our understanding of Venus, as they address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state via high precision measurements of (1) noble gases and their isotopes, and (2) reactive trace gases and aerosol associated with Venus's active photo- and thermo-chemistry and sulfur cycle, including components potentially responsible for the poorly-understood uv-absorbing haze layer. Fundamental questions, as promoted in recent VEXAG documents, include: (1) Did Venus, Mars, and Earth have a common origin? (2) What roles did comets from the outer Solar System play in delivering volatiles to Venus? (3) Did Venus once have and lose a global ocean? (4) How much has Venus outgassed, and what is the current rate of outgassing, particularly of sulfur, the major driver of Venus clouds? and (5) Through the deposition of energy within them, what role do these clouds play in (a) driving the cloud-level thermal structure and (b) generating and maintaining the super-rotating zonal windfield that covers the globe? Fundamental answers could be uniquely provided through in-situ sampling via mass spectrometry of the noble gases and their isotopes - in particular of the 8 stable Xe isotopes, the bulk abundances of Kr, and the 3 isotopes of Ne. Measurements of the relative abundances of the light isotopes of N, O, H, S and O, by, for example, tunable laser spectrometry, would provide additional insights into Venus's origin, surface outgassing and planetary escape. Such measurements could be performed by probes, landers, or balloons. On descent through the uv-absorbing layer and the surrounding H2SO4 cloud, each of these platforms could explore both the absorber and sulfur-cycle-associated reactive species and aerosols, thus addressing VEXAG desires for enhanced understanding of Venus' chemical cycles, aerosol properties, and radiative transfer. On descent to the surface, probes and landers can provide vertical profiles of temperatures and species abundances, as well as provide near-surface measurements of sulfur isotopes and trace sulfuric gases indicative of outgassing. Additional major in-situ goals dealing with Venus's global circulation and local dynamics can be addressed by a balloon platform floating within the convective middle cloud near ~55-km altitude. Drifting over a wide range of latitudes and all times-of-day and longitudes, such a floating platform could accurately measure (1) motions in all three dimensions - zonal, meridional, and vertical, including motions associated with convection and gravity waves, (2) simultaneous measurements of cloud particle size, their parent molecules, the local temperature, and vertical velocity, to study cloud formation/dissipation processes, and (3) the power and frequency of local lightning. Altogether, such in-situ measurements would potentially revolutionize our understanding of (1) Venus's circulation, including the role of waves and solar cloud heating in powering the planet's poorly-understood super-rotation, (2) Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Earth's neighbor formed and evolved over the aeons.

Baines, K. H.; Limaye, S. S.; Hall, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Bullock, M. A.; Crisp, D.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Russell, C. T.; Webster, C. R.; Zahnle, K. J.

2013-12-01

59

Paying for the Charter Schoolhouse: Policy Options for Charter School Facilities Financing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Locating and financing educational facilities is a significant challenge facing many charter schools. This report outlines five options state policymakers can pursue to enable charter schools to gain access to suitable, high-quality facilities. The five options addressed are: creating new revenue streams for facilities cost; giving charter schools…

Hassel, Bryan

60

Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable

J. M. Henke; G. Klepper; N. Schmitz

2005-01-01

61

Education Policy as a Practice of Power: Theoretical Tools, Ethnographic Methods, Democratic Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines some theoretical and methodological parameters of a critical practice approach to policy. The article discusses the origins of this approach, how it can be uniquely adapted to educational analysis, and why it matters--not only for scholarly interpretation but also for the democratization of policy processes as well. Key to…

Levinson, Bradley A. U.; Sutton, Margaret; Winstead, Teresa

2009-01-01

62

Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.  

PubMed

Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

Shapiro, Gilla K

2014-07-01

63

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF POLICY OPTIONS ON AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES: AN ALTERNATIVE-FUTURES APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Alternative-futures analysis was used to analyze different scenarios of future growth patterns and attendant resource allocations on the agricultural system of Oregon's Willamette River Basin. A stakeholder group formulated three policy alternatives: a continuation of current tr...

64

Page 1 of 10 Assessing the effectiveness of policy options to reduce CO2  

E-print Network

transport, with over 50% from passenger cars. Buses and railways account for approximately 5%, the bulk of the remainder being road freight (DfT 2008). By 2025, annual car vehicle kilometres travelled are forecast are currently limited; electric vehicles are emerging in niche markets and other options such as hydrogen

65

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

2008-01-01

66

Renewable energy policy options for mountain communities: Experiences from China, India, Nepal and Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews and discusses various policies which have hampered the sustainable growth of RETs in the mountain communities of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) Region11Hindu Kush Himalayan Region includes Hills and mountain areas of eight countries, namely, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar. The population of HKH Region is about 140 million with land coverage of

Kamal Rijal

1999-01-01

67

Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

2012-08-01

68

Bioenergy transition in rural China: Policy options and co-benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current situation of bioenergy development in China, particularly on its relationship to sustainable rural development. It argues that the current government strategy, investment policy and industrial interest are over-emphasized on biomass-burning power generation as part of the clean energy development trajectories, which may not lead to the most cost-effective outcomes in terms of investments, resource use

Lin Gan; Juan Yu

2008-01-01

69

[Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].  

PubMed

From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed. PMID:21147432

Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

2010-01-01

70

Worker Adjustment to Plant Shutdowns and Mass Layoffs: An Analysis of Program Experience and Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American economy is in a state of flux; it will probably generate more displaced workers; and it has yet to determine a policy to assist such workers in preparing for and locating new jobs. Although the extent of the problem is not entirely known, a low estimate is that some 2.2 million workers may have been affected by plant closings and mass…

Barth, Michael C.; Reisner, Fritzie

71

The Unsustainable Rise of the Disability Rolls in the United States: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options  

E-print Network

Two ailments limit the effectiveness and threaten the long-term viability of the U.S. Social Security Disability Insurance program (SSDI). First, the program is ineffective in assisting the vast majority of workers with ...

Autor, David

2012-01-24

72

Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by legislative or regulatory authorities. Some renewable energy contracts pre-date the existence of RECs, however, and in these cases the disposition of RECs is often unclear. Similarly, because of the recent appearance of RECs, legislation and regulation mandating the purchase of renewable energy has sometimes been silent on the disposition of the RECs associated with that generation. The resulting uncertainty in REC ownership has hindered the development of robust REC markets and has, in some cases, led to contention between buyers and sellers of renewable generation. The purpose of this report is to provide information and insight to state policy-makers, utility regulators, and others about different approaches to clarifying the ownership of RECs. We focus exclusively on three distinct areas in which REC ownership issues have arisen: (1) Qualifying Facilities (QFs) that sell their generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978; (2) Customer-owned generation that benefits from state net metering rules; and (3) Generation facilities that receive financial incentives from state or utility funds. This is a survey report. It reviews how both the federal government and states have addressed these issues to date, and highlights the arguments that have been raised for different REC ownership dispositions. Our aim is to describe the arguments on each side, and the context for the debates that are occurring. We do not, in this report, provide a list of policy recommendations for how policymakers should be addressing these issues.

Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2006-04-05

73

Eastern Europe's resource crisis, with special emphasis on energy resources: dependence and policy options  

SciTech Connect

An examination is made of Eastern Europe's energy resource shortages impact on its future economic and political development and its dependence on the Soviet Union as its main source of supply. The possible solutions to this problem are considered, as well as the impact of those solutions. How this dependence operates in insuring a dependable supply of Soviet oil, natural gas, coal, electricity, and various raw materials through, wherever possible, an exchange arrangement, leaving a sufficiently wide margin to satisfy both domestic needs and hard currency markets of individual East European countries is discussed. While stressing mostly regional disparities in resource endowment and the energy resource supply problem faced by the six European CMEA countries, the discussion also deals with the consequences of their resource dependence on efforts to build a modern industrial base, for which a dependable and growing supply of various raw materials is essential. Chapters are: Energy Crisis in the 1970s; Eastern Europe's Options in the 1980s. (MCW)

Hoffman, G.W.

1981-01-01

74

Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning  

SciTech Connect

This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

1990-03-01

75

Overview: Bellagio Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries.  

PubMed

The Bellagio 'Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries' (LMICs) was organized to pull together the current. We need not reiterate the importance of this topic or the speed of change in eating, drinking and moving facing us across the globe. The conference emerges from need to significantly step up the policies and programs to reduce obesity by learning from some current examples of best practice and strengthening the role of the academic and civil society players in translating global evidence and experience into action at the national level. There is also a need to empower the younger generation of scholars and activists in these countries to carry on this effort. The meeting was also timely because a number of funding agencies in the United States, Canada and the UK, at least, are beginning to focus attention on this topic. This set of papers provides not only examples of existing best practice but also a road map ahead for LMICs in the various areas of action needed to reduce obesity across LMICs. The meeting highlighted critical barriers to implementation that have blocked many initiatives. PMID:24102826

Popkin, B; Monteiro, C; Swinburn, B

2013-11-01

76

The Impact of Incarceration on the Employment Outcomes of Former Inmates: Policy Options for Fostering Self-Sufficiency and an Assessment of the Cost-Effectiveness of  

E-print Network

July 2007 The Impact of Incarceration on the Employment Outcomes of Former Inmates: Policy Options;Abstract This chapter documents recent incarceration trends, discusses the evidence pertaining-release behavior. I also assess the likely effects on crime of reducing the U.S. incarceration rate below current

Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

77

The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia: Considering U.S. Options. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

78

Delivering primary care to homeless persons: a policy analysis approach to evaluating the options.  

PubMed

Homeless persons are numerous, carry a significant burden of illness and face challenges in accessing care. A search of the literature revealed insufficient empirical sources to permit the use of standard systematic review methodology to determine the most effective way to deliver point-of-first-contact healthcare to homeless people. Instead, we used a policy analysis approach. We found that the dominant model of primary care in Canada performs poorly when assessed on 13 evaluation criteria. While there is variable performance on individual measures, the three alternative models - targeted standard facility/clinic site, fixed outreach site and mobile outreach service - all perform well. Our findings suggest that some factor other than performance on the specified measures, such as costs, feasibility, geographical fit or local preferences, should be used to choose a specific model. Our analysis clearly indicates that the status quo model of primary care is inadequate to meet the needs of homeless people. PMID:19377346

Shortt, S E D; Hwang, Stephen; Stuart, Heather; Bedore, Melanie; Zurba, Nadia; Darling, Margaret

2008-08-01

79

Health issues and the practicing radiologist: defining concepts and developing recommendations for leave options and policies.  

PubMed

Radiologists today are faced with the challenges of maintaining and balancing individual and family health needs and the demands of the workplace. To provide the highest quality and safest care of our patients, a corresponding ethos of support for a healthy workforce is required. There is a paucity of targeted information describing protections for and maintenance of the health of the practicing radiologist, in both private and academic settings. However, a review of existing family and medical leave policies may be helpful to practice leaders and practicing radiologists as a platform for the development of strategic workforce plans. This writing, by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources, addresses the following areas: (1) medical leave, (2) maternity and/or paternity leave, and (3) disability. PMID:24007608

Heilbrun, Marta E; Bender, Claire E; Truong, Hang B; Bluth, Edward I

2013-09-01

80

Limitations of Single-Basket Trading: A Lesson from the Montreal Protocol for Climate Policy Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting stratospheric ozone has been widely recognized, with many viewing it as a model for international cooperation on global environmental issues. Years of collaborative problem solving by scientists, industry, and policymakers have provided numerous insights, some of which are applicable to addressing the international problem of anthropogenically-caused climate change. Here we suggest that one valuable lesson relates to the manner in which different greenhouse gases are controlled. The Montreal Protocol implemented a multi-basket scheme, which regulated various groups, or baskets, of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs); production and consumption trading were allowed within each basket, but not among baskets. This approach substantially reduced ODS emissions and the associated dangers of increased ozone losses. In contrast, discussions of greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation have generally focused on single-basket emissions trading. In particular, the Kyoto Protocol has allowed trading of emissions reductions among all regulated compounds. The flexibility of such an approach has the potential to lead to less expensive total abatement costs than if each GHG were regulated separately. Here we quantify the extent to which such a scheme may also lead to an ambiguous relationship between policy controls and the climate protection they provide over both short and long time horizons. We further show that the magnitude of this ambiguity depends strongly on the magnitude of the required emissions reduction. These results suggest it is important for policymakers to make a conscious and informed decision regarding whether the additional flexibility associated with a single-basket approach is worth the potentially reduced effectiveness for any particular reduction control level enacted. If it is not worth it, they should recognize that a multi-basket scheme has worked for protecting ozone and could also be effective for climate policy.

Daniel, J. S.; Solomon, S.; Sanford, T. J.; McFarland, M.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Friedlingstein, P.

2010-12-01

81

The Unsustainable Rise of the Disability Rolls in the United States: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two ailments limit the effectiveness and threaten the long-term viability of the U.S. Social Security Disability Insurance program (SSDI). First, the program is ineffective in assisting the vast majority of workers with less severe disabilities to reach their employment potential or earn their own way. Second, the program’s expenditures on cash transfers and medical benefits— exceeding $1,500 per U.S. household—are

David H. Autor

2011-01-01

82

Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring  

PubMed Central

Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM) has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that will eventually lead to the formulation of a variety of policy relevant risk reduction options. Conclusion Although the usefulness of this approach still needs to be tested, and potential fine-tuning of the procedure may be necessary, approaching the policy implications of HBM in an objective framework will prove to be essential. PMID:18541068

Smolders, R; Koppen, G; Schoeters, G

2008-01-01

83

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values  

E-print Network

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values Jason Johnson, Jackie Smith, Kevin Dhuyvetter and Mark Waller* Put Options Hedging in the futures market with options is much like buying an insurance policy to protect commodity sellers against declining...

Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

1999-06-23

84

Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.  

PubMed

There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs. PMID:20660208

Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

2011-03-01

85

Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

Mori, Miki

2014-01-01

86

NCI Announces New Smoke-free Meeting Policy to Address Major Public Health Hazard  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute today announced a new policy requiring that all meetings and conferences organized or primarily sponsored by NCI be held in a state, county, city, or town that has adopted a comprehensive smoke-free policy, unless specific circumstances justify an exemption.

87

The Nutrition and Dietetics major prepares students for careers in nutrition-related fields. The Nutrition option is designed for students who want to study nutrition combined with another field.  

E-print Network

The Nutrition and Dietetics major prepares students for careers in nutrition-related fields. The Nutrition option is designed for students who want to study nutrition combined with another field. The Dietetics option is designed for students who want to study nutrition and become Registered Dietitians. Both

Rhode Island, University of

88

Room Policies Printing Options  

E-print Network

checkin, the patron will be issued a binder containing instructions and dry erase markers. These items the Whiteboard will turn on by itself when the computer boots up. Write on the Whiteboard: Use the dry erase markers provided to you at the DMC service counter to write on the board. If the markers are dried up

89

Room Policies Printing Options  

E-print Network

. Transfer: Transfer your file to your USB drive Click on "File Management" then choose your video to move the device you wish to have projecting onto the screen. "PC" refers to the computer workstation in the room a video camera mounted on the ceiling. It can be controlled entirely from the PC computer in the room

90

Pragmatic policy options for monitoring the movement of carbon dioxide derived from fossil and bio-fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a municipal level it was required to determine the course of environmental action that would respond to international directives\\u000a regarding air quality control through interference in carbon dioxide movement. Two options were considered, namely bio-fuels\\u000a and ecological compensation. The bio-fuel option was examined by way of ethanol produced from sugar cane. The compensation\\u000a option was examined by way of

M. Fehr; A. L. S. Costa; A. P. Martins; P. C. A. Oliveira; M. K. A. Silva

2011-01-01

91

[Major revisionposted 1/9/14 (replaces 9/21/05 edition) Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

responsibilities of the traveler. Employees may claim reimbursement for travel expenses through TTU's online travel 79.01: Travel Authority and Definitions for Texas Tech University and TTU Employees DATE: January 9 travel regulations from the General Appropriations Acts of the Texas Legislature and the policies

Rock, Chris

92

[Major revisionposted 5/9/12 (replaces 7/21/94 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

://www.depts.ttu.edu/communications/emergency/downloads/ttu-emergency-plan.pdf #12;.01: Emergency Management Plans DATE: May 9, 2012 PURPOSE: The purpose of this Operating Policy/Procedure (OP Emergency Management Plan (TTUEMP). REVIEW: This OP will be reviewed by September 1 of each year

Rock, Chris

93

Policy Related to Creating, Changing, and Terminating Degree Programs, Majors, Minors, Areas of Emphasis, Certificate Programs,  

E-print Network

as the degree program). A bachelor's degree program requires a minimum of 120 credits, and a master's degree program requires a minimum of 30 credits beyond the bachelor's degree. New degree programs require the program title and the major. An undergraduate major requires a minimum of 30 credits. Minors Definition

Mohaghegh, Shahab

94

How labor market policies can combine workers'protection with job creation : a partial review of some key issues and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent have macro and structural reforms in many developing countries affected the labor market? Are current policy settings in the labor market adequate to cope with the current challenges of a more dynamic but also more risky economic environment? Are there examples of successful labor reforms that have combined greater adaptability with greater workers'protection? What can labor policy

Gaelle Pierre; Stefano Scarpetta

2007-01-01

95

Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success. A Study of State and Institutional Policies and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was designed to inform members of the policy, education, and research communities about existing state and institutional policies and practices associated with four accelerated learning programs: Advanced Placement (AP), dual/concurrent enrollment, the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program, and Tech-Prep. This effort was…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

96

Educational Policy and the Two Major Approaches to Disaster Relief in the Third World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, two major schools of thought regarding disaster and disaster assistance are identified and examined in order to bring to light their underlying assumptions about assistance and development in the Third World. The first section discusses the context of the problem, citing figures and presenting charts to illustrate the scope and…

Harris, Christopher

97

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited Color Expert Costume and Mask Designer Creative Services Manager Exhibition Coordinator Fashion Artist

Arnold, Jonathan

98

Crossing the Valley of Death: Policy Options to Advance the Uptake of Energy-Efficient Emerging Technologies in US Industry  

E-print Network

operating practices. In the United States the industrial sector is impacted by many policies-fiscal and monetary, economic development, energy pricing, climate legislation, tax code, and direct subsidies, among others-all of which help shape the strategy...

Harris, J.; Bostrom, P.; Lung, R. B.

2011-01-01

99

12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...management believes requires hedging with financial contracts...management of that bank. (d) Accounting. The joint bank policy...of March 12, 1980 include accounting guidelines for banks that...activities. Since the Financial Accounting Standards Board is...

2010-01-01

100

Fair valuation of life insurance liabilities: The impact of interest rate guarantees, surrender options, and bonus policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes one of the most common life insurance products—the so-called participating (or with profits) policy. This type of contract stands in contrast to unit-linked (UL) products in that interest is credited to the policy periodically according to some mechanism which smoothes past returns on the life insurance company’s (LIC) assets. As is the case for UL products, the

Anders Grosen; Peter Lřchte Jřrgensen

2000-01-01

101

The Changing Nature Of Children's Health Development: New Challenges Require Major Policy Solutions.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and social context of American childhood are rapidly changing. Adverse social, economic, and child-rearing conditions are loading children down with preventable illness, physical and behavioral disability, and dysfunction. This new epidemiology of childhood is swamping the capacity of the nation's health care system, schools, juvenile justice facilities, and child protective services to respond to the needs of those they serve. This low-performing system not only jeopardizes the health of children, it also jeopardizes the health of the adults they will become. In this article we review the science of life-course health development, a new field that provides a powerful explanatory framework for understanding how poor health and social adversity during childhood can affect lifelong health. We then present five ambitious policy recommendations to integrate educational, health, social, and economic initiatives designed to enhance health. Our bold but pragmatic goal is that by 2025, US children will have the highest levels of health among industrialized nations, instead of where US children currently rank-among the worst. PMID:25489029

Halfon, Neal; Wise, Paul H; Forrest, Christopher B

2014-12-01

102

Youth with Disabilities in Transition: Health Insurance Options and Obstacles. Healthy & Ready To Work (HRTW) Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the public and private health insurance options for young people with disabilities or chronic health conditions including several recent Federal initiatives to increase access to health care for working adults with disabilities. Discussion of public health insurance eligibility and coverage focuses on aspects of Medicaid and…

Schulzinger, Rhoda

103

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

Communication Specialist Healthcare Recruiter Human Resource Specialist Lecturer Legal Assistant Logistics to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Communication Studies Communication Studies, critical thinking, group discussion, problem solving, and conceptualizing functions of communication

Arnold, Jonathan

104

Telecommunication technologies development in countries of the former Yugoslavia : history, needs and policy options for the future  

E-print Network

In the first part of this thesis I give an overview of the political-economic and telecommunications sector developments in major western economies, as well as some of the advanced Eastern European countries. I use this ...

Sulejmanpašić , Adnan, 1976-

2005-01-01

105

Major Improvements in the Quality of Malaria Case-Management under the “Test and Treat” Policy in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Monitoring implementation of the “test and treat” case-management policy for malaria is an important component of all malaria control programmes in Africa. Unfortunately, routine information systems are commonly deficient to provide necessary information. Using health facility surveys we monitored health systems readiness and malaria case-management practices prior to and following implementation of the 2010 “test and treat” policy in Kenya. Methods/Findings Between 2010 and 2013 six national, cross-sectional, health facility surveys were undertaken. The number of facilities assessed ranged between 172 and 176, health workers interviewed between 216 and 237 and outpatient consultations for febrile patients evaluated between 1,208 and 2,408 across six surveys. Comparing baseline and the last survey results, all readiness indicators showed significant (p<0.005) improvements: availability of parasitological diagnosis (55.2% to 90.7%); RDT availability (7.5% to 69.8%); total artemether-lumefantrine (AL) stock-out (27.2% to 7.0%); stock-out of one or more AL packs (59.5% to 21.6%); training coverage (0 to 50.2%); guidelines access (0 to 58.1%) and supervision (17.9% to 30.8%). Testing increased by 34.0% (23.9% to 57.9%; p<0.001) while testing and treatment according to test result increased by 34.2% (15.7% to 49.9%; p<0.001). Treatment adherence for test positive patients improved from 83.3% to 90.3% (p?=?0.138) and for test negative patients from 47.9% to 83.4% (p<0.001). Significant testing and treatment improvements were observed in children and adults. There was no difference in practices with respect to the type and result of malaria test (RDT vs microscopy). Of eight dosing, dispensing and counseling tasks, improvements were observed for four tasks. Overall AL use for febrile patients decreased from 63.5% to 35.6% (p<0.001). Conclusions Major improvements in the implementation of “test and treat” policy were observed in Kenya. Some gaps towards universal targets still remained. Other countries facing similar needs and challenges may consider health facility surveys to monitor malaria case-management. PMID:24663961

Zurovac, Dejan; Githinji, Sophie; Memusi, Dorothy; Kigen, Samuel; Machini, Beatrice; Muturi, Alex; Otieno, Gabriel; Snow, Robert W.; Nyandigisi, Andrew

2014-01-01

106

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

& Leagues Corporate Sales Rep. Counselor Director of Sports Marketing Director/Program Promotions Event to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Health Promotion The Department of Health Promotion and Behavior (HPB), through research, teaching, and service, prepares professionals in process

Arnold, Jonathan

107

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

.com Jobs-http://www.engineering.com/Jobs/Engineering_Jobs_Search.aspx Think Jobs-Engineering Jobs- http to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Engineering is about creating new solutions to existing or future problems. Engineers are problem solvers who

Arnold, Jonathan

108

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Recreation and Leisure Studies The Recreation and Leisure Studies Program at the University of Georgia prepares students for positions in recreation, parks and management of recreation and leisure services. Programming techniques for people with a range of abilities

Arnold, Jonathan

109

Report: treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste in North Rhine-Westphalia: policy-making and operation options.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes a long-term-investigation of the mechanical treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste materials in North Rhine-Westphalia in the light of applied operation standards and a disposal ban on untreated waste. It is shown how both the allocation of output materials from mechanical treatment plants and the subsequent treatment channels have changed since enforcement of the ban in 2005. Based on the findings of the investigation, two waste management scenarios offering alternative policies have been defined and are discussed. It is suggested that consistent enforcement of the ban affects both the diversion of waste to incineration and the recovery of materials on a regional scale. On the other hand, potential energy recovery may be fully exploited only insofar as operators of mechanical treatment plants concentrate their business on the production of refuse-derived fuel. PMID:17439054

Karavezyris, Vassilios

2007-04-01

110

A Window of Opportunity for the Transformation of National Mental Health Policy in Turkey Following Two Major Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

Striking at the nation’s highly populated industrial heartlands, two massive earthquakes in 1999 killed over 25,000 people in Turkey. The economic cost and the humanitarian magnitude of the disaster were unprecedented in the country’s history. The crisis also underscored a major flaw in the organization of mental health services in the provinces that were left out of the 1961 reforms that aimed to make basic health services available nationwide. In describing the chronology of the earthquakes and the ensuing national and international response, this article explains how the public and governmental experience of the earthquakes has created a window of opportunity, and perhaps the political will, for significant reform. There is an urgent need to integrate mental health and general health services, and to strengthen mental health services in the country’s 81 disparate provinces. As Turkey continues her rapid transformation in terms of greater urbanization, higher levels of public education, and economic and constitutional reforms associated with its projected entry into the European Union, there have also been growing demands for better, and more equitably distributed, health care. A legacy of the earthquakes is that they exposed the need for Turkey to create a coherent, clearly articulated national mental health policy. PMID:15371066

Munir, Kerim; Ergene, Tuncay; Tunaligil, Verda; Erol, Nese

2011-01-01

111

Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div  

SciTech Connect

This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

None

1980-01-22

112

Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond.  

PubMed

With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

Breda, Joăo Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnaçăo, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

2014-01-01

113

Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH) strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007), the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018. Results With no changes to current training, hiring, and attrition conditions, the total number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives will increase from 44% to 59% of the minimum necessary staff by 2018. No combination of changes in staff retention, graduation rates, and public sector entry rates of graduates by 2010, without including training expansion, is sufficient to meet staffing targets by 2018 for any cadre except midwives. Training enrolment needs to increase by a factor of between three and thirteen for doctors, three and four for clinical officers, two and three for nurses, and one and two for midwives by 2010 to reach staffing targets by 2018. Necessary enrolment increases can be held to a minimum if the rates of retention, graduation, and public sector entry increase to 100% by 2010, but will need to increase if these rates remain at 2008 levels. Conclusions Meeting the minimum need for health workers in Zambia this decade will require an increase in health training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels. PMID:20591143

2010-01-01

114

Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are for the aged care sector. Conclusions There is an urgent need for a national strategy that promotes a common approach to aged care leadership and management development, one that is sector-appropriate and congruent with the philosophy of person-centred care now predominant in the sector. The onus is on aged care industries as a whole and various levels of Government to make a concerted effort to establish relevant regulation, legislation and funding. PMID:20602798

2010-01-01

115

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major psychology. Opportunities for graduates include careers in industry, government, and organizational settings; mental health settings; and college/university teaching and research. Researching Job Titles and Careers

Arnold, Jonathan

116

Majors Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

2012-01-05

117

Idaho's Energy Options  

SciTech Connect

This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

Robert M. Neilson

2006-03-01

118

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

Consultant Technical Development Representative Technical Trainer Possible Employers BioMerieux Botanical States Army USDA U.S. Navy Veterinary medicine Wildlife preserves and parks Zoos and aquariums To learn://www.ugasigmaalpha.com Pre-Veterinary Medicine Club- http://pre-vet.uga.edu What can I do with a major in Entomology

Arnold, Jonathan

119

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

professional programs, like business, journalism, or information science. Others enter careers in government://www.bls.gov/oco (type in general term for career of interest) Georgia Career Information Center http.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Religion The University

Arnold, Jonathan

120

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

of accounting classes to provide the basic tools to enter an accounting position. Should a student wish://online.onetcenter.org (click on Find Occupations) Occupational Outlook Handbook http://www.bls.gov/oco (type in general term.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Accounting

Arnold, Jonathan

121

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

may also enter programs that grant a master's degree in education, as well as certification Outlook Handbook http://www.bls.gov/oco (type in general term for career of interest) Georgia Career.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Early Childhood

Arnold, Jonathan

122

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major of acquiring needed funds. Because individuals, businesses, and government entities all need funding to operate, the field is often separated into three subcategories: personal finance, corporate finance, and public

Arnold, Jonathan

123

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major the development and functioning of individuals and families throughout the life cycle: Infancy, childhood the knowledge to become educators, leaders, and professionals within the field of human development and family

Arnold, Jonathan

124

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

of biotechnology and molecular biology for the use and improvement of plants, animals, and micro, microbiology. This interdisciplinary major brings together areas of study such as animals, food science biotechnology for the improvement of plants, animals, and microorganisms. Researching Job Titles and Careers O

Arnold, Jonathan

125

America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

126

Background Report: Employee Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication from the Financial Markets Center offers a closer look at the rise of stock options. The report "summarizes the key trends in the use of stock options and highlights the broader implications of this practice for measuring earnings and conducting national economic policy." Five points are discussed in this nine-page document, allowing readers to understand the basic principles and problems surrounding stock options. Anyone wanting to gain a basic understanding of stock options will enjoy this easy-to-read report.

127

Biochemistry Career Options  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Career Options · applied researcher · pharmaceutical researcher · research chemist · Testing and inspection professional MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Biochemistry College of Sciences www Program: M.S. in Biochemistry Our graduate programs offer exceptional research opportunities for advanced

Walker, Lawrence R.

128

AID renews ties with IPPF as major foreign aid policy changes are seen. But UNFPA funds being temporarily withheld.  

PubMed

The United States government and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) reestablished their relationship in November 1993, and the United States Agency for International Development (AID) committed $75 million to IPPF, after nine years of official US hostility because IPPF would not renounce abortion-related research and services. The administration also delivered to Congress a final draft of its rewrite of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA), with significant policy changes for international population aid. Preparations are underway for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, where the US intends to participate in the world debate, AID has awarded IPPF $13.2 million for fiscal 1994. The Reagan and Bush administrations had concluded that the presence of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in China, where coercive abortion does exist, made UNFPA guilty by association. But the Clinton administration determined that UNFPA did not support abortion services at all. Nevertheless, the Justice Department withheld UNFPA's initial fiscal 1994 funds pending a hearing. The administrator of AID expressed his strong support for UNFPA as well as IPPF following the signing of the cooperative agreement between IPPF and AID. He emphasized that support for family planning would remain the core of the US program, and that information about family planning is a fundamental right. The Clinton administration seeks to connect family planning and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood, post-abortion contraceptive service, and the special needs of adolescents. A new FAA bill would encourage sustainable development by promoting economic growth, preserving the global environment, supporting democracy, and stabilizing world population growth. This will be the subject of congressional hearings in early 1994. The administration intends to eliminate the ban on the use of foreign aid funds for abortion, but the bill would continue to prohibit coercive abortion or sterilization. Because of severe budget constraints, AID has decided to close 21 mission offices overseas, reducing AID's presence to about 50 countries. PMID:12345356

1993-12-01

129

Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

2011-01-01

130

An Approach to Evaluating Equipment Efficiency Policies  

E-print Network

to the evaluation of these and related policy options is under development. The approach includes equipment classification and characterization, market characterization, and the subsequent evaluation of effectiveness and costs of the policy options. Technical...

Newsom, D. E.; Evans, A. R.

1980-01-01

131

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

132

Chicago Board Options Exchange Understanding Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Stock Options by the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) provides a good non-technical introduction to options. It explains the benefits of options, differences between options and stocks, the pricing of options, and it provides some basic options strategies. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

1994-01-01

133

Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

2010-01-01

134

Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.  

SciTech Connect

Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

2014-05-01

135

A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.  

PubMed

Public health policy underwent substantial transformation during the latter half of the 20th century. The landmark statement was the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution, which identified good health as a fundamental right and gave the responsibility to governments to achieve it for all their people. However, following World War II, developed countries made substantial investment in health care with less attention paid to public health. The importance of public health was slowly recognised over the period from 1970 to 2000 with the publication of several reports from different organisations. The first authoritative policy statement that the important determinants of health lay outside health care was in the Lalonde Report from Canada. These ideas were subsequently expressed in the WHO Alma-Ata declaration and were emphasised a year later by the US Surgeon General. The idea of setting goals for health improvement also began in the 1970s. The Lalonde Report and the United Kingdom Black Report recommended that targets be used, but the first explicitly stated health targets were set by the US in 1979. WHO also identified the need for such targets at this time, but did not introduce them until 1984. Since then health targets have become a central feature of public health policy in developed countries. The Ottawa Conference on Health Promotion in 1986 championed the view that health promotion was central to achieving health goals internationally. It helped clarify the types of actions needed: that individuals need to be provided with the supportive environment and economic resources to be able to lead healthy lives. In a further development, the Healthy Cities Project was launched with the specific aim of involving political decision-makers in building a strong lobby for public health at the local level. The Healthy Cities Project illustrates how to provide means and opportunity for interventions to be implemented in communities. Concerns with inequalities in health were emphasised in the WHO declaration of Alma-Ata, and were the focus of the United Kingdom Black Report. The Jakarta Conference on Health Promotion in 1997 urged international action on poverty, as it is the major threat to health. International acceptance of the need to tackle inequalities took longer than the acceptance of health targets, but it is now an important feature of public health policy. The advent of the 21st century marked the coming of age of public health. The renewed version of 'Health for All', 'Health for All in the 21st Century', emphasised the one constant goal of WHO that all individuals should achieve their full health potential. Public health is now regarded internationally as being a priority with this WHO goal being adopted as the overarching goal of policy. The challenges it faces in tackling problems such as obesity, inequalities in health, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse are great and will require policies which tackle the economic, social and environmental determinants of health. PMID:16562775

Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

2006-03-01

136

Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public

Martin O’Connor; Sybille van den Hove

2001-01-01

137

Numa Option Calculator: The Original Option Webulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly. For those interested in pricing their own options, this Option Calculator, provided by Numa Financial Systems Ltd., calculates the adjusted Black-Scholes model to value European options.

1997-01-01

138

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing  

E-print Network

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing Graduate Degree Program Clinical Manual 2012....................................................................................................................1 Clinical Nurse Leader Major Role Function?.........................................................................2 Clinical Nurse Leader

Dyer, Bill

139

Exercising options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

Carlowicz, Michael

140

Among all the colleges on the Berkeley campus, you'll find the most number of biology-based major options in the College of Natural Resources. So if you know biology is your thing, think about what flavor of biol-  

E-print Network

in studying biology at the micro level, focusing on microor- ganisms like bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. YouAmong all the colleges on the Berkeley campus, you'll find the most number of biology-based major options in the College of Natural Resources. So if you know biology is your thing, think about what flavor

Wildermuth, Mary C

141

Child Care Subsidy Policies and Practices: Implications for Child Care Providers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief summarizes the report "Essential but Often Ignored: Child Care Providers in the Subsidy System," examining child care subsidy policies and practices shaping experiences of providers serving subsidized children, particularly those affecting providers' payments and their overall experience with the subsidy system. Research on the voucher…

Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Tout, Kathryn

142

Family Care or Foster Care? How State Policies Affect Kinship Caregivers. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Series A, No. A-34. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Urban Institute surveyed state foster care administrators to gather information on state policies for identifying, licensing, and financially supporting kinship care families. For purposes of this brief, "kinship care" refers to a child whose placement was arranged by child welfare authorities. States were found to differ in three…

Boots, Shelley Waters; Geen, Rob

143

Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.  

SciTech Connect

National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

Walter, Andrew

2009-06-01

144

AUGUST 2014 POLICY PAPER | Why did major global health institutions scale up ACTs but ignore combination zinc/oral rehydration therapy? | 1 Why did major global health institutions scale up artemisinin-based  

E-print Network

osmolarity oral rehydration salts (L-ORS). This Policy Paper uses a scale-up framework--one that examines osmolarity oral rehydration salts (L-ORS). The year 2004 was a watershed for both diseases. Randomized

Mullins, Dyche

145

Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

Trask, Newell J.

1994-01-01

146

Research Options for Controlling Zoonotic Disease in India, 2010–2015  

PubMed Central

Background Zoonotic infections pose a significant public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries and have traditionally been a neglected area of research. The Roadmap to Combat Zoonoses in India (RCZI) initiative conducted an exercise to systematically identify and prioritize research options needed to control zoonoses in India. Methods and Findings Priority setting methods developed by the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative were adapted for the diversity of sectors, disciplines, diseases and populations relevant for zoonoses in India. A multidisciplinary group of experts identified priority zoonotic diseases and knowledge gaps and proposed research options to address key knowledge gaps within the next five years. Each option was scored using predefined criteria by another group of experts. The scores were weighted using relative ranks among the criteria based upon the feedback of a larger reference group. We categorized each research option by type of research, disease targeted, factorials, and level of collaboration required. We analysed the research options by tabulating them along these categories. Seventeen experts generated four universal research themes and 103 specific research options, the majority of which required a high to medium level of collaboration across sectors. Research options designated as pertaining to ‘social, political and economic’ factorials predominated and scored higher than options focussing on ecological, genetic and biological, or environmental factors. Research options related to ‘health policy and systems’ scored highest while those related to ‘research for development of new interventions’ scored the lowest. Conclusions We methodically identified research themes and specific research options incorporating perspectives of a diverse group of stakeholders. These outputs reflect the diverse nature of challenges posed by zoonoses and should be acceptable across diseases, disciplines, and sectors. The identified research options capture the need for ‘actionable research’ for advancing the prevention and control of zoonoses in India. PMID:21364879

Sekar, Nitin; Shah, Naman K.; Abbas, Syed Shahid; Kakkar, Manish

2011-01-01

147

Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart policy change. The understanding of context, evidence and ideas, implementation and impact influenced how the participants considered and rated the options. Use of epistemic community actors identified the level of support for each option, helped elaborate the particularities of context, as well as the power and influence of ideas. Further examination of the potential barriers and opportunities for these options will determine if broader consensus, involving a wider range of stakeholders, can be achieved and policy change promoted. PMID:20565742

2010-01-01

148

Options Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released, this options paper, one in a series of papers from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, is part of a comprehensive review of the 76-year old US deposit insurance system. Because the US banking system is going through a period of healthiness, the FDIC feels that this is the best time to "address the latent flaws in the system." The paper begins with a marvelous introduction to the history and uses of the US deposit insurance system, including a lengthy overview on the need for system reform. The second section examines the pricing of deposit insurance for individual banks. Section three discusses the ways in which deposit insurance losses are funded, and the fourth section considers the extent of insurance coverage. The paper is available in its entirety in HTML format.

149

DCTD — Major Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Major Initiatives Search Grants Search Clinical Trials Ongoing Projects NCI Grants Policies Grant Application and Review Process DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

150

Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.  

PubMed

We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone. PMID:11532360

O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

2001-09-14

151

Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

Lawton, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

152

Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. PMID:22019449

Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

2012-02-01

153

Introduction to Options  

E-print Network

and Cooperative Extension Service. Options give the agricultural industry a flexi- ble pricing tool that helps with price risk manage- ment. Options offer a type of insurance against adverse price moves, require no margin deposits for buyers, and allow buyers... option. The option buyer also can sell the option to someone else or do nothing and let the option expire. The choice of action is left entirely to the option buyer. The option buyer obtains this right by paying the premium to the option seller...

Mintert, James R.; Welch, Mark

2009-01-07

154

Syllabus Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration  

E-print Network

Syllabus ­ Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration FNR and related natural resources administration and policies in the United States; policy components; policy of the course, you should be able to: State the key provisions of major natural resource policies Explain

Watson, Craig A.

155

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ...  

E-print Network

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ... Applied Mathematics Biomedical Sciences Computer Science Undergraduate Research Internships and Cooperative Education (Co-op) (optional) Study Abroad WHY IMAGING SCIENCE Science: BS, MS, PhD Color Science: MS, PhD BS + MS/PhD Combos HUMAN VISION BIO- MEDICAL ASTRO- PHYSICS

Zanibbi, Richard

156

Investor Valuation of the Abandonment Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether investors price the option to abandon the firm for its liquidation value. Theory prices this real option as an American put with both a stochastic strike price (liquidation value) and a stochastic value of the underlying security (the value of cash flows). The major empirical implications are that firm value increases in liquidation value, after controlling for

Philip G. Berger; Eli Ofek; Itzhak Swary

1995-01-01

157

Cybersecurity: Stakeholder incentives, externalities, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security breaches are increasingly motivated by fraudulent and criminal motives. Reducing their considerable costs has become a pressing issue. Although cybersecurity has strong public good characteristics, most information security decisions are made by individual stakeholders. Due to the interconnectedness of cyberspace, these decentralized decisions are afflicted with externalities that can result in sub-optimal security levels. Devising effective solutions to

Johannes M. Bauer; Michel J. G. van Eeten

2009-01-01

158

Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

Not Available

2014-09-01

159

Lack of resources a major obstacle in program implementation. Niigata declaration. Parliamentarians pledge to translate commitment into support for population policies.  

PubMed

This article presents the reaffirmation of the 96 parliamentarians from 28 countries during the international conference in Niigata, Japan, concerning their pledge in translating their commitment into supporting the population policies and development. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Cairo Declaration on Population and Development were embraced by the parliamentarians. The ICPD+5 process and the International Forum of Parliamentarians on ICPD Review were utilized in the guideline implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action. The governments were solicited to implement and monitor the progress of the ICPD Programme of Action in addressing the need for water, food, natural resources, environment and population, reproductive health and gender equality. Recognizing the inseparable relationship between population and sustainable development, governments were urge to ensure that international understanding and conventions must be consistent with the provision of food security and human survival. The organization implores the UN and the UN Population Fund to pursue its role in the formulation and implementation of population policies in different countries and regional organizations like the Association of South-East Asian Nations and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. The goal of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is to address the population and developmental problems in a comprehensive and integral fashion and the development of a worldwide network of concerned parliamentarians for the promotion of peace, prosperity and equality. PMID:12295495

1999-01-01

160

RCS program evaluation plan options  

SciTech Connect

The Residential Conservation Service (RCS) Program evaluation plan is designed to provide an ongoing evaluation during the RCS Program's active period as well as a measurement of the RCS Program's cumulative effect after the program's termination. The study options described include utility case studies, random survey sampling, directed survey sampling, and remote data collection. Survey techniques are described and appropriate questions are suggested. Several sample selection criteria are included as background for a DOE policy decision on this issue. Present and anticipated data sources are listed and discussed. Statistical data analysis plans include a preliminary determination of required sample sizes.

Stovall, T.K.; Bayne, C.K.

1980-10-01

161

The Environment and Health endorsed option focuses on physical and  

E-print Network

The Environment and Health endorsed option focuses on physical and social environments protection, health promotion, health education, urban development, resource management, health policy of population health must take into account the physical and social environments within which people live

Hickman, Mark

162

COURSE OF STUDY: DISTANCE OPTION MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM  

E-print Network

be available in the distance option. These include: Working with Involuntary Clients, Child and Adolescent Development in the Social Environment, Issues in Child Welfare, Health Care Policies and Programs and Poverty

163

Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance  

E-print Network

Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance Major I ­ Pre-professional (Medicine, Dentistry, Business, Law, Engineering) Major II ­ ACS Certified e.g. Graduate Study or Entry Level Chemistry Employment. Major III ­ Forensic Chemistry Major IV** ­ Biochemistry Option Chemistry Minor General Chemistry I & II

Schmitt, William R.

164

Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may force…

Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

2006-01-01

165

Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

2011-01-01

166

OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY  

E-print Network

OPTIONS for ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS December 2005 CEC-400-2005-039-CMF;OPTIONS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY in EXISTING BUILDINGS COMMISSION REPORT TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................iii California's Successful Energy Efficiency Programs

167

Option market making under inventory risk Sasha Stoikov  

E-print Network

- ture, Vega Stoikov acknowledges support from the Morgan Stanley Equity Market Microstructure ResearchOption market making under inventory risk Sasha Stoikov Mehmet Saglam February 15, 2009 Abstract We propose a mean-variance framework to analyze the optimal quoting policy of an option market maker

Stoikov, Sasha

168

Today's "Neglected Majority"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

Risley, Rod A.

2007-01-01

169

B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option Course Title Course # Credits  

E-print Network

B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation 472 05 Intro to Food Engr. Process Design BEE 473 03 OPTION: FERMENTATION SCIENCE Food Science Major Core (91-95 Cr.) FERMENTATION SCIENCE OPTION Additional Supporting Courses (8 Cr.) NUTR225 may

Escher, Christine

170

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

171

Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies  

PubMed Central

The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

2012-01-01

172

Capture-Ready Power Plants -Options, Technologies and Economics Mark C. Bohm  

E-print Network

1 Capture-Ready Power Plants - Options, Technologies and Economics by Mark C. Bohm Bachelor and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Capture-ready Power Plants ­ Options, Technologies and Costs by Mark C. Bohm for the Degree of Master of Science in Technology and Policy ABSTRACT A plant can be considered to be capture

173

91A RESOURCE LEASING POLICY A RESOURCE LEASING POLICY FOR  

E-print Network

91A RESOURCE LEASING POLICY A RESOURCE LEASING POLICY FOR ON-DEMAND COMPUTING Darin England Jon@CS.UMN.EDU) Abstract Leasing computational resources for on-demand comput- ing is now a viable option for providers leasing arrangements. From the service provider's perspective, the problem is how many resources to lease

Weissman, Jon

174

76 FR 44633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rule Change To Increase the Position and Exercise Limits for Options on the Standard...its rules to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the Standard and...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for SPY options from...

2011-07-26

175

77 FR 43897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rule Change To Increase Position and Exercise Limits for EEM Options July 20, 2012...Limits) to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the iShares MSCI...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for EEM options to 500,000...

2012-07-26

176

Hedging Cattle with an LRP Policy  

E-print Network

or put option price is the cost of the respective premiums. LRP policies also have these advantages: They provide coverage in months when ? CME contracts are not available. They instill confi dence that the policy ? can/will be purchased at the rates... to Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) put options. LRP policies can be effective hedging tools for livestock produc- ers. Basics of Hedging Hedging is the process of trying to secure an attractive or acceptable price now for a com- modity...

Thompson, Bill; Bevers, Stan; Pena, Jose G.

2008-12-05

177

Chicano Studies Major Major Advisor  

E-print Network

Chicano Studies Major Major Advisor Laura Jimenez-Olvera 532 Barrows Hall 510-642-0243 lauraj@berkeley.edu http://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Chicano studies major offers an interdisciplinary curriculum of academic study that critically examines the historical and contemporary experiences

Walker, Matthew P.

178

MAJOR RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATION (MAJOR) (Maximum: $7,500)  

E-print Network

for this project. ETHICS APPROVAL If research related to your proposed project involves human or animal subjectsMAJOR RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATION (MAJOR) (Maximum: $7,500) Deadline: April 15, November 15 Refer to "Research Policies & Procedures" for Program details. 1 COPY (double-sided preferred) Note: Incomplete

Martin, Jeff

179

The City House and the Country House: Land-Use Policies and Rural Poverty in the Northeast. Coal, Poverty, and Development Policy in Eastern Kentucky. Development and Management of Forest Resources for Rural Development in the Pacific Northwest. Natural and Human Resources: Major Public Policy and Minority Rural Land Ownership, Management, and Use. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series, Part V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop collection contains four case studies regarding particular relationships between specific resources and clientele or user groups, and three discussions based on those four papers and/or conference discussions. The first paper discusses urban land use origins and compares urban policies with rural policies suggesting that future rural…

Popper, Frank J.; And Others

180

The Origins of Options  

PubMed Central

Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

2012-01-01

181

of Social Work and Social Policy  

E-print Network

School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

O'Mahony, Donal E.

182

Labor policy and investment: Evidence from Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some critics of proposed legislative labor policy changes contend that laws favoring labor would adversely affect business investment. Research on labor policy, however, often assumes that investment is fixed. The authors present a sequential bargaining model in which labor policies that increase labor's bargaining power and reduce management's options during strikes are predicted to reduce investment. The results of an

John W. Budd; Yijiang Wang

2004-01-01

183

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

184

Major Links.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

Henderson, Tona

1995-01-01

185

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy  

E-print Network

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

Kasman, Alex

186

Physics & Astronomy Degree options  

E-print Network

148 Physics & Astronomy Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics MPhys (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics Theoretical Physics BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Physics) Theoretical Physics and Mathematics MSci (Joint Honours Degree) Physics and Chemistry Entrance Requirements

Brierley, Andrew

187

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

188

Room Technology Printing Options  

E-print Network

. Patrons have the option of checking out a small box that contains dry erase markers, an erasing cloth Equipment (ask Reserves Desk Staff): Dry erase markers and wiping cloth Audio cables Apple Video Port

189

New Menu Options  

MedlinePLUS

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. New Menu Options HealthDay October 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus ... to their menus? The answer according to a new study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine ...

190

Cogeneration System Design Options  

E-print Network

and thermal needs of a firm, and what kind of operating economics and system paybacks have been achieved. Several cogeneration options are also illustrated to eliminate the problems and uncertainties of dealing with uninterested or non-cooperative utilities...

Gilbert, J. S.

191

Mathematics & Degree options  

E-print Network

132 Mathematics & Statistics Degree options MMath (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Applied Mathematics Pure Mathematics Statistics BSc or MA (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Statistics [If you wish (Joint Honours Degrees) Mathematics and one of: Biology Chemistry Computer Science Economics Geography

Brierley, Andrew

192

A Menu of Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Armed with a few topical and organizational strategies, primary grade teachers can successfully introduce their young scientists to science notebooks. The following overview of notebook methods offers a menu of options to help you develop creative and mea

Joyner, Valerie

2010-11-01

193

Global plutonium management: A security option  

SciTech Connect

The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

Sylvester, K.W.B.

1998-12-31

194

Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.  

PubMed

Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

2012-11-01

195

Internet Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, in Red Herring, Charles Conn, CEO of Ticketmaster Online-City-Search explained the difficulties of hiring people in San Francisco: "Everyone seems to know someone whose company just got bought for millions of dollars," and according to Conn, job seekers in the Internet industry put stock options high on their list of benefits and incentives. This week's In The News examines stock options as they affect high-tech companies and their employees. On July 1, 1999, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that 42 local companies, mainly Internet start-ups, had gone public in the preceding six months with the astounding gain of 138 percent. Throughout the Silicon Valley, employees of computer companies are hedging their bets, hoping that the companies they work for will be the next eBay or Amazon. However, the chances of striking it rich through Internet stock options are slim. High-tech employees move from company to company looking for better options at promising start-ups, while computer companies improve their option packages in order to entice their workers to stay. The seven resources discussed provide news, articles, and background information on the lures and pitfalls of Internet stock options.

Missner, Emily D.

196

Surgical options for short bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most children with short bowel syndrome experience spontaneous small bowel adaptation over time. This allows the majority to be weaned from parenteral nutrition. There are, however, some children who cannot be weaned and are potential candidates for techniques to promote intestinal adaptation and intestinal lengthening. Here, surgical therapeutic options are described, literature reviewed, and reported results evaluated. Surgical procedures for

Ashley H. Vernon; Keith E. Georgeson

2001-01-01

197

Nevada Transportatoion Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

2006-05-25

198

Major depression.  

PubMed

Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

2014-09-01

199

Policy Brief October 2014  

E-print Network

2014-12 Policy Brief October 2014 For more policy briefs, click here. New Car Dealers and Retail&EV Center, Institute of Transportation Studies eccahill@ucdavis.edu Issue Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs interviews with six automakers and 20 new car dealers in California's major metro markets for PEVs. The study

California at Davis, University of

200

[Bulgaria's ethnodemographic policy].  

PubMed

The status of Bulgaria's various ethnic and religious groups and the state policies that affect them are reviewed. "The author suggests some major principles of ethnodemographic policy that should be implemented in this country...." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12285150

Mizov, B

1992-01-01

201

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted in accordance with all  

E-print Network

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted%2029%2013.pdf Option 2 of University Policy 4-009.2 http://www.fa.ucf.edu/Forms/PCard/41-980.pdf Cell Phone Payroll FAQs (for Policy 4-900.2) http://hr.ucf.edu/files/CellPhonePayrollFAQ.pdf Cell Phone Allowance

Wu, Shin-Tson

202

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

Lipo, T. A.

1995-01-01

203

Policy implications for familial searching  

PubMed Central

In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

2011-01-01

204

Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

2013-01-01

205

Handbook of Education Policy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

2009-01-01

206

[Urbanization control policies in Indonesia].  

PubMed

Urbanization policy in Indonesia is outlined. Elements of this policy include the issuing of residency permits for major urban areas, the migration program to assist jobless urban residents in moving to underpopulated areas, and rural development and the encouragement of growth in smaller urban centers. The effectiveness of existing policies in controlling urbanization is assessed. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12280770

Syafrizal

1987-06-01

207

Sociology and School Busing Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper cites some of the contributions that sociology has made to desegregation policy. The major contribution, made by public opinion research, is establishing the level of support or opposition to busing policy. A second contribution to desegregation policy has been made by those sociologists and social psychologists who have studied the…

Armor, David J.

208

Computer Science Degree options  

E-print Network

82 Computer Science Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Computer Science and one of: Economics Logic and Philosophy of Science Management Management Science MSci (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science Entrance Requirements (see also pages 164 - 205

Brierley, Andrew

209

New Options, Old Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Will greater school choice result in more responsive, higher quality schools and happier parents? Or will proliferating options further sort students and families by race, social class, and special interest? Increasingly, education is viewed as a private good. If parents become autonomous, self-interested consumers, erosion of common purposes and…

O'Neil, John

1996-01-01

210

Accommodation Options Darwin  

E-print Network

Accommodation Options ­ Darwin Charles Darwin University #12;· WelcomeHomestayNetwork . . . . . . . . . . 20 Contents #12;3 Welcome to Charles Darwin University. We congratulate you for making the decision-campusAccommodationatCDU . . . . . 5 · InternationalHouseDarwin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 · i

211

Advanced Options Cover Story  

E-print Network

-silica hybrid structure that self-assembles into a crystalline mesoporous material in which orderly layersSearch Advanced Options Cover Story Chemistry Highlights 2002 · Introduction · Organic Chemistry · Materials · Supramolecular Chemistry · Fullerenes · Nanotubes · Nanoscience · Molecular Electronics

Suslick, Kenneth S.

212

Our Energy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

213

ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

214

Exploring Career Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter theme issue offers advice to academically talented youth on exploring career options. It begins with an article titled "How To Think about Your Career When You Haven't Even Decided Where To Go to College." The article notes the hazards of early career choice and recognizes the career indecision often brought on by…

Hellerman, Susan B., Ed.

1994-01-01

215

Alternative Education Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

216

A Menu of Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Armed with a few topical and organizational strategies, primary grade teachers can successfully introduce their young scientists to science notebooks. The following overview of notebook methods offers a menu of options to help you develop creative and meaningful science notebook experiences. Choose and customize what works for your classroom to…

Joyner, Valerie

2010-01-01

217

DIETETICS OPTION STUDENT HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

DIETETICS OPTION STUDENT HANDBOOK Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences College.D., R.D., Program Director Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences Agricultural Sciences: (808) 956-4024 E-mail: shovic@hawaii.edu Web Page: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/hnfas/degrees/undergrad/FSHN.html#diet

218

Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

Pappu, Ravi

2004-01-01

219

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major The Department of Health and Human://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health- human-development/health-human-development/food-nutrition-major- dietetics-option) is designed and Human Development advising office located in the Hosaeus PE Complex. The nutrition science option (http://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health-human

Maxwell, Bruce D.

220

Possible Career Paths with an Interpersonal Communication major Depending upon the student's interests, second majors and minors, the interpersonal  

E-print Network

Possible Career Paths with an Interpersonal Communication major Depending upon the student's interests, second majors and minors, the interpersonal communication graduate can choose from a wide range of career options. Sales Representative Negotiator Customer Service Agent Claims Representative Healthcare

de Doncker, Elise

221

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

2002-01-01

222

Coherence between health policy and human resource strategy: lessons from maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.  

PubMed

The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree of coherence between health policy-in this case maternal health policy-processes and HR strategy in Vietnam, China and India in the period 2005-09. Four maternal health policy case studies were explored [skilled birth attendance (SBA), adolescent and sexual reproductive health, domestic violence and medical termination of pregnancy] across three countries through interviews with key respondents, document analysis and stakeholder meetings. Analysis for coherence between health policy and HR strategy was informed by a typology covering 'separation', 'fit' and 'dialogue'. Regarding coherence we found examples of complete separation between health policy and HR strategy, a good fit with the SBA policy though modified through 'dialogue' in Vietnam, and in one case a good fit between policy and strategy was developed through successive evaluations. Three key influences on coherence between health policy and HR strategy emerge from our findings: (1) health as the lead sector, (2) the nature of the policy instrument and (3) the presence of 'HR champions'. Finally, we present a simple algorithm to ensure that appropriate HR related actors are involved; HR is considered at the policy development stage with the option of modifying the policy if it cannot be adequately supported by the available health workforce; and ensuring that HR strategies are monitored to ensure continued coherence with the health policy. This approach will ensure that the health workforce contributes more effectively to meeting the MDGs and future health goals. PMID:24374717

Martineau, Tim; Mirzoev, Tolib; Pearson, Stephen; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Xu, Qian; Ramani, K V; Liu, Xiaoyun

2015-02-01

223

Major Depression Can Be Prevented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

2012-01-01

224

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact andvulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having thepotential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related toclimate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops atypology of adaptation to systematically classify and characterize

Barry Smit; Mark W. Skinner

2002-01-01

225

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact and vulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having the potential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related to climate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops a typology of adaptation to

Barry Smit; MARK W. SKINNER

2002-01-01

226

Wake Forest U. Joins Ranks of Test-Optional Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wake Forest University will no longer require applicants to submit standardized test scores, the university announced last week. The move makes Wake Forest, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, one of the most prominent institutions with a "test optional" admissions policy. The university's decision reveals the increasing complexity of the national…

Hoover, Eric; Supiano, Beckie

2008-01-01

227

Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply  

SciTech Connect

State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-12-01

228

The Fusion Energy Option  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

Dean, Stephen O.

2004-06-01

229

The safeguards options study  

SciTech Connect

The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

230

Options for Change: A Flexible Vehicle for Curriculum Evolution and Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we examine a flexible curricular approach known as the "Option." The Option enables students to supplement traditional majors with a coherent set of courses and other educational experiences in a related, often interdisciplinary field. Options can act as curricular bridges between mainstream academic fields and problems of…

Baldwin, Roger G.; Baumann, Melissa J.

2005-01-01

231

Milk Futures, Options and Basis  

E-print Network

The milk futures and options market enables producers and processors to manage price risk. This publication explains hedging, margin accounts, basis and how to track it, and other fundamentals of the futures and options market....

Haigh, Michael; Stockton, Matthew; Anderson, David P.; Schwart Jr., Robert B.

2001-10-12

232

The Window Strategy with Options  

E-print Network

The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

1999-06-23

233

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

234

Pricing of American retail options Christina Burton, McKay Heasley, Jeffrey Humpherys, Jialin Li  

E-print Network

-DMS-0847074. provide a model for customer purchases as a function of the retailer's pricing policyPricing of American retail options Christina Burton, McKay Heasley, Jeffrey Humpherys, Jialin Li and controlling inventories in a retail market. We propose a new class of American put option contracts

Humpherys, Jeffrey

235

46 CFR 308.519 - Standard optional endorsement No. 2, Form MA-300-B.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Standard Optional Endorsement No. 2, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency or MARAD, amends the policy to cover shipments made to the Assured or shipped by the Assured as agent for the account and risk of a principal. Application for Standard Optional Endorsement...

2010-10-01

236

Legal, economic and psychological issues of accounting for employee stock options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes economic, legal, behavioral and public policy issues pertaining to the accounting for employee stock options. The paper explains why employee stock options (ESOs) are superior to other forms of incentive compensation, why ESOs in their present form are inefficient and why particular accounting, legal and tax treatments will provide the optimal results for the economy, the government,

Michael Nwogugu

2004-01-01

237

The impacts of recent tax legislation on dividend policy and investment  

E-print Network

and dividend policies. Data analyses suggest that greater board independence mitigates the effects of both CEO stock and option holdings on dividend increases. Additionally, firms appear to implicitly dividend-protect options through increased cash compensation...

Huston, George Ryan

2009-05-15

238

Installment Options and Static Hedging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An installment option is a European option in which the premium, instead of being paid up-front, is paid in a series of installments. If all installments are paid the holder receives the exercise value, but the holder has the right to terminate payments on any payment date, in which case the option lapses with no further payments on either side.

MARK H. A. DAVIS; WALTER SCHACHERMAYER; ROBERT G. TOMPKINS

2002-01-01

239

Theory of Rational Option Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long history of the theory of option pricing began in 1900 when the French mathematician Louis Bachelier deduced an option pricing formula based on the assumption that stock prices follow a Brownian motion with zero drift. Since that time, numerous researchers have contributed to the theory. The present paper begins by deducing a set of restrictions on option pricing

Robert C. Merton

1973-01-01

240

Policy 6.12 Flexible Work  

E-print Network

Policy 6.12 Flexible Work Roles and Responsibilities The Ohio State University Office of Human Resources Page 1 of 1 Policy 6.12 Flexible Work ­ Roles and Responsibilities Issued 03/01/11 What Role Do I Play? Employees Supervisor Unit Office of Human Resources Know what flexible work options are available

Jones, Michelle

241

Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013)  

E-print Network

Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013) The purpose of this policy is to provide or repository for both non-credit and credit bearing internships. Employers and organizations wishing to post an internship opportunity have the option to contact the Career Center and indicate their interest in a Siena

242

Maastricht treaty: Consequences for national housing policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

European integration will have several effects on national housing policies. The major responsibility for policy formulation and policy implementation in housing will remain with national and local governments. Nevertheless, the Maastricht Treaty will have important implications for housing through several channels: factor mobility, competition policy and liberalisation of markets, economic growth, lower inflation, cuts in government spending, tax harmonisation and

Hugo Priemus; Mark Kleinman; Duncan Maclennan; Bengt Turner

1994-01-01

243

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

244

Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

2012-01-01

245

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01

246

Martingale option pricing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that our earlier generalization of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation (pde) for variable diffusion coefficients is equivalent to a Martingale in the risk neutral discounted stock price. Previously, the equivalence of Black-Scholes to a Martingale was proven for the case of the Gaussian returns model by Harrison and Kreps, but we prove it for a much larger class of returns models where the returns diffusion coefficient depends irreducibly on both returns x and time t. That option prices blow up if fat tails in logarithmic returns x are included in market return is also proven.

McCauley, J. L.; Gunaratne, G. H.; Bassler, K. E.

2007-07-01

247

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

2004-10-03

248

Impact of the proposed core melt policy  

SciTech Connect

Recent encounters with FEMA/NRC and New Jersey have focused our attention on the proposed severe core melt policy. Currently, these federal agencies make the supposition that an automatic evacuation out to 5 miles upon a General Emergency declaration would provide greater protection to the public than an independent grounded assessment which would include the option to shelter. This policy appears to be contrary to EPA-400 and supportable decision making. This talk discusses the policy.

Tosch, K. [Bureau of Nuclear Engineering, Trenton, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

249

Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables through the pricing system. Based on past policy experience, it is unlikely that such an approach would allow PV to compete in Delaware as an energy supply option in the next ten to twenty years. Alternatively, a market-based, or green pricing, approach will not create significant market opportunities for PV as a centralized energy supply option. However, structural policies designed to encourage the explicit recognition of the localized benefits of distributed resources could result in PV being introduced into the electrical system early in the next century.

Letendre, Steven Emery

250

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy  

PubMed Central

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

2009-01-01

251

Learning Goals for Undergraduate Forestry and Natural Resources Majors Undergraduate Student Learning Initiative  

E-print Network

Learning Goals for Undergraduate Forestry and Natural Resources Majors Undergraduate Student Learning Initiative University of California ­ Berkeley The Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) major-changing world. The FNR major includes a professional option (Forestry and Natural Sciences, Professional

Wildermuth, Mary C

252

Lower Cost Energy Options  

E-print Network

LOWER COST ENERGY OPTIONS Malcom E. Maze Manager, Corp. Energy Management Abbott Laborator1es Abbott Park, Ill1no1s Before I start talk1ng about lower cost energy opt10ns, wh1ch 1s the subject of my talk today, I'd 11ke to tell you a 11...ttle b1t about Abbott Laborator1es. Abbott 1s a world-w1de health care company w1th 27 manufactur1ng and research fac111t1es 1n the U.S. and Puerto R1co totall1ng more than 10,000,000 square feet of floor space. The company has also has manufactur1...

Maze, M. E.

253

Full Scope of Options  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of Clinical Problem Solving articles is to present management challenges to give practicing neurosurgeons insight into how field leaders address these dilemmas. This illustration is accompanied by a brief review of the literature on the topic. PRESENTATION The case of a 16-year-old boy presenting with headaches is presented. The patient is found to have a typical colloid cyst at the foramen of Monro. Bilateral ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement had been performed as an initial treatment of the patient before presentation. RESULTS Surgeons experienced in open and endoscopic surgery discuss their individual approaches to colloid cysts, in the context of previous shunting, providing a varied perspective on the clinical challenges posed by these lesions. CONCLUSION Both open and endoscopic options remain viable for excision of a colloid cyst. Each has associated potential complications, as illustrated by the current case. PMID:20559107

Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Schuette, Albert J.; Boulis, Nicholas; Hao, Charlie; Barrow, Daniel L.; Teo, Charles

2010-01-01

254

MAJOR: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & FAMILY STUDIES (HDFS) Minimum HDFS Major Hours: 32 (at least 18 semester hours for the HDFS major  

E-print Network

Children: Behavior & Guidance 3 F, S FCS 2620 Child Development Practicum (pre/co-req 2610) 3 F, S FCS 2621 Policy 3 S FCS 5210 Family Life Education 3 F, S, SU FCS 5230 Adolescent Development 3 S FCS 5240 AdultMAJOR: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & FAMILY STUDIES (HDFS) Minimum HDFS Major Hours: 32 (at least 18 semester

Tipple, Brett

255

Hedging With a Put Option  

E-print Network

liability with no margin deposits, and the potential to benefit from higher prices. Futures contracts alone cannot provide this combination of downside price insurance and upside potential. The put provides leverage in obtaining cred- it, assists... position, even at a loss. Using Put Options for Price Protection Buyers of put options can hedge their downside price risk for a period of time and still benefit from potential price gains if the market should increase. Options are much like an insurance...

Anderson, Carl; Smith, Jackie; McCorkle, Dean; O'Brien, Daniel

1999-06-23

256

Security Policy Facilities Management Policy  

E-print Network

Security Policy Facilities Management Policy © Victoria University of Wellington Page 1 Effective are provided within the University precincts. The aim of the policy is: (a) To ensure the management of this policy, unless otherwise stated, the following definitions shall apply: Incident: Any unexpected event

Frean, Marcus

257

Ethnic Studies Undergraduate Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

Ethnic Studies Undergraduate Major Major Advisors Dewey St. Germaine & Laura Jimenez-Olvera 530@berkeley.edu http://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ The Group Major in Ethnic Studies The group major in ethnic studies. Students majoring in ethnic studies study the history, culture, politics, and sociology of Third World

Walker, Matthew P.

258

Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.  

PubMed

Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system. PMID:24374463

Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

2014-01-15

259

Lumbar spinal stenosis: therapeutic options review.  

PubMed

Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) functionally impacts significant numbers of Americans per year. Current estimates place the number of Americans suffering from senescent lumbar spinal stenosis at 400,000. The prevalence of this disorder in patients ranging from 60 to 69 years of age is very high. Forty-seven percent of this age group have mild to moderate stenosis, and 19.7% have severe stenosis. As the baby boomer generation gets older, 10,000 individuals attain the age of 65 years every day in United States. LSS is becoming very common and will be a major healthcare issue as the population ages. Although LSS is not life threatening, it can cause substantial disability with limitations to performing daily activities, and thus, the associated negative impact on quality of life (QOL). This article reviews the pathophysiology and current treatment options for LSS, focusing on evidence-based treatment options. PMID:24725422

Costandi, Shrif; Chopko, Bohdan; Mekhail, Mena; Dews, Teresa; Mekhail, Nagy

2015-01-01

260

Notes: Installation vs. Echelon Stock Policies for Multilevel Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares installation and echelon stock policies for multilevel inventory control. The major results are for serial and assembly systems. For (Q, r)-rules, echelon stock policies are, in general, superior to installation stock policies. A Kanban-policy is identified as a restricted type of installation stock (Q, r)-policy.

Sven Axsäter; Kaj Rosling

1993-01-01

261

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Larry Myer

2006-04-30

262

Selected Energy Conservation Options for Homeowners: Options, Expenses and Payoffs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a check list for homeowners and renters to help them reduce energy costs. The list consists of 126 energy conservation options. These options range from "change clothes instead of adjusting thermostat" and "air conditioners turned off when not home" to "use sink stopper" and "weatherstripping and caulking applied." For each…

Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

263

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major  

E-print Network

Chemistry II 4 NUTR 221CS - Basic Human Nutrition 3 PHSX 205 - College Physics I 4 PHSX 207 - CollegeMontana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Nutrition Science Option The nutrition science option is designed to prepare a student for admission to medical (allopathic

Maxwell, Bruce D.

264

Energy Options for Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Produced for public interest, the Environmental Education Group has prepared this two-part review of the current state of energy utilization, the nature of the energy crisis, and approaches to energy production. The major section is a presentation of alternative sources of energy that are neglected, are of possible aid in the near future, or are…

Tratner, Karen Lee

265

MA Psychology Optional Modules  

E-print Network

, and their implications for contemporary theoretical models of brain function. Adaptive Behaviour (20 credits) The modern in how people interpret, respond and adapt to these threats. However, individuals and communities are essentially resilient and able to adapt to both minor and major challenges. This module will examine adaptive

Miall, Chris

266

A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

Bacon, Kathy A.

2010-01-01

267

Stock Options: The Backdating Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Employee stock options are contracts giving employees the right to buy the company’s common stock at a specified exercise price, at a specified time or during a specified period, and after a specified vesting period. The value of the option when granted lies in the prospect that the market price of the company’s stock will increase by the time

James M Bickley; Gary Shorter

2008-01-01

268

LEASE OPTION AGREEMENT (Coliseum Property)  

E-print Network

-1- 11/06/2012 LEASE OPTION AGREEMENT (Coliseum Property) This Lease Option Agreement (the (the "Property"). B. Owner currently leases the Land to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission (the "Commission") pursuant to a lease dated as of January 3, 1956 and most recently amended

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

269

LEASE OPTION AGREEMENT (Coliseum Property)  

E-print Network

LEASE OPTION AGREEMENT (Coliseum Property) This Lease Option Agreement (the "Agreement") is made "Property"). B. Owner currently leases the Land to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission (the "Commission") pursuant to a lease dated as of January 3, 1956 and most recently amended as of February 13

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

270

AFCI Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2009-09-01

271

Ground Vehicle Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the Viking missions paint a terrain of volcanic plains, complex lava flow, channel beds, and escarpments. This extreme variety of terrain puts a stringent requirement on the Mars rover design. The rover's versatility will be reflected by its performance over troughs, through rock fields, over duricrust, and about craters. The terrain to be traversed will consist of boulders, and surfaces, loose soil, and partially buried rocks. Wheeled, tracked, or legged locomotion are some of the options to be examined for the rover's primary mode of mobility. This paper will discuss the relationship of the vehicle to this terrain. In particular, what should the feet of a walking vehicle look like? Should the wheels or tracks be ribbed or channeled? As a result, other possible configurations will be looked at with respect to sinkage, slip, obstacle crossing, slope performance, and drawbar pull/weight ratio. The preliminary analysis will be key to design of the Mars mobility system and set a guideline for future concepts.

Chun, Wendell

1987-01-01

272

PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --1 PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --2  

E-print Network

PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University D. Facilities E. Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology 2. Department Faculty and Staff

Sanders, Matthew

273

Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.  

PubMed

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries. PMID:18193318

Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

2008-04-01

274

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09

275

Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has recently placed online the October 1999 report entitled "Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea." Written by Jin-Gyu Oh and others, the report (.pdf format) discusses the implications of Korea's energy choices -- coal, gas, nuclear, or renewable energy -- and how the chosen "mix of policy, growth, and technology will affect investment costs and the local and global environment."

Chandler, William.; Jo, Sung B.; Kim, Jinwoo.; Logan, Jeffrey.; Oh, Jin-Gyu.; Roh, Dong-Seok.

1999-01-01

276

Policy Problematization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

Webb, P. Taylor

2014-01-01

277

Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa  

SciTech Connect

Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

Makundi, Willy R.

1998-06-01

278

Ideology and cultural policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By examining voting behavior in a referendum on the construction of a concert hall in Germany, I show that political ideology influences cultural policy. The results suggest that resistance to the concert hall was particularly strong in electoral districts in which majorities of citizens vote for the social democrats. By contrast, constituents of rightwing parties voted more in favor of

Niklas Potrafke

2010-01-01

279

Trustees and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington-based national organizations are seen as effective in dealing with the government, especially on technical questions. But when major policy issues are to be decided, it is suggested that a college president or board member is more effective. Knowing the committee structure is seen as necessary for influencing legislation. (Author/MLW)

Saunders, Charles B.; Bellows, Everett H.

1980-01-01

280

Labor Market Policy Options of the Kurdistan Regional Government  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a descriptive analysis of the labor market conditions in Iraqi Federal Kurdistan Region. It explores a number of integrated factors that covariate and determine the level and patterns of the labor market outcomes in the region. In the first step, each of the determinants of unemployment is described and establishes their causal and directions of possible effects.

Almas Heshmati

2007-01-01

281

Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years…

Best, Jane R.

2010-01-01

282

Surface technologies 2006—Alternative energies and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfaces are the immediate contact between anything in our world. Literally, every industry utilizes coatings and surface modifications in order to create surfaces tailored to specific needs, protect underlying substrates, or modify their behavior. Surface and coating technologies are essential to a large variety of different industrial sectors, including transportation, manufacturing, food and biomedical engineering, energy, resources, and materials science

Lars Rose

2007-01-01

283

State options for low-carbon coal policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing state-level interest in the USA in accelerating the development of low-carbon coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS). Many states have adopted greenhouse gas emission targets and made commitments to low-carbon energy, and believe that these polices will result in job creation, air quality improvements, and reliable low-cost energy supplies. This paper provides an overview of

Richard Cowart; Shanna Vale; Joshua Bushinsky; Pat Hogan

2008-01-01

284

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

2010-06-01

285

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

213 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences Director Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: B-making process and acquiring an intellectual base for policy-making skills. The course of study addresses innovations or regulations are adopted and implemented as matters of public policy, and humanities majors can

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

286

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

238 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences DIRECTOR Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: BA-making process and acquiring an intellectual base for policy-making skills.The course of study addresses innovations or regulations are adopted and implemented as matters of public policy, and humanities majors can

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

287

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

238 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences Director Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: B-making process and acquiring an intellectual base for policy-making skills. The course of study addresses innovations or regulations are adopted and implemented as matters of public policy, and humanities majors can

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

288

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

250 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences Director Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: BA-making process and acquiring an intellectual base for policy-making skills. The course of study addresses or regulations are adopted and implemented as matters of public policy, and humanities majors can explore career

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

289

Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

2011-01-01

290

Information systems security policies: a contextual perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of information systems is a major problem faced by organisations. The application of a security policy is considered essential for managing the security of information systems. Implementing a successful security policy in an organisation, however, is not a straightforward task and depends on many factors. This paper explores the processes of formulating, implementing and adopting a security policy

Maria Karyda; Evangelos A. Kiountouzis; Spyros Kokolakis

2005-01-01

291

Pricing and hedging a barrier option  

E-print Network

Barrier options are options where the payoff depends on whether the underlying asset's price reaches a certain level during a certain period of time. This path-dependency makes these options difficult to manage in practice. In this work, general...

Bogossian, Alan

2002-01-01

292

77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will such revisions significantly affect hedging opportunities available to currently active...eligibility standard, is to ensure that hedging opportunities for commercial entities...Trade options, which are commonly used as hedging instruments or in connection with...

2012-04-27

293

CONCENTRATIONS CAREER OPTIONS DEGREE REQUIREMENTS  

E-print Network

CONCENTRATIONS CAREER OPTIONS DEGREE REQUIREMENTS COMMON BUSINESS CORE OR For more information from top researchers and educators in the industry how to success- fully manage resources, products Innovation Master of Science in Telecommunications Management After completing the core business

Yang, Eui-Hyeok

294

Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Stories Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes ... November 19, 2014 at 04:33:10 PM Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback ...

295

Surface Transportation Policy Partnership  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in looking at any number of viable transportation options ranging from enhanced carpooling systems to building pedestrian-friendly communities. One coalition that has spent a considerable time examining these matters is the Surface Transportation Policy Partnership (STPP). The homepage provides quick access to a number of helpful publications, including âÂÂA Guide to Transportation Opportunities in Your CommunityâÂÂ, which reviews âÂÂhow federal surface transportation law can be used to support local and statewide efforts to build more livable communities and expand travel options.â Visitors may also enjoy the âÂÂKey Reportsâ area, which includes such titles as âÂÂAging Americans: Stranded Without OptionsâÂÂ. The site is rounded out by the âÂÂStats for Your Stateâ section, which includes an interactive map of the 50 states. Here, visitors can click on each state to view statistics that indicate the level of federal funding for transportation there and regional congestion data.

296

The 21st Century Challenge: Moving the Youth Agenda Forward. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Public Policy Issues Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains nine papers devoted to the labor market problems faced by out-of-school and other disadvantaged young people in the United States and policy options and strategies for addressing those problems. The papers update the data on out-of-school young adults, review the lessons learned from past youth programs and policies,…

Pines, Marion, Ed.

297

Assessing Novel Foundation Options for Offshore Wind Turbines  

E-print Network

Assessing Novel Foundation Options for Offshore Wind Turbines B.W. Byrne, BE(Hons), BCom, MA, DPhil G.T. Houlsby, MA, DSc, FREng, FICE Oxford University, UK SYNOPSIS Offshore wind farms, and of these wind power is the only one to be exploited on a commercial scale at present. Three major offshore

Byrne, Byron

298

6 options spring '00 understanding adaptation in natural systems  

E-print Network

that is expected to make any adaptations induced by fishing practices particularly obvious. The Northeast Arctic6 options spring '00 understanding adaptation in natural systems Shrinking Cod: Fishery-Induced Change in an Oceanic Stock Fishing is a major source of food and other resources for humankind. Today

Dieckmann, Ulf

299

Therapeutic options for essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several options exist for treating essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. One approach is to assign the patient to a risk category from which treatment recommendations follow. The principal risks of essential thrombocythemia include thrombosis, major hemorrhage, and conversion to leukemia or myelofibrosis. Risk factors for thrombosis include age and prior thrombosis. Smoking and obesity have been implicated in isolated series.

Lawrence A. Solberg

2002-01-01

300

SP100 Generic Flight System Design and Early Flight Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two major objectives. The first is to provide an update to the Generic Flight System (GFS) configuration which is the reference design that provides the requirements for the ongoing hardware and test program. The second objective is to review the early flight design options that the first generation technology readiness will enable. Technology readiness is reached when

Allan T. Josloff; Neal F. Shepard; Tak S. Chan; Frank C. Greenwood; Nelson A. Deane; James D. Stephen; Ronald E. Murata

1994-01-01

301

MAJORS ADVISED Kamara Jackson  

E-print Network

Communication Instructional Design Ethics in the Workplace Psychology Human Resources Minor Organizational of Technology, Science, and Business Professional and Technical Communication, with optional specialization in Internet Communication Information Architecture Technical Communication and Information Design Technical

302

Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program. Part 2: User and programmer documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User and programmer oriented documentation for the flexible body option of the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program are provided. The user information provides sufficient knowledge of the development and use of the option to enable the engineering user to successfully operate the modified program and understand the results. The programmer's information describes the option structure and logic enabling a programmer to make major revisions to this part of the TOLA computer program.

Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

1975-01-01

303

Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

2005-09-15

304

Social and Community Support Systems in Hispanic Neighborhoods in New York City: A Public Policy Analysis. Mental Health Policy Monograph Series Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this study is on the relationship between community support programs and the provision of mental health services to urban Hispanic populations, and the impact of existing public policies and future policy options on the chronically mentally ill in Puerto Rican neighborhoods in New York City. This policy analysis uses five steps. (1)…

Daykin, David Samuel

305

Information Security Policy Policy Title Information Security Policy  

E-print Network

Information Security Policy Policy Title Information Security Policy Responsible Executive Vice President of Information Technology and CIO Jay Dominick Responsible Office Office of Information Technology, Operations and Planning Endorsed by Information Security Policy Committee Contact Chief Information Security

Rowley, Clarence W.

306

AGREEMENT FOR MOBILE TECHNOLOGY ACCESS AND My signature on the "Mobile Technology Access and Payment Option Request"  

E-print Network

AGREEMENT FOR MOBILE TECHNOLOGY ACCESS AND ALLOWANCE My signature on the "Mobile Technology Access and conditions identified in the Access to Mobile Technology and the Payment Options for Mobile Technology policies [http://hr.uoregon.edu/policy/MobileTechnologyDevice.html]. 2. I understand that that I must

Oregon, University of

307

Fall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total  

E-print Network

120 BFA Art/Digital Media Art 38 BA Art/Studio Practice 29 BFA Art/Photography 29 BFA Art/Pictorial Counts Graduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total 6 MFA Art/Digital Media Art 17 MFA Art/Photography 13 MFA Art/Pictorial Arts 20 MFA Art/Spatial Arts 27 MA Art/Art History and Visual Culture 1 MFA Art 5 MA Art

Su, Xiao

308

Raising awareness of consumers' options in the individual health insurance market.  

PubMed

Lack of consumer awareness of where to get health insurance, what it costs, and what options exist is a critical barrier that prevents many people from obtaining coverage in the individual market (coverage that can include family members). However, a recent study suggests that that three-fourths of the uninsured could find a policy for less than 2,000 dollars per year and that one-third could find a policy for less than 1,000 dollars per year. More widespread dissemination of accurate and transparent information on prices, options, and benefits could play a role in expanding insurance coverage. PMID:12703594

Patel, Vip

2002-01-01

309

Post-Structuralism and Policy Research in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically examines some of the challenges to policy research posed by post-modernist and post-structuralist thinking. Argues that policy research poses particular problems because there must always come a point of closure on options. Researchers must find ways of negotiating the shifting configurations in the relationship between research,…

Humes, Walter; Bryce, Tom

2003-01-01

310

Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

311

2006 James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology  

E-print Network

2006 James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology Transportation Choices, This report summarizes the fifth James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology. Over two days, we examined ways to integrate non- motorized transportation options into our communities and our

Minnesota, University of

312

Community Shared Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure explores the ways in which the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering, tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment.

Not Available

2014-09-01

313

Guide to Writing University Policy About This Manual  

E-print Network

Guide to Writing University Policy About This Manual This guide contains information about, instructions and forms. This manual is broken into two major sections for your reference: 1. Administrative Policy Format 2. Writing an Administrative Policy The policies and procedures that you write will become

Salzman, Daniel

314

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... Alcohol Policy in the United States, visit NIAAA's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow Us Share Site Map Accessibility Privacy FOIA Contact Us Material en Espańol USA.gov—Government Made Easy U.S. Department of Health ...

315

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors Laura Jimenez-Olvera & Dewey St. Germaine 532 & 530://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Native American Studies Program exists to broaden the understanding of students interested in the history, culture, and contemporary situations of Native Americans in the United States

Walker, Matthew P.

316

Market Environmentalism, New Environmental Policy Instruments, and Climate Policy in the United Kingdom and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for effective and efficient climate policy has led to a major expansion in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary agreements (New Environmental Policy Instruments [NEPIs]) at national and international levels. Yet, despite the prevalence of these instruments as an outcropping of the broader shift toward neoliberal approaches to environmental policies, tremendous diversity exists in the way signatories

Ian Bailey

2007-01-01

317

Undergraduate Public Policy Programs: Public Policy Studies as Liberal Education. Forum for Liberal Education, March 1979.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin on undergraduate public policy programs includes an article on public policy studies as liberal education by Joel L. Fleishman, and descriptions of the following college programs: public policy analysis at the University of North Carolina, public service studies program at Oberlin College, urban and metropolitan studies major at…

Mohrman, Kathryn, Ed.; And Others

318

Evaluation of large scale industrial development using real options analysis : a case study  

E-print Network

Recently, real-option analysis has gained attention as an innovative valuation method for complex real estate projects. However, considering its potential, this method has not become as popular as it should have. One major ...

Ariizumi, Tatsuyuki

2006-01-01

319

Design Evolution Study - Aging Options  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new subsurface area (high cost); surface aging in the complete waste package (risk to the waste package and impact on the Waste Handling Facility); and aging in the stainless steel liner (impact on the waste package design and new high risk operations added to the waste packaging process). The selection of a design basis for aging will be made in conjunction with the other design re-evaluation studies.

P. McDaniel

2002-04-05

320

Sample careers for majors The Career Center  

E-print Network

Sample careers for majors The Career Center career.colostate.edu Career Center Liaison-5707 to schedule an appointment with your Career Counselor, Barbara Richardson. Sample Job Titles of Graduates to integrate science into real-world decision making and public policy, with the goal of managing our natural

321

Sample careers for majors The Career Center  

E-print Network

Sample careers for majors The Career Center career.colostate.edu Career Center Liaison-5707 to schedule an appointment with your Career Counselor, Wendy Rose. Sample Job Titles of Graduates Ecosystem into real-world decision making and public policy, with the goal of managing our natural resources

322

The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

Liberal Education, 2009

2009-01-01

323

Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda: knowledge, perceptions and policy development  

PubMed Central

Background Integrated vector management (IVM) is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. Methods The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policy-making levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. Results All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC) methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80%) felt there was inter-sectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidence-based decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to enforce IVM in development projects. Conclusion Integrated management of malaria vectors in Uganda remains an underdeveloped component of malaria control policy. Cooperation between the health and other sectors needs strengthening and funding for MVC increased in order to develop and effectively implement an appropriate IVM policy. Continuous engagement of communities by government as well as monitoring and evaluation of vector control programmes will be crucial for sustaining IVM in the country. PMID:22243516

2012-01-01

324

Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

Amara, Muhammad Hasan

2003-01-01

325

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

of 35% and developing renovated buildings to achieve savings of 25%, when compared with the Model processes to promote development and operation of sustainable buildings. #12;Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Sustainable Building Policy Policy

Haykin, Simon

326

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections  

PubMed Central

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

2012-01-01

327

Global Health and Foreign Policy  

PubMed Central

Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

2010-01-01

328

30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

2011-07-01

329

30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

2010-07-01

330

Optimal Timing to Purchase Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the optimal timing of derivative purchases in incomplete markets. In our model, an investor attempts to maximize the spread between her model price and the offered market price through optimally timing her purchase. Both the investor and the market value the options by risk-neutral expectations but under different equivalent martingale measures representing different market views. The structure of

Tim Leung; Michael Ludkovski

2010-01-01

331

Update and insights into treatment options for chronic spontaneous urticaria.  

PubMed

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as itchy weals, angio-oedema, or both, arising spontaneously without external physical stimuli. Symptoms of the disease continue to develop for more than 6 weeks. It carries a high socioeconomic burden with considerable health care costs. Second generation H1-antihistamines are the mainstay of urticaria treatment and are the only licensed option. However, many patients are resistant to H1-antihistamine therapy. Omalizumab has proven to be an effective therapeutic option in patients with recalcitrant chronic urticaria. Ciclosporin appears to be more beneficial in patients with functional histamine releasing autoantibodies as a cause of their disease. This review article will highlight the major therapeutic options available today for the management of CSU knowing that good quality evidence for efficacy of many agents is scarce except for H1-antihistamines and omalizumab. PMID:24527948

Marrouche, Nadine; Grattan, Clive

2014-03-01

332

Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

Bushnell, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

333

LLM/PgDip/PgCert CLIMATE CHANGE LAW and POLICY  

E-print Network

Climate Change Law Research Methods Optional Modules Equity and Adaptation Carbon Markets and ClimateLLM/PgDip/PgCert CLIMATE CHANGE LAW and POLICY #12;LLM/PgDip/PgCert CLIMATE CHANGE LAW and POLICY The LLM in Climate Change Law and Policy offers a valuable opportunity for people already working

Strathclyde, University of

334

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIH Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

335

Policy Handout  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NCI Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

336

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIDA Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

337

Policy Chart  

Cancer.gov

Policy for the Transfer of Materials from NIH Intramural Laboratories: Effective March 30, 2010 NIA Intramural Provider START HERE UsedbyRecipientinHumans “Special Attention” transfer • Contact TTC Specialist • Agreement •ModifiedMTAorotherappropriate

338

Privacy Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... and interact with you. Examples include social media Web sites such as Twitter and Facebook. Your activity on these non-government sites is governed by the security and privacy policies of those sites. When you ...

339

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

340

Educational Research in China: Guiding Principles and Major Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This account of efforts to reconstruct educational research in China, guided by Marxist principles and reflective of a national policy of building a "socialist spiritual civilization," presents the major requirements of that endeavor. Educational sciences are to be guided by four understandings: correct theories; realistic policies; improved…

Wu, Wei

341

Updated: 10/24/11 Environmental Studies Major Form  

E-print Network

, Policy Field Experience List one of the above courses that fulfills your field experience: __________________________________ Capstone Experience Capstone course (3 credits): ________________________________________ Requirements - 2 level work in the major in residence Environmental Humanities Ecological SciencePhysical Science

Sheridan, Jennifer

342

Test-Optional Admission at a Liberal Arts College: A Founding Mission Affirmed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Father Brian J. Shanley discusses Providence College's pilot program to eliminate standardized test scores from the required components of an admission application. Building on the college's ninety-year history of opening the doors of higher education to underrepresented populations, Providence College's test-optional policy is…

Shanley, Brian J.

2007-01-01

343

The Strategic Exercise of Options: Development Cascades and Overbuilding in Real Estate Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an equilibrium framework for strategic option exercise games. The author focuses on a particular example: the timing of real estate development. An analysis of the equilibrium exercise policies of developers provides insights into the forces that shape market behavior. The model isolates the factors that make some markets prone to bursts of concentrated development. The model also

Steven R Grenadier

1996-01-01

344

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA  

E-print Network

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy of University of Delaware Sponsored by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ministry of Agriculture People's Republic of China June 2001 #12;i OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY

Delaware, University of

345

Stock Option Compensation and Managerial Fraud: Theory and Evidence from Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equity-based contracts such as stock options and simple equity, are intended to induce value-enhancing eort, but are also capable of inducing managerial fraud. While recent theoretical and experimental research have evaluated policies that impact overall managerial fraud, there is very limited research that focuses on reducing managerial fraud through contract design by firm owners. We contribute to the existing literature

Martin W. Tackie; Rudy Santorey

346

Bachelor of Arts, Special Education, Option 2, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Arts, Special Education, Option 2, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date General Degree Requirements Policies and Procedures ED-SPED 330 Diagnostic Assessment in Special Education ED-SPED 332 Language Arts with lab 4 DLN Natural, Physical, and Applied Sciences course 3-4 DLV Visual and Performing Arts 3 DLL

Barrash, Warren

347

Cross-State Study of High-Stakes Testing Practices and Diploma Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to public demands for better-quality high school graduates and to requirements of No Child Left Behind legislation, states have developed a variety of policies such as high-stakes exit exams and diploma options. Additionally, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, students with disabilities must be…

Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen Evans; Mavis, Ann

2007-01-01

348

Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception  

PubMed Central

Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

2013-01-01

349

Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

Stringfield, J.G. [Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1995-12-31

350

Major Rock Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the University of Saskatchewan contains general information on the major rock groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Describes the rock cycle and the properties and formation of each major rock group.

351

Sweden beyond oil: nuclear commitments and solar options  

SciTech Connect

The project, Energy and Society, sponsored by the Swedish Secretariat for Future Studies, has studied different indigenous energy sources as alternatives to imported oil in Sweden. One alternative is nuclear energy, another is renewable energy. Large uncertainties are associated with both alternatives today. The main characteristics of an energy policy for the rest of the century that does not foreclose either of these options have been identified. Such a policy will have to be based on an understanding of the similarities and differences between the alternatives. A nuclear and a solar energy system have been outlined as a basis for an analysis of technical, economic, and institutional issues. 6 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Loennroth, M. (Secretariat for Future Studies, Stockholm, Sweden); Johansson, T.B.; Steen, P.

1980-05-09

352

Option for spallation neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spallation reactions are a very important option for efficient neutron sources appropriate for fusion materials testing. An “option of this option” is the EURAC concept, which makes use of short-term accelerator technology in the cheapest way and is proved to provide the needed neutron flux to verify fast experiments on fusion materials performance. Its flexible conception allows an optimum combination of very high fluxes of about 1016 n/cm2/s, with decreasing fluxes along the testing zones in enough volume to perform the correct irradiations. With this assumption, the rate effect can be perfectly analyzed together with the end-of-life conditions assumed in the structural material of the future fusion environments. The possible negative effects of the high-energy neutrons in the Spallation spectrum have been taken into account, concluding their non-significance in the desired damage parameters. The EURAC concept can also be considered in light of other purposes like incineration processes, ? production, and, with the appropriate booster, high-flux cold neutron source.

Perlado, J. M.; Piera, M.; Sanz, J.

1989-12-01

353

The Age of Majority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

354

Reauthorizing the Higher Education Act (HEA): Issues and Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents relevant policy research, historical perspective, and an agenda of major issues involved in the complex process of reauthorizing the Higher Education Act (HEA). Like many other federal laws, the HEA is not permanent. It expires on September 30, 2004, and this expiration requires that the 108th Congress consider extending or…

Wolanin, Thomas, Ed.

355

Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens?  

MedlinePLUS

... Option for Teens? Health Issues Listen Weight Loss Surgery: An Option for Teens? Article Body Although the ... not be made hastily. Candidates for Weight Loss Surgery Weight loss surgery is advisable only for extremely ...

356

Budgeting Your Child Care Options Calculator  

MedlinePLUS

... Aware? Manage My Subscriptions Daily Parent Archives Home Calculator Budgeting Your Child Care Options: The Child Care Aware Budgeting Child Care Options calculator allows families to examine their financial situation both ...

357

Major by Option Major/Option College Degree 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993  

E-print Network

Course AG Bachelor's 1 3 Agronomy AG Bachelor's 1 2 4 13 Agronomy AG Master's 1 2 10 7 6 12 14 12 Agronomy - Agronomy AG Bachelor's 3 Agronomy - Crop & Soil Mgmt AG Bachelor's 1 3 7 11 13 12 Agronomy - Crop Science AG Bachelor's Agronomy - Plant Protection AG Bachelor's 2 1 4 7 2 4 Agronomy - Science AG

Maxwell, Bruce D.

358

Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the

M. W. Henley; Seth D. Potter; J. Howell; J. C. Mankins

2002-01-01

359

Pilot Plant Options for the MFE Roadmap  

E-print Network

Pilot Plant Options for the MFE Roadmap Hutch Neilson Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory plant ­ mission, motivation, and description. · Role of pilot plants on the Roadmap to Demo. Pilot Plant Options / H. Neilson / Int'l Roadmapping Workshop / 10 September 2011 #12;Pilot Plant Options / H. Neilson

360

Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

2009-01-01

361

Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options Questionnaire"…

Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

2006-01-01

362

Chartered Teacher Studies Catalogue of Option Modules  

E-print Network

Chartered Teacher Studies Catalogue of Option Modules Option Module List University of Strathclyde Page Able Pupils: helping them reach 2 their full potential Closing the Literacy Gap 6 (Infant Stages in the 21 Outdoors Supporting Dyslexia 24 Introduction This catalogue gives outline information about option

Mottram, Nigel

363

Montana State University 1 Paleontology Option  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Paleontology Option The paleontology option focuses-on fieldwork. The paleontology option in the Department of Earth Sciences is designed for those students who). Students who study paleontology find employment with colleges and universities (e.g., teaching paleontology

Maxwell, Bruce D.

364

EXECUTIVE STOCK OPTIONS: A FIRM VALUE APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive stock options are an important component of executive compensation and the topic is of interest to both practitioners and academics. The vigorous debate on whether these options should be treated as an expense is subsiding but discussion continues on how these instruments should be valued in order to expense them. In this paper, executive stock options are viewed as

PHELIM BOYLE; WEIDONG TIAN

2005-01-01

365

Montana State University 1 Photography Option  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Photography Option The Photography option offers both artistic of Art and Design, the Photography option sets high standards for production and is one of the few comprehensive four-year photography degree programs in a sizable geographical area of the north central

Maxwell, Bruce D.

366

Special Feature: Policy Theory and Policy Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles on the relationship between policy theory and the practice of policy evaluation are presented. Articles address basic theoretical issues, theories in practice, the epistemological foundations of decision technology, selection of policy analysis instrumentation, utilization of public policy analysis, and justifying policy arguments.…

Nagel, Stuart S., Ed.; Dunn, William N., Ed.

1990-01-01

367

Analysis of Agricultural Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options within a Multi-sector Economic Framework  

SciTech Connect

National-scale analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options is generally carried out using top-down economic models with moderate energy detail but very limited detail in agriculture and forestry. However, a complete analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation options requires an improved representation of agriculture within the top-down economic models used for analysis of climate policy. Greenhouse gas mitigation options within the agricultural sector include changes in afforestation of agricultural lands, crop and livestock management practices, harvesting of biomass crops for fuel, and the sequestration of carbon in agricultural soils. Analysis of such options is usually carried out in a bottom-up model such as the Agricultural Sector Model (ASM). We report on activities to combine the bottom-up agricultural detail from ASM with the top-down economic and energy structure used at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which has been used extensively for analysis of alternative carbon mitigation strategies.

Sands, Ronald D.; Mccarl, Bruce A.; Gillig, Dhazn; Blanford, Geoffrey J.; Gale, J.; Kaya, Y.

2003-01-01

368

Integrating emissions transfers into policy-making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net emissions transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries have increased fourfold in the past two decades--from 0.4 GtCO2 in 1990 to 1.6 GtCO2 in 2008. Consumption of goods and services in developed countries is one of the main driving forces of those emissions transfers. Therefore several proposals have been made to assign the responsibility for those emissions to the beneficiary, that is, to the consumer. Although consumption-based analyses have become popular, few proposals have been made for integrating emissions transfers into actual policy making. This study advances and critically evaluates three potential policy options that could be integrated in the climate-policy framework of developed countries. An energy-economic model with global coverage is used for the analysis. I find that connecting emissions transfers to international offset responsibilities is the most promising option from an environmental and economic perspective and may provide another rationale for international climate finance. The two alternative policy options of adjusting domestic emissions targets in developed countries and of implementing carbon-related tariffs and export subsidies are found to be environmentally ineffective in the latter case and economically detrimental, especially for developing countries, in both cases.

Springmann, Marco

2014-03-01

369

Publishing Options for Princeton University Dissertations ProQuest Traditional/DataSpace Open Access Option  

E-print Network

Publishing Options for Princeton University Dissertations ProQuest Traditional/DataSpace Open Access Option · ProQuest Traditional Publishing, no embargo Dissertation will be available in full text for ProQuest (additional fee for optional copyright registration*) Embargo Option · ProQuest

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

370

Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4  

SciTech Connect

In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

Schlegel, Jeff

2002-05-01

371

Examining the linkages -- which policies will work?  

SciTech Connect

Socio-economic aspects of policies reducing greenhouse gas emissions are discussed. Major issues addressed include market factors, timeframes, and international equity. Links between energy, environment, economy, and ethics are discussed. Appropriate use of policies for developing and developed countries is also described.

Ali, T. [Embassy of Bangladesh, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-12-31

372

Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site. Financial incentives for project development are generally structured to provide tribes with access to conventional financing mechanisms. Grant funding for project construction is currently difficult to obtain. Substantial new opportunities for bio-fuel development may exist in the next few years with passage of the 2007 Farm Bill, and through opportunities made available through Oklahoma’s new Bio-energy Center. A review of potential alternatives to Pawnee Nation’s current electricity supply scenario revealed that a range of options could be viable. These include the following scenarios: business as usual, alternative supply, negotiate lower rates with City of Pawnee, focus on reducing energy usage, develop electric utility organization. Under any circumstances, Pawnee Nation should purse strategies to reduce energy usage, as this is the simplest means of reducing electric costs and environmental impacts. The research team also recommends that Pawnee Nation initiate some focused discussions with the City of Pawnee, with GRDA, and with IEC to discuss its wholesale supply purchase options. These discussions will better inform the Pawnee Energy Team of the specific pros and cons of its wholesale power supply options, and will assist the Team’s broader decision-making on utility-related issues. The ultimate path chosen by Pawnee Nation will depend on further consideration of priorities and potential barriers by Pawnee Nation’s Energy Team.

Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

2009-07-21

373

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2011-10-01

374

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2012-10-01

375

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2013-10-01

376

Unemployment, policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive increase in unemployment throughout the OECD since the early 1970s has led governments in many countries to introduce, or to expand, labour market policies such as training schemes, employment subsidies, public works or schemes of counselling or assistance in job search. Such programmes have the objective of reducing unemployment by improving the workings of the labour market. After

Richard Jackman; Christopher Pissaricies; Sawas Savouri

377

[Primary biliary cirrhosis: therapeutic options].  

PubMed

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology, characterized by injury of the intra-hepatic bile ducts that may eventually lead to liver failure. Many drugs have been performed for treatment, including agents with choleretic and immunosuppressive properties. Patients, particularly those who start ursodeoxycholic acid treatment at early-stage disease and who respond with improvement of liver biochemistry, have a good prognosis. Liver transplantation is usually an option for PBC patients with severe liver failure. PMID:19886235

Abenavoli, Ludovico

2009-09-01

378

Options for managing produced water.  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide, the oil and gas industry generates more than 70 billion barrels of produced water per year. Within the US alone, between 15 and 20 billion barrels of produced water are generated each year. Management of these large quantities of water can be costly, and can determine whether wells are profitable or not. Companies must consider many different options for managing produced water. Produced water management technologies and strategies are described here in terms of a three-tiered water management or pollution prevention hierarchy--i.e. minimization, recycle/reuse and disposal.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01

379

Sustained-Release Corticosteroid Options  

PubMed Central

Sustained-release corticosteroid treatment has shown to be a promising strategy for macular edema due to retinovascular disease (i.e., diabetes and retinal vein occlusion) and for the treatment of noninfectious posterior uveitis. Clinicians now have the option of three sustained-release corticosteroid implants: Ozurdex (Allergan Inc., Irvine, CA) which releases dexamethasone and two devices that release fluocinolone acetonide, Retisert (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY), and Iluvien (Alimera Science, Alpharetta, GA). Each has different physical characteristics and duration effect and has been approved for different indications. Herein we provide a summary of the current clinical knowledge regarding these implants. PMID:25140246

Cabrera, Mariana; Yeh, Steven; Albini, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

380

Lack of an energy policy remains a major barrier  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the war with Iraq provided a new dimension to the ongoing oil industry struggle to cope with oppressive government action and regulation. Coming as it did just before the administration was to announce guidelines for a long-awaited National Energy Strategy (NES), the war created a renewed and dramatic focus on the national energy security question. Now, numerous congressmen, senators and administration leaders are taking a fresh look at how the U.S. can extricate itself from excessive dependence on Middle East oil imports. For example, the planned free-trade agreement with Mexico could figure prominently in an alliance that would bring much more Mexican oil to the U.S. Meanwhile, the wild card is proposals to open up U.S. drilling offshore and in the Arctic National Wildlife Region (ANWR). Prior to hostilities, Middle East tensions brought on significant increases in the price of oil, and with it a large gain in oil company profits for fourth-quarter 1990. Result: talk in Congress of a new windfall profits tax.

Owen, D.

1991-03-01

381

Harm, hype and evidence: ELSI research and policy guidance  

PubMed Central

There has been much investment in research on the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) associated with genetic and genomic research. This research should inform the development of the relevant policy. So far, much of the relevant policy - such as in the areas of patents, genetic testing and genetic discrimination - seems to be informed more by speculation of harm and anecdote than by available evidence. Although a quest for evidence cannot always be allowed to delay policy choice, it seems axiomatic to us that policy options are improved by the incorporation of evidence. PMID:23534337

2013-01-01

382

The major in Urban Studies is one of the options within the Committee Interdisciplinary Major (CIM) program. The  

E-print Network

in the program explore scholarly issues related to cities, suburban communities and metropolitan regions. A sampling of the types of urban challenges that are examined includes poverty, segregation, public education

Saldin, Dilano

383

Research and Funding Policies  

Cancer.gov

Research and Funding Policies General NCI Grant Policies NIH Grants Policy and Guidance NIH Data Sharing Policy Human Subjects Protection of Human Subjects Certificates of Confidentiality Inclusion of Women and Minorities Inclusion of Children HIPAA Privacy

384

ENVIRONMENTAL PURCHASING POLICY  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL PURCHASING POLICY The University of Leeds Environmental Policy includes the following the environmental policy and, in turn, that all suppliers and contractors progressively improve their own environmental performance". In line with this the University's Environmental Purchasing Policy requires

Haase, Markus

385

Almanac of Policy Issues: Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection provides balanced information on major U.S. public policy issues concerning the environment. Topics include air quality, energy, global warming, hazardous waste, land use, recycling, toxics and pesticides, water quality and wildlife. The site is an independent public service not affiliated with any particular issue or cause and it presents all sides of each issue in a journalistic format.

Almanac of Policy Issues

386

Climate Change Economics and Policy  

E-print Network

AFRICA COLLEGE Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Adapting to Climate Change 3 CLIMATE...Furthermore, there is strong scientific evidence that climate change will disrupt the global economy, environment and society a growing population in a changing climate is, therefore, a major global challenge. Changes in climate

Romano, Daniela

387

Toward a Rural Development Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines programs aimed at encouraging the economic, social, and cultural development of rural areas; the nature of activities undertaken and results achieved; major provisions of the new Rural Development Act; and directions which future policies and programs should take. A statement by the National Planning Association (NPA)…

Maddox, James G.

388

Exploring options for improving healthcare.  

PubMed

New medical technologies generally must receive clearance or approval for marketing by the US Food and Drug Administration and be covered by an insurer, such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, before becoming available for widespread clinical use. These 2 approval processes are discrete and usually occur sequentially rather than collaboratively and simultaneously. To explore potential mechanisms for increasing regulatory collaboration between these 2 key health care agencies, the Duke Clinical Research Institute and Health Strategies Consultancy convened an informal meeting of agency, academic, and industry leaders on December 8 and 9, 2002, titled "Registration/Approval and Coverage/Payment: Exploring Options for Improving Healthcare." This article arises from the discussion at this conference; it does not represent the official views of any person or institution involved. Although the group did not attempt to reach a consensus, it examined several important issues surrounding this regulatory debate. Herein are proposed options for enhancing regulatory efficiency through greater coordination between the FDA and CMS, and discussion of these proposals from the perspectives of members of both agencies, members of stakeholder organizations, and academic observers. PMID:14691414

Wang, Stanley S; Mendelson, Daniel N; Schulman, Kevin A; Mark, Daniel B

2004-01-01

389

Music Majors ADVISING & REGISTRATION  

E-print Network

Music Majors ADVISING & REGISTRATION INFORMATION For any student looking to pursue a degree within the Department of Music please visit the following website for additional program information: http://www.fau.edu/music/ Advising and Registration Information: As a music major you will need to complete OARS as OARS provides

Fernandez, Eduardo

390

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is addressing key issues associated with critical national needs. This paper compares the major options with these major “outcome” objectives - waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety as well as “process” objectives associated with readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. Working together, separation, transmutation, and fuel technologies provide complete energy systems that can improve waste management compared to the current “once-through/no separation” approach. Future work will further increase confidence in potential solutions, optimize solutions for the mixtures of objectives, and develop attractive development and deployment paths for selected options. This will allow the nation to address nearer-term issues such as avoiding the need for additional geological repositories while making nuclear energy a more sustainable energy option for the long-term. While the Generation IV Initiative is exploring multiple reactor options for future nuclear energy for both electricity generation and additional applications, the AFCI is assessing fuel cycles options for either a continuation or expansion of nuclear energy in the United States. This report compares strategies and technology options for managing the associated spent fuel. There are four major potential strategies, as follows: · The current U.S. strategy is once through: standard nuclear power plants, standard fuel burnup, direct geological disposal of spent fuel. Variants include higher burnup fuels in water-cooled power plants, once-through gas-cooled power plants, and separation (without recycling) of spent fuel to reduce the number and cost of geological waste packages. · The second strategy is thermal recycle, recycling some fuel components in thermal reactors. This strategy extends the useful life of the geologic repository, producing energy from the fissile transuranics in spent fuel while reducing plutonium. · The third strategy is thermal+fast recycle. The difference from the second strategy is that more components of spent fuel can be recycled to reduce both fissile and non-fissile transuranics, but at the cost of developing and deploying at least one fast reactor or accelerator driven system. A mix of thermal and fast reactors would implement this strategy. · The fourth strategy is pure fast recycle; fuel would not be recycled in thermal reactors, which would be phased out in favor of deploying fast spectrum power reactors.

Steven J. Piet; Ralph G. Bennett; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mark Roth; J. D. Smith; Robert Hill; James Laidler; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

2004-10-01

391

48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

2010-10-01

392

48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

2011-10-01

393

The Emergence of University-Based Education Policy Centers. ERIC/CEM Trends and Issues Series, Number 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A closeup look is provided of a trend in the field of educational policy in the 1980's: the establishment of university-based centers that have a mission of providing state policymakers with nonpartisan, reliable data on education policy options. The development and characteristics of education policy centers are examined. The first section…

McCarthy, Martha M.; Hall, Gayle C.

394

National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2001-December 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual report of the National Council on Disability surveys major legal and policy developments during the year 2002 and offers recommendations for legal/policy measures and for research. The first chapter identifies legal and policy issues that cross traditional areas, focusing on six themes: (1) the mainstreaming of disability issues; (2)…

National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

395

State regulatory policies for privately owned electric utilities in 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-specific data collected by means of a questionnaire on the environmental control policies affecting electric utilities are the basis of a simulation model that will assist the Environmental Protection Agency with its policy analyses and acid rain research. The data also reflect the economic and financial considerations at the state level as they affect environmental policy. Major sections of the

S. Hindman; D. Chapman; K. Cole

1982-01-01

396

Social Change and Policy Development: An Agenda for Change Adovcates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social change goals and objectives may be achieved by social change advocates through the policy development process. Policy is defined as a set of decisions governing the behavior and actions of institutions and individuals. The legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government comprise the major policy institutions. The bureaucracy of…

Perez, Monte E.

397

Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. New Jersey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on New Jersey's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

398

The One-Child Policy in Shanghai: Acceptance and Internalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's one-child policy is a major example of social engineering and the subject of human rights concerns. Given the significance of the policy, it is important to ascertain the attitudes of Chinese citizens. We conducted interviews in 2003 with residents of Shanghai who were of childbearing age either at the policy's inception or at the time of the interview. Our

Yilin Nie; Robert J. Wyman

2005-01-01

399

Policy Report  

E-print Network

This report is aimed at UK, EU and international policy makers, as well as at industry. We hope that it can make a useful contribution and help to frame the public debate in the UK. Chapter 2 considers where we are now with GM, what is already on the market and what is happening in other countries. Chapter 3 considers what could be coming down the track, including modifications involving plants, animals, fish, insects and microorganisms

Gm Dilemmas Consumers

400

Decision matrix for liquid loading in gas wells for cost/benefit analyses of lifting options  

E-print Network

DECISION MATRIX FOR LIQUID LOADING IN GAS WELLS FOR COST/BENEFIT ANALYSES OF LIFTING OPTIONS A Thesis by HAN-YOUNG PARK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering DECISION MATRIX FOR LIQUID LOADING IN GAS WELLS FOR COST/BENEFIT ANALYSES OF LIFTING OPTIONS A Thesis by HAN-YOUNG PARK Submitted...

Park, Han-Young

2008-10-10

401

Stimulation techniques, options are varied  

SciTech Connect

Well stimulation is a major aspect of well completion, with acidization/perforation cleanup, and fracture stimulation the most important operations. They are covered in this second of two installments that reviews modern well completion practices.

Cramer, D.D.

1988-09-05

402

Internet Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

403

Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.  

PubMed

We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options. PMID:14700331

MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B

2003-12-01

404

The Evaluation of Venture Capital As an Instalment Option  

E-print Network

The Evaluation of Venture Capital As an Instalment Option: Valuing Real Options Using Real Options-69-154008-718, Facsimile: 49-69- 154008-728, email: tompkins@hfb.de . #12;1 The Evaluation of Venture Capital As an Instalment Option: Valuing Real Options Using Real Options ABSTRACT Many start-up companies rely upon venture

Schachermayer, Walter

405

Options for Martian propellant production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative evaluation methodology for utilizing in-situ resources on Mars for the production of useful substances. The emphasis is on the chemical processes. Various options considering different feedstock (mostly, carbon dioxide, water, and iron oxides) are carefully examined for the product mix and the energy needs. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, alcohols, and other chemicals are the end products. The chemical processes involve electrolysis, methanation, and variations. It is shown that maximizing the product utility is more important than the production of oxygen, methane, or alcohols. An important factor is the storage of the chemicals produced. The product utility is dependent, to some extent, upon the mission. A combination of the stability, the enthalpy of formation, and the mass fraction of the products is seen to yield a fairly good quantitative feel for the overall utility and maximum mission impact.

Dowler, Warren; French, James; Ramohalli, Kumar

1991-01-01

406

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major  

E-print Network

Human Nutrition 3 NUTR 226 - Food Fundamentals 3 NUTR 227 - Food Fundamentals Lab 2 Year Total: 30Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Dietetics Option The dietetics by the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND) of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

Maxwell, Bruce D.

407

MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Chemistry  

E-print Network

MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Chemistry College of Sciences www.unlv.edu/chemistry Mission of the College of Sciences The College of Sciences offers programs in life sciences, chemistry, geoscience: 702-895-2077 Campus Location: MPE-A 130 www.unlv.edu/sciences/advising Chemistry Career Options

Walker, Lawrence R.

408

Purchase Card Policy Purchase Card Policy  

E-print Network

Cardholder use the Purchase Card for his/her own business expenses. The following may be purchased on behalfPurchase Card Policy Purchase Card Policy Originator name: Robin Hunt Department: Finance This policy governs the use of the University's Purchase Card. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this policy

Doran, Simon J.

409

Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and differentiated activities which involve both…

Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

2011-01-01

410

Policy archaeology: a new policy studies methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy archaeology is a radically different approach to policy studies in education, drawn from the post?structuralist work of Foucault, which completely reconceptualizes policy studies and, thus, significantly expands it as a critical problematic. Rather than beginning after social and education problems have emerged into social visibility, policy archaeology studies the social construction of these problems. Rather than acquiescing to the

James Joseph Scheurich

1994-01-01

411

Strategic Options Development and Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann, describes the SODA techniques as they are applied in practice.

Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

412

Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

Not Available

2014-11-01

413

CTEP — Major Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Major Initiatives CTEP Home CTEP

414

The Accounting Major  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By completing this tutorial, you should be able to: Find resources to aid in your research of the Accounting Major. Identify key aspects of an accounting career. Congratulations on choosing Utah State University and the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business as your educational partner. Now that you have been admitted to USU and selected accounting as your Huntsman major, you may have a few questions about where to go from here. Below you will ...

Heiniger, Joslyn

2009-12-04

415

Policy #6400 Tuition Assistance Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Policy #6400 ­ Tuition Assistance Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #6400, and who is employed in a classified position. #12;Policy #6400 ­ Tuition Assistance Policy 2 Creditable

416

Gastroparesis: a review of current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Gastroparesis is a motility disorder of the stomach causing delay in food emptying from the stomach without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. The majority of cases are idiopathic. Patients need to be diagnosed properly by formal testing, and the evaluation of the severity of the gastroparesis may assist in guiding therapy. Initially, dietary modifications are encouraged, which include frequent and small semisolid-based meals. Promotility medications, like erythromycin, and antiemetics, like prochlorperazine, are offered for symptom relief. In patients who are refractory to pharmacologic treatment, more invasive options, such as intrapyloric botulinum toxin injections, placement of a jejunostomy tube, or implantation of a gastric stimulator, can be considered. Hemin therapy and gastric electric stimulation are emerging treatment options that are still at different stages of research. Regenerative medicine and stem cell-based therapies also hold promise for gastroparesis in the near future. PMID:24039443

Enweluzo, Chijioke; Aziz, Fahad

2013-01-01

417

Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Psychology majors learn how biological, cognitive, social and  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Arts in Psychology Psychology majors learn how biological, cognitive, social' labs and individualized study with faculty in specialized topics. Careers in Psychology Majors in psychology have a broad number of career options. The major prepares students for graduate study to become

O'Toole, Alice J.

418

Economics of Alaska North Slope gas utilization options  

SciTech Connect

The recoverable natural gas available for sale in the developed and known undeveloped fields on the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) total about 26 trillion cubic feet (TCF), including 22 TCF in the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU) and 3 TCF in the undeveloped Point Thomson Unit (PTU). No significant commercial use has been made of this large natural gas resource because there are no facilities in place to transport this gas to current markets. To date the economics have not been favorable to support development of a gas transportation system. However, with the declining trend in ANS oil production, interest in development of this huge gas resource is rising, making it important for the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, and the State of Alaska to evaluate and assess the options for development of this vast gas resource. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gas-to-liquids (GTL) conversion technology would be an economic alternative for the development and sale of the large, remote, and currently unmarketable ANS natural gas resource, and to compare the long term economic impact of a GTL conversion option to that of the more frequently discussed natural gas pipeline/liquefied natural gas (LNG) option. The major components of the study are: an assessment of the ANS oil and gas resources; an analysis of conversion and transportation options; a review of natural gas, LNG, and selected oil product markets; and an economic analysis of the LNG and GTL gas sales options based on publicly available input needed for assumptions of the economic variables. Uncertainties in assumptions are evaluated by determining the sensitivity of project economics to changes in baseline economic variables.

Thomas, C.P.; Doughty, T.C.; Hackworth, J.H.; North, W.B.; Robertson, E.P.

1996-08-01

419

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 5: Using research evidence to frame options to address a problem  

PubMed Central

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them may find themselves in one or more of the following three situations that will require them to characterise the costs and consequences of options to address a problem. These are: 1. A decision has already been taken and their role is to maximise the benefits of an option, minimise its harms, optimise the impacts achieved for the money spent, and (if there is substantial uncertainty about the likely costs and consequences of the option) to design a monitoring and evaluation plan, 2. A policymaking process is already underway and their role is to assess the options presented to them, or 3. A policymaking process has not yet begun and their role is therefore to identify options, characterise the costs and consequences of these options, and look for windows of opportunity in which to act. In situations like these, research evidence, particularly about benefits, harms, and costs, can help to inform whether an option can be considered viable. In this article, we suggest six questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying policy and programme options to address a high-priority problem, and to characterise the costs and consequences of these options. These are: 1. Has an appropriate set of options been identified to address a problem? 2. What benefits are important to those who will be affected and which benefits are likely to be achieved with each option? 3. What harms are important to those who will be affected and which harms are likely to arise with each option? 4. What are the local costs of each option and is there local evidence about their cost-effectiveness? 5. What adaptations might be made to any given option and could they alter its benefits, harms and costs? 6. Which stakeholder views and experiences might influence an option's acceptability and its benefits, harms, and costs? PMID:20018112

2009-01-01

420

Policy issues on the control of major accident hazards and the new Seveso II directive 1 The authors are employed in Directorate-General XI (Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection) of the European Commission. They are concerned with the area of industrial risks, including the Seveso I and II Directives as well as international activities in the field of accident prevention, preparedness and response (OECD, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN Environment Programme). The contents of this article are the personal opinions of the authors and in no way commit the European Commission. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

No-one wants a major accident to occur! This paper describes the development of EC policies to convert this simple and obvious fact into a coherent prevention strategy which can deliver a high level of protection throughout the European Community. The Seveso II Directive is described in detail, being the relevant Community Instrument which Member States must implement in their national

Sam Porter; Jürgen Wettig

1999-01-01

421

Enhanced policies for the improvement of electricity efficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficiency improvement is considered as an important option to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the possibilities to implement new policies to improve the efficiency of electricity end-use are explored.The following policy actions are considered:•introduction of a ‘1W standard’ for standby power consumption of appliances,•incremental standards for large electric appliances,•design guidelines for small electric appliances,•a technology-forcing standard for lighting,•a

Kornelis Blok

2005-01-01

422

Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18–64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. Results The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Conclusions Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Implications Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. PMID:24090332

Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

2013-01-01

423

Human genome research and the public interest: Progress notes from an American Science Policy Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This essay reviews the efforts of the US Human Genome Project to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social implications of new advances in human genetics. Since 1990, approximately $10 million has been awarded by the National Institutes of Health and the DOE, in support of 65 research, education, and public discussion projects. These projects address four major areas of need: (1) the need for both client-centered assessments of new genetic services and for improved knowledge of the psychosocial and ethnocultural factors that shape clients' clinical genetic experiences; (2) the need for clear professional policies regarding human-subject research, clinical practical standards, and public health goals in human genetics; (3) the need for social policy protection against unfair access to and use of personal genetic information; (4) the need for improved public and professional understanding and discussion of these issues. The Human Genome Project's goal is to have defined, by 1995, policy options and programs capable of addressing these needs. 47 refs.

Juengst, E.T. (National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States))

1994-01-01

424

Policy opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

1991-01-01

425

[Cognitive deficits in unipolar major depression].  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits are common symptom presentations in neurology and psychiatry. Cognitive symptoms during major depressive episodes cause subjective distress as well as difficulties during therapy and psychosocial reintegration. Depression-associated cognitive symptoms are characterized by a mood-congruent information processing bias as well as by cognitive performance deficits. A diagnostically relevant profile of neuropsychological impairments specific to depression has not yet been identified. Nevertheless, deficits of executive and declarative memory functions have repeatedly been reported. The time course of cognitive deficits after remission of mood is not entirely clear. Depending on the point of time of the reinvestigation, patients may still exhibit pronounced cognitive deficits. This article presents the current knowledge about cognitive symptoms in major depression, including the pathophysiology and treatment options. PMID:25604917

Konrad, C; Losekam, S; Zavorotnyy, M

2015-01-01

426

Model-based Estimation of Flexibility and Optionability in an Integrated Real Options Framework  

E-print Network

Uncertainties can be managed through real options that provide a decision maker the right, but not the obligation, to exercise actions at a later time. In previous work we introduced an integrated real options framework ...

Mikaelian, Tsoline

427

Real options "in" projects and systems design : identification of options and solutions for path dependency  

E-print Network

This research develops a comprehensive approach to identify and deal with real options in" projects, that is, those real options (flexibility) that are integral parts of the technical design. It represents a first attempt ...

Wang, Tao, 1973-

2005-01-01

428

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects. [Transport; fuel fabrication; decay; policy; economics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T.

Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

1980-09-01

429

Contract Major Report Form Name __________________________  

E-print Network

Contract Major Report Form 12/1/94 Name __________________________ Degree __________________________ College __________________________ Descriptive title of contract major _______________________________________________ Current GAP is ___________ in ___________________ hours attempted. Summary of Proposed contract Major 1

Kostic, Milivoje M.

430

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

431

Knowledge Processing in Real Options - A Process Approach to Make Real Options Operational  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although real option valuation techniques are well known and widely researched by academics, there are certain thresholds that discourage practising managers from using them in investment planning. These thresholds deal with both the quantitative and qualitative features of real options as well as the way real option models and logic is pre- sented to the managers. From the point of

Markku Heikkilä

432

Combining Financial Double Call Options with Real Options for Early Curtailment of Electricity Service  

E-print Network

Combining Financial Double Call Options with Real Options for Early Curtailment of Electricity@IEOR.Berkeley.edu Abstract In a competitive electricity market traditional demand side management options offering customers curtailable service at reduced rates are replaced by voluntary customer responses to electricity spot prices

433

CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY  

E-print Network

CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY POLICY 8.6 Volume: 8, Risk Management and Public Safety Chapter/environment.cfm University Policy Office: www.policy.cornell.edu 1 #12;Cornell Policy Library Volume: 8, Risk Management Library Volume: 8, Risk Management and Public Safety Responsible Executive: Associate Vice President

Davis, H. Floyd

434

Investor valuation of the abandonment option  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether investors price the option to abandon a firm at its exit value. Theory prices this real option as an American put with both a stochastic strike price (exit value) and a stochastic value of the underlying security (the value of cash flows). The empirical implications are that firm value increases in exit value, after controlling for expected

Philip G. Berger; Eli Ofek; Itzhak Swary

1996-01-01

435

Real estate development as an option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subject to legal limitations, the owner of undeveloped real estate can determine both the date and density at which to develop his property. Alternatively, he can abandon his property. The value of these options depends partly on the stochastic evolution through time of the operating revenues and construction costs of developed property. In this paper the option pricing problem is

Joseph T. Williams

1991-01-01

436

Efficient Analytic Approximation of American Option Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides simple analytic approximations for pricing exchange-traded American call and put options written on commodities and commodity futures contracts. These approximations are accurate and considerably more computationally efficient than finite- difference, binomial, or compound-option approximation methods. Copyright 1987 by American Finance Association.

Giovanni Barone-Adesi; Robert E. Whaley

1987-01-01

437

Executive Stock Options with E ort Disutility  

E-print Network

Executive Stock Options with E#11;ort Disutility and Choice of Volatility #3; Abel Cadenillas y Jak@marshall.usc.edu. #12; Executive Stock Options with E#11;ort Disutility and Choice of Volatility Abstract We consider in uence the stock price return with her e#11;ort. In addition, she determines the level of volatility

Cvitanic, Jaksa

438

Executive Stock Options with Effort Disutility  

E-print Network

Executive Stock Options with Effort Disutility and Choice of Volatility Abel Cadenillas Jaksa-1427. Ph: (213) 740-6538. Fax: (213) 740-6650. E-mail: fzapatero@marshall.usc.edu. #12;Executive Stock that receives call options as com- pensation in a dynamic setting. She can influence the stock price return

Cvitanic, Jaksa

439

Service Option Advantages / Disadvantages Fort Bend Shuttle  

E-print Network

operating cost · Incremental increase in METRO management and supervision · Marketing and customer service operating cost/hour for FBC operated service than Option 3 · Lower local share than Option 3 due to lower · METRO price based on incremental revenue hours direct operating cost · Minimal incremental management

440

Art: Graphic Design Option 1 (page 1)  

E-print Network

Art: Graphic Design Option 1 (page 1) Option 2 (page 2) Bachelor of Arts 2014-15 Degree Maps First: Complete ART 118 & 120 (by spring term). ARH 206 recommended during summer term. Freshman Inquiry 5 ART 115 4 ART 131 4 ART 118 4 ARH 204 or ARH 205 4 ART 182 or ART 117 4 ART 120 4 Total Credits 17

Latiolais, M. Paul

441

Controlling Currency Risk with Options or Forwards  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider alternative means for controlling currency risk exposure in actively-managed international portfolios. We extend multi-stage stochastic programming models to incorporate decisions for optimal selection of forward contracts or currency options for hedging purposes. We adapt a valuation procedure to price currency options consistently with discrete distributions of exchange rates that are used in the context of the stochastic programming

Nikolas Topaloglou; Hercules Vladimirou; Stavros A. Zenios

442

LEASE OPTION AGREEMENT (Sports Arena Property)  

E-print Network

LEASE OPTION AGREEMENT (Sports Arena Property) This Lease Option Agreement (the "Agreement (the "Land"). B. Owner currently leases the Land to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum Commission (the "Commission") pursuant to a lease dated as of January 3, 1956 and most recently amended as of February 13

Valero-Cuevas, Francisco

443

Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.  

PubMed

Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. PMID:25305556

Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

2015-01-21

444

Current pharmacologic options for patients with Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the current study was to provide general practitioners with an overview of the available treatment options for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since general practitioners provide the majority of medical care for AD patients, they should be well versed in treatment options that can improve function and slow the progression of symptoms. Design Biomedical literature related to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) was surveyed. In the United States, there are four AChEIs approved for the treatment of AD: tacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. There are other agents under investigation, but at present, AChEIs are the only approved drug category for AD treatment. Measurements and Main Results AD is becoming a major public health concern and underdiagnosis is a significant problem (with only about half of AD patients being diagnosed and only half of those diagnosed actually being treated). Clinical trials have demonstrated that patients with AD who do not receive active treatment decline at more rapid rates than those who do. Conclusions Given that untreated AD patients show decline in three major areas (cognition, behavior, and functional ability), if drug treatment is able to improve performance, maintain baseline performance over the long term, or allow for a slower rate of decline in performance, each of these outcomes should be viewed a treatment success. PMID:12605726

Reichman, William E

2003-01-01

445

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

2010-01-01

446

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many options for exploration of the Moon and Mars have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration VSE was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of the moon and Mars and those of the Augustine human spaceflight commission for the implications of each architecture on the Environmental Control and Life Support, ExtraVehicular Activity and Thermal Control systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

2009-01-01

447

Computer Aided Art Major.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

Gibson, Jim

448

Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease  

E-print Network

Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease Associations Chester A Alper, Harvard Medical School at least a third of normal European Caucasian MHC haplotypes and contribute most of the MHC disease susceptibility genetic markers. Whereas this has facilitated the detection of MHC gene-disease association

Alper, Chester A.

449

REACH. Major Appliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

English, Charles; And Others

450

The impact of foresight on policy-making: insights from the FORLEARN mutual learning process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents recent insights from the ongoing FORLEARN project, which aims to develop Foresight theory and practise by supporting the sharing of experience (‘mutual learning’) in Europe. Six functions of Foresight for policy-making are elaborated on: (1)?Informing policy: generating insights regarding the dynamics of change, future challenges and options, along with new ideas, and transmitting them to policymakers as

Olivier Da Costa; Philine Warnke; Cristiano Cagnin; Fabiana Scapolo

2008-01-01

451

Comparative study on Climate Change Policies in the EU and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both the EU and China are among the largest CO2 emitters in the world; their climate actions and policies have profound impacts on global climate change and may influence the activities in other countries. Evidence of climate change has been observed across Europe and China. Despite the many differences between the two regions, the European Commission and Chinese government support climate change actions. The EU has three priority areas in climate change: 1) understanding, monitoring and predicting climate change and its impact; 2) providing tools to analyse the effectiveness, cost and benefits of different policy options for mitigating climate change and adapting to its impacts; 3) improving, demonstrating and deploying existing climate friendly technologies and developing the technologies of the future. China is very vulnerable to climate change, because of its vast population, fast economic development, and fragile ecological environment. The priority policies in China are: 1) Carbon Trading Policy; 2) Financing Loan Policy (Special Funds for Renewable Energy Development); 3) Energy Efficiency Labelling Policy; 4) Subsidy Policy. In addition, China has formulated the "Energy Conservation Law", "Renewable Energy Law", "Cleaner Production Promotion Law" and "Circular Economy Promotion Law". Under the present EU Framework Programme FP7 there is a large number of funded research activities linked to climate change research. Current climate change research projects concentrate on the carbon cycle, water quality and availability, climate change predictors, predicting future climate and understanding past climates. Climate change-related scientific and technological projects in China are mostly carried out through national scientific and technological research programs. Areas under investigation include projections and impact of global climate change, the future trends of living environment change in China, countermeasures and supporting technologies of global environment change, formation mechanism and prediction theory of major climate and weather disasters in China, technologies of efficient use of clean energy, energy conservation and improvement of energy efficiency, development and utilisation technology of renewable energy and new energy. The EU recognises that developing countries, such as China and India, need to strengthen their economies through industrialisation. However this needs to be achieved at the same time as protecting the environment and sustainable use of energy. The EU has committed itself to assisting developing countries to achieve their goals in four priority areas: 1) raising the policy profile of climate change; 2) support for adaption to climate change; 3) support for mitigation of climate change; and 4) capacity development. This comparative study is part of the EU funded SPRING project which seeks to understand and assess Chinese and European competencies, with the aim of facilitating greater cooperation in future climate and environment research.

Bray, M.; Han, D.

2012-04-01

452

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy  

E-print Network

Revised./Approved.February 2013. 1 Alcohol Policy Policy Name: Carleton University Alcohol Policy ALCOHOL POLICY INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 5 A. SECURITY SERVICES AT ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS ........................................... 5 B

Carleton University

453

Conversion and standardization of university reactor fuels using low-enrichment uranium - options and costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel used in twenty United States university reactors can be viewed as contributing to the risk of theft or diversion of weapons-useable material. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a policy statement expressing its concern and has published a proposed rule on limiting the use of HEU in NRC-licensed non-power reactors. The fuel options, functional

D. R. Harris; J. E. Matos; H. H. Young

1985-01-01

454

Recommended Academic Plan for AS in Business Administration (2BACC) at DuBois General Business Option  

E-print Network

Microeconomic Analysis and Policy 3 Business Elective (In consultation with adviser) 3 MKTG 301 PrinciplesRecommended Academic Plan for AS in Business Administration (2BACC) at DuBois General Business Option Effective Fall 2010 Semester 1 Credits Semester 2 Credits BA 100S Introduction to Business 3 CAS

Kaye, Jason P.

455

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations: therapeutic options.  

PubMed

We have treated 21 patients (13 female, 8 male) with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). Mean age at diagnosis was 37.5 years (range, 15 to 72 years). Presenting symptoms included dyspnea on exertion (67%), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (57%), and major neurologic events (33%). In our early experience, 8 patients had no specific treatment; their case histories illustrate the major neurologic complications of untreated PAVMs. Nine patients (8 primarily, 1 after recurrence) underwent conservative surgical excision; 4 had lobectomy, and 5 had segmentectomy or subsegmental excision. One patient underwent staged bilateral thoracotomies for multiple bilateral lesions. The arterial oxygen tension was found to increase after excision of large or solitary PAVMs. All surgically treated patients were relieved of dyspnea, and none had postoperative recurrence of PAVMs or neurologic complications related to PAVMs. Five patients underwent balloon occlusion of PAVMs. Two patients chose to have solitary PAVMs occluded rather than undergo thoracotomy. One underwent surgical excision 5 years later, and the other required repeat balloon embolization 4 years later when recanalization of the PAVMs was documented. Three patients with numerous PAVMs received palliation with multiple balloon embolizations. The high incidence of associated major neurologic complications mandates aggressive treatment of PAVMs whenever feasible. Conservative surgical resection remains the treatment of choice. Balloon embolization offers an alternative therapy for patients who are poor surgical risks or those whose lesions are too numerous to resect. PMID:8347006

Puskas, J D; Allen, M S; Moncure, A C; Wain, J C; Hilgenberg, A D; Wright, C; Grillo, H C; Mathisen, D J

1993-08-01

456

Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition of that term varies significantly, meaning that the results of various analyses can not be meaningfully compared. Second, when carbon sequestration is included in an energy-economy model of climate change policy, it appears that carbon sequestration could play a major, if not dominant role in a national carbon emission abatement program, reducing costs of emissions stabilization by as much as 80 percent, saving tens of billions of dollars per year. However, the results are very dependant upon landowners' perceived risk. Studies may also have overstated the potential for carbon sequestration because they have not considered the implementation process. This study demonstrates that three factors will reduce the cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration. First, the implementation costs associated with measurement and governance of the government-private sector relation are higher than in the case of carbon source control. Second, legal constraints limit the range of instruments that the government can use to induce private landowners to expand their carbon sinks. The government will likely have to pay private parties to expand their sinks, or undertake direct government production. In either case, additional revenues will be required, introducing social costs associated with excess burden. Third, because of the very long time involved in developing carbon sinks (up to several decades) the government may not be able to make credible commitments against exactions of one type or another that would effectively reduce the value of private sector investments in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

Richards, Kenneth

457

COMMISSION ON UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES AND POLICIES  

E-print Network

and Gender in Islam (3) WGS 3214: Global Feminisms" (3) WGS 3324: Perspectives on the Biology of Women (3 SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN SOCIOLOGY MAJOR CHECKSHEET OPTION IN WOMEN. REQUIRED HOURS IN SOCIOLOGY AND WOMEN'S AND GENDER STUDIES: Minimum of 40. REqUIRED COURSES IN SOCIOLOGY

Virginia Tech

458

Students interested in a psychology major or minor have two different options at the  

E-print Network

of California, Irvine. The Department of Cognitive Sciences specializes in cognitive neuroscience, vision, social and personality psychology, environmental psychology, and psychopathology and behavioral disorders with a concentration in Cognitive Neuroscience.The Department's graduate program provides research concentrations

Rose, Michael R.

459

Educational Research and Planning as a Career Option for a Mathematics Major.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes her career development from mathematics instructor to director of institutional research at a large community college. She discusses the impact of mathematics on her career, illustrates her present job by describing three recently completed research projects, and strongly recommends that mathematics instructors encourage some…

Tatham, Elaine L.

460

Trade, Global Policy, and the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To encourage the exchange of ideas among academics and government policy makers concerning the effects of trade liberalization on the environment, the World Bank Environment Department (discussed in the September 25, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics) has made fifteen working papers available from the "Trade, Global Policy, and the Environment" conference held April 21-22, 1998, in Washington, DC. Contributors from the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Monetary Fund, Johns Hopkins University, and Columbia University, among others, address topics ranging from trade liberalization and pollution to policy options for global environmental problems. Papers are listed as they occurred in the original program, and thereby retain the interlocutory nature of this event. Now part of of the World Bank Discussion Papers series.

461

Safety Policy LEAD IN PAINT POLICY  

E-print Network

Safety Policy (10/96) LEAD IN PAINT POLICY protection from excessive exposure to lead. Paints and coatings manufactured prior to 1978 often contained disturbing surfaces coated with lead paint or primer, potentially exposing University employees

Powers, Robert

462

Race-Conscious Policy Analysis and the Healthcare Reform Debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an inherent tension between cost containment and expansion of coverage for the uninsured. African Americans disproportionately\\u000a benefit from expanded health care options but they also bear a disproportionate burden in attempts to control costs. This\\u000a recognition justifies a race-conscious analysis of health policy changes that appear race-neutral on their face.

Samuel L. Myers

2010-01-01

463

How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?  

E-print Network

REVIEW How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies? Sarah C. Davis1,2,*, Joanna I Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feed- stock sources, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas

DeLucia, Evan H.

464

SPR Rethinking Productivity Speaker Series Social Policy Research Unit (SPR)  

E-print Network

of nuclear weapons against that country. Hersh was born April 8, 1937 in Chicago to Yiddish-speaking Jewish. Hersh, Seymour M. (1991). The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy And Biological Warfare. Panther Books. Hersh, Seymour M. (1970). My Lai 4: A Report on the Massacre and Its

Argerami, Martin

465

Johns Hopkins University -2013-2014 1 Student Life Policies  

E-print Network

Conduct) (p. ) Options in Case of Sexual Violence or Sexual Harassment (p. ) Undergraduate Academic Ethics (Academic Ethics) (p. ) Penalties (Academic Ethics) (p. ) Appeals (Academic Ethics) (p. ) Records (p. ) Drug, Alcohol, and Firearms Policies for Students (p. ) Student Activities Alcohol Provisions (p. ) Sexual

Niebur, Ernst

466

Major SSC tunneling begins  

SciTech Connect

In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project.

Not Available

1993-01-11

467

Major Land Resource Areas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive map from the US Department of Agriculture displays US land use areas by color. Clicking on a region of the map takes you to a page featuring a blown-up map and a paragraph describing the major land use of the area (e.g., agriculture, residential, industrial, etc.). From there, you can also access regional elevation, climate, water, and soil information.

2000-01-01

468

Major peripheral veins injuries.  

PubMed

The injury was severe in wounded limb patients of this series who suffered from an associated major peripheral vein trauma. The presence of such an injury weighed heavily on the prognosis. Thirty eight patients with major peripheral veins injuries are reviewed. The injury had resulted from war wounds, work or road accidents. The superficial femoral vein was the most frequently injured vein. Associated injuries were frequently noted: soft tissues injuries in 35 patients, fractures in 33, arterial injuries in 32 and peripheral nerve injuries in 22 patients. Shock was more often present and more severe in patients who suffered also from a vein injury than in patients with an arterial injury only. The lacerated femoral vein was ligated in the majority of patients. Attempts were made to repair the lacerated popliteal veins. Repair of the vein was usually done by anastomosis of debrided ends. When an arterial injury was also present, it was repaired first. The postoperative complications were frequent and included infections, thrombophlebitis and pulmonary embolisations. Twenty four patients were discharged with a viable limb. Complete function was recovered in seven patients only. Partial neurological deficit remained in twelve patients and complete paralysis in five. Twelve patients underwent subsequent amputation of the injured limb. Indications for amputation were ischemia in eight, infection or extensive destruction of tissues in four. Two patients died. PMID:961040

Romanoff, H; Goldberger, S

1976-01-01

469

Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.  

PubMed

This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling. PMID:16573187

Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

2006-03-01

470

Policy Title: Policy Number: Real Estate  

E-print Network

Policy Title: Policy Number: Real Estate Transactions and Management 2.3.4 Category: Financial(s): Planning + Design + Construction University of Cincinnati Real Estate Transactions and Management Policy aspects of real estate transactions and management, including the delegation of responsibility for all

Papautsky, Ian

471

Food Safety Policy General Policy Statement  

E-print Network

Food Safety Policy General Policy Statement St. Anne's College has a commitment to food safety The fundamental aim of this Food Safety Policy is to minimize the risk of contamination from harmful bacteria of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Procedures (HACCP) must be followed to ensure that food safety

472

Policy & Procedure Academic Staff Promotion Policy 2014  

E-print Network

is effective from 01 January 2014. Preamble: If the University is to achieve its strategic goals then, or the last promotion within, the University, whichever is more recent; 1.3 Staff in all Academic Work ProfilePage 1 Policy & Procedure Academic Staff Promotion Policy 2014 January 01 Purpose: This Policy

473

Revascularization options for terminal distal ischemia.  

PubMed

Direct arterial bypass remains the best option in patients with terminal ischemia of the hand, if there is an adequate distal target vessel. In situ bypass is the procedure of choice in patients who are candidates for arterial bypass. Venous arterialization offers an option in patients in whom there is not adequate arterial runoff in the hand. Venous arterialization should be avoided in patients with significant wounds and/or active infection. In selected patients, microvascular omental transfer can offer an option for revascularization of the ischemic hand. PMID:25455358

Pederson, William C

2015-02-01

474

Which cropland greenhouse gas mitigation options give the greatest benefits in different world regions? Climate and soil specific predictions from integrated empirical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural crop production are nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions resulting from the application of mineral and organic fertiliser, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil carbon losses. Consequently, choice of fertiliser type, optimising fertiliser application rates and timing, reducing microbial denitrification and improving soil carbon management are focus areas for mitigation. We have integrated separate models derived from global data on fertiliser induced soil N2O emissions, soil nitrification inhibitors, and the effects of tillage and soil inputs of soil C stocks into a single model in order to determine optimal mitigation options as a function of soil type, climate, and fertilisation rates. After Monte Carlo sampling of input variables we aggregated the outputs according to climate, soil and fertiliser factors to consider the benefits of several possible emissions mitigation strategies, and identified the most beneficial option for each factor class on a per hectare basis. The optimal mitigation for each soil-climate-region was then mapped to propose geographically specific optimal GHG mitigation strategies for crops with varying N requirements. The use of empirical models reduces the requirements for validation (since they are calibrated on globally or continentally observed phenomena). However, since they are relatively simple in structure, they may not be applicable for accurate site specific prediction of GHG emissions. The value of this modelling approach is for initial screening and ranking of potential agricultural mitigation options and to explore the potential impact of regional agricultural GHG abatement policies. Given the clear association between management practice and crop productivity, it is essential to incorporate characterisation of the yield effect on a given crop before recommending any mitigation practice.

Hillier, J.; Brentrup, F.; Wattenbach, M.; Walter, C.; Garcia-Suarez, T.; Mila-i-Canals, L.; Smith, P.

2012-04-01

475

Decentralized control of Markovian decision processes: Existence Sigma-admissable policies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of formulating and analyzing Markov decision models having decentralized information and decision patterns is examined. Included are basic examples as well as the mathematical preliminaries needed to understand Markov decision models and, further, to superimpose decentralized decision structures on them. The notion of a variance admissible policy for the model is introduced and it is proved that there exist (possibly nondeterministic) optional policies from the class of variance admissible policies. Directions for further research are explored.

Greenland, A.

1980-01-01

476

Policy 6320 Sexual Harassment Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Policy 6320 ­ Sexual Harassment Policy 1 OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITY University Policy Policy #6320 SEXUAL HARASSMENT POLICY Responsible Oversight Executive: Assistant Vice President, Office/contractor from contracting with the Commonwealth. Sexual Harassment - Unwelcome and unsolicited conduct

477

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

478

Military and diplomatic roles and options for managing and responding to the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. Final report: Program on Stability and the Offense/Defense Relationship  

SciTech Connect

The March seminar, ``Military and Diplomatic Roles and Options`` for managing and responding to proliferation, featured three presentations: the military and diplomatic implications of preemptive force as a counterproliferation option; an in-depth assessment of the threat posed by biological weapons; and, a new proposed US counterproliferation policy.

Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.; Murray, B.L.

1993-05-26

479

Fort Collins Science Center: Policy Analysis and Science Assistance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most resource management decisions involve the integrated use of biological, sociological, and economic information. Combining this information provides a more comprehensive basis for making effective land management and conservation decisions. Toward this end, scientists in the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA) of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) contribute expert knowledge for natural resources management by conducting biological, social, economic, and institutional analyses of conservation policies and management practices. PASAi??s mission is to integrate biological, social, and economic research so that resource managers can use the resulting information to make informed decisions and resolve resource management confl icts. PASA scientists pursue and conduct scientific analyses that help agencies and Native American tribes to (1) identify impending policy controversies and areas where social and natural science research is needed to address future policy questions; (2) develop methods and approaches to assist researchers in preparing scientific evidence; (3) assess habitat alteration in a manner consistent with policy needs; and (4) evaluate policy options. Branch scientists also evaluate policy options (e.g., effects of different land treatments, fish and wildlife management practices, or visitor/recreation management practices) in response to specifi c questions faced by policymakers and managers.

Lamb, Berton L.

2004-01-01

480

Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

2014-01-01

481

Essays on monetary policy and asset prices  

E-print Network

ESSAYS ON MONETARY POLICY AND ASSET PRICES A Dissertation by JONG CHIL SON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR... OF PHILOSOPHY December 2008 Major Subject: Economics ESSAYS ON MONETARY POLICY AND ASSET PRICES A Dissertation by JONG CHIL SON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Son, Jong Chil

2010-01-14

482

Wills and ways : policy dynamics of HOPE IV from 1992-2002  

E-print Network

(cont.) thorough analysis of the stability and change of HOPE VI policy offers insights into the potentials and the pitfalls of this major public housing program and similar federal policies in the American political system. ...

Zhang, Yan, 1972-

2004-01-01

483

The potential for trickle up : how local actors' experiments influence national forest policy planning  

E-print Network

The loss of forests in Vietnam encouraged central government policy makers to consider new ways to manage forest resources. A major forest policy shift -- moving away from state-led management -- began in earnest in pilot ...

Blockhus, Jill M

2006-01-01

484

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER)  

E-print Network

PHOTO OPTION CURRICULUM (FOR STUDENTS ENTERING FALL, 2011 OR LATER) NOTE ON REVERSE. GATE REQUIREMENTS FOR PHOTO OPTION: FILM 100IH ­ Introduction to Film)..................................................................3 PHOTO OPTION REQUIREMENTS (GATE REQUIRED FOR MOST COURSES): PHOT 255

Dyer, Bill

485

Rolling Up a Put Option as Prices Increase  

E-print Network

Agricultural producers use put options to protect themselves against declining prices. The technique of "rolling up a put option, explained in this publication, allows the producer to raise the minimum expected selling price of a put option...

Johnson, Jason; Polk, Wade

2008-10-07

486

Wind Streaks in Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

These windstreaks are located on the lava flows of Meroe Patera in Syrtis Major.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.7, Longitude 73.2 East (286.8 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

487

16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics and...

2013-01-01

488

16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics and...

2010-01-01

489

16 CFR 432.4 - Optional disclosures.  

...4 Section 432.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR AMPLIFIERS UTILIZED IN HOME ENTERTAINMENT PRODUCTS § 432.4 Optional disclosures. Other operating characteristics and...

2014-01-01

490

Subscribe to our RSS Feed Subscription Options  

E-print Network

Subscribe to our RSS Feed Share Subscription Options Subscribe to our RSS Feed Subscribe via Email's not that the animal's body stays fixed and its brain gets better over time," he says. "In natural evolution animals

Bongard, Josh

491

Optional games on cycles and complete graphs.  

PubMed

We study stochastic evolution of optional games on simple graphs. There are two strategies, A and B, whose interaction is described by a general payoff matrix. In addition, there are one or several possibilities to opt out from the game by adopting loner strategies. Optional games lead to relaxed social dilemmas. Here we explore the interaction between spatial structure and optional games. We find that increasing the number of loner strategies (or equivalently increasing mutational bias toward loner strategies) facilitates evolution of cooperation both in well-mixed and in structured populations. We derive various limits for weak selection and large population size. For some cases we derive analytic results for strong selection. We also analyze strategy selection numerically for finite selection intensity and discuss combined effects of optionality and spatial structure. PMID:24780293

Jeong, Hyeong-Chai; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A

2014-09-01

492

TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

493

Hedging Milk with BFP Futures and Options  

E-print Network

Basic Formula Price (BFP) milk futures and options can be used to hedge, or lock in, milk prices in order to manage milk price fluctuations. This publication offers information on futures contracts, basis, cash settlement and margin call. There also...

Anderson, David P.; McCorkle, Dean; Schwart Jr., Robert B.; Jones, Rodney

1999-06-23

494

Brazil: Energy Options and Current Outlook  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brazil's energy options and current outlook are examined, and a summary of known reserves of fossil and renewable energy resources is given. Suggestions for an energy program designed to preserve Brazilian culture are included. (MDR)

Goldemberg, J.

1978-01-01

495

options - allocation funds - transaction costs - Optimization Online  

E-print Network

One first problem to overcome is the impact of transaction costs. ... Based on these assumptions, we prove that a region of no-activity characterizes the adjustment ...... These last results lead to conclude that option characteristics are fuzzy.

Admin

2009-03-25

496

78 FR 38843 - Single Application Option  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...implementation. The single application option will...Effective date: June 28, 2013. Comments date: Comments...later than August 28, 2013. ADDRESSES: The Copyright...copyright.gov/comments/single-application/comment-submission...html. The Web site interface requires submitters...

2013-06-28

497

24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255 Assignment option....

2010-04-01

498

24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255 Assignment option....

2011-04-01

499

24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.  

...PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255 Assignment option....

2014-04-01

500

24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low Cost Homes § 221.255 Assignment option....

2013-04-01