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1

Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

2

Policy Options for Federal Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study by the American Council on Education examined the conditions and needs of the private sector of higher education. The policy options outlined here are in four categories. The first category, improving federal-state coordination of policies affecting private institutions, proposes two ideas: a request by the President that each state…

Hughes, John F.; Smith, Patricia

3

OPTIONAL LIFE INSURANCE SMOKING DECLARATION POLICY HOLDER POLICY NO.  

E-print Network

OPTIONAL LIFE INSURANCE SMOKING DECLARATION POLICY HOLDER POLICY NO. Simon Fraser University GL 37722 To qualify for reduced non-smoker optional life rates you must not have used smoking materials-smoker and have begun smoking, your premium will be converted to the smoker's premium rate. EMPLOYEE'S NAME

4

Programs for Young Children: State Policy Options. CPRE Policy Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paper, "Young Children Face the States: Issues and Options for Early Childhood Programs," by W. Norton Grubb, is summarized in this policy brief. A discussion of the decisions that state policy makers must make and descriptions of the historical conflicts that persist within the early childhood movement and the current national status of early…

Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Eagleton Inst. of Politics.

5

Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

Norwood, Frank W.

6

Population policy: major party positions.  

PubMed

This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues. PMID:12294231

Betts, K

1998-01-01

7

Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

Bezdek, Roger

8

Accelerated Learning Options: A Promising Strategy for States. Policy Insights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of Policy Insights draws on findings from WICHE's report Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success, to lay out some of the important policy issues that decision makers might consider when adopting new state policy related to accelerated learning or modifying policies already in existence. The publication…

Michelau, Demaree

2006-01-01

9

Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

Not Available

1981-01-01

10

Price discrimination and EU dairy policy : an economic evaluation of policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a period of market liberalization and multilateral trade negotiations, price discrimination for commodities with distinct markets provides additional policy options to support farm income. While both the USA and Canada have implemented price discrimination policies in their domestic dairy sector, so far the European Union (EU) has not. This paper evaluates the options of developing a price discrimination policy

Z. Bouamra-Mechemache; J. P. Chavas; T. Cox; V. Réquillart

2001-01-01

11

How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.  

PubMed

In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs. PMID:22635185

Ogden, Lydia L

2012-01-01

12

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice  

E-print Network

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice A white paper for participants of the 2008 James L. Oberstar Forum The Next Authorization: Transforming Transportation Policy? April 6­7, 2008 Minneapolis, Minnesota Sponsored by Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota

Minnesota, University of

13

Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for tackling obesity in Greece.  

PubMed

The study aimed to map stakeholders' evaluations of policy options to counter the rising prevalence of obesity in Greece, where the case for action on obesity is only now being made. The multi-criteria mapping method was used to capture and compare stakeholders' appraisals and to provide a policy analysis. Efficacy and practical feasibility were the issues most frequently used by stakeholders to evaluate options and were weighted more highly than cost criteria, which were often defined in terms of governmental costs. There was a broad favourable appraisal for downstream measures offering individuals the skills, information and opportunities to make healthier choices, rather than options to modify the obesogenic environment. Consistently, high rankings were given to educational options, for improving communal facilities and for some information-related options (food labelling, advertising), with particular support for policies targeting the young. There was also significant advocacy by a few for the creation of a new government body charged with intersectoral policy co-ordination. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project analyses thus point to support for a portfolio of measures to combat the problem of obesity in Greece as well as an appreciation that political will is an essential prerequisite. PMID:17371309

Codrington, C; Sarri, K; Kafatos, A

2007-05-01

14

Global warming - uncertainties, effects, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental policy making is a challenging task. Often the scope of an issue is not fully comprehended, and its future impact is even less well understood. Global warming is one of these environmental issues. The issue is made more complex because, first, there is a question of whether it is a problem at all and, second, unilateral policy making by

Ravi K. Jain; Lloyd V. Urban

1998-01-01

15

Policy options for stabilizing global climate. Draft report to congress. Executive Summary. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

The Executive Summary describes the goals established by EPS for the study, considering previous work and the Congressional mandate. The analytical framework developed for the study is briefly described and its limitations are noted. Current understanding of the greenhouse gases and their impact on global climate is summarized. A description of the scenarios that were developed to explore the sensitivity of the climate system to policy choices is presented next. The results of this scenario analysis follows, emphasizing the relative impact of various options. The technological and policy strategies that appear most promising for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are then presented by major-activity category: energy production and use, other industrial activities, changes in land use, and agricultural practices. The policy options that are available for promoting these emission-reduction strategies are then reviewed, giving consideration to the timing of policy responses to the Greenhouse gas buildup. Finally, the major findings of the study are summarized.

Lashof, D.A.; Tirpak, D.A.

1989-02-01

16

Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) may soon be licensed. In contrast to most vaccine-preventable diseases, which are transmitted by air or casual contact, HPV is primarily transmitted by sexual contact. An analysis that applies ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, rule of double effect, and principlism, is needed for policy considerations. These analyses reveal that HPV vaccination can be recommended universally,

Richard K. Zimmerman

2006-01-01

17

Options, Sustainability Policy and the Spontaneous Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the implications for sustainability policy of environmental uncertainty and indeterminacy, and relates the associated problems with a conventional understanding of sustainable development to Hayek's critique of collective planning. It suggests that the appropriate recourse is not, however, a Hayekian endorsement of the free…

Foster, John

2005-01-01

18

Evaluating Policy Options for Biofuel Land Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biofuels leads to global land use change (LUC) through increased land competition. LUC poses risks such as increased greenhouse gas emissions and food prices, that policymakers must balance against biofuel objectives. This paper examines policy approaches to lower LUC risk from biofuels. We propose a three-pronged policy approach: (1) promoting feedstocks that rely less on land; (2) reducing LUC risk for land-using feedstocks; and (3) stimulating investments that increase land productivity and environmental protection. We illustrate possibilities for model-based evaluation of LUC policy design options using two linked partial economic equilibrium simulation models (BEPAM/IMPACT). While the modeling addresses only a subset of mitigation options presented (including an 'iLUC factor'), it illustrates how this approach can shed light on the geographical distribution and magnitude of LUC resulting from specific policy designs.

Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.; Msangi, S.

2012-12-01

19

Vector majorization and a robust option replacement trading strategy  

E-print Network

as engaged in a zero sum 2 #12;game relative to the underlying stock. Thus, heuristically, if one side of the option underperform the stock. More precisely, there exist two critical call option premiums: pC pW having the following properties. When the option premium p pC , buying call options will improve

Zhu, Qiji Jim

20

Option values of low carbon technology policies  

E-print Network

are: carbon capture and storage (CCS), the new nuclear, solar thermal plants, and offshore windpower farms. These technologies require high upfront capital investments and long construction lead?times. Such new large... and learning rate, in the informed scenario (plain line) and the uninformed scenario (dashed line), with and A similar analysis can be performed regarding the expected CO2 price. In Figure (6), the two optimal policies are depicted with two different...

Finon, Dominique; Meunier, Guy

2012-06-19

21

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans  

SciTech Connect

This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

Doris, E.

2011-09-01

22

A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

Phelps, James L.

2011-01-01

23

Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options.  

PubMed

Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) may soon be licensed. In contrast to most vaccine-preventable diseases, which are transmitted by air or casual contact, HPV is primarily transmitted by sexual contact. An analysis that applies ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, rule of double effect, and principlism, is needed for policy considerations. These analyses reveal that HPV vaccination can be recommended universally, including at ages 11-12 years. However, given concerns for autonomy, justice, as not all persons are at risk, and non-maleficence, HPV vaccine should not be mandated for school entry. Economic justice indicates a need to provide vaccination for the disadvantaged. PMID:16603278

Zimmerman, Richard K

2006-05-29

24

"THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY  

E-print Network

, to be in operation in 1986 #12;1980 Establishment of the Alternative Energy Sources Department at ( Governor Moissis"THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY: A RENAISSANCE OR A DJA VUE" by RAPHAEL MOISSIS, Sc.D. President, the National Energy Strategy Council #12;· "Renaissance", a notion that inspires

25

Stem Cell Research: An Ethical Evaluation of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In February 2004, South Korean researchers became the first in the world to successfully harvest stem cells and establish a stem cell line from a cloned human embryo. This is just one of eight possible policy options concern- ing human embryonic stem cell research. In practice, every kind of stem cell research can be done in one country or another.

Nikolaus Knoepffler

2004-01-01

26

Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to  

E-print Network

benefits of PV that must be advertised, and perhaps marketed, to assure an increase in social supportEarly Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to Achieve Solar Penetration Targets: Accounting. In this context, we analyze the solar PV markets and the solar industry globally, and discuss the external

27

Energy Demand and Emissions in Building in China: Scenarios and Policy Options  

E-print Network

including transport), taking into account the most up-to-date data and recent policy discussions that will affect future economic, population, and energy supply trends. To understand the role of policy options including technology options and countermeasures...

Kejun, J.; Xiulian, H.

2006-01-01

28

Policy options in a worst case climate change world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic changes more rapid and extreme than assessed by the IPCC cannot be excluded, because of the possibility of positive\\u000a earth system feedbacks and thresholds. Do today’s policy makers have to take these into account, and if so, are the options\\u000a different from those considered today? The paper briefly summarizes the types of extreme climatic changes noted in the literature

Rob Swart; Natasha Marinova

2010-01-01

29

Preeradication vaccine policy options for poliovirus infection and disease control.  

PubMed

With the circulation of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 1 and 3 continuing more than a decade after the original goal of eradicating all three types of WPVs by 2000, policymakers consider many immunization options as they strive to stop transmission in the remaining endemic and outbreak areas and prevent reintroductions of live polioviruses into nonendemic areas. While polio vaccination choices may appear simple, our analysis of current options shows remarkable complexity. We offer important context for current and future polio vaccine decisions and policy analyses by developing decision trees that clearly identify potential options currently used by countries as they evaluate national polio vaccine choices. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature we (1) identify the current vaccination options that national health leaders consider for polio vaccination, (2) characterize current practices and factors that appear to influence national and international choices, and (3) assess the evidence of vaccine effectiveness considering sources of variability between countries and uncertainties associated with limitations of the data. With low numbers of cases occurring globally, the management of polio risks might seem like a relatively low priority, but stopping live poliovirus circulation requires making proactive and intentional choices to manage population immunity in the remaining endemic areas and to prevent reestablishment in nonendemic areas. Our analysis shows remarkable variability in the current national polio vaccine product choices and schedules, with combination vaccine options containing inactivated poliovirus vaccine and different formulations of oral poliovirus vaccine making choices increasingly difficult for national health leaders. PMID:23461599

Thompson, Kimberly M; Pallansch, Mark A; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Wassilak, Steve G; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cochi, Stephen L

2013-04-01

30

Review of Major Integrated Energy Policy Report Recommendations  

E-print Network

#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;1 Review of Major Integrated Energy Policy Report Recommendations In general, I find that the 2004 Integrated Energy Policy Report Update (or Energy Report), inclusive of the 2003 Energy Report, is consistent with my views on energy policy, except as noted otherwise

31

Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.  

PubMed

Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China's biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing. PMID:20372892

Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

2010-10-01

32

Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China’s biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing.

Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

2010-10-01

33

Nonprofit conversion: theory, evidence, and state policy options.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the contributions of nonprofit hospitals and health plans to healthcare markets and to analyze state policy options with regard to the conversion of nonprofits to for-profit status. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary national and state data from a variety of sources, 1980-present. STUDY DESIGN: Policy analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Development of a conceptual economic framework; analysis of empirical, legal, and theoretical literature; and review of statutes, rules, and court decisions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three main rationales support special status for nonprofits, especially hospitals: charity care, other community benefits, and consumer protection. The main social rationale for for-profits is their incentives for better efficiency. There are reasons to expect that nonprofit and for-profit goals differ; however, measured differences in community hospital cost, prices, and quality between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals are undetectable or inconclusive. Nonprofit hospitals do provide more uncompensated care than for-profit hospitals. Similarities between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals may exist because nonprofits may set norms that for-profits follow to some degree. States have substantial power and discretion in overseeing nonprofit conversions. Some have regularized oversight through new legislation that constrains, but does not eliminate, state officials' discretion. These statutes may be deferential to converting entities and their buyers or may be very restrictive of them. CONCLUSIONS: Overseeing the appropriate disposition of nonprofit assets in individual conversions is extremely important. States should also monitor local market conditions through community benefits assessments and other data collection, however, to accurately assess (and possibly redress) what is lost or gained from conversion. Local market conditions are likely more important in determining hospital behavior than ownership form. Potentially, a mix of for-profit and nonprofit hospitals in a given market may improve market performance due to constraints the two ownership types may exercise over one another. If nonprofits disappear, the states may need to maintain quality and access norms through regulation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9865231

Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M

1998-01-01

34

Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.  

PubMed

By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Wang, H; Zhai, F

2013-11-01

35

Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China  

PubMed Central

By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

2014-01-01

36

The global crisis and the Peruvian labor market: impact and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

After almost 20 years of prudent macro policies, Peru seems in better shape than before to withstand the effects of a financial crisis. Progress, however, has left some policy areas unscathed and the labor market is one of them. In this paper we analyze the potential effects of the crisis on labor market outcomes, and discuss policy options to address

Eduardo Moron; Juan F. Castro; Lucciano Villacorta

2009-01-01

37

Energy Policy in Cyprus: Outlook and Major Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines major energy policy challenges that Cyprus is faced with. Main issues are securing the island’s energy supply and limiting growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Results from econometric analyses show that energy use is income elastic and price inelastic, which indicates that energy consumption may continue to grow rapidly in the future in the absence of appropriate price

Theodoros Zachariadis

2007-01-01

38

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: how much does this uncertain option affect near-term policy choices?  

E-print Network

Carbon Capture and Sequestration: how much does this uncertain option affect near-term policy Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) as a key option to avoid costly emission reduction. While Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technologies are receiving increasing atten- tion, mainly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Excellence at Work. Policy Option Papers for the National Governors' Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains an introduction and four policy option papers that explore key issues affecting the economy and state options to address the issues within the context of the U.S. workplace. "Introduction" (David Bedford, Evelyn Ganzglass) discusses the issues identified in the first phase of the governors' initiative on Excellence at Work and…

Ganzglass, Evelyn, Ed.

40

Recommended Academic Plan for Animal Sciences Major -Business/Management Option (ANSCI/BSMGT)  

E-print Network

300 (GN) Integrated Animal Biology 3 AG BM 102 Economics of the Food System or MKTG 221 ContemporaryRecommended Academic Plan for Animal Sciences Major - Business/Management Option (ANSCI (GN) Biology: Basic Concepts and Biodiversity or Biology 011 Introductory Biology I and Biology 012

Omiecinski, Curtis

41

Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

1987-01-01

42

U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

Woods, A.L. [ed.] [Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, TX (United States); Gonzalez, V.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Political Science

1998-10-01

43

A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate change  

SciTech Connect

Volume 1 of this report evaluated generic policy instruments according to the criteria of efficiency information requirements, distributional effects, political sustainability, and applicability to greenhouse gas issues. This volume describes policies specific to the various components of the private sector and evaluates options for the implementation of policies according to a further set of screening criteria more suitable for specific instances or applications of the instruments. The description of the private sector in this volume is confined to qualitative analysis of the constraints and opportunities arising from existing materials, processes, markets, and regulatory frameworks that are likely to shape its response to the prospect of global warming. Materials include fuels as well as other substantive material and energy inputs and outputs for the sector. For example, steel production involves iron ore, coal, perhaps electricity, and the finished product. Processes are the activities by which a sector satisfies demands for its goods and services. For example, fossil fuel combustion is a major process in the utilities sector, while fertilizer production and application are both important processes for agriculture. Markets in this context include both capital markets which finance the activities of the private sector and the markets in which commodities and services are traded and consumed. The regulatory framework quite simply is the nexus of legal constraints on entry to an activity and the rules by which the government, or alternative regulatory agency, for example, a public utility commission, controls the activities of a sector. 387 refs., 15 figs., 18 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

44

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options  

E-print Network

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options Raphae¨l Bille � Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract Ocean acidification has emerged over research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus

Fortunat, Joos

45

Turkey's foreign policy options: Europe, the USA or Central Asia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accession to the European Union (EU) constitutes one of Turkey's primary foreign policy objectives. However, to establish whether the country would benefit from becoming part of an integrated Europe, its foreign policy alternatives to EU membership must also be examined. The first part of this article analyses Turkey's changing relations with Europe. Against this backdrop, the article then moves to

Christos Kassimeris

2010-01-01

46

Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Policy Options for Cannabis: Status Quo and Legalisation  

PubMed Central

Aims To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised–regulated option was conducted. Method A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). Findings The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised–regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised–regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Conclusion Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case. PMID:24755942

Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

2014-01-01

47

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively  

E-print Network

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

Liu, Paul

48

Integrated analysis of policy options for protection of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is directed at providing an integrated framework that a regional authority should use when assessing the potential impacts of any policy initiative directed at improving groundwater quality. In particular, a policy model is developed relying on three decision components (a farm-level production decisions model, a household decisions model and a regional policy decision model) where the objective is one of identifying the trade-offs that a regional authority will be confronted with as it strives to balance the preferences of farmers and households while endeavoring to maximize net economic welfare. The basic rule developed indicates that the regional authority must choose a policy whereby any increase (decrease) in regional income is just equal to the decrease (increase) in net benefits to households.

Uri, Noel D.; Huang, Wen-Yuan

1990-05-01

49

Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologies may be an interesting option. In this paper, several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed. These possibilities are identified in different areas, notably economic, spatial, institutional, social\\/psychological and technological

Sytze A. Rienstra; Jaap M. Vleugel; Peter Nijkamp

1996-01-01

50

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

51

Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

Baxter, L.W.

1997-07-01

52

An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

1995-01-01

53

Policy implementations for organic agriculture: A real options approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming has experienced a vast increase within the EU, despite the fact that it implies greater risk and uncertainty than that of conventional farming. This is the result of the increased environmental concern and the rising demand for quality food, which led to the implementation of the organic policy scheme. Nevertheless, the production of organic fruits, including cherries, is

Irene Tzouramani; Angelos E. Liontakis; Alexandra Sintori; George Alexopoulos

2009-01-01

54

E-cigarettes: policy options and legal issues amidst uncertainty.  

PubMed

Responsibly marketed and properly regulated, ENDS could potentially benefit public health. ENDS pose potential risks to public health. ENDS policies should be adaptable as evidence emerges. FDA must finalize its proposed rule, while states and localities exercise their powers to tax and regulate ENDS as they do other tobacco products. PMID:25846158

Kaufman, Nancy; Mahoney, Margaret

2015-03-01

55

Energy policies and the greenhouse effect volume two: Country studies and technical options  

SciTech Connect

This book is the second volume based on a 4-year study by the Energy and Environmental Programme at the Royal Institute of Interantional Affairs in the United Kingdom. First, the book provides an integrated discussion of the country studies and technical options that contain information for policy analysis. The second part explains how political, rather than technical or economic, constraints have inhibited widespread adoption of abatement policies in USA, UK, Japan, the former Soviet Union, China, and India.

Grubb, M.

1993-01-01

56

Modelling the incidence of measles in Canada: an assessment of the options for vaccination policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of vaccination policy options for improving the control of measles in Canada is investigated using a mathematical model to simulate transmission of the disease. Results suggest that a catch up campaign giving a second dose of vaccine to children aged up to 18 years would have an immediate impact on transmission, which could be maintained by the introduction

Nigel J. Gay; Louise Pelletier; Philippe Duclos

1998-01-01

57

Nitrate pollution of wells: pollution prevention policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigated agriculture is a major sector of agricultural economy where high value crops are grown with substantial input of fertilizers and pesticides. High concentrations of nitrate and pesticides have been observed in ground water beneath irrigated areas in humid regions, where irrigation is practiced on sandy soils that have low water-holding capacity. Data from these areas indicate that irrigation wells

C. Ray; R. K. Jain

1999-01-01

58

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

59

Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.  

PubMed

Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made. PMID:23600192

Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

2013-03-01

60

Accessing Modern Science: Policy and Institutional Options for Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The private sector dominates biotechnology research in industrialized countries, but there are major market failures in developing countries in accessing the new tools and technologies. The public sector, national and international, will have to play a major role in filling this gap. This paper provides an overview of options that countries of different sizes and capacities can employ to gain

Derek Byerlee; Ken Fischer

2002-01-01

61

Upper-Division Course Options for Genetics Majors Major electives in general should be selected from upper-division lecture, laboratory,  

E-print Network

6/6/08 Upper-Division Course Options for Genetics Majors Major electives in general should, biology, cell biology, chemistry, computer science, ecology, entomology, genetics, marine science, math GENETICS GENE 4050. Behavior Genetics. 3 hours. Prerequisite: BIOL 1107-1107L or BIOL 1108-1108L

Arnold, Jonathan

62

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-01

63

Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far. PMID:23897413

Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-01

64

Electricity demand-side management for an energy efficient future in China : technology options and policy priorities  

E-print Network

The main objective of this research is to identify robust technology and policy options which achieve substantial reductions in electricity demand in China's Shandong Province. This research utilizes a scenario-based ...

Cheng, Chia-Chin

2005-01-01

65

Test-Optional Admission Policies and Their Effect on the Composition of the Student Body at King's College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined test-optional admission policies and their effect on the composition of the student body at King's College. According to the College Board (2009), students from underrepresented populations do not perform as well as White students on standardized tests. Therefore, higher education institutions have established test-optional

Schmude, Michelle

2011-01-01

66

Implementing Policy Options to Strengthen the Nexus between Postsecondary Education and Workforce Development. Commission Report 08-07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December 2007, the California Postsecondary Education adopted the last in an initial series of reports on the nexus between postsecondary education and workforce development by requesting staff to return with plans and priorities to pursue implementation of ten general policy options, grouped into three categories. One option is already being…

California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

2008-01-01

67

A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate changes  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming an issue of significant public concern. Recent scientific research results combined with a very warm decade have led to growing apprehension that we may be on the brink of global warming inadvertently induced by human activity. As one manifestation of increasing concern, several Congressional Committee hearings on issues deriving from potential climate change have been held. Additionally, in 1986 Congress requested two studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the effects of climate change and on policy options to stabilize the atmosphere. Those reports currently are being reviewed by Federal agencies prior to submission to Congress. In the report language accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriations Act, 1989, the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Conference Committee also requested four studies on climate change from the Department of Energy (DOE). The four reports are Alternative Energy R D -- to assess the state and direction of Federal R D on alternative energy sources, including conservation; Greenhouse Gas Data Collection -- to assess how greenhouse gas emission and climate trends data are coordinated, archived, and made available to scientists, both within and outside of government, Carbon Dioxide Inventory and Policy -- to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 5-10 years and a 50% reduction in 15-20 years as well as provide an inventory of emission sources; and Study of Options to Mobilize the Private Sector -- to assess policy options for encouraging the private sector to cooperate in mitigating, adapting, and preventing global climate change. 286 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

68

Policy options for alcohol price regulation: the importance of modelling population heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Context and aims Internationally, the repertoire of alcohol pricing policies has expanded to include targeted taxation, inflation-linked taxation, taxation based on alcohol-by-volume (ABV), minimum pricing policies (general or targeted), bans of below-cost selling and restricting price-based promotions. Policy makers clearly need to consider how options compare in reducing harms at the population level, but are also required to demonstrate proportionality of their actions, which necessitates a detailed understanding of policy effects on different population subgroups. This paper presents selected findings from a policy appraisal for the UK government and discusses the importance of accounting for population heterogeneity in such analyses. Method We have built a causal, deterministic, epidemiological model which takes account of differential preferences by population subgroups defined by age, gender and level of drinking (moderate, hazardous, harmful). We consider purchasing preferences in terms of the types and volumes of alcoholic beverages, prices paid and the balance between bars, clubs and restaurants as opposed to supermarkets and off-licenses. Results Age, sex and level of drinking fundamentally affect beverage preferences, drinking location, prices paid, price sensitivity and tendency to substitute for other beverage types. Pricing policies vary in their impact on different product types, price points and venues, thus having distinctly different effects on subgroups. Because population subgroups also have substantially different risk profiles for harms, policies are differentially effective in reducing health, crime, work-place absence and unemployment harms. Conclusion Policy appraisals must account for population heterogeneity and complexity if resulting interventions are to be well considered, proportionate, effective and cost-effective. PMID:19839965

Meier, Petra Sylvia; Purshouse, Robin; Brennan, Alan

2010-03-01

69

Policy Options for Rural America: An Overview of Research Findings and Policy Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of rural population growth and its economic consequences in California, Wisconsin, North Carolina, and Vermont helps explain the changing conditions in rural America and indicates the direction policy should take. Despite their distance from financial centers and their low density, rural areas are generally characterized by a more…

Bradshaw, Ted K.; Blakely, Edward J.

70

The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

Marangos, John

2012-01-01

71

Milk marketing policy options for the dairy industry in New England.  

PubMed

New England dairy farmers are under intense price pressure resulting from important growth in milk production from lower cost of production Southwest states as well as by retailers' market power. Agricultural officials and legislative bodies in New England and in other Northeast US states are aware of these pressures and have been reacting with emergency dairy farm aid, following a very low 2006 milk price, and with state legislations in an attempt to address perceived excess retailing margins for fluid milk. In this paper, we suggest that a sigmoid demand relationship exists for fluid milk. This demand relationship would explain fluid milk asymmetric price transmission, high-low pricing, and the creation of a large retailing margin (chain surplus) often observed for fluid milk. It is also argued that a sigmoid demand relationship offers an opportunity for state legislators to help Northeast dairy farmers capturing a larger share of the dollar of the consumers through various policy options. Therefore, 5 milk market channel regulatory mechanisms (status quo, price gouging, supply control, fair share policy, and chain surplus return) are discussed and compared. The supply control mechanism was found the most effective at redistributing the chain surplus, associated with the sigmoid demand relationship for fluid milk, to dairy farmers. However, this option is unlikely to be politically acceptable in the United States. Second-best options for increasing dairy farmers' share of the consumers' dollar are the fair price policy and the chain surplus return. The former mechanism would distribute the chain surplus between retailers, processors, and farmers, whereas the latter would distribute it between consumers, retailers, and farmers. Remaining mechanisms would either transfer the chain surplus to retailers (status quo) or to consumers (price gouging). PMID:18292281

Doyon, M; Criner, G; Bragg, L A

2008-03-01

72

Clinical major option: a model for implementing critical care nursing into baccalaureate preparation.  

PubMed

What was initiated as a directive from a provincial government in an attempt to increase the number of critical care nurses has evolved into an exciting educational opportunity for many nurses and student nurses in the year 2000. Between 1993 and 1997 there has been significant downsizing of acute care beds across Canada (Code Blue: Critical Care Nursing in Nova Scotia, 1998). At the same time patient acuity has increased, due to shorter hospital stays, and the number of nurses working full-time has decreased with the increased use of casual nurses. Several studies at both the provincial and national levels report current and future shortages of specialized nurses (emergency, critical care and perioperative). It is expected that this shortage will continue into the future, a shortage that is driven by technological advances, as well as an aging general and nursing population. Continued shortages of these acute care nurses will result in fierce competition for skilled nurses as well as aggressive recruitment and retention strategies (Code Blue: Critical Care Nursing in Nova Scotia, 1998). It is generally agreed within the nursing community that specialty nurses in critical care require a unique body of knowledge that is not acquired in a basic undergraduate nursing program (Fitzsimmons, Hadley, & Shively, 1999). This specialized knowledge can be gained informally through experience; however, it is largely developed in additional formal education programs. The purpose of this article is to outline a strategy for the delivery of specialty education at three educational levels in acute care nursing with three streams: emergency, critical care and perioperative nursing. This clinical major option is to be delivered in partnership among the Queen Elizabeth Hospital II, the Health Science Centre and Dalhousie University School of Nursing, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. This model of offering specialty education in university preparation could be a template for preparing nurses in the new millennium. PMID:11125462

Robertson, K A

2000-01-01

73

Major Challenges for Fishery Policy Reform: A Political Economy Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A political economy perspective of fisheries governance is presented in this paper. In most countries, formal and informal linkages exist among four components of the governance system. The legislature passes laws that authorise the implementation of policies and programmes by a fisheries agency. The fisheries agency establishes a fisheries management authority. Stakeholders often have a formal role – from advising

Jon G. Sutinen

2008-01-01

74

Should payment policy be changed to allow a wider range of EMS transport options?  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine and other national organizations have asserted that current payment policies strongly discourage emergency medical services (EMS) providers from transporting selected patients who call 911 to non-ED settings (eg, primary care clinics, mental health centers, dialysis centers) or from treating patients on scene. The limited literature available is consistent with the view that current payment policies incentivize transport of all 911 callers to a hospital ED, even those who might be better managed elsewhere. However, the potential benefits and risks of altering existing policy have not been adequately explored. There are theoretical benefits to encouraging EMS personnel to transport selected patients to alternate settings or even to provide definitive treatment on scene; however, existing evidence is insufficient to confirm the feasibility or safety of such a policy. In light of growing concerns about the high cost of emergency care and heavy use of EDs, assessing EMS transport options should be a high-priority topic for outcomes research. PMID:24209960

Morganti, Kristy G; Alpert, Abby; Margolis, Gregg; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Kellermann, Arthur L

2014-05-01

75

Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

1992-12-01

76

Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

1992-12-01

77

PETITION TO ADD A SECOND MAJOR SECOND MAJOR POLICY AND INFORMATION  

E-print Network

language second majors) are rare and must be approved by the college advisement center supervisors involved and the dean of the college responsible for the primary major. The second major proposal and approval process credits). College advisement centers are prepared to assist interested students in the petition process

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

78

Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2009-06-01

79

Mitigation implications of midcentury targets that preserve long-term climate policy options  

PubMed Central

Midcentury targets have been proposed as a guide to climate change policy that can link long-term goals to shorter-term actions. However no explicit mitigation analyses have been carried out of the relationship between midcentury conditions and longer-term outcomes. Here we use an integrated assessment modeling framework with a detailed representation of the energy sector to examine the dependence of climate change outcomes in 2100 on emissions levels, atmospheric concentrations, and technology characteristics in 2050. We find that midcentury conditions are crucial determinants of longer-term climate outcomes, and we identify feasibility thresholds describing conditions that must be met by midcentury to keep particular long-term options open. For example, to preserve the technical feasibility of a 50% likelihood of keeping global average temperature at < 2 °C above preindustrial in 2100, global emissions must be reduced by about 20% below 2000 levels by 2050. Results are sensitive to several assumptions, including the nature of future socio-economic development. In a scenario with high demand for energy and land, being below 2?°C with 50% likelihood requires a 50% reduction in emissions below 2000 levels by 2050, which is only barely feasible with known technologies in that scenario. Results suggest that a greater focus on midcentury targets could facilitate the development of policies that preserve potentially desirable long-term options. PMID:20080696

O’Neill, Brian C.; Riahi, Keywan; Keppo, Ilkka

2010-01-01

80

Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain nutrients once in the wetland. Finally, the function indicators are aggregated to provide an overall function score for each wetland. This overall value estimates a wetland's potential to provide ecosystem services compared to other wetlands on the landscape. The function indicators in combination with 'scarcity' as indicated by the historical wetland loss rates allows policy makers to adjust thresholds between wetland function scores and policy and management objectives. The wetland function assessment system offers a scientific foundation upon which wetland policy can be built. To exemplify its policy potential, we conduct quantitative ';future' scenarios to determine priority wetlands for protection under different development scenarios - this scenario analysis reveals the necessity of making tradeoffs among wetland functions, as wetlands with high ecological function may not be the same wetlands with high hydrological function. The project's resulting wetland function assessment system will improve conservation and restoration/remediation efforts by identifying high functioning wetlands, by revealing the necessity of tradeoffs, and by directing conservation towards preserving wetlands that provide important ecosystem services while allowing other wetlands to be developed.

Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

2013-12-01

81

Projection of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by motor vehicles in China: Policy options and impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We project the well-to-wheels (WTW) and tank-to-wheels (TTW) fossil-energy use, petroleum use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the road-transport sector in China up to year 2050 and evaluate the effects of various potential policy options with the fuel economy and environmental impacts (FEEI) model (http:\\/\\/www.feeimodel.org\\/). The policies evaluated include (1) vehicle fuel-consumption improvements, (2) dieselization, (3) vehicle electrification, and

Hong Huo; Michael Wang; Xiliang Zhang; Kebin He; Huiming Gong; Kejun Jiang; Yuefu Jin; Yaodong Shi; Xin Yu

2012-01-01

82

Policy options for the northern Benguela ecosystem using a multispecies, multifleet ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative policy options available to northern Benguela fisheries managers were explored using Ecopath with Ecosim. Scenarios were tested for optimizing the discounted profit from the fisheries in the ecosystem, maximizing the jobs that can be provided by the fisheries, maximizing a measure of ecosystem status, and analyzing tradeoffs between these management options. Additionally, two different discount rates were applied to calculate net present values: 4% indicating a more future generation friendly rate, where future generations are taken explicitly into consideration, and 15%, which is similar to the discount rate used by private businesses in Namibia. Basically a low discount rate puts more weight on future net benefits than high discount rates. The results show that the discount rate is most important when optimizing for profits, or when tradeoffs are being made between profit, jobs and ecosystem structure. Fishing effort of the most profitable fleet is significantly increased when discount rate is low, which increases the discounted profit to the fleet. When optimizing for jobs, the fisheries become non-profitable, although no significant difference is found between different fleets with different discount rates. Ecosystem longevity is only improved with a reduction in effort by all fleets while seaweed harvesting (at the lowest trophic level) would require the least reduction in fishing effort.

Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Christensen, Villy

2009-12-01

83

List of Major Options Major Option Requirement  

E-print Network

) Physical Science Dance (recorded on MyMAP after completing Dance 342) Arts Dance (recorded on MyMAP after Studies (recorded on MyMAP after completing Am St 490) Arts Applied Physics (recorded on MyMAP after completing Phscs 222) Physical Science Art Education K12 (recorded on MyMAP after completing Sc Ed 353

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

84

The Major Mental Disorders: New Evidence Requires New Policy and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that a new mental health policy and programmes are needed to deal with the major mental disorders (schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder). Evidence has now accumulated to show that many of the persons who are afflicted with these disorders continue to suffer throughout their adult lives, despite treatment. In addition to their own suffering, their mental

SHEILAGH HODGINS

1996-01-01

85

Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). PMID:21399411

Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

2011-01-01

86

Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of knowledge in the field by comparing different state-of-the-art temporal forest carbon modeling efforts, and discusses whether or to what extent a deterministic ';carbon debt' accounting is possible and appropriate. It concludes upon the possible scientific and eventually political choices in temporal carbon accounting for regulatory frameworks including alternative options to address unintentional carbon losses within forest ecosystems/bioenergy systems.

Lamers, P.

2013-12-01

87

[Major revision--posted 6/16/09] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

[Major revision--posted 6/16/09] Operating Policy and Procedure OP 34.08: Undergraduate Credit understanding and a standardized approach to issuing undergraduate credit by examination. REVIEW: This OP actual performance in organized classes. Students are given the opportunity to receive credit by special

Rock, Chris

88

Current polio global eradication and control policy options: perspectives from modeling and prerequisites for oral poliovirus vaccine cessation.  

PubMed

As the Global Polio Eradication Initiative progresses toward the eradication of wild polioviruses, national and global health leaders must still actively consider options for managing poliovirus risks, including risks associated with using oral poliovirus vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine continues to represent a highly effective tool, but its use causes noticeable, rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and with low coverage it can evolve to become circulating vaccine-derived polioviruse that causes outbreaks. National leaders face a wide range of options, but their choices depend in part on global policies. This article explores the current set of global options for poliovirus eradication or control, discusses constraints and prerequisites for their implementation and offers some insights based on dynamic modeling to inform discussions and frame future economic analyses. PMID:22551030

Thompson, Kimberly M; Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer

2012-04-01

89

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Science Education Undergraduate students majoring in Science Education may earn the degree of Bachelor of Science in Education (B.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Science Education

Arnold, Jonathan

90

In-Situ Exploration of Venus: Major Science Objectives, Investigations, and Mission Platform Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ missions to Venus have been recommended by both the 2011 and 2003 Decadal Studies of the NRC and have been proposed numerous times to NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers programs as well as to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Such missions would revolutionize our understanding of Venus, as they address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state via high precision measurements of (1) noble gases and their isotopes, and (2) reactive trace gases and aerosol associated with Venus's active photo- and thermo-chemistry and sulfur cycle, including components potentially responsible for the poorly-understood uv-absorbing haze layer. Fundamental questions, as promoted in recent VEXAG documents, include: (1) Did Venus, Mars, and Earth have a common origin? (2) What roles did comets from the outer Solar System play in delivering volatiles to Venus? (3) Did Venus once have and lose a global ocean? (4) How much has Venus outgassed, and what is the current rate of outgassing, particularly of sulfur, the major driver of Venus clouds? and (5) Through the deposition of energy within them, what role do these clouds play in (a) driving the cloud-level thermal structure and (b) generating and maintaining the super-rotating zonal windfield that covers the globe? Fundamental answers could be uniquely provided through in-situ sampling via mass spectrometry of the noble gases and their isotopes - in particular of the 8 stable Xe isotopes, the bulk abundances of Kr, and the 3 isotopes of Ne. Measurements of the relative abundances of the light isotopes of N, O, H, S and O, by, for example, tunable laser spectrometry, would provide additional insights into Venus's origin, surface outgassing and planetary escape. Such measurements could be performed by probes, landers, or balloons. On descent through the uv-absorbing layer and the surrounding H2SO4 cloud, each of these platforms could explore both the absorber and sulfur-cycle-associated reactive species and aerosols, thus addressing VEXAG desires for enhanced understanding of Venus' chemical cycles, aerosol properties, and radiative transfer. On descent to the surface, probes and landers can provide vertical profiles of temperatures and species abundances, as well as provide near-surface measurements of sulfur isotopes and trace sulfuric gases indicative of outgassing. Additional major in-situ goals dealing with Venus's global circulation and local dynamics can be addressed by a balloon platform floating within the convective middle cloud near ~55-km altitude. Drifting over a wide range of latitudes and all times-of-day and longitudes, such a floating platform could accurately measure (1) motions in all three dimensions - zonal, meridional, and vertical, including motions associated with convection and gravity waves, (2) simultaneous measurements of cloud particle size, their parent molecules, the local temperature, and vertical velocity, to study cloud formation/dissipation processes, and (3) the power and frequency of local lightning. Altogether, such in-situ measurements would potentially revolutionize our understanding of (1) Venus's circulation, including the role of waves and solar cloud heating in powering the planet's poorly-understood super-rotation, (2) Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Earth's neighbor formed and evolved over the aeons.

Baines, K. H.; Limaye, S. S.; Hall, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Bullock, M. A.; Crisp, D.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Russell, C. T.; Webster, C. R.; Zahnle, K. J.

2013-12-01

91

Stakeholder views on policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity in France: findings from the PorGrow project.  

PubMed

To explore the perspectives of key stakeholders towards a range of policy options to prevent obesity in France, a multi-criteria mapping method was used to gather quantitative and qualitative data from 21 types of stakeholder groups. During structured interviews, stakeholders appraised a set of pre-defined options by reference to criteria of their own choosing and provided relative weights to their criteria, and overall rankings of the policy options. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria given most importance by stakeholders. There was most consensus and preference for options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity; options that modified food supply and demand; and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. While there was broad interest in a range of different options, those related to behaviour change through education were the most valued by stakeholders. Raising awareness among policymakers about the convincing scientific evidence for the effectiveness of environmental level policy options will be a crucial first step. PMID:17371308

Holdsworth, M; Kameli, Y; Delpeuch, F

2007-05-01

92

EARTH HISTORY OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS A paleontologist studies the origin, evolution and diversification of life on this planet, as  

E-print Network

the next generation of scientists in high school classrooms or as science journalists by informingEARTH HISTORY OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS A paleontologist studies the origin the public about how the evolution of life is tied to major changes in climate and through earth history

Liu, Paul

93

Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on three prior…

Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

2009-01-01

94

Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect

The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

1996-03-01

95

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

in sociology leads to a wide range of career options in government, nonprofit or business. In addition, a major Titles Account Strategist Advertising Assistant Alumni Affairs Coordinator Assistant Research Scientist for Humanity Athens Regional Library System Athens Regional Medical Center Athens Technical College Atlanta

Arnold, Jonathan

96

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Criminal Justice At The University of Georgia, Criminal Justice (CJ) operates as an interdisciplinary program that draws its courses primarily from.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Criminal Justice

Arnold, Jonathan

97

Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable

J. M. Henke; G. Klepper; N. Schmitz

2005-01-01

98

Policy Options Regarding Certification and Licensure Requirements for Related Services Personnel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a survey of state officials and interviews with representatives of professional organizations, the paper analyzes policy problems and alternatives regarding certification and licensure requirements for related services personnel working with handicapped students. Chapter I reviews policy aspects in federal statute, regulation, and…

Barresi, Josephine G.

99

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications  

PubMed Central

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

2008-01-01

100

Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options  

PubMed Central

The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination. PMID:24363477

Quanbao, Jiang; Marcus W., Feldman

2013-01-01

101

The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.  

PubMed

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government. PMID:10133097

Gilson, L; Sen, P D; Mohammed, S; Mujinja, P

1994-03-01

102

Governing Carbon and Climate in the Cities: An Overview of Policy and Planning Challenges and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban centres play a crucial role in managing global carbon emissions (mitigation) and reducing vulnerability to climate change (adaptation). This paper describes some of the mitigation and adaptation entry points and challenges for city-relevant planning and policy-making posed by the processes defining urban greenhouse gas emissions, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. It finds that although many cities are already responding to

Patricia Romero-Lankao

2012-01-01

103

Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

Worsley, Anthony

2006-01-01

104

Options for expressing ODP enterprise communities and their policies by using UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ODP Enterprise Language allows the rules and policies that characterize an organization to be brought together and used to guide the various stages of system design, development and operation. UML is one of the leading notations for system design and is likely to be the basis for a wide range of design tools. However, UML has a comparatively weak

Peter F. Linington

1999-01-01

105

Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch), provides an…

Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

106

Assessing agricultural trade policies options with the European Union: a Brazilian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil has shown interest in agricultural trade negotiations at bilateral, regional, and multilateral levels. This study addresses several important negotiations, using the agricultural sector model CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact Analysis), to analyze liberalization scenarios between the European Union and the Mercosur countries focusing particularly on their impacts in Brazil. Four possible agreements between Europe and Mercosur are simulated,

Marie Gabrielle Piketty; Lucie Weissleder; Hildo Meirelles de Souza Filho; Mário Otávio Batalha; Marcel Adenäuer; Arno Becker

2009-01-01

107

Page 1 of 10 Assessing the effectiveness of policy options to reduce CO2  

E-print Network

passenger transport: A summary of findings from the 2009 UKERC Technology and Policy Assessment report Phil transport, with over 50% from passenger cars. Buses and railways account for approximately 5%, the bulk that offer the prospect of CO2 emissions reduction from surface passenger transport. The TPA's advisors had 1

108

Mitigating adverse socioeconomic impacts of energy development: present programs and mechanisms; further policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

New energy development and\\/or energy policies may lead to serious problems for communities accommodating sudden growth, new stresses; and conflicts in local economic and institutional relationships. Potential problems include: boom town impacts (infrastructure financing shortfalls, housing shortages, abandonment, social disruption) or conflict impacts (changes in comparative economic advantage, competition for scarce resources, interjurisdictional and regulatory conflicts, social disruption). Effective mitigation

K. D. Moore; D. M. Hammond; J. S. Gilmore; D. K. Flory; D. C. Coddington; D. W. Donald

1978-01-01

109

The Budget Outlook and Options for Fiscal Policy Alan J. Auerbach  

E-print Network

, the economic slowdown, and the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. In addition, several key budget such measures for the treatment of retirement trust funds, realistic estimates of future tax and spending levels of the budget and to provide more realistic estimates of the future implications of current policy leaves a far

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

110

Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

2012-08-01

111

Pension Reform and Gender Gaps in Latin America: What are the Policy Options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Latin American countries have implemented structural reforms in their social security-pension systems. These reforms have modified the traditional public pay-as-you-go defined benefit (PAYG-DB) schemes, introducing multipillar systems where fully funded defined contribution (FF-DC) schemes play an important role. Gender gaps in coverage and benefits under PAGY-DB and FF-DC schemes have been one of the policy issues missing in most

Fabio M. Bertranou

2001-01-01

112

[Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].  

PubMed

From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed. PMID:21147432

Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

2010-01-01

113

The Unsustainable Rise of the Disability Rolls in the United States: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options  

E-print Network

Two ailments limit the effectiveness and threaten the long-term viability of the U.S. Social Security Disability Insurance program (SSDI). First, the program is ineffective in assisting the vast majority of workers with ...

Autor, David

2012-01-24

114

Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by legislative or regulatory authorities. Some renewable energy contracts pre-date the existence of RECs, however, and in these cases the disposition of RECs is often unclear. Similarly, because of the recent appearance of RECs, legislation and regulation mandating the purchase of renewable energy has sometimes been silent on the disposition of the RECs associated with that generation. The resulting uncertainty in REC ownership has hindered the development of robust REC markets and has, in some cases, led to contention between buyers and sellers of renewable generation. The purpose of this report is to provide information and insight to state policy-makers, utility regulators, and others about different approaches to clarifying the ownership of RECs. We focus exclusively on three distinct areas in which REC ownership issues have arisen: (1) Qualifying Facilities (QFs) that sell their generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978; (2) Customer-owned generation that benefits from state net metering rules; and (3) Generation facilities that receive financial incentives from state or utility funds. This is a survey report. It reviews how both the federal government and states have addressed these issues to date, and highlights the arguments that have been raised for different REC ownership dispositions. Our aim is to describe the arguments on each side, and the context for the debates that are occurring. We do not, in this report, provide a list of policy recommendations for how policymakers should be addressing these issues.

Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2006-04-05

115

Medicaid and State Health Care Reform: Process, Programs, and Policy Options  

PubMed Central

Health care reform is a continuously evolving process. The States and the Federal Government have struggled with policy issues to combat escalating Medicaid expenditures while ensuring access and quality of care to an ever-expanding population. In the absence of national health care reform, States are increasingly relying on Federal waivers to develop innovative approaches to address a myriad of issues associated with the present health care delivery system. This article provides a summary of State health care reform efforts that have been initiated under Federal waiver authority. PMID:10142572

Rotwein, Suzanne; Boulmetis, Maria; Boben, Paul J.; Fingold, Helaine I.; Hadley, James P.; Rama, Kathy L.; Van Hoven, Debbie

1995-01-01

116

The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia: Considering U.S. Options. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

117

POLICY AND REGULATORY OPTIONS ON GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: WHY USA AND EU HAVE DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND HOW WTO NEGOTIATIONS CAN BE INVOLVED?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the trade implications of the different policy and regulatory options currently adopted for managing the main issues raised by the recent large diffusion of the Genetically Modified (GM) crops. Though many different national regulatory approaches can be observed worldwide, USA and EU are the most relevant and cited cases of alternative (strongly permissive vs. strongly preventive)

Roberto Esposti; Alessandro Sorrentino

118

Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates  

PubMed Central

Introduction A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). Results In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE). Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita), compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of NHA data into policy is suggested for future researchers.

Hamidi, Samer

2015-01-01

119

Low-income energy assistance programs: a profile of need and policy options  

SciTech Connect

This second report of the Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of DOE is twofold: to update information on the energy needs of low-income persons and governmental response to such needs; and to emphasize the need for energy-conservation programs that may alleviate the enormous financial burden placed on low-income people by rising energy prices. FOMAC has continued to develop further and refine its initial energy-conservation recommendations. Mainly, the updated assessment document finds that the poor will expend at least 35% of their income directly on energy and will spend at least 21% of their income on household energy. Other economic impacts of rising energy costs on low-income groups are summarized. Appropriations and stipulations by Congress to aid the lo-income people are reviewed. After careful review of various program designs, FOMAC continues to support the income indexing/vendor line of credit approach. This design provides assistance to elgible households based on: energy needed, cost of fuel, and percentage of income. The cost of implementing the FOMAC design nationally would, according to estimates, range from $3.5 to $4.6 billion for the 1980-1981 winter heating season. A figure of $1.6 to $2.2 billion is being discussed in the Congress. Meeting the ongoing energy needs of the poor will require a coherent national policy which consists of aid in paying energy bills and aid in the poor's effort to conserve energy. The report seeks to promote such policies. Needs assessment, government response, FOMAC model, comments on the programs, projected cost of 1980-1981 Energy Assistance Program, need for conservation programs, and program financing are discussed.

None

1980-07-01

120

Limitations of Single-Basket Trading: A Lesson from the Montreal Protocol for Climate Policy Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting stratospheric ozone has been widely recognized, with many viewing it as a model for international cooperation on global environmental issues. Years of collaborative problem solving by scientists, industry, and policymakers have provided numerous insights, some of which are applicable to addressing the international problem of anthropogenically-caused climate change. Here we suggest that one valuable lesson relates to the manner in which different greenhouse gases are controlled. The Montreal Protocol implemented a multi-basket scheme, which regulated various groups, or baskets, of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs); production and consumption trading were allowed within each basket, but not among baskets. This approach substantially reduced ODS emissions and the associated dangers of increased ozone losses. In contrast, discussions of greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation have generally focused on single-basket emissions trading. In particular, the Kyoto Protocol has allowed trading of emissions reductions among all regulated compounds. The flexibility of such an approach has the potential to lead to less expensive total abatement costs than if each GHG were regulated separately. Here we quantify the extent to which such a scheme may also lead to an ambiguous relationship between policy controls and the climate protection they provide over both short and long time horizons. We further show that the magnitude of this ambiguity depends strongly on the magnitude of the required emissions reduction. These results suggest it is important for policymakers to make a conscious and informed decision regarding whether the additional flexibility associated with a single-basket approach is worth the potentially reduced effectiveness for any particular reduction control level enacted. If it is not worth it, they should recognize that a multi-basket scheme has worked for protecting ozone and could also be effective for climate policy.

Daniel, J. S.; Solomon, S.; Sanford, T. J.; McFarland, M.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Friedlingstein, P.

2010-12-01

121

ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS, POLICY, AND MANAGEMENT MAJOR (Code No. 099) 2010-11 CHECKSHEET  

E-print Network

406/410 (6) Environmental & Resource Economics AREC 434 (3) or Agricultural and Food Policy Issues Politics PS 474 (4) Environmental Politics & Policy PS 475 (4) Science and Politics PS 476 (4) International Env. Politics & Policy PS 477 (4) Two classes from the following: Ecology BI 370 (3) Principles

Tullos, Desiree

122

[Major revisionposted 11/19/13 (replaces 9/6/06 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

on academic-related matters. The council provides leadership in determining academic policies, procedures learning. The council provides leadership in determining academic policies, procedures, and priorities of this Operating Policy/Procedure (OP) is to define the role, responsibility, and membership of the, Academic

Rock, Chris

123

Reducing Energy Costs in the Texas State Agencies: Conservation and Policy Options: Volume II – Final Report  

E-print Network

energy C. Remaining State Agencies The logic behind the three main classifications was to be able to compare the agencies on a fairer basis. Major health centers and hospitals have 24-hour energy needs that most universities and state agencies, whose... Centers Which Produce Thermal Energy , ..: The FY '83 energy consumption at the San Antonio State Chest Hospital is nearly double that of any of the other agencies in this category. Furthermore its energy consumption from 1981 to 1983 increased 14...

Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Murphy, W. E.; Subramanian, S. T.

1984-01-01

124

Agricultural mitigation of greenhouse gases: science and policy options’, Council on Agricultural Science and  

E-print Network

With the adoption of the U.S. Framework Convention on Climate Change, calling for actions to decrease the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, interest has grown about agriculture’s role in mitigating GHG increases. Three of the major GHGs — carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) — are emitted to and/or removed from the

Keith Paustian; Bruce Babcock; Cathy Kling; Jerry Hatfield; Rattan Lal; Bruce Mccarl; Wilfred M. Post; Arvin Mosier; Charles Rice; G. Philip Robertson; David Zilberman

2004-01-01

125

Translating biomonitoring data into risk management and policy implementation options for a European Network on Human Biomonitoring  

PubMed Central

Background The "European Environment & Health Action Plan 2004–2010" originates from the concern of the European Commission on the well-being of individuals and the general population. Through this plan, the Commission has set the objectives to improve the information chain for a better understanding of the link between sources of pollution and health effects, to better identify existing knowledge gaps, and improve policy making and communication strategies. Human biomonitoring (HBM) has been included as one of the tools to achieve these objectives. As HBM directly measures the amount of a chemical substance in a person's body, taking into account often poorly understood processes such as bioaccumulation, excretion, metabolism and the integrative uptake variability through different exposure pathways, HBM data are much more relevant for risk assessment than extrapolations from chemical concentrations in soil, air, and water alone. However, HBM primarily is a stepping stone between environmental and health data, and the final aim should be an integrated and holistic systematic risk assessment paradigm where HBM serves as a pivotal point between environment and health, on the one hand leaning on environmental data to provide detailed information on the sources and pathways of pollutants that enter the human body, and on the other hand clarifying new and existing hypotheses on the relationship between environmental pollutants and the prevalence of diseases. With the large amount of data that is being gathered in the different national survey projects, and which is expected to become available in Europe in the near future through the expected European Pilot Project on HBM, a framework to optimize data interpretation from such survey projects may greatly enhance the usefulness of HBM data for risk managers and policy makers. Results This paper outlines an hierarchic approach, based on the stepwise formulation of 4 subsequent steps, that will eventually lead to the formulation of a variety of policy relevant risk reduction options. Conclusion Although the usefulness of this approach still needs to be tested, and potential fine-tuning of the procedure may be necessary, approaching the policy implications of HBM in an objective framework will prove to be essential. PMID:18541068

Smolders, R; Koppen, G; Schoeters, G

2008-01-01

126

Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.  

PubMed

In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health insurance market to multinational companies, the proper channelling of tax incentives to set up medical institutions in backward areas, and reinforcing appropriate regulatory mechanisms. PMID:11238435

Purohit, B C

2001-03-01

127

Maternity waiting homes and institutional birth in Nicaragua: policy options and strategic implications.  

PubMed

With the aim of promoting institutional births and reducing the high maternal and child mortality rates in rural and poor zones, the government of Nicaragua is supporting the creation of maternity waiting homes. This study analyzes that strategy and examines the factors associated with the use of maternity waiting homes and institutional birth. To that end, we apply a quantitative approach, by means of an econometric analysis of the data extracted from surveys conducted in 2006 on a sample of women and parteras or traditional birth attendants, as well as a qualitative approach based on interviews with key informants. Results indicate that although the operation of the maternity waiting homes is usually satisfactory, there is still room for improvement along the following lines: (i) disseminating information about the homes to both women and men, as the latter frequently decide the course of women's healthcare, and to parteras, who can play an important role in referring women; (ii) strengthening the postpartum care; (iii) ensuring financial sustainability by obtaining regular financial support from the government to complement contributions from the community; and (iv) strengthening the local management and involvement of the regional government. These measures might be useful for health policy makers in Nicaragua and in other developing countries that are considering this strategy. PMID:22052420

García Prado, Ariadna; Cortez, Rafael

2012-01-01

128

TRIPS, the Doha Declaration and increasing access to medicines: policy options for Ghana  

PubMed Central

There are acute disparities in pharmaceutical access between developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries make up approximately 80% of the world's population but only represent approximately 20% of global pharmaceutical consumption. Among the many barriers to drug access are the potential consequences of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. Many developing countries have recently modified their patent laws to conform to the TRIPS standards, given the 2005 deadline for developing countries. Safeguards to protect public health have been incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement; however, in practice governments may be reluctant to exercise such rights given concern about the international trade and political ramifications. The Doha Declaration and the recent Decision on the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health may provide more freedom for developing countries in using these safeguards. This paper focuses on Ghana, a developing country that recently changed its patent laws to conform to TRIPS standards. We examine Ghana's patent law changes in the context of the Doha Declaration and assess their meaning for access to drugs of its population. We discuss new and existing barriers, as well as possible solutions, to provide policy-makers with lessons learned from the Ghanaian experience. PMID:16336685

Cohen, JC; Gyansa-Lutterodt, M; Torpey, K; Esmail, LC; Kurokawa, G

2005-01-01

129

Admissions Policies Governing the Declaration of Academic Major and Academic Advising Models Relating to Student Outcomes in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze admissions policies pertaining to the declaration of academic majors for incoming students and structures of academic advising at American universities and how they relate to student outcomes. The student outcomes considered for the study were first to second year retention rates and graduation rates. …

Workinger, Heather A.

2011-01-01

130

A Policy Option To Provide Sufficient Funding For Massive-Scale Sequestration of CO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global emissions of CO2 now are nearly 30 billion tons per year, and are growing rapidly due to strong economic growth. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have reached 380 ppm and recent reports suggest the rate of increase has gone from 1% per year in the 1990's to 3% per year now - with potential to cross 550ppm in the 2020 decade. Without stabilization of atmospheric CO2 below 550ppm, climate models predict unacceptably higher average temperatures with significant risk of runaway global warming this century. While there is much talk about reducing CO2 emissions by switching to non-fossil energy sources, imposing energy efficiency, and a host of other changes, there are no new large-scale energy sources on the horizon. The options are to impose draconian cuts in fossil energy consumption that will keep us below 550ppm (devastating the global economy) - or to adopt massive-scale sequestration of CO2. Three approaches are feasible: biological ocean sequestration, geologic sequestration, and biological terrestrial sequestration. Biological sequestration is applicable to all CO2 sources, whereas geologic sequestration is limited to fossil-fuel power plants and some large point-source emitters such as cement plants and large industrial facilities. Sequestration provides a direct mechanism for reducing atmospheric levels of CO2, whereas offsetting technologies such as wind power or improved efficiency, reduce the need for more fossil fuels but do not physically remove CO2 from the environment. The primary geologic technique, carbon capture & sequestration (CCS), prevents CO2 from entering the atmosphere but likewise does not reduce existing levels of atmospheric CO2. Biological sequestration (ocean or terrestrial) physically removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Since we cannot shut down our global economy, urgent action is needed to counteract CO2 emissions, and avoid catastrophic climate change. Given the long lead time and/or small impact of offsetting energy sources, sequestration is the only way to achieve near and medium-term reductions in atmospheric CO2 levels. To finance massive-scale sequestration of CO2, we propose the World Trade Organization (WTO) become an active player in the sequestration market. Given the WTO's role as overseer of international trade agreements annually representing 30 trillion in imports and exports of goods and services, it is by far the largest global economic force and therefore offers the broadest economic base. Absent a real solution to CO2 emissions, the global economy - and world trade - will shrink dramatically. The WTO can jumpstart the market for CO2 sequestration by issuing long term contracts to purchase bona fide sequestration-derived CO2 credits. Under this proposal, an initial price of 100 per ton which steps-down by 5% per year could bring forth the sequestration investment needed to achieve upwards of 10 billion tons sequestered CO2 per year by 2025 (seven billion tons from biological ocean sequestration and at least three billion tons from geologic and terrestrial sequestration). Assuming a contract term of 40 years, and a parallel commodity market continues to develop for CO2 credits, at some time in the future the WTO's contractual price will be less than the commodity market price - and the WTO begins to recover its investment. Under one set of assumptions, the net WTO annual subsidy would peak at $86 billion by 2022, equal to an across-the-board WTO tariff on imports and exports of about 1.01%, then become positive a few years later as the market price climbed above WTO's contracted price. Under this proposal, the WTO effectively subsidizes CO2 sequestration in the near to medium term and then recoups its investment and reaps large profits over the long term.

Kithil, P. W.

2007-12-01

131

Translation as a Career Option for Foreign Language Majors. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to provide the college foreign language major with practical observations on translation and interpretation as possible professions. The skills and training required of competent translators are discussed, and their responsibilities, working conditions and approximate salary figures for various translating tasks are…

Tinsley, Royal L., Jr.

1976-01-01

132

Linking research with policy is a major concern in South Asia, where few politicians and policymakers base their decisions on evidence.  

E-print Network

community. Connecting research and the policy community Evidence-based policymaking connects research with the policy community, as research is one of the major sources of evidence on which policymaking relies to connect research with the policy community. One effective way to do so is to involve policymakers

Richner, Heinz

133

Brandeis University Health: Science, Society and Policy current number of majors  

E-print Network

medicine, public health, nursing, health administration and health law. HSSP draws from three and Culture," "Behavioral Health," "managing medicine," "Health Psychology," "Inequalities in Health Care a prehealth option for students preparing for medical school and other professional schools. Beyond the cl

Fraden, Seth

134

A Policy of Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Energy Research and Development Administration's program to deal with the relationship of energy and the environment is examined. Alternatives include the development of new energy sources that offer a viable choice for the future for economically feasible and environmentally acceptable technologies. (BT)

Fri, Robert W.

1975-01-01

135

Room Policies Printing Options  

E-print Network

the white control panel at the computer workstation and press the On/Off button. Please do not touch control panel, press the "Laptop" button Instructions pop up on the screen; ignore step #1. See will appear on the screen. Touch a place on the screen where you want the cursor to appear, then touch

136

Room Policies Printing Options  

E-print Network

on the desktop control panel for the Display On button. Please do not touch the overhead projector. On the desktop control panel, press either "Win 7 PC," OR "Mac Mini," to use one of those computers Wake up If the screen remains blank: Make sure "Display On" is lit on the desktop control panel Wiggle the mouse

137

Impact of radio resource allocation policies on the TD-CDMA system performance: evaluation of major critical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of major critical parameters and the effect of some radio resource allocation policies on the TD-CDMA system performance. Critical parameters are related either to the user behavior (e.g., user mobility, activity factors) or to processing techniques and algorithms implemented to control network performance and individual radio link quality (e.g., joint detection imperfection, handover margin, timeout

Doru Calin; Marc Areny

2001-01-01

138

US government policy — the major factor shaping the international commercial space launch marketplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Viewpoint — an edited version of a statement made to the US House Committee on Science's Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics' hearing on ‘US launch strategy’ — the President of Arianespace, Inc analyses the overriding importance of US government policies and executive decisions on the shaping and behavior of the international market in commercial space launch services. Chief

Douglas Heydon

1996-01-01

139

[Major revisionposted 3/7/14 (replaces 7/16/12 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

have liability insurance coverage under the university's automobile policy. It is up to the department by the department. The statement will briefly outline the conditions of the loan, including details of insurance in accordance with procedures developed by the department and approved by the VPAF/CFO. d. Insurance

Rock, Chris

140

Policy Related to Creating, Changing, and Terminating Degree Programs, Majors, Minors, Areas of Emphasis, Certificate Programs,  

E-print Network

as the degree program). A bachelor's degree program requires a minimum of 120 credits, and a master's degree program requires a minimum of 30 credits beyond the bachelor's degree. New degree programs require the program title and the major. An undergraduate major requires a minimum of 30 credits. Minors Definition

Mohaghegh, Shahab

141

Currently, there is no grape insurance policy for New Jersey. If you are interested how-ever, in protecting your investment there are some options. If you have 3 years of prior  

E-print Network

Currently, there is no grape insurance policy for New Jersey. If you are interested how- ever, in protecting your investment there are some options. If you have 3 years of prior yield records for grapes that your agent will help you request RMA (Risk Management Agency) to transfer a grape crop insurance policy

Goodman, Robert M.

142

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

Graco Children's Products, Inc. Healthcare Team Training John Deere Jordan, Jones, & Goulding Kelly. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited

Arnold, Jonathan

143

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

Education & Training Administrator Education Materials Coordinator Educational Therapist Employee Training. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited

Arnold, Jonathan

144

Generation of policy-rich websites from declarative models  

E-print Network

Protecting sensitive data stored behind online websites is a major challenge, but existing techniques are inadequate. Automated website builders typically offer very limited options for specifying custom access policies. ...

Chang, Felix Sheng-Ho

2009-01-01

145

Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success. A Study of State and Institutional Policies and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was designed to inform members of the policy, education, and research communities about existing state and institutional policies and practices associated with four accelerated learning programs: Advanced Placement (AP), dual/concurrent enrollment, the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program, and Tech-Prep. This effort was…

Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

2006-01-01

146

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Food Science The value of the food processing graduates, both men and women, with training in food science and technology. This demand is created

Arnold, Jonathan

147

Preferences for alternative risk management policies at the United States major nuclear weapons legacy sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of 1351 people who lived within 50 miles of one of six US Department of Energy nuclear weapon sites showed that the vast majority of residents prefer strong public health surveillance and land use controls. The sample was stratified so that the same number of responses was obtained at each site. The strongest correlates of wanting the DOE

Michael Greenberg; Karen Lowrie; Joanna Burger; Charles Powers; Michael Gochfeld; Henry Mayer

2007-01-01

148

Educational Policy and the Two Major Approaches to Disaster Relief in the Third World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, two major schools of thought regarding disaster and disaster assistance are identified and examined in order to bring to light their underlying assumptions about assistance and development in the Third World. The first section discusses the context of the problem, citing figures and presenting charts to illustrate the scope and…

Harris, Christopher

149

12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures...instruments. 225.142 Section 225.142 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

2011-01-01

150

12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures...instruments. 225.142 Section 225.142 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

2010-01-01

151

Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

1991-01-01

152

Fair valuation of life insurance liabilities: The impact of interest rate guarantees, surrender options, and bonus policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes one of the most common life insurance products—the so-called participating (or with profits) policy. This type of contract stands in contrast to unit-linked (UL) products in that interest is credited to the policy periodically according to some mechanism which smoothes past returns on the life insurance company’s (LIC) assets. As is the case for UL products, the

Anders Grosen; Peter Løchte Jørgensen

2000-01-01

153

The changing nature of children's health development: new challenges require major policy solutions.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and social context of American childhood are rapidly changing. Adverse social, economic, and child-rearing conditions are loading children down with preventable illness, physical and behavioral disability, and dysfunction. This new epidemiology of childhood is swamping the capacity of the nation's health care system, schools, juvenile justice facilities, and child protective services to respond to the needs of those they serve. This low-performing system not only jeopardizes the health of children, it also jeopardizes the health of the adults they will become. In this article we review the science of life-course health development, a new field that provides a powerful explanatory framework for understanding how poor health and social adversity during childhood can affect lifelong health. We then present five ambitious policy recommendations to integrate educational, health, social, and economic initiatives designed to enhance health. Our bold but pragmatic goal is that by 2025, US children will have the highest levels of health among industrialized nations, instead of where US children currently rank-among the worst. PMID:25489029

Halfon, Neal; Wise, Paul H; Forrest, Christopher B

2014-12-01

154

How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions  

SciTech Connect

Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the {open_quotes}ins and outs{close_quotes} of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board`s successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites` on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions.

Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L. [Rocky Flats Citizen Advisory Board, Westminster, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

155

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Educational Therapist Employee Training Instructor English Teacher Foreign Correspondent Human Resources. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited Specialist Copy Editor Customer Service Representative Education & Training Coor. Education Materials Coor

Arnold, Jonathan

156

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Educational Therapist Employee Training Instructor In-Home Daycare Instructional Assistant Instructor. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited Specialist Customer Service Representative Education & Training Administrator Education Materials Coor

Arnold, Jonathan

157

Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario analysis focuses on life cycle issues and considers various generation and control technologies. When advanced technologies such as gasification with carbon capture and sequestration are used, emissions during generation decrease to a level where environmental discharges from extraction, processing and transportation become the dominant concern. The location of coal, coal composition and mining method are important in determining the overall impacts. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Bergerson, Joule Andrea

158

A prospective view on European pharmaceutical research and development. Policy options to reduce fragmentation and increase competitiveness.  

PubMed

This article analyses 3 areas of policy that could reduce the fragmentation and improve the competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical sector. It argues that a potential solution to the issue of fragmentation of pharmaceutical research, development and innovation may be the development of policies at the European level, in those areas that European institutions have a competence. These areas may not necessarily rely exclusively on solving the issue of pricing and reimbursing pharmaceuticals as European Union (EU) Member States invoke the subsidiarity principle to claim policy exclusivity in this area. By contrast, policy areas where European institutions have a competence may include: i) a more intensified collaboration in science and technology policy (supporting the science base, identifying education needs for the future, collaborating in the development of new technologies and fostering university-industry collaboration); ii) support of research and development (R&D) by means of directly channelling funds into basic pharmaceutical research, avoiding duplication of the research effort, developing a set of research priorities, tackling the issue of technology transfer, promoting university-industry and cross-border collaborations or providing incentives that would induce private R&D activities in areas with large socioeconomic impact; and iii) an improvement in the environment for the financing of innovation in the EU, by means of selective use of tax policy at the national level (and where applicable, at the EU level), institutional reform in order to widen the pool of available funds for private investment, and the introduction of schemes that would encourage individuals and institutions to hold equity in innovative companies. The article identifies specific research, regulatory, medical and financing needs that require policy intervention, evaluates the possible dynamic implications of such interventions and highlights the benefits that may accrue from their implementation. PMID:10178646

Kanavos, P

1998-02-01

159

Ex-ante institutional compatibility assessment of policy options -Methodological insights from a case study on the Nitrate Directive in  

E-print Network

is to develop an impact assessment tool for agri-environmental policies (Theesfeld et al., 2010). PICA, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Volume of Environmental Planning and Management, vol. 54, n° 5,2011.p. 661-684 hal-00958267,version1- #12;2 1

Boyer, Edmond

160

PHASE I: Planning for the R & D Dissemination and Feedforward System: Research and Policy Interpretations Option. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents the activities from October, 1976, to February, 1977, of the Research & Policy Interpretations Contractor, a support service to the Research and Development Exchange. Products during this period included contributions to the tracking system and anecdotal success story activities, and a state of the art review of promising…

Hull, William L.

161

Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.  

PubMed

Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America. PMID:17612322

Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

2007-06-01

162

The information below describes typical occupations and employers associated with this major. Understand that some of the options listed below may require additional training.  

E-print Network

Materials Coordinator Educational Therapist Employee Training Instructor Flight Attendant* Information. Understand that some of the options listed below may require additional training. Moreover, you and Industry Training prepares graduates to seek placements as educators in non-education settings including

Arnold, Jonathan

163

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Physics A branch of the physical sciences to collisions with each other and to electro- magnetic radiation, so it is at the base of all modern science Researcher Optical Physicist Engineer Particle Physicist Fluid Physicist Geophysicist Space Photographic Data

Arnold, Jonathan

164

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited/Health Nutrition Coach Possible Employers Athens Regional Medical Center Athletic Teams Atlanta Medical Clinic Atlanta Public Schools Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Cooperative Extension Service Correctional

Arnold, Jonathan

165

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited'N'One Bolletticri Sports Callen-Lowde Community Camps Carolina Panthers Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Chipola Teams Raycom Sports Sea Island Company Sonnenalp Resort Southern League (Baseball) Sporting Goods Stores

Arnold, Jonathan

166

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited States and abroad are looking for employees who speak more than one language. Having a greater sense Bilingual Voice Talent Foreign News Journalist Foreign Services Worker Immigration Specialist Import

Arnold, Jonathan

167

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited with communicative proficiency in the Russian language and knowledge of important aspects of Russian culture. Having, many companies in the United States and abroad are looking for employees who speak more than one

Arnold, Jonathan

168

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited companies in the United States and abroad are looking for employees who speak more than one language. Even Specialist Import/Export Agent Information Management Officer Intelligence Specialist Interpreter Language

Arnold, Jonathan

169

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited processing, storage and serving of safe food to the consumer. Appearance, flavor, and textural influences and economic influences on consumer food choices are also examined. Coursework covers: Food Preparation

Arnold, Jonathan

170

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited trained in business, economics, and management as well as the traditional dairy science courses. Courses Timber Company Processing Plants Purina Mills Southern States Williams Dairy To learn what types

Arnold, Jonathan

171

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited Consultant Embryo Transfer Assistant Extension Program Agent Farm Manager Farming Operations Food and Safety Director Food Product Development Food Service Manager Horse Trainer Laboratory Technician Livestock

Arnold, Jonathan

172

Telecommunication technologies development in countries of the former Yugoslavia : history, needs and policy options for the future  

E-print Network

In the first part of this thesis I give an overview of the political-economic and telecommunications sector developments in major western economies, as well as some of the advanced Eastern European countries. I use this ...

Sulejmanpašić , Adnan, 1976-

2005-01-01

173

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major planning, logistical management, public relations, hospitality, consumer development, event planning, sales requirements. Marketing majors may also pursue electives related to market research. Researching Job Titles

Arnold, Jonathan

174

SPANISH -MAJOR! Under WLC Option I, students with a concentration in Spanish must complete a minimum of 33 credits beyond the  

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.) · SPAN 323 ­ Spain Today (3 cr.) · SPAN 323 ­ Spain Today (3 cr.) · SPAN 324 ­ Latin America Today (3 cr.) · SPAN 326 ­ Studies in Hispanic Art or Film (3 cr.) ! c) At least 3 credits of applied language.): ! WLC OPTION I: : HISPANIC STUDIES #12;· SPAN 440 ­ Seminar on the Literatures and Cultures of Spain 3

Mayfield, John

175

Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div  

SciTech Connect

This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

None

1980-01-22

176

Major Difficulties and Limitations Encountered by Small and Medium-Sized Business in Bulgaria and the Policies Held to Overcome Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study describes some of the main difficulties and limitations challenging the small and medium-sized business in Bulgaria under the existing conditions of economy transition In addition, two major groups of problems are established - one related to the institutional and legal environment and the other applicable to the business environment. The enclosed study puts an accent on the policies

Jordan Vassilev

2001-01-01

177

In the wake of the Newtown tragedy, Washington is preparing for what may be a major legislative battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence.  

E-print Network

battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence. Research into the causes and correlates of gun violence will undoubtedly play a major role in legislative debates. To contribute to this discussion and showcase the work of Yale scholars and national innovators on issues relating to gun violence

178

Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond  

PubMed Central

With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

2014-01-01

179

This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss  

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Utilities) Copywriter Information Manager Librarian Market Research Analyst Public Relations Manager Elementary/Middle/High School Teacher Postsecondary Educator General Anthropologist Antique Dealer Tallahassee Democrat Urban Teacher Center Alternative Format Available · Revised 3/14 Connecting Majors

Ronquist, Fredrik

180

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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descent. Because of the major's interdisciplinary nature, courses are drawn from a wide variety of disciplines including Anthropology, Art, Economics, English, Geography, History, Philosophy, Political Science Historian Human Resource Specialist Human Service Worker Independent Consultant Journalist Lawyer

Arnold, Jonathan

181

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major Manager Brand Development Brand Manager Category Analyst Category Manager Commodity Trader Communication Territory Manager Possible Employers Biltmore Estates Bravo Foods Cadbury Schweppes Campbell Soup Company

Arnold, Jonathan

182

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major are employed in the biomedical sciences in universities and governmental laboratories have earned doctorates") Possible Job Titles Agricultural Inspector Analyst Biological Science Aid Brand Development Clinical

Arnold, Jonathan

183

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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University of South Carolina Walker County School Sys Walnut Grove Elementary West Point Military Academy Winder-Barrow Schools What can I do with a major in Health and Physical Education? The University

Arnold, Jonathan

184

Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are for the aged care sector. Conclusions There is an urgent need for a national strategy that promotes a common approach to aged care leadership and management development, one that is sector-appropriate and congruent with the philosophy of person-centred care now predominant in the sector. The onus is on aged care industries as a whole and various levels of Government to make a concerted effort to establish relevant regulation, legislation and funding. PMID:20602798

2010-01-01

185

Human attitudes in environmental management: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and policy option simulations analysis for a coal-mine ecosystem in China.  

PubMed

Ecosystem management is a complex process, and every stakeholder's cognition plays a crucial role in it. In order to manage the ecosystem better, it is significant for the coal-mining environmental managers to choose appropriate measures, in accord with the stakeholders' interests. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystems among stakeholders and then simulate policy options in a typical coal-mine region in China. The Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) method was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management model in research area. Combining the initial state of variables and the adjacency matrix getting from FCM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to conduct simulations. The results found that among stakeholder groups' FCM model, 'air pollution' and 'water pollution' are the most frequently mentioned variables, while 'health effects' and 'expansion of related industries' are the core variables. However, different stakeholders expressed diverse perceptions on coal-mine ecosystem management. Mine workers paid more attention to occupational safety and their health impacts inducted by air and water pollution during coal-mine process. Local residents were concerned with local economic development and welfare facilities improvement; they also concerned their health impacts raised by coal-mine related problems such as air and water pollution, traffic and noises. Managers emphasized economic interests and environmental projects with immediate environmental effects other than long-term ecosystem improvement. Engineers mentioned more variables than other groups; they believed that air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity loss were important. Scenario analysis for policy simulation based on ANN suggested that the local governments and enterprises should place an emphasis on protecting farmland, increasing vegetation coverage, reducing solid contamination and improving energy efficiency to decrease air pollution. In addition, they should start from decreasing air pollution, protecting water environment, increasing vegetation coverage and paying attention to people's safety to improve health. National policy, public administration and enterprise countermeasures have positive influence to ecosystem management. The findings of this study could provide valuable information to researchers and administrators about stakeholders' knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystem management. These, in turn, could be incorporated into the development of protective measures for a coal-mine ecosystem in China. PMID:23266478

Zhang, Hong; Song, Jie; Su, Chao; He, Mengying

2013-01-30

186

The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools  

PubMed Central

Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary?=?6, middle school?=?2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n?=?4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27%?year 1, 30%?year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22%?year 1, 25%?year 2) children. Conclusions Healthy ONES adaptation of IHI’s rapid improvement process provided a promising model for implementing nutrition policy and environmental changes that can be used in a variety of school settings. This approach may be especially effective in assisting schools to implement the current federally-mandated wellness policies. PMID:22734945

2012-01-01

187

Idaho's Energy Options  

SciTech Connect

This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

Robert M. Neilson

2006-03-01

188

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

Educational Administrator Entrepreneur/Business Owner Field Support Analyst Human Resources Specialist.S. Office of Personnel Mgmt Retail/Corporate Management Walgreen's Walt Disney World Company To learn what of major social, economic, political and cultural events of the past. A sound component of liberal arts

Arnold, Jonathan

189

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

, industry or government. A biological science major is a perfect fit if you are interested in biology Companies Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Consumer Health And Safety Cryolife Erlanger Health System FoodGlobal, login to your DAWGlink account) Idealist www.idealist.org/

Arnold, Jonathan

190

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

") Possible Job Titles Veterinarian To learn what types of positions and companies UGA students are working.usajobs.gov/ (federal jobs) MAJOR/CAREER SPECIFIC: The American Veterinary Medicine Association Job Board- http in close cooperation with the College of Veterinary Medicine, specifically for students entering veterinary

Arnold, Jonathan

191

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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agents Farm Manager Field Research Technician Finance Governmental agencies Informal Education JournalistThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major://www.bls.gov/oco (type in general term for career of interest) Georgia Career Information Center http

Arnold, Jonathan

192

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

a good foundation for careers in public service, campaign work, and various management positions administration, personal rights and freedoms, justice, and political authority. Like all good liberal arts majors Governor's Aide Legal Assistant Legal Assistant/Paralegal Legislative Staff Marketing Assistant Ocean

Arnold, Jonathan

193

76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...publish policy guidance on the New and Small Starts capital project review and evaluation process...sought public comment on the New Starts and Small Starts project justification criteria...regulations that govern the New Starts and Small Starts...

2011-08-16

194

Pricing Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

Tenopir, Carol

1998-01-01

195

Passport Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

We relate the theory of passport options with general principles from martingale theory as well as with the theory of Bessel processcs. The calculation of the price of a passport option leads to an equality between two norms on continuous martingales. We also solve the discrete time case for passport options. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishers.

Freddy Delbaen; Marc Yor; Freddy

2002-01-01

196

Policies  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute staff actively seek input from subject matter experts in developing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) policies and guidelines to help govern the way investigators implement tissue and clinical data collections, data access and publications using the TCGA data sets.

197

New Policy Options Through Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses past contributions technology has made to society and ways it will contribute to society's future. Included in these areas are basic biological research, laser technology, information systems, and space technologies. (CT)

Schmitt, Harrison

1981-01-01

198

America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

199

The Effect of the Lowered Age of Majority and Relaxed Dormitory Policies on Drug Usage by Dormitory Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973, the state of Minnesota passed legislation lowering the legal age of adulthood from 21 to 18; this gave 18-year olds the opportunity to legally consume alcoholic beverages. At the same time, the University of Minnesota made policy changes which enabled dormitory residents to consume alcoholic beverages in their rooms. To ascertain the…

Kuznik, Anthony

1975-01-01

200

Option Pricing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module analyzes the topic of option pricing. Binomial tree models and the Black-Scholes formulae are used to price call options on an underlying asset. . The put-call parity theorem is used to value put options. Background inFormation on options is provided as well as the theoretical implications of the models. Assessment of the models is evaluated through on an investigation of the strengths and shortcomings of the models compared with their empirical performance. The module evaluates the differences between European and American options using mathematical models. In addition, the module examines expansions of the model including adaptation to stocks that pay dividends, the market for foreign exchange, and options on portfolios such as market indices. In assessing the strengths and shortcomings of the models investigated, the existence of alternative models is introduced to allow the interested student pathways to learning after the module.

Rick Percy

201

Background Report: Employee Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication from the Financial Markets Center offers a closer look at the rise of stock options. The report "summarizes the key trends in the use of stock options and highlights the broader implications of this practice for measuring earnings and conducting national economic policy." Five points are discussed in this nine-page document, allowing readers to understand the basic principles and problems surrounding stock options. Anyone wanting to gain a basic understanding of stock options will enjoy this easy-to-read report.

202

Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.  

PubMed

HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health care and are wary of cost shifting from the public plan to private insurers. FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT-BASED COVERAGE: The availability of a health insurance exchange may have implications for the future of the employment-based health benefits system and raises major questions for workers. Will employers provide a fixed contribution for the purchase of insurance through an exchange? Would that be large enough to purchase coverage? Would it be flat or vary by such factors as worker health status, age, and/or marital status or the presence of children? Would it be taxed? For both employers and workers, the implications are enormous. PMID:19545086

Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

2009-06-01

203

Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

2008-01-01

204

Grading Policies of the Public Two-Year Community Colleges in Michigan, Fall 1977.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of the grading policies at the 29 Michigan community colleges is presented. Six major classifications cover all grades given at the colleges: main grading system, pass-fail grades, withdrawal grades, incomplete grades, and audit options. The most common grade policy, used by 24 of the colleges, is the five grade system assigning…

Breen, Edward; Dulaney-Sorochak, Jeanne

205

College Confidence: How Sure High School Students Are of Their Future Majors. Policy Research: IERC 2012-2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines high school students' confidence in their planned college major with an emphasis on students planning to study one of the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. The study draws on responses from the ACT Student Interest Inventory of the Illinois High School Class of 2003, which asks students about…

George-Jackson, Casey E.; Lichtenberger, Eric J.

2012-01-01

206

Rehabilitation Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care Hospice Care Brain Tumor Treatments Treatment Side Effects & their Management Support and Resources Caregiving Information About Us Letter ...

207

System evaluations of laser power beaming options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

Montgomery, Edward E., IV

1992-01-01

208

When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

209

Academic Majors Undergraduate Majors  

E-print Network

Community Nutrition/Health Promotion · Food Science Food Allergy · Human/Athletic Performance NutritionAcademic Majors Undergraduate Majors Food & Nutrition Sciences Dietetics Exercise Science Athletic Training Masters Majors Nutrition & Food Sciences Exercise Physiology Sports Sciences Doctoral Majors

Weston, Ken

210

Options Study - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2010-09-01

211

Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

2011-01-01

212

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

213

Numa Option Calculator: The Original Option Webulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly. For those interested in pricing their own options, this Option Calculator, provided by Numa Financial Systems Ltd., calculates the adjusted Black-Scholes model to value European options.

1997-01-01

214

Navigating the Child Care Subsidy System: Policies and Practices That Affect Access and Retention. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-50. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief summarizes the report, "Getting and Retaining Child Care Assistance: How Policy and Practice Influence Families' Experiences," examining subsidy policies and practices that affect subsidy utilization, including those that affect every interaction the parent has with the subsidy agency and those that affect the ease of applying for, and…

Adams, Gina; Snyder, Kathleen; Sandfort, Jodi R.

215

The Decision To Investigate: Understanding State Child Welfare Screening Policies and Practices. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. Series A, No. A-38. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses state child welfare screening policies and practices, presenting data from a 1997 survey that examined the nature of states' formal screening policies and number of initial allegations of child maltreatment that states screened out. Although all states screen these allegations before investigation, little is known about the…

Tumlin, Karen C.; Geen, Rob

216

State Policy Initiatives for Reducing Teen and Adult Nonmarital Childbearing: Family Planning to Family Caps. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies, Series A, No. A-43.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents data from a survey of all 50 states that examined specific programs and policies being pursued at the state level to discourage teenage and nonmarital childbearing. Overall, the teen childbearing rate has continued to fall, and in 1999 it was the lowest on record. Some research points to a relationship between welfare policies

Wertheimer, Richard; Jager, Justin; Moore, Kristin Anderson

217

Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) Option Clinical Manual  

E-print Network

Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) Option Clinical Manual 2011-2012 Reviewed August, 2011 Associate Dean...................................................................................................................................1 Clinical Nurse Leader Major Role Function? ........................................................................................2 Clinical Nurse Leader

Dyer, Bill

218

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing  

E-print Network

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing Graduate Degree Program Clinical Manual 2012....................................................................................................................1 Clinical Nurse Leader Major Role Function?.........................................................................2 Clinical Nurse Leader

Dyer, Bill

219

Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.  

SciTech Connect

Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

2014-05-01

220

Career Options in Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology  

E-print Network

Veterinary Medicine Veterinarian (zoo, private, wildlife) Wildlife rehabilitator Ecosystem / HabitatCareer Options in Wildlife, Fish, & Conservation Biology Jobs and sources of employment/Policy Related Environmental consultant Lobbyist Environmental attorney Wildlife Wildlife biologist Wildlife

Todd, Brian

221

Enhancing renewable and sustainable energy development based on an options-based policy evaluation framework: Case study of wind energy technology in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming and climate change have shifted the focus of industrial development towards low-carbon renewable energy (RE), as evidence by global efforts to develop RE-based sustainable energy policies. However, the generally cost-ineffective nature of RE investments explains continued governmental subsidies and draft assistance measures to encourage related industrial development, reduce research and development (R&D) costs, and increase innovativeness. Besides measures

Shun-Chung Lee; Li-Hsing Shih

2011-01-01

222

Options Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released, this options paper, one in a series of papers from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, is part of a comprehensive review of the 76-year old US deposit insurance system. Because the US banking system is going through a period of healthiness, the FDIC feels that this is the best time to "address the latent flaws in the system." The paper begins with a marvelous introduction to the history and uses of the US deposit insurance system, including a lengthy overview on the need for system reform. The second section examines the pricing of deposit insurance for individual banks. Section three discusses the ways in which deposit insurance losses are funded, and the fourth section considers the extent of insurance coverage. The paper is available in its entirety in HTML format.

223

Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.  

SciTech Connect

National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

Walter, Andrew

2009-06-01

224

DCTD — Major Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Major Initiatives Search Grants Search Clinical Trials Ongoing Projects NCI Grants Policies Grant Application and Review Process DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

225

Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

Trask, Newell J.

1994-01-01

226

Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

Trask, N.J. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1994-12-31

227

Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.  

SciTech Connect

An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

2009-12-01

228

Assessing land degradation and acknowledging adaptive policy options to face with changes: an integrated approach applied to a semiarid agropastoral system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of assessing land degradation on semiarid systems deals with challenges that have rarely been addressed. Land degradation is a human-induced and permanent reduction of key ecosystem functions and services at different temporal and spatial scale. Initial attempts to assess land degradation at a broader scale were based on expert opinion, however the empirical bases to sustain these estimations are weak and the ecological data are still scarce. In addition, such approaches are essentially subjective and they reflect the objectives and assumptions of those making the assessment, who are rarely land users themselves. Currently, the concept of "land degradation" is debated, and in the last years have emerged a growing number of efforts to develop land degradation participatory assessment methods that could capture a more complex understanding of human-environment interactions. This study proposes an interdisciplinary and hybrid methodology, combining local and scientific knowledge, to assess land degradation in mixed farming systems. Specifically, i) it describes and analyses the mixed farming system and it explores how historically political, social and institutional local factors have interacted with ecological process, ii) it identifies key ecosystem processes and services needed to support the agropastoral systems that are perceived to be under threat from land degradation; iii) it assesses the status and trends of these key ecosystem services; and iv) it identifies and evaluates potential management alternatives to prevent land degradation and cope with changes (e.g. climate change). We show how to achieve, through a co-construction of hybrid knowledge between scientific and farmers, a more accurate and reliable appraisal of land degradation, since farmer's perception is contextualized, dynamic and complex and involves simultaneously multiple temporal and spatial scales and multiple dimensions of analysis that could help the scientific exploration. The study reveals that the ecosystem services' exploration with local actors is a good method to reveal the multiple and sometimes conflictive local strategies and interests at stake. Ecosystem services assessment has also been used as an entry to discuss with local land users about adaptive management strategies to improve soil functions involved in the maintenance of the provision and regulation processes and land productivity that support local livelihoods face to changes. The integrated methodological framework adopted has a positive impact to empower local users, enlarging the access to adequate information and channels of communication between experts/local users, and improving their capacity to use the co-constructed hybrid knowledge. We argue that engaging the relevant and interested actors in the process is key to understand margin of flexibility for dialogue between local users, scientific and policy makers and it is a base for ownership of local actors in decision making processes that facilitates effective soil-land governance. Finally, we discuss how wide institutional changes at different levels are needed to support agro-environmental policies for communities, small and medium farmers and to undertake new adaptive management strategies to cope with uncertainties of future changes.

Tarrasón, D.; Ravera, F.; Reed, M.; Dougill, A.

2009-04-01

229

Options Strategy Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numa Financial Systems provide an easy-to-use Options Strategy Guide where the options strategies are categorized to the user's expectations of the stock price. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

230

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ...  

E-print Network

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ... Applied Mathematics Biomedical Sciences Computer Science Undergraduate Research Internships and Cooperative Education (Co-op) (optional) Study Abroad WHY IMAGING SCIENCE Science: BS, MS, PhD Color Science: MS, PhD BS + MS/PhD Combos HUMAN VISION BIO- MEDICAL ASTRO- PHYSICS

Zanibbi, Richard

231

Choosing a Major  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By completing this tutorial, you should be able to: Find resources to help you find the correct business major for you. Access your business major options. Congratulations on choosing Utah State University and the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business as your educational partner. Now that you have been admitted to USU, you may have a few questions about where to go from here. Below you will find many resources that will help you ...

Joslyn Heiniger

2009-09-27

232

Syllabus Natural Resource Policy & Economics 1 Natural Resource Policy & Economics  

E-print Network

Syllabus ­ Natural Resource Policy & Economics 1 Natural Resource Policy & Economics FOR6934 (3 natural resources administration and policies in the United States; policy components; policy formation of the course, you should be able to: State the key provisions of major natural resource policies Explain

Slatton, Clint

233

Syllabus Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration  

E-print Network

Syllabus ­ Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration FNR and related natural resources administration and policies in the United States; policy components; policy of the course, you should be able to: State the key provisions of major natural resource policies Explain

Watson, Craig A.

234

"Leveraging University Expertise to Inform Better Policy" Research Advisor Approval -If the brief preparer is a student or postdoc, please have the research advisor (PI, major  

E-print Network

.) for the project on which the brief is based sign off on the Brief Approval Form Policy Brief Instructions IMPLICATIONS ­ Focus on the meaning of the research, not the methods. UNDERSTANDABLE ­ Language should understand the research and implications Use the most effective method to convey the data (text, bar

California at Davis, University of

235

77 FR 43897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To Increase Position and Exercise Limits for EEM Options July 20...Interpretation and Policy .07 to Rule 4.11 (Position Limits) to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the...

2012-07-26

236

Mortality derivatives and the option to annuitise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most US-based insurance companies offer holders of their tax-sheltered savings plans (VAs), the long-term option to annuitise their policy at a pre-determined rate over a pre-specified period of time. Currently, there is approximately one trillion dollars invested in such policies, with guaranteed annuitisation rates, in addition to any guaranteed minimum death benefit. The insurance company has essentially granted the policyholder

Moshe A. Milevskya; S. David Promislow

2001-01-01

237

Renewable resource policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This comprehensive volume covers the history, laws, and important national policies affecting renewable resource management. The author traces the history of renewable natural resource policy and management in the US, describes the major federal agencies and their functions, and examines the evolution of the primary resource policy areas. Renewable Resource Policy provides valuable insight into the often neglected legal administrative,

1993-01-01

238

New direction for non-proliferation policy: Weapons of mass destruction and the Third World. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Third World is a major national security challenge. This paper provides a summary of non-proliferation policies along with discussion of current world realities leading to the conclusion that the existing non-proliferation regime is losing its potency. Three options are provided on potential ways and of halting the spread of these weapons

Kilgore

1993-01-01

239

Cybersecurity: Stakeholder incentives, externalities, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security breaches are increasingly motivated by fraudulent and criminal motives. Reducing their considerable costs has become a pressing issue. Although cybersecurity has strong public good characteristics, most information security decisions are made by individual stakeholders. Due to the interconnectedness of cyberspace, these decentralized decisions are afflicted with externalities that can result in sub-optimal security levels. Devising effective solutions to

Johannes M. Bauer; Michel J. G. van Eeten

2009-01-01

240

Policy Options to Support Biofuel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since\\u000a the 1970s, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly\\u000a sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies\\u000a under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels\\u000a include renewable fuel mandates,

W. E. Mabee

241

Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step. PMID:23230285

Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

2013-01-01

242

Introduction to Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

International Finance and Commodities Institute (IFCI) and Axone Services & Development S.A. of Switzerland have developed an on-line course on options. The course is divided into six parts: Comparing Forward, Futures and Options; Options Basics; Basic Options Pricing; Structure and Functioning of an Options Exchange; Hedging; and Trading Strategies. Many of the lessons take the form of brief introductory remarks and then interactive multiple choice questions. At the end of the course there is an interactive quiz you can take to test your knowledge. Note that some prior knowledge of options is assumed.

243

Australian health policy and end of life care for people with chronic disease: An analysis.  

PubMed

End of life care for people with advanced chronic disease is a growing international imperative, with the majority of deaths in the world now related to chronic disease. The provision of care that meets the needs of people with advanced chronic disease must be guided by appropriate policy. The key policy areas impacting directly on end of life care are related to chronic disease, palliative care and, increasingly, aged care. This paper describes the outcomes of an audit of Australian chronic disease and end of life/palliative care policies. We identified that chronic disease health policies/strategies demonstrate a focus on prevention, early intervention and management, with scant recognition of end of life care needs. The majority assume that a referral to palliative care will address end of life care needs for people with chronic disease. By contrast, palliative care policies recognise the need for the incorporation of a palliative approach into advanced chronic disease care, but there are few connections between these two policy areas. Whilst palliative care policies intersect with carer and advance care planning policies, chronic disease policy does not. Key concerns requiring consideration when developing policy in this area are discussed and possible policy options identified. PMID:23992757

Burgess, Teresa; Braunack-Mayer, Annette; Crawford, Gregory B; Beilby, Justin

2014-03-01

244

The Environment and Health endorsed option focuses on physical and  

E-print Network

The Environment and Health endorsed option focuses on physical and social environments protection, health promotion, health education, urban development, resource management, health policy of population health must take into account the physical and social environments within which people live

Hickman, Mark

245

Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance  

E-print Network

Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance Major I ­ Pre-professional (Medicine, Dentistry, Business, Law, Engineering) Major II ­ ACS Certified e.g. Graduate Study or Entry Level Chemistry Employment. Major III ­ Forensic Chemistry Major IV** ­ Biochemistry Option Chemistry Minor General Chemistry I & II

Schmitt, William R.

246

University of California, Santa Cruz Reporting Options  

E-print Network

policy. FOR MORE INFORMATION Sexual Assault Facts and Education (SAFE) Student Health Center inside SHOPUniversity of California, Santa Cruz Reporting Options: Sexual Assault, Dating Violence, Domestic of the community should be aware that the University prohibits sexual assault, sexual harassment, domestic violence

California at Santa Cruz, University of

247

Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

Not Available

2014-09-01

248

B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option Course Title Course # Credits  

E-print Network

B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation 472 05 Intro to Food Engr. Process Design BEE 473 03 OPTION: FERMENTATION SCIENCE Food Science Major Core (91-95 Cr.) FERMENTATION SCIENCE OPTION Additional Supporting Courses (8 Cr.) NUTR225 may

Escher, Christine

249

OPTIONAL IMAGE OR RENDERING OF  

E-print Network

OPTIONAL IMAGE OR RENDERING OF BUILDING OR SITE #12;MIT BIM Execution Plan v3.2 2 #12;MIT BIM Company Architect AND Engineer #12;MIT BIM Execution Plan v3.2 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. BIM EXECUTION PLAN OVERVIEW 6 2. PROJECT INFORMATION 7 3. KEY PROJECT CONTACTS 8 4. PROJECT GOALS/BIM USES 9 4.1 MAJOR BIM

Leiserson, Charles E.

250

Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post-certification polio immunization. The break-even price of switching to IPV compared with continuing with OPV immunizations is US$ 0.50 per dose of IPV. However, this doses not account for the cost of vaccine-derived poliovirus cases resulting from the continued use of OPV. In addition to financial costs, risk assessments related to the re-emergence of polio will be major determinants of policy decisions. PMID:15106295

Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

2004-01-01

251

Evaluating health policy capacity: Learning from international and Australian experience  

PubMed Central

Background The health sector in Australia faces major challenges that include an ageing population, spiralling health care costs, continuing poor Aboriginal health, and emerging threats to public health. At the same time, the environment for policy-making is becoming increasingly complex. In this context, strong policy capacity – broadly understood as the capacity of government to make "intelligent choices" between policy options – is essential if governments and societies are to address the continuing and emerging problems effectively. Results This paper explores the question: "What are the factors that contribute to policy capacity in the health sector?" In the absence of health sector-specific research on this topic, a review of Australian and international public sector policy capacity research was undertaken. Studies from the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia were analysed to identify common themes in the research findings. This paper discusses these policy capacity studies in relation to context, models and methods for policy capacity research, elements of policy capacity and recommendations for building capacity. Conclusion Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the organisational and individual factors that are likely to contribute to health policy capacity, highlights the need for further research in the health sector and points to some of the conceptual and methodological issues that need to be taken into consideration in such research. PMID:19245704

Gleeson, Deborah H; Legge, David G; O'Neill, Deirdre

2009-01-01

252

Natural Gas Purchasing Options  

E-print Network

As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

Watkins, G.

253

MA Psychology Optional Modules  

E-print Network

MA Psychology Optional Modules Students choose 30 credits worth of optional modules. The optional. Understanding Emotion (20 credits) The modules would explore the main debates in the neuro-cognitive research a diverse set of example artworks, the module explores how contemporary theory, methods and knowledge from

Miall, Chris

254

Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may force…

Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

2006-01-01

255

Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

2011-01-01

256

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

257

Reusing Old Policies to Accelerate Learning on New MDPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the reuse of policies for previous MDPs in learning ona new MDP, under the assumption that the vector of parameters ofeach MDP is drawn from a fixed probability distribution. We use theoptions framework, in which an option consists of a set of initiationstates, a policy, and a termination condition. We use an option calleda reuse option, for which

Daniel S. Bernstein

1999-01-01

258

Future American energy policy  

SciTech Connect

People from businesses, public life, public advocacy groups, and experts on international energy met in February 1980 to explore the complex issues of energy policy at a conference entitled Energy Future: Policies and Consequences. The book begins with Crist's overview of current options. David Stockman then examines damaging energy myths and their effects in producing misguided energy policies. Other authors explore the social implications of energy policy, the failure of oil-company management and government to keep energy prices in line with costs, the economic implications of domestic energy policy, international attitudes toward US policy, and the implications of alternative energy sources and conservation. Laffer describes how American presidential economic policies differ from public perceptions. The book concludes with the hope of achieving a future balance of environmental concerns and increased production.

Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B. (eds.)

1982-01-01

259

COURSE OF STUDY: DISTANCE OPTION MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM  

E-print Network

First Year ­ 19 credits Fall Winter Spring SW 520 Social Work and Social Welfare Policy (4 credit hours Development in the Social Environment, Issues in Child Welfare, Health Care Policies and Programs and PovertyCOURSE OF STUDY: DISTANCE OPTION MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM Three-year curriculum grid example

260

The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.  

PubMed

Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning. PMID:12336442

Di Maio, A J

1980-04-01

261

Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.  

PubMed

The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

2012-10-16

262

Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies  

PubMed Central

The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

2012-01-01

263

Capture-Ready Power Plants -Options, Technologies and Economics Mark C. Bohm  

E-print Network

1 Capture-Ready Power Plants - Options, Technologies and Economics by Mark C. Bohm Bachelor and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Capture-ready Power Plants ­ Options, Technologies and Costs by Mark C. Bohm for the Degree of Master of Science in Technology and Policy ABSTRACT A plant can be considered to be capture

264

76 FR 44633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Rule Change To Increase the Position and Exercise Limits for Options on the...proposes to amend its rules to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the...Interpretation and Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for SPY options...

2011-07-26

265

The Costs of Future Polio Risk Management Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decisionmakers need information about the anticipated future costs of maintaining polio erad- ication as a function of the policy options under consideration. Given the large portfolio of options, we reviewed and synthesized the existing cost data relevant to current policies to pro- vide context for future policies. We model the expected future costs of different strategies for continued vaccination, surveillance,

Radboud J. Duintjer Tebbens; Nalinee Sangrujee; Kimberly M. Thompson

2006-01-01

266

Infinite reload options: Pricing and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infinite reload options allow the user to exercise his reload right as often as he chooses during the lifetime of the contract. Each time a reload occurs, the owner receives new options where the strike price is set to the current stock price. We consider a modified version of the infinite reload option contract where the strike price of the new options received by the owner is increased by a certain percentage; we refer to this new contract as an increased reload option. The pricing problem for this modified contract is characterized as an impulse control problem resulting in a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. We use fully implicit timestepping and prove that the discretized equations are monotone, stable and consistent, implying convergence to the viscosity solution. We also derive a globally convergent iterative method for solving the non-linear discrete equations. Numerical examples show that both the exercise policy and the option value are very sensitive to the percentage increase in the reload strike.

Bélanger, A. C.; Forsyth, P. A.

2008-12-01

267

The Origins of Options  

PubMed Central

Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

2012-01-01

268

Novel Operative Treatment Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air

D. N. J. Ricketts; N. B. Pitts

2009-01-01

269

Pricing of Passport Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passport options are derivatives on actively managed funds. There is no known explicit formula for the price of passport options in general. We estimate and analyze the value function, and give the condition that the optimal strategy becomes trivial. We also show an approximation theorem which enables us to compute the value function numerically. Finally we give the explicit formula

Izumi Nagayama

1998-01-01

270

Policy on Gender Neutral Housing Policy on Gender-Neutral  

E-print Network

Policy on Gender Neutral Housing 10/01/2013 Policy on Gender-Neutral Housing I. Purpose and Scope Gender-neutral housing gives students the option to reside with another student, regardless of sex, gender, gender identity or gender expression. II. Definitions Gender-neutral housing is defined

Sridhar, Srinivas

271

Disparities in Curricular Offerings: Issues and Policy Alternatives for Small Rural Schools. Policy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review explores the debate on optimal school size and discusses policy options available to states for expanding curricular offerings in small rural schools. Policy options are divided into three broad categories: traditional, modified traditional, and nontraditional. The report explores the possibilities available under each approach,…

Monk, David H.

272

Working it Out. Option Papers and Sample Policies. An Anthology of State and Local Performance Management Strategies Designed To Increase Service to Youth At Risk of Chronic Unemployment. [Report from the Region V, Youth Performance Management Task Force.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document comprises the second volume of a two-volume resource guide to help states and localities take advantage of new Federal initiatives to increase services to youth under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). This volume comprises the discussion papers that formed the basis for the options summarized in the first volume. The papers…

Department of Labor, Chicago, IL. Region V.

273

Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

2013-09-01

274

Introduction to Options  

E-print Network

allow one to take advantage of changes in futures prices without actually having a position in the futures market. The pre- determined price at which the futures contract may be bought (for a call) or sold (for a put) is called the strike or exercise... into a short futures position, established at the strike price, by exercising the put option. Similarly, the buyer of a call option can convert an option posi- tion into a long futures position, established at the strike price, by exercising the call...

Mintert, James R.; Welch, Mark

2009-01-07

275

Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

2009-07-31

276

STUDY ABROADFOR PHYSICS MAJORS study abroad  

E-print Network

STUDY ABROADFOR PHYSICS MAJORS study abroad #12;WHY YOU SHOULD STUDY ABROAD 2 STUDY ABROAD FOR PhYSicS MAJORS Study abroad programs provide Physics majors with access to interesting and relevant courses or an internship during your stay abroad. PRE-HEALTH PROFESSIONS OPTIONS Explore the "Study Abroad Guide for Pre

Johnston, Daniel

277

STUDY ABROADFOR BIOLOGY MAJORS study abroad  

E-print Network

STUDY ABROADFOR BIOLOGY MAJORS study abroad #12;WHY YOU SHOULD STUDY ABROAD 2 STUDY ABROAD FOR BIOLOGY MAJORS Study abroad programs provide Biology majors with access to science courses around or internships during your stay abroad. PRE-HEALTH PROFESSIONS OPTIONS Explore the "Study Abroad Guide for Pre

Pillow, Jonathan

278

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

279

Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected  

E-print Network

June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

280

Late Entry/Early Withdrawal Policy Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet outlines policy options that Texas school districts can use to develop consistent credit-granting policies for migrant students who arrive late or withdraw early during the school year. In addition to advocating grading of migrant students consistently and fairly, the goal of the policies is to enhance the graduation rate of migrant…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Special Programs.

281

of Social Work and Social Policy  

E-print Network

School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

O'Mahony, Donal E.

282

Explore Your Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Share Their Stories Get More Info Glossary Your quality of life depends on knowing your options Just one food ... may help improve your health care and your quality of life. This site has tips to help you talk ...

283

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

284

Mathematics & Degree options  

E-print Network

132 Mathematics & Statistics Degree options MMath (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Applied Mathematics Pure Mathematics Statistics BSc or MA (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Statistics [If you wish (Joint Honours Degrees) Mathematics and one of: Biology Chemistry Computer Science Economics Geography

Brierley, Andrew

285

Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Clipping Occlusion and ...

286

Real Options: A Survey  

E-print Network

a plant, contracting capacity or purchasing real estate that had been leased, and ..... to DCF methods is that they disregard the effect of managerial control during ...... Rothwell (2006) uses real options to evaluate new nuclear power plants, ...

2015-01-04

287

Porphyria Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

288

A Menu of Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Armed with a few topical and organizational strategies, primary grade teachers can successfully introduce their young scientists to science notebooks. The following overview of notebook methods offers a menu of options to help you develop creative and mea

Valerie Joyner

2010-11-01

289

Global plutonium management: A security option  

SciTech Connect

The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

Sylvester, K.W.B.

1998-12-31

290

Advanced ignition options for laser ICF  

E-print Network

Advanced ignition options for laser ICF FPA Meeting, Washington DC, December 1-3, 2010 R. Betti explore high-gain shock ignition - Polar Shock Ignition (uses half the NIF beams to drive the implosion and the other half to drive the ignitor shock) · Fast Ignition requires major hardware upgrades: 100k

291

APPENDIX B, Page B1 OPTION DESCRIPTION  

E-print Network

of specific course credits (i.e., exclusive of 600 thesis credits, culminating experience credits, internship credits, etc.) that are distinct to the option. The minimum number of these credits is the lesser of 18 credits or one-third of the course credits required for the major. For example, in the case of a 30 credit

Omiecinski, Curtis

292

Internet Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, in Red Herring, Charles Conn, CEO of Ticketmaster Online-City-Search explained the difficulties of hiring people in San Francisco: "Everyone seems to know someone whose company just got bought for millions of dollars," and according to Conn, job seekers in the Internet industry put stock options high on their list of benefits and incentives. This week's In The News examines stock options as they affect high-tech companies and their employees. On July 1, 1999, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that 42 local companies, mainly Internet start-ups, had gone public in the preceding six months with the astounding gain of 138 percent. Throughout the Silicon Valley, employees of computer companies are hedging their bets, hoping that the companies they work for will be the next eBay or Amazon. However, the chances of striking it rich through Internet stock options are slim. High-tech employees move from company to company looking for better options at promising start-ups, while computer companies improve their option packages in order to entice their workers to stay. The seven resources discussed provide news, articles, and background information on the lures and pitfalls of Internet stock options.

Missner, Emily D.

293

Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.  

PubMed

Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

2012-11-01

294

Nevada Transportatoion Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

2006-05-25

295

14.74 Foundations of Development Policy, Spring 2004  

E-print Network

Explores the foundations of policy making in developing countries. Goal is to spell out various policy options and to quantify the trade-offs between them. Special emphasis on education, health, gender, fertility, adoption ...

Duflo, Esther, 1972-

296

Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options  

MedlinePLUS

Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options Updated:Mar 24,2015 Understanding the Medical Situation Having advanced heart failure does not ... need in the future. Treatment Options for Advanced Heart Failure Major Interventions Open-heart surgery: For patients with ...

297

Major Andre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

1976-01-01

298

Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

2005-07-01

299

Passport options with stochastic volatility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passport option is a call option on the profits of a trading account. In this article, the robustness of passport option pricing is investigated by incorporating stochastic volatility. The key feature of a passport option is the holders' optimal strategy. It is known that in the case of exponential Brownian motion the strategy is to be long if the

Vicky Henderson; David Hobson

2001-01-01

300

Reconsidering California Transport Policies: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Uncertain Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past decade, the state of California has set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions targets across all sectors of the economy. The first major target occurs in 2020, when the state hopes to have reduced statewide greenhouse gas emission from their current levels to 1990 levels. This 320-page paper from RAND researcher Ryan Keefe takes a critical look at the policies adopted by California in its attempt to achieve these long-term goals. Visitors can look over the complete document if they are so inclined, but there is a brief summary available as well. The paper provides a history of climate policy in California, sections on policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles, and new methods for evaluating California's light-duty transportation policies. Finally, the paper also includes a wealth of graphs, charts, and technical appendices.

Keefe, Ryan

2012-02-24

301

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

Lipo, T. A.

1995-01-01

302

PHYSICS DEPARTMENT OPTION DESIGNATION COURSE CURRICULUM APPROVAL FORM  

E-print Network

. These departments include Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Mathematics, Geography, EnergyPHYSICS DEPARTMENT OPTION DESIGNATION COURSE CURRICULUM APPROVAL FORM STUDENT'S NAME : _________________________ DATE: ______ DIRECTOR OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDIES: _________________________ DATE: _____ #12;PHYSICS MAJOR

Mohanty, Raj

303

Thermal test options  

SciTech Connect

Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

1993-02-01

304

Tank Space Options Report  

SciTech Connect

A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the schedule for the Waste Treatment Plant. Some of the options would diminish the operational flexibility inherent in the current baseline and increase the risk of inability to accommodate significant Waste Treatment Plant startup problems, the potential loss of use of a double-shell tank, and other unforeseen events that could require additional tank space beyond that currently assumed necessary. The most promising options require more study to establish feasibility, enhance cost estimates, and understand operations impact of abnormal tank space utilization and need scenarios.

BOYLES, V.C.

2001-04-12

305

Policy Scientificity 3.0: Theory and Policy Analysis in-and-for This World and Other-Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the epistemologies and ontologies of education policy studies. Our aim is to posit a reinvigoration of policy studies to hedge against undue ossification and co-option of critical policy studies. We do so by arguing for the need to develop new concepts for policy studies using the "posts" (e.g., post-structuralism and…

Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

2015-01-01

306

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major The Department of Health and Human://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health- human-development/health-human-development/food-nutrition-major- dietetics-option) is designed and Human Development advising office located in the Hosaeus PE Complex. The nutrition science option (http://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health-human

Maxwell, Bruce D.

307

Computer Science Degree options  

E-print Network

82 Computer Science Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Computer Science and one of: Economics Logic and Philosophy of Science Management Management Science MSci (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science Entrance Requirements (see also pages 164 - 205

Brierley, Andrew

308

Our Energy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

309

Earth Sciences Geography Option  

E-print Network

Earth Sciences with Geography Option Geography is the study of Earth's environments, landscapes, peoples, and places. It includes natural science (physical geography), social science (human geography, envision future resource scenarios, and study dynamic spatial patterns such as migrations. Geography at OSU

Kurapov, Alexander

310

ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

311

Accommodation Options Darwin  

E-print Network

Accommodation Options ­ Darwin Charles Darwin University #12;· WelcomeHomestayNetwork . . . . . . . . . . 20 Contents #12;3 Welcome to Charles Darwin University. We congratulate you for making the decision-campusAccommodationatCDU . . . . . 5 · InternationalHouseDarwin . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 · i

312

Treatment Options in Psoriasis  

PubMed Central

Psoriasis is a common skin disease with a variety of clinical presentations. Fortunately, many treatment options are available to the patient and to the physician. Topical, systemic, and physical therapies can be tailored to the patient's needs. Patient compliance and a knowledgeable, caring physician are vital to successful control of the disease. Continuing research offers hope for the chronically disabled. PMID:21221381

Dantow, James E.

1992-01-01

313

Real options valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managerial flexibility has value. The ability of their managers to make smart decisions in the face of volatile market and technological conditions is essential for firms in any competitive industry. This advanced tutorial describes the use of Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic optimization for the valuation of real options that arise from the abilities of managers to influence the cash

Barry R. Cobb; John M. Charnes

2007-01-01

314

DIETETICS OPTION STUDENT HANDBOOK  

E-print Network

DIETETICS OPTION STUDENT HANDBOOK Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences College.D., R.D., Program Director Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences Agricultural Sciences) ................................................................................................... 14 Applying for an Internship or AP4 Program - Suggested Time Frame Food Science Human Nutrition

315

Film Studies Degree options  

E-print Network

102 Film Studies Degree options MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Film Studies and one of: Ancient History Anthropology SpanishW Theological Studies FilmStudieswww.st-andrews.ac.uk/filmstudies Features * The Department of Film Studies consistently receives excellent ratings of student satisfaction in course evaluations

Brierley, Andrew

316

Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

2013-01-01

317

US nuclear weapons policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the

1990-01-01

318

Toward a National Ocean Policy, 1976 and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each chapter in this publication takes up a specific issue, analyzes its importance to the United States, discusses its evolution in the international negotiating process, and considers the various policy options in the context of the treaty making exercise. The criteria for evaluating policy options are included. The eight chapters are: (1) The…

Osgood, Robert E.; And Others

319

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

2002-01-01

320

Major Depression Can Be Prevented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

2012-01-01

321

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

2002-01-01

322

Used nuclear fuel storage options including implications of small modular reactors  

E-print Network

This work addresses two aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle system with significant policy implications. The first is the preferred option for used fuel storage based on economics: local, regional or national storage. The ...

Brinton, Samuel O. (Samuel Otis)

2014-01-01

323

Youth Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject of youth policy is discussed in three articles: youth policy developments in Western Australia, Australian Council of Trade Unions policies on youth employment and training, and an outline of developments and provisions in youth policy. (CT)

Williams, Norm; And Others

1985-01-01

324

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact and vulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having the potential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related to climate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops a typology of adaptation to

Barry Smit; MARK W. SKINNER

2002-01-01

325

Keratoconus Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Us What Is The NKCF? Our Mission Statement History Of The NKCF Major Sponsors Advisory Board Contact Us ... Us What Is The NKCF? Our Mission Statement History Of The NKCF Major Sponsors Advisory Board Contact Us ...

326

Bachelor of Arts, Theatre Arts, Dance Option, 2012-2013 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

, Physical, and Applied Sciences course 3-4 DLV ART 100 Intro to Art or MUS 100 Intro to Music (Dance OptionBachelor of Arts, Theatre Arts, Dance Option, 2012-2013 Name ID# Date General Degree Requirements DLM Mathematics 3-4 DLN Natural, Physical, & Applied Sciences course with lab (Dance Option majors

Barrash, Warren

327

Bachelor of Arts, Theatre Arts, Dance Option, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date  

E-print Network

, Physical, and Applied Sciences course 3-4 DLV ART 100 Intro to Art or MUS 100 Intro to Music (Dance OptionBachelor of Arts, Theatre Arts, Dance Option, 2013-2014 Name ID# Date General Degree Requirements DLM Mathematics 3-4 DLN Natural, Physical, & Applied Sciences course with lab (Dance Option majors

Barrash, Warren

328

Options for Change: A Flexible Vehicle for Curriculum Evolution and Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we examine a flexible curricular approach known as the "Option." The Option enables students to supplement traditional majors with a coherent set of courses and other educational experiences in a related, often interdisciplinary field. Options can act as curricular bridges between mainstream academic fields and problems of…

Baldwin, Roger G.; Baumann, Melissa J.

2005-01-01

329

Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.  

PubMed

This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures. PMID:22783610

Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

2012-01-01

330

Israel's Nuclear Option Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Israel began developing its nuclear option in the early 1950s because of its fear of the Arab world's hostile intentions. The country's first prime minister, David Ben-Gurion, believed that the Arab world, despite its internal rifts, was united on one subject: the destruction of Israel as an independent Jewish state. Notwithstanding Israel's impressive victory in the 1948 war, Ben-Gurion was

Zaki Shalom

2005-01-01

331

Exotic Passport Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vanilla Passport Option is an insurance against trading loss. In this paper, we add various exotic features to the Vanilla contract and price the resulting financial products. The assumptions that we make are the same as the Black-Scholes ones and the resulting pricing equations are Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman type equations or parabolic free boundary PDE's which can be solved via finite

Antony Penaud; Paul Wilmott; Hyungsok Ahn

1999-01-01

332

Coherence between health policy and human resource strategy: lessons from maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.  

PubMed

The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree of coherence between health policy--in this case maternal health policy--processes and HR strategy in Vietnam, China and India in the period 2005-09. Four maternal health policy case studies were explored [skilled birth attendance (SBA), adolescent and sexual reproductive health, domestic violence and medical termination of pregnancy] across three countries through interviews with key respondents, document analysis and stakeholder meetings. Analysis for coherence between health policy and HR strategy was informed by a typology covering 'separation', 'fit' and 'dialogue'. Regarding coherence we found examples of complete separation between health policy and HR strategy, a good fit with the SBA policy though modified through 'dialogue' in Vietnam, and in one case a good fit between policy and strategy was developed through successive evaluations. Three key influences on coherence between health policy and HR strategy emerge from our findings: (1) health as the lead sector, (2) the nature of the policy instrument and (3) the presence of 'HR champions'. Finally, we present a simple algorithm to ensure that appropriate HR related actors are involved; HR is considered at the policy development stage with the option of modifying the policy if it cannot be adequately supported by the available health workforce; and ensuring that HR strategies are monitored to ensure continued coherence with the health policy. This approach will ensure that the health workforce contributes more effectively to meeting the MDGs and future health goals. PMID:24374717

Martineau, Tim; Mirzoev, Tolib; Pearson, Stephen; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Xu, Qian; Ramani, K V; Liu, Xiaoyun

2015-02-01

333

Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply  

SciTech Connect

State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-12-01

334

The safeguards options study  

SciTech Connect

The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

335

Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

Weil, Alan

336

STAFF POLICY ICYSTAFF POLICY  

E-print Network

and personal develop- ment as well as job satisfaction. The staff policy also reflects the kind of workplace or not the staff member in question is a permanent employee and whether the case involves academic staff. They permit the staff policy to contribute to general job satisfaction and help the university realise its

337

Long-term risk management of nuclear waste: a real options approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the optimal timing for deep geological disposal of nuclear waste. Our model is based on the real options approach to investment under uncertainty. In this context, the problem is similar to the optimal exercise policy for a perpetual American spread option. The potential usefulness of such a model for actual decision-making on a sensitive issue

Henri Loubergé; Stéphane Villeneuve; Marc Chesney

2002-01-01

338

Solid Target Options S. Childress  

E-print Network

Solid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Solid Target Options · The choice of a primary beam to demonstrate basic feasibility #12;Solid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Case for a Solid Target power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite

McDonald, Kirk

339

Theory of Rational Option Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long history of the theory of option pricing began in 1900 when the French mathematician Louis Bachelier deduced an option pricing formula based on the assumption that stock prices follow a Brownian motion with zero drift. Since that time, numerous researchers have contributed to the theory. The present paper begins by deducing a set of restrictions on option pricing

Robert C. Merton

1973-01-01

340

The Russian Option: Reduced Regret  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new put option where the option buyer receives the maximum price (discounted) that the option has ever traded at during the time period (which may be indefinitely long) between the purchase time and the exercise time, so that the buyer need look at the fluctuations only occasionally and enjoys having little or no regret that he did

Larry Shepp; A. N. Shiryaev

1993-01-01

341

current number of majors and minors: 74  

E-print Network

second majors: health: science, society and policy; history; politics; sociology Website: brandeis political and cultural history, environ- mental studies, legal studies, race and ethnicity, women; legal studies; popular culture; race and ethnicity; religion; U.S. history; women's history Popular

Fraden, Seth

342

Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

2012-01-01

343

Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

2013-01-01

344

A cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in palestine.  

PubMed

This study provides a cost analysis of kidney replacement therapy options in Palestine. It informs evidence-based resource allocation decisions for government-funded kidney disease services where transplant donors are limited, and some of the common modalities, i.e., peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HD), are not widely available due to shortages of qualified staff, specialists, and centers to follow the patient cases, provide training, make home visits, or provide educational programs for patients. The average cost of kidney transplant was US$16?277 for the first year; the estimated cost of HD per patient averaged US$16?085 per year-nearly as much as a transplant. Consistent with prior literature and experience, while live, related kidney donors are scarce, we found that kidney transplant was more adequate and less expensive than HD. These results have direct resource allocation implications for government-funded kidney disease services under Palestinian Ministry of Health. Our findings strongly suggest that investing in sufficient qualified staff, equipment, and clinical infrastructure to replace HD services with transplantation whenever medically indicated and suitable kidney donors are available, as well as deploying PD programs and Home HD programs, will result in major overall cost savings. Our results provide a better understanding of the costs of kidney disease and will help to inform Ministry of Health and related policy makers as they develop short- and long-term strategies for the population, in terms of both cost savings and enhanced quality of life. PMID:25765018

Younis, Mustafa; Jabr, Samer; Al-Khatib, Abdallah; Forgione, Dana; Hartmann, Michael; Kisa, Adnan

2015-01-01

345

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency.

1998-01-01

346

Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness–feasibility loop  

PubMed Central

Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach. PMID:23226897

Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

2012-01-01

347

Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.  

PubMed

Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors - the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, obtaining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services. PMID:18026628

Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

2007-09-01

348

Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.  

PubMed

Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors-the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, optining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services. PMID:18269103

Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

2007-01-01

349

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

2004-10-03

350

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01

351

Treatment options for hyperhidrosis.  

PubMed

Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond what is expected for thermoregulatory needs and environmental conditions. Primary hyperhidrosis has an estimated prevalence of nearly 3% and is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Most cases of hyperhidrosis involve areas of high eccrine density, particularly the axillae, palms, and soles, and less often the craniofacial area. Multiple therapies are available for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Options include topical medications (most commonly aluminum chloride), iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injections, systemic medications (including glycopyrrolate and clonidine), and surgery (most commonly endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy [ETS]). The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the literature on the subject, with a focus on new and emerging treatment options. Updated therapeutic algorithms are proposed for each commonly affected anatomic site, with practical procedural guidelines. For axillary and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, topical treatment is recommended as first-line treatment. For axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin injections are recommended as second-line treatment, oral medications as third-line treatment, local surgery as fourth-line treatment, and ETS as fifth-line treatment. For palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, we consider a trial of oral medications (glycopyrrolate 1-2 mg once or twice daily preferred to clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily) as second-line therapy due to the low cost, convenience, and emerging literature supporting their excellent safety and reasonable efficacy. Iontophoresis is considered third-line therapy for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high although so are the initial levels of cost and inconvenience. Botulinum toxin injections are considered fourth-line treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high though the treatment remains expensive, must be repeated every 3-6 months, and is associated with pain and/or anesthesia-related complications. ETS is a fifth-line option for palmar hyperhidrosis but is not recommended for plantar hyperhidrosis due to anatomic risks. For craniofacial hyperhidrosis, oral medications (either glycopyrrolate or clonidine) are considered first-line therapy. Topical medications or botulinum toxin injections may be useful in some cases and ETS is an option for severe craniofacial hyperhidrosis. PMID:21714579

Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

2011-10-01

352

Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

2015-01-01

353

Addressing uncertainty and inequality in nuclear policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper analyses the justification of technological choices and options in the context of nuclear energy policy. We argue that “society” increasingly demands a justification with regard to the level of uncertainty and inequality a certain technological choice induces. We aim to demonstrate that policy makers in fact do address these issues, but depending on how they define

E. Laes; W. Dhaeseleer; R. Weiler

2005-01-01

354

Nationality policy in the Soviet army  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Soviet military employed non?Slavic nationalities alternately in ethnically pure national units and integrated formations. The predominantly Slavic officer corps preferred the first option, which avoided the language, educational, and cultural problems that arose from integration. When military exigency or domestic nationality policy permitted national units, the Soviet military effectively employed non?Slavs. However, when domestic policy and demographic reality forced

Christopher G. Cavoli

1998-01-01

355

Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013)  

E-print Network

Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013) The purpose of this policy is to provide or repository for both non-credit and credit bearing internships. Employers and organizations wishing to post an internship opportunity have the option to contact the Career Center and indicate their interest in a Siena

356

Retrieval options study  

SciTech Connect

This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

Not Available

1980-03-01

357

Maastricht treaty: Consequences for national housing policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

European integration will have several effects on national housing policies. The major responsibility for policy formulation and policy implementation in housing will remain with national and local governments. Nevertheless, the Maastricht Treaty will have important implications for housing through several channels: factor mobility, competition policy and liberalisation of markets, economic growth, lower inflation, cuts in government spending, tax harmonisation and

Hugo Priemus; Mark Kleinman; Duncan Maclennan; Bengt Turner

1994-01-01

358

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

Political Economy POLI 378 The Politics of American National Security Policy POLI 462 Comparative Public231 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences Director Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: B.A. This interdisciplinary major focuses on policy issues that are of public interest. Students in policy studies evaluate

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

359

Overview of past U. S. energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief review of major elements in past U.S. energy policy leads to the following generalizations: (1) energy policies have been responsive to the demands of dominant organized interest groups bringing pressure to bear on Congress and the bureaucracy; (2) major past policy initiative of the Federal government have not been sufficient unto themselves, but have required secondary, and in

Mead

1978-01-01

360

Philippine Government Policies OTEC Development  

E-print Network

and Barriers 3 · High upfront and technology costs · Non-competitiveness · Non-viable markets · Inaccessible (RPS) Feed-In Tariff (FIT) Provision of Interconnection / Ancillary Services Other Market Options-Programs and the Policy and Program Support Component 2011 20302015 2020 2025 Target additional hydro capacity of 5,408 MW

361

Impact of the proposed core melt policy  

SciTech Connect

Recent encounters with FEMA/NRC and New Jersey have focused our attention on the proposed severe core melt policy. Currently, these federal agencies make the supposition that an automatic evacuation out to 5 miles upon a General Emergency declaration would provide greater protection to the public than an independent grounded assessment which would include the option to shelter. This policy appears to be contrary to EPA-400 and supportable decision making. This talk discusses the policy.

Tosch, K. [Bureau of Nuclear Engineering, Trenton, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

362

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

363

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

364

2008 James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology  

E-print Network

transportation policy by facilitating an open exchange of ideas and experi- ences among state, national L. Oberstar, a long-time leader in creating national transportation policy and establishing research 6 and 7, 2008, to consider policy options for meeting the nation's transportation needs

Minnesota, University of

365

Art History Degree options  

E-print Network

for a learning and teaching review in March 2010. * The modular structure offers the possibility of combining art-called`major arts'(painting, sculpture and architecture) but also encompass the applied arts (e.g. furniture

Brierley, Andrew

366

Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables through the pricing system. Based on past policy experience, it is unlikely that such an approach would allow PV to compete in Delaware as an energy supply option in the next ten to twenty years. Alternatively, a market-based, or green pricing, approach will not create significant market opportunities for PV as a centralized energy supply option. However, structural policies designed to encourage the explicit recognition of the localized benefits of distributed resources could result in PV being introduced into the electrical system early in the next century.

Letendre, Steven Emery

367

Treatment Options for Malignant Mesothelioma  

MedlinePLUS

... Dictionary Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Malignant Mesothelioma Localized Malignant Mesothelioma (Stage I) If malignant ...

368

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values  

E-print Network

to establish a margin account. For this premium, the put option buyer has the right, but not the obliga- tion, to sell a futures contract at a predetermined price known as the ?strike? price. Call Options Call options protect buyers from rising prices... a futures contract at the strike price. The buyer of a call option pays a premium. Losses are limited to the premium and commission costs, while the purchaser retains the opportunity to profit from a post-harvest price rally. Strategies for Using...

Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

1999-06-23

369

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major  

E-print Network

Chemistry II 4 NUTR 221CS - Basic Human Nutrition 3 PHSX 205 - College Physics I 4 PHSX 207 - CollegeMontana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Nutrition Science Option The nutrition science option is designed to prepare a student for admission to medical (allopathic

Maxwell, Bruce D.

370

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Myer, Larry

2006-04-30

371

Assessing Developmental Education Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the results of a research study designed to assess the effectiveness of the policies governing the developmental education program at a comprehensive community college. The major issues addressed in the study are required remediation of skill-deficient students, enrollment in college-level courses by skill-deficient students, and differing policies for skill-deficient students depending on the extent of deficiency. The

Julie Weissman; Elizabeth Silk; Carole Bulakowski

1997-01-01

372

Pricing of swing options: A Monte Carlo simulation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the problem of pricing swing options, a class of multiple early exercise options that are traded in energy market, particularly in the electricity and natural gas markets. These contracts permit the option holder to periodically exercise the right to trade a variable amount of energy with a counterparty, subject to local volumetric constraints. In addition, the total amount of energy traded from settlement to expiration with the counterparty is restricted by a global volumetric constraint. Violation of this global volumetric constraint is allowed but would lead to penalty settled at expiration. The pricing problem is formulated as a stochastic optimal control problem in discrete time and state space. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which is based on piecewise linear concave approximation of value functions. This algorithm yields the value of the swing option under the assumption that the optimal exercise policy is applied by the option holder. We present a proof of an almost sure convergence that the algorithm generates the optimal exercise strategy as the number of iterations approaches to infinity. Finally, we provide a numerical example for pricing a natural gas swing call option.

Leow, Kai-Siong

373

Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.  

PubMed

Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system. PMID:24374463

Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

2014-01-15

374

MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT AND RESTORE  

EPA Science Inventory

MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT, AND RESTORE Ideally, major human and environmental monitoring networks should provide the scientific information needed for policy and management decision-making processes. It is widely recognized that reliable...

375

Chinese Foreign Policy Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.

376

A Study of Options Pricing Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Study of Options Pricing Model by Kevin Rubash of Bradley University provides a brief introduction to options and the Black and Scholes options pricing model. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

377

Communication Needs and Integration Options  

E-print Network

Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Future Grid Initiative White System #12;Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Prepared for the Project the current state of communications for the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and recommends

378

Communication Needs and Integration Options  

E-print Network

Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Future Grid Initiative White System #12;Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Prepared for the Project #12;ii Executive Summary This white paper analyzes the current state of communications

379

Martingale approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options.

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail

2001-02-01

380

A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

Bacon, Kathy A.

2010-01-01

381

Energy Options for Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Produced for public interest, the Environmental Education Group has prepared this two-part review of the current state of energy utilization, the nature of the energy crisis, and approaches to energy production. The major section is a presentation of alternative sources of energy that are neglected, are of possible aid in the near future, or are…

Tratner, Karen Lee

382

STUDY ABROADFOR MATheMATicS MAJORS study abroad  

E-print Network

STUDY ABROADFOR MATheMATicS MAJORS study abroad #12;WhY YOU ShOULD STUDY ABROAD 2 STUDY ABROAD FOR MATheMATicS MAJORS Study abroad programs provide Mathematics majors with access to interesting undergraduate research or internships during your stay abroad. PRE-HEALTH PROFESSIONS OPTIONS Explore the "Study

Johnston, Daniel

383

Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

Klem, M.J.

1996-10-23

384

AFCI Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2009-09-01

385

Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy  

E-print Network

Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy University Facilities POLICY 9 in them through every major building project. Contained in the policy are procedures, responsibilities that will be LEED certified, and those that will adhere to sustainable building practices. 1.0 Sustainable Building

Duchowski, Andrew T.

386

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy  

PubMed Central

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

2009-01-01

387

Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies  

SciTech Connect

NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

1986-08-01

388

PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --1 PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --2  

E-print Network

PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University D. Facilities E. Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology 2. Department Faculty and Staff

Sanders, Matthew

389

Fall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total  

E-print Network

/Pictorial Arts 15 BFA Art/Spatial Arts 49 BA Art/Art History and Visual Culture 51 BA Art Design 201 BS Industrial Design 77 BFA Graphic Design 168 BFA Interior Design 453 BA Art/Design Studies English 408 BAFall 2012 Majors Counts Undergraduate # of Majors Degree Majors Total 164 BA Art/Studio Practice

Su, Xiao

390

Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa  

SciTech Connect

Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

Makundi, Willy R.

1998-06-01

391

Evaluation of dairy effluent management options using multiple criteria analysis.  

PubMed

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries. PMID:18193318

Hajkowicz, Stefan A; Wheeler, Sarah A

2008-04-01

392

Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

2008-04-01

393

A&S/Business Dual Major 1 of 10 June 30, 2008 A&S/Business Dual Major  

E-print Network

A&S/Business Dual Major 1 of 10 June 30, 2008 A&S/Business Dual Major Business Programs degree options for programs in business: · Students enrolled in the College of Business Administration (CBA) earn a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration (BSBA) degree and major in Accounting

Jiang, Huiqiang

394

Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has recently placed online the October 1999 report entitled "Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea." Written by Jin-Gyu Oh and others, the report (.pdf format) discusses the implications of Korea's energy choices -- coal, gas, nuclear, or renewable energy -- and how the chosen "mix of policy, growth, and technology will affect investment costs and the local and global environment."

Chandler, William.

1999-01-01

395

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09

396

MAJOR: Consumer and Community Studies (CCS) EMPHASIS: Financial Planning  

E-print Network

and Community Policy 3 3. REQUIRED FINANCIAL PLANNING COURSES (12 Credit Hours) F FCS 5510 Investment & Life Home, School, & Community Relations 3 S FCS 3420 Housing Policy and Issues (CW) 3 S FCS 3430 IntroMAJOR: Consumer and Community Studies (CCS) EMPHASIS: Financial Planning Minimum CCS-FP Major Hours

Tipple, Brett

397

Management of major system programs and projects. Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Handbook establishes the detailed policies and processes for implementing NMI 7120.4, 'Management of Major System Programs and Projects'. It constitutes a comprehensive source of the specific policies and processes governing management of major development programs/projects and is intended as a resource to the entire program/project management (PPM) community.

1993-01-01

398

Pharmaceutical policy reform in the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

Of Russia's 142 million citizens, fewer than 20 million are enrolled in outpatient drug coverage plans. The current government aims to establish universal health insurance including outpatient medicines. Based on the current political and regulatory environment, this report explores pharmaceutical pricing options for Russia that balance greater access to medicines with achieving government plans of boosting local pharmaceutical production. To match innovative medicine prices with their health benefits, in the long run, we suggest that Russia consider adopting value-based pricing, and in the short term, that it introduce direct price negotiations and price drugs according to reference countries that use health technology assessment. Although generic market shares are high, generic medicine prices are higher than they should be. We propose tenders at the manufacturer level for the pricing of high-selling generics, and free pricing for products with sufficient market competition. These policy recommendations are a jumping-off point for further discussion about how pharmaceutical policy could aid this major economy to achieve its population health and health service goals. PMID:24603082

Rudisill, Caroline; Vandoros, Sotiris; Antoun, Joseph George

2014-06-01

399

2011 Global food policy report  

Microsoft Academic Search

IFPRI's 2011 Global Food Policy Report—the first in a new annual series—provides an in-depth, contextualized look at the past year's major food policy developments and events. It both raises and answers these key questions: What happened in food policy in 2011 and why? What challenges and opportunities resulted? What could have been done differently? What should be done in the

2012-01-01

400

Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

2010-06-01

401

Hedging With a Put Option  

E-print Network

that is negotiated in the trading pit. The specific month, strike price, and expiration date are predetermined by the respective commodity exchange. The seller (also known as the writer or grantor) receives the premium for assuming the obligation to take the specific... goes higher after you buy the option, you can sell in the cash mar- ket and forget about the option. But, if the market goes down, you have the price protection with the put option at the select- ed strike price. R i s k M a n a g e men t E d u c a t i...

Anderson, Carl; Smith, Jackie; McCorkle, Dean; O'Brien, Daniel

1999-06-23

402

Environmental policy in majoritarian systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds new light on the determination of environmental tax policies in majoritarian federal electoral systems, such as the U.S., and derives implications for the environmental federalism debate on whether the national or local government should have authority over environmental taxes. In the absence of majority bias, the socially preferred policy would be federal district-level taxation which accounts both

Per G. Fredriksson; Xenia Matschke; Jenny Minier

2010-01-01

403

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen...

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01

404

Modeling aviation's global emissions, uncertainty analysis, and applications to policy  

E-print Network

(cont.) fuel burn results below 3000 ft. For emissions, the emissions indices were the most influential uncertainties for the variance in model outputs. By employing the model, this thesis examined three policy options for ...

Lee, Joosung Joseph, 1974-

2005-01-01

405

Federal Tax Policy Towards Energy  

E-print Network

On Aug. 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PL 109-58). This was the first major piece of energy legislation enacted since 1992 following five years of Congressional efforts to pass energy ...

Metcalf, Gilbert E.

406

Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis Actinic keratosis is not cancer but is treated because it may develop into cancer. Treatment of actinic keratosis may include the following: Topical chemotherapy . Topical biologic ...

407

Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Personal Stories Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes Medication Bowel management/retraining program Biofeedback therapy Surgical treatments Newer procedures ...

408

The Farm Credit Crisis: Policy Options and Consequences.  

E-print Network

1982. Agricultural problem banks, as defined by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corpora tion, have more than tripled -- to more than 363 in the past two years. Agricultural bank failures increased from six in 1983 to 44 in just the first nine months... of 1985. Farm Cooperative Credit Banks, which hold at least 30 percent of all farm debt, are having severe problems. In 1984, ten Production Credit Associa tions were liquidated in the districts of the Spokane and Omaha Federal Intermediate Credit...

Duncan, Marvin; Harrington, David H.; Brake, John; Boehlje, Michael; Lee, Warren; Barry, Peter J.; Penson, John B.; Hughes, Dean W.; Knutson, Ronald D.: Richardson, James W.; Jolly, Robert W.; Lins, David A.; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Guither, Harold D.; Marshall, J. Paxton; Barkley, Paul W.

1986-01-01

409

Capital mobility and sudden stops: consequences and policy options  

E-print Network

This dissertation attempts in three essays to contribute to the growing body of research on the problems associated with sudden stops of capital inflows, known to have been at the heart of many recent emerging market crises. It does...

Ball, Christopher Patrick

2004-09-30

410

RFID Technologies: Emerging Issues, Challenges and Policy Options  

E-print Network

, Claudio Borean. Editors: Ioannis Maghiros, Pawel Rotter, Marc van Lieshout EUR 22770 EN 2007 #12;RFID JRC ­ IPTS Pawel Rotter, European Commission ­ DG JRC ­ IPTS Marc van Lieshout, TNO Authors: Marc van

411

Technology options and effective policies to reduce greenhouse gas  

E-print Network

of supply Executive Summary CASCADE MINTS Part 2 M.A. Uyterlinde, G.H. Martinus, H. Rösler (ECN) N. Le Mouel (Erasme) F. Sano, K. Akimoto, T. Homma, T. Tomoda (RITE) The CASCADE MINTS project is funded 2007 #12;2 Acknowledgement The CASCADE MINTS project on `CAse Study Comparisons And Development

412

Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years…

Best, Jane R.

2010-01-01

413

Mitigation of Global Warming: Policy Options for India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased volumes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases released by burning of fossil fuels, land clearing and agriculture, and other activities are the primary sources of the human-induced component of global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001) endorsed that the average global temperature had raised 0.6oC ± 0.2 since the late 19th century and most of

Raghavendra G. Rao

2006-01-01

414

DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS  

E-print Network

Electric heat efficiency - 1.0 Heat pump efficiency - 2.0 Electric water heat efficiency - .88 Combined-cycle up the hydropower system in low water years were found to be cost-effective resources. In conjunction with the hydropower system, combustion turbines would be used only when water conditions limit the supply of nonfirm

415

U.S. immigration policy: the guestworker option revisited.  

PubMed

In guestworker programs foreign nationals are admitted into another country on a nonmigrant status with severely curtailed social and limited labor market rights. The duration of stay is always finite and compliance with the terms of the contract are entered through a network of legal arrangements which allow officials in the receiving country a substantial amount of administrative discretion. Pro-guestworker arguments say that the borders cannot be closed, that guestworkers can be substituted for illegal aliens, that guestworkers are better than illegal aliens, and that additional labor benefits the US economy. Those against guestworker programs stress longterm socioeconomic issues rather than short-term economic advantages, saying that guestworker programs are no quick answer for illegal immigration, for domestic labor shortages, or for the US poor population. Guestworker programs, its opponents say, provide short-run economic benefits to a few employers and individuals at the expense of more widespread and longterm socioeconomic costs. They oppose: 1) the concept of admitting foreign workers with restricted rights, 2) the concentration of any negative labor market impacts on already disadvantaged domestic groups, 3) the proliferation of "jobs which Americans won't take," 4) many temporary guests ending up permanent residents, and 5) that exporting workers is as likely to impede as accelerate job-creating economic development in immigration countries. Most economists believe that diminishing marginal productivity produces downward-sloping short-run demand for labor schedules. The European experience with these programs has been different than those in the US since foreign workers in Europe were initially recruited in response to actual labor shortages and have always had legal status, but both Europe and the US have experienced large contingents of workers who remain in the countries and are at a pronounced power disadvantage regarding the society's institutions. Studies of guestworker programs have shown that worker flows eventually become impervious to the receiver's actual labor needs as employers disaggregate jobs into components which match the low skills of migrants and create additional foreign worker jobs which are then shunned by native labor, thus perpetuating a need for such labor. If the US opts for a large-scale guestworker program this will only replace 1 set of problems with another and it is not at all certain that large-scale guestworker admissions will proportionately reduce illegal migration inflows. PMID:12159569

Papademetriou, D G; Martin, P L; Miller, M J

1983-01-01

416

Integrated basin management: Water and food policy options for Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a basin scale analysis of the Nilüfer River Basin of Turkey, where agricultural, urban, and environmental users compete for scarce water in an environment where climate change and food security present large and growing challenges. It presents results of a basin scale dynamic nonlinear programming model that addresses economic efficiency, climate change, and food security. Its approach

Serkan Gürlük; Frank A. Ward

2009-01-01

417

Policy Options to Reduce Ireland's Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A side effect of the economic downturn since 2008 is that Ireland may meet its Kyoto Protocol commitment for 2008-2012 to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, but that its longer term targets for 2020 and beyond are still stringent. This paper addresses both the political challenge and the economic implications of moving to a low-carbon state. The cost of reducing

Thomas Legge; Susan Scott

418

Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program. Part 2: User and programmer documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User and programmer oriented documentation for the flexible body option of the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program are provided. The user information provides sufficient knowledge of the development and use of the option to enable the engineering user to successfully operate the modified program and understand the results. The programmer's information describes the option structure and logic enabling a programmer to make major revisions to this part of the TOLA computer program.

Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

1975-01-01

419

2012/2013 Animal Sciences Industry Option Food Safety Path  

E-print Network

_________ VSC 443 Research Animal methods 3 F _________ Select one course from: V SC 403R Biology of Animal2012/2013 Animal Sciences ­ Industry Option Food Safety Path Pre-Major Courses Course Prefix or ECON 201A _________ PL S 312 Animal & Plant Genetics 4 S CHEM 151 _________ MCB 184 or 181R

Guerriero, Vince

420

DROUGHT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS IN MAIZE PRODUCTION IN NORTHERN TANZANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northern zone of Tanzania is one of the major maize producing areas of the country. Population increase is pushing maize production into marginal areas with little and unreliable rainfall. Irrigation, which could support maize production under these conditions, is underdeveloped and expensive to operate by the poor communities. Options available to improve maize production to feed the rising population

T. E. Mmbaga; C. Y. Lyamchai

421

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Option 1: Computer Science  

E-print Network

Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Option 1: Computer Science 2010-12 Catalog (Expires August Computer Science courses. Note that Substantial Writing Components and Writing Flags are the only general://cns.utexas.edu/academics/degrees-majors/foreign-culture-categories ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mathematics and Science, with Grades of C- or Better Mathematics: a) M 408C and M 408D* ______ OR M 408N, M

Julien, Christine

422

The benefits of holding cash: a real options approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Companies need to decide on the optimal amounts of cash to hold. Although this problem has long been acknowledged as a major issue for corporations, new advances in the finance literature have not been fully implemented in this area. We propose here what we believe is the first modelization of a real options approach to determine the financial benefits of

Didier Cossin; Tomas Hricko

2004-01-01

423

Curative treatment of oesophageal carcinoma: current options and future developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s major advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have established multimodal approaches as curative\\u000a treatment options for oesophageal cancer. In addition the introduction of functional imaging modalities such as PET-CT created\\u000a new opportunities for a more adequate patient selection and therapy response assessment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The majority of oesophageal carcinomas are represented by two histologies: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

Maria C Wolf; Michael Stahl; Bernd J Krause; Luigi Bonavina; Christiane Bruns; Claus Belka; Franz Zehentmayr

2011-01-01

424

Collection Development Policy. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection development policy paper incorporates guidelines contributed by all university academic departments, as well as by members of the Library Learning Center professional staff. An alphabetical index provides access to major subject areas and subdivisions, which are assigned one of four level designators indicating the depth of…

Sawin, Philip, Jr., Ed.

425

Trustees and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington-based national organizations are seen as effective in dealing with the government, especially on technical questions. But when major policy issues are to be decided, it is suggested that a college president or board member is more effective. Knowing the committee structure is seen as necessary for influencing legislation. (Author/MLW)

Saunders, Charles B.; Bellows, Everett H.

1980-01-01

426

Alternative Level of Care: Canada's Hospital Beds, the Evidence and Options  

PubMed Central

Patients designated as alternative level of care (ALC) are an ongoing concern for healthcare policy makers across Canada. These patients occupy valuable hospital beds and limit access to acute care services. The objective of this paper is to present policy alternatives to address underlying factors associated with ALC bed use. Three alternatives, and their respective limitations and structural challenges, are discussed. Potential solutions may require a mix of policy options proposed here. Inadequate policy jeopardizes new acute care activity-based funding schemes in British Columbia and Ontario. Failure to address this issue could exacerbate pressures on the existing bottlenecks in the community care system in these and other provinces. PMID:23968671

Sutherland, Jason M.; Crump, R. Trafford

2013-01-01

427

Building Functional Communities: Concepts for Reframing Social and Fiscal Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the shrinkage of social service resources in public organizations, a variety of fiscal options to manage costs must be developed to address operational efficiencies and, more importantly, to protect from negatively impacting institutional integrity. The paper which follows addresses a continuum of alternatives which could be considered when examining resource sharing policy options which can build well-functioning communities to

Jonathan T. Hughes

2001-01-01

428

Research Outcomes of Prenatal Substance Exposure and the Need To Review Policies and Procedures Regarding Child Abuse Reporting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Clarifies policy options for reporting and serving children testing positive at birth for controlled substances. Advocates the strengthening of existing state policies regarding child abuse reporting and response. (JPB)

Barth, Richard P.

2001-01-01

429

Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

2011-01-01

430

Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process.  

PubMed

In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policymaking is also somewhat specialized in relation to health policy. Taking these differences into consideration the authors provide their definition of pharmaceutical policy. The knowledge base for good pharmaceutical policymaking needs to be broad and include approaches and methodologies ranging from the highly quantitative and experimental to the purely qualitative. Other policy questions such as those concerned with rational use of medicines and economics illustrate that pharmaceutical policy needs more varied approaches than randomized clinical trials alone can provide. The importance of gaining a thorough overview and understanding of the available design and methodological options for policy analysis is emphasized. Research into pharmaceutical policy has many commonalities with evaluation and policy analysis. Some of the main pitfalls that policymakers, researchers and analysts can fall into when formulating and evaluating pharmaceutical policy are discussed and include: using too narrow evaluation questions; choosing inappropriate methods/designs; and the problem of bias and self-censorship. The authors conclude this series by advocating a strong focus on research and an international evaluation culture around pharmaceutical policy. They emphasize the importance of pharmaceutical specialists' (i.e., pharmacists') involvement in pharmaceutical policy analysis and the policy consultative process. PMID:16810452

Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

2006-02-01

431

The 21st Century Challenge: Moving the Youth Agenda Forward. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Public Policy Issues Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains nine papers devoted to the labor market problems faced by out-of-school and other disadvantaged young people in the United States and policy options and strategies for addressing those problems. The papers update the data on out-of-school young adults, review the lessons learned from past youth programs and policies,…

Pines, Marion, Ed.

432

Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

1992-09-01

433

Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s  

SciTech Connect

The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

1992-01-01

434

Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

2005-09-15

435

A comparison of policies to mitigate US greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Congress of the United States requested that the Secretary of Energy: Prepare a report for the Congress that comprehensively inventories the sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and arranges the policy options to be formulated in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (including, but not limited to, energy pricing, energy efficiency requirements, alternative fuels, alternative end use, and supply technology) which would lead to a substantial reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper summarizes work in progress to respond to the Congressional request. Further, it builds on the DOE`s first National Energy Strategy (NES) (DOE 191). As a result of the substantial research effort in support of this report, five major conclusions are drawn and discussed.

Edmonds, J.A.; McDonald, S.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Bradley, R.A. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-07-01

436

A comparison of policies to mitigate US greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

The Congress of the United States requested that the Secretary of Energy: Prepare a report for the Congress that comprehensively inventories the sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and arranges the policy options to be formulated in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (including, but not limited to, energy pricing, energy efficiency requirements, alternative fuels, alternative end use, and supply technology) which would lead to a substantial reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. This paper summarizes work in progress to respond to the Congressional request. Further, it builds on the DOE's first National Energy Strategy (NES) (DOE 191). As a result of the substantial research effort in support of this report, five major conclusions are drawn and discussed.

Edmonds, J.A.; McDonald, S.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Bradley, R.A. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-07-01

437

How do people perceive and generate options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the question of how people perceive and generate options. Although most current theoretical approaches explain option perception and option generation as requiring extensive and costly cognitive processes, we will argue that people perceive their possibilities for action and generate options without such elaborate means. Borrowing from the contributions of direct perception and bounded rationality, we present and

Markus Raab; Rita F. de Oliveira; Thomas Heinen

2009-01-01

438

Evaluation of large scale industrial development using real options analysis : a case study  

E-print Network

Recently, real-option analysis has gained attention as an innovative valuation method for complex real estate projects. However, considering its potential, this method has not become as popular as it should have. One major ...

Ariizumi, Tatsuyuki

2006-01-01

439

Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be considered which have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfers and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald J.; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

2015-01-01

440

Therapeutic options for severe asthma  

PubMed Central

As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidities like gastro-esophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Current treatment options include conventional agents such as inhalational corticosteroids, long acting ?2 agonists, leukotriene antagonists, and oral corticosteroids. Less conventional treatment options include immunotherapy with methotrexate, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, biological drugs like monoclonal antibodies, tumor necrosis factor-? blockers and oligonucleotides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, antimicrobials and bronchial thermoplasty. PMID:23056066

Mathew, Jilcy; Chandy, Dipak

2012-01-01

441

STUDY ABROADFOR MARINE AND FRESHWATER BIOLOGY MAJORS study abroad  

E-print Network

STUDY ABROADFOR MARINE AND FRESHWATER BIOLOGY MAJORS study abroad #12;WHY YOU SHOULD STUDY ABROAD 2 STUDY ABROAD FOR MARINE AND FRESHWATER BIOLOGY MAJORS Study abroad programs provide Marine-HEALTH PROFESSIONS OPTIONS Explore the "Study Abroad Guide for Pre-Health Professions" online and speak with your

Pillow, Jonathan

442

The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

Liberal Education, 2009

2009-01-01

443

College of Science Bachelor of Science: Mathematics Major  

E-print Network

APPROVED ~nlU!G~ College of Science Bachelor of Science: Mathematics Major Traditional Option majors must take Math 1205-1206 or ~s equivalent to satisfy the Area 5 core requirement. The Area 6 MATH 1205 3 ( ) MATH 1206 3 ( ) MATH 1224 2 ( ) MATH 2224 3 ( ) B. Linear Algebra, ODE's: MATH 1114 2

Virginia Tech

444

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors Laura Jimenez-Olvera & Dewey St. Germaine 532 & 530://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Native American Studies Program exists to broaden the understanding of students interested in the history, culture, and contemporary situations of Native Americans in the United States

Walker, Matthew P.

445

Planning for Career Options. Career Options Series for Undergraduate Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook is part of a set of self-guidance publications prepared by Catalyst, a national nonprofit organization, and written specifically for undergraduate women to help them bring their aspirations into focus, develop realistic career goals and plan for career options in fields which, at the managerial and professional levels, have been…

Krohn, Miriam H.

446

Newer Management Options in Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

2013-01-01

447

Design Evolution Study - Aging Options  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new subsurface area (high cost); surface aging in the complete waste package (risk to the waste package and impact on the Waste Handling Facility); and aging in the stainless steel liner (impact on the waste package design and new high risk operations added to the waste packaging process). The selection of a design basis for aging will be made in conjunction with the other design re-evaluation studies.

P. McDaniel

2002-04-05

448

The Window Strategy with Options  

E-print Network

you can choose whichever strike prices you desire (from among the strikes offered), the window strategy can be customized to best fit your situation. For example, you can choose strike prices that guarantee the premium received from the call option... and price ceiling, is determined by these two strike prices. With a window, the floor price is derived (Fig. 1) in a way similar to the pur- chase of a put option. The difference is that with a window you need to take into account the premium received from...

McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

1999-06-23

449

Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

Not Available

2011-11-01

450

How can leaders’ perceptions guide policy analysis in an era of governance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges facing policy analysts is how to improve policy processes in the era of governance. The present article\\u000a examines how “perceptions analysis,” i.e. the identification of perceptions of different leaders in a specific policy field,\\u000a may contribute to policy analysis. The article focuses on two questions: What explains leaders’ support for different policy\\u000a options? Can the examination

Lihi Lahat

2011-01-01

451

Peru: Affirmative Action for the Majority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…

Bourque, Susan C.

452

Suiting Themselves: Major parties electoral databases & privacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential benefits and pitfalls of information technology are on display in the databases used by Australia's major politica l parties. 1 The use of such technologies, which contain a host of informat ion about voters and their policy preferences, are a potentially useful conduit between citizens and their elected representatives. Instead, their d evelopment has been veiled in secrecy,

Peter Van Onselen; Wayne Errington

2005-01-01

453

SPR Rethinking Productivity Speaker Series Social Policy Research Unit (SPR)  

E-print Network

. Hersh, Seymour M. (1991). The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign PolicySPR Rethinking Productivity Speaker Series Social Policy Research Unit (SPR) Faculty of Social Work the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for International Reporting. His 2004 reports on the US military's mistreatment

Argerami, Martin

454

Community Shared Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

This brochure explores the ways in which the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering, tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment.

Not Available

2014-09-01

455

Federal policy and macroengineering for energy: final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the study were to: identify the evolution and characteristics of selected energy macroengineering projects in the United States; evaluate the role of federal policy in selected energy macroengineering projects; and establish a framework for selection of federal policies that would permit a broad range of future energy options to be considered.

Glaser, P.E.

1985-04-01

456

New options for teen pregnancy prevention.  

PubMed

Teenage pregnancy rates remain unacceptably high in the United States, despite the availability of numerous contraceptive options. This article examines contraceptive methods currently available to adolescents and highlights newer products that may help meet some of the unique contraceptive needs of sexually active teens. The three newest agents (OrthoEvra trade mark, NuvaRing trade mark, and Seasonale) offer advantages such as higher contraceptive efficacy, increased privacy, ease of use, and low side effect profiles. A major advantage of each of these methods is that they eliminate the need for the teen to take daily action to prevent pregnancy. Nurses can be instrumental in helping teens to avoid unwanted pregnancy by assessing teens' contraceptive needs and educating them about contraceptive options. However, it is important to remember that because none of these new methods offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases, we should continue to educate adolescents about the need for condom use and provide them with instructions on using condoms correctly. PMID:14734962

Kartoz, Connie R

2004-01-01

457

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections.  

PubMed

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T; Stark, Damien

2012-12-01

458

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections  

PubMed Central

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

2012-01-01

459

The Homestudy Option. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains both a final report and a curriculum guide for the Homestudy Option, a program geared to the 1988 General Educational Development (GED) test. The final report describes two program objectives: (1) providing an adult basic education home study curriculum to rural adults to take the first steps toward educational independence;…

Goss, Barbara

460

Options for Heart Valve Replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... the damaged valve aortic valve TAVI/TAVR procedure — Transcatheter aortic valve replacement Newer surgery options The procedure chosen will depend ... on to live a full and healthy life. Mitral valve repair can often provide a ... replacements. Aortic valve replacement is more likely to require ...

461

School of Medicine Degree options  

E-print Network

136 School of Medicine Medicine Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Medicine Entrance Applied Sciences`Pathway to Medicine'at Perth College The School of Medicine has formed a partnership Andrews. More information can be found on the School of Medicine web pages ( http://medicine

Brierley, Andrew

462

ADOPTION: NOT AN EASY OPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADOPTION IS A VIABLE OPTION in our society today but one that holds lasting consequences for all those involved in the adoption triad: birth parents, adoptive parents, and the adoptee. One should not underestimate its effect on any of these parties. Like organ transplants, there are definite benefits for the recipient but a high cost to the donor. The act

Teresa LaMonica

463

Lewy Body Disease Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... a plan for careful withdrawal. Non-Medical Treatments Physical therapy options include cardiovascular, strengthening, and flexibility exercises, as ... as gait training. Physicians may also recommend general physical fitness programs ... exercise. Speech therapy may be helpful for low voice volume and ...

464

Prototype solar power satellite options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of options for the prototype solar power satellite is addressed relative to risk and cost. Emphasis is placed on the reduction of the risk of failure. Risk is the program cost multiplied by the reduction in probability of program success due to the risky action. Four classes of risk are identified. It is suggested that prototyping would reduce

B. R. Sperber; K. E. Drexler

1980-01-01

465

Harvest Your Retirement income options  

E-print Network

retirement savings needed to sustain you in retirement #12;Government Retirement Programs #12;Where will myHarvest Your Savings Retirement income options using your SFU Group LIF/RRIF #12;Agenda 1. Your retirement income needs 2. Where will your retirement money come from? 3. Retirement accounts and products 4

466

Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

Bushnell, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

467

Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes  

PubMed Central

Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

2008-01-01

468

ACR 891 (?) Ocean Policy: Current Issues seminar  

E-print Network

be selected are: piracy, deep ocean mining, deep ocean drilling for oil and gas, overfishing of pelagic stocksACR 891 (?) Ocean Policy: Current Issues seminar Fall, 2013 (2 cr, + 1 cr optional) Professor of a common pool resource than the world's oceans it can only be the atmosphere. The latter is currently

469

Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

Amara, Muhammad Hasan

2003-01-01

470

Social Policy: Safety Net or Springboard?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Cooperation South" looks at recent experiences in protecting and advancing human welfare in the south as well as the north. It presents a shared learning exercise about an array of social policy options; which decision makers in the south can consider in their efforts to shape a caring society, alleviate poverty, promote human…

Gitta, Cosmas, Ed.

2001-01-01

471

Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army  

SciTech Connect

This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

Alexander, J.B.

1994-04-01

472

The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

473

Education Policies in Perspective: An Appraisal of OECD Country Educational Policy Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of studies of national educational policy conducted by member nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from 1965 to 1979 is presented. The major objective of the report is to identify lessons from past educational policies of the various countries to serve as guides for current and future policy

Kogan, Maurice

474

The impact of CEO option grants on firm value: determinants of the effectiveness of option grants  

E-print Network

The significance of stock options as a component of executive compensation has fluctuated dramatically over the past decade. The purpose of this study is to investigate determinants of the effectiveness of stock option grants. These option grants...

Weber, Catherine Krueger

2007-04-25

475

Giving "Credit When It's Due": A Case Study of Reverse Transfer Policy Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

More states are considering what kinds of policies or processes can be put in place to successfully improve the degree attainment of their postsecondary students, and one popular option is a reverse transfer policy. Reverse transfer policies usually involve authorizing community colleges to award a degree or certificate to students that have…

Robinson, Rachel R.

2015-01-01

476

Energy Policy 36 (2008) 20632073 Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary  

E-print Network

Energy Policy 36 (2008) 2063­2073 Implications of carbon cap-and-trade for US voluntary renewable of renewable energy certificates (RECs) in multiple markets. It also explores policy options under consideration for designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and renewable energy markets to work

477

14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4...major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May...substantial controversy with respect to energy conservation and efficiency,...

2013-01-01

478

14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4...major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May...substantial controversy with respect to energy conservation and efficiency,...

2011-01-01

479

14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4...major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May...substantial controversy with respect to energy conservation and efficiency,...

2012-01-01

480

14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4...major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May...substantial controversy with respect to energy conservation and efficiency,...

2010-01-01

481

14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4...major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May...substantial controversy with respect to energy conservation and efficiency,...

2014-01-01

482

What can I do with this major? AREAS EMPLOYERS  

E-print Network

STRATEGIES What can I do with this major? AREAS EMPLOYERS PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH POLICY Resources Medical Staff Relations Information Technology Marketing Public Relations Facilities Patient Care leadership skills. Earn a master's degree in public health, health ad- ministration, public administration

Escher, Christine

483

The Strategic Exercise of Options: Development Cascades and Overbuilding in Real Estate Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an equilibrium framework for strategic option exercise games. The author focuses on a particular example: the timing of real estate development. An analysis of the equilibrium exercise policies of developers provides insights into the forces that shape market behavior. The model isolates the factors that make some markets prone to bursts of concentrated development. The model also

Steven R Grenadier

1996-01-01

484

75 FR 18931 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Add a Note to Rule 4.11 Advising the Delta-Based Equity Hedge Exemption Is Not Currently...and Policy .04 (c) to Rule 4.11, Delta-Based Equity Hedge Exemption, advising...sic] Amendment No. 1, to extend the delta hedging exemption from equity option...

2010-04-13

485

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA  

E-print Network

OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy of University of Delaware Sponsored by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ministry of Agriculture People's Republic of China June 2001 #12;i OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY

Delaware, University of

486

A system dynamics model to facilitate public understanding of water management options in Las Vegas, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water managers increasingly are faced with the challenge of building public or stakeholder support for resource management strategies. Building support requires raising stakeholder awareness of resource problems and understanding about the consequences of different policy options. One approach that can help managers communicate with stakeholders is system dynamics modeling. Used interactively in a public forum, a system dynamics model can

Krystyna A Stave

2003-01-01

487

Introduction! Carbon capture and storage (CCS) may be a key option  

E-print Network

Introduction! Carbon capture and storage (CCS) may be a key option against climate change). A scalable infrastructure model for carbon capture and storage: SimCCS. Energy Policy 37(3), 1052 all possible close node pairs (Figure 4). Based on these potential routes, given the costs of capture

Boyer, Edmond

488

Cross-State Study of High-Stakes Testing Practices and Diploma Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to public demands for better-quality high school graduates and to requirements of No Child Left Behind legislation, states have developed a variety of policies such as high-stakes exit exams and diploma options. Additionally, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, students with disabilities must be…

Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen Evans; Mavis, Ann

2007-01-01

489

Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

of 35% and developing renovated buildings to achieve savings of 25%, when compared with the Model processes to promote development and operation of sustainable buildings. #12;Policies, Procedures and Guidelines Complete Policy Title: Sustainable Building Policy Policy

Haykin, Simon

490

Emerging options for emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

2013-02-18

491

Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception  

PubMed Central

Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

2013-01-01

492

Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

1994-05-01

493

Major Depression Among Adults  

MedlinePLUS

Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. According to the World Health Organization (WHO; 2010), major depression also carries the heaviest burden of disability among mental ...

494

Major Rock Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the University of Saskatchewan contains general information on the major rock groups: igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. Describes the rock cycle and the properties and formation of each major rock group.

495

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement  

E-print Network

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in laboratories or research is responsible for reporting laser acquisition to the Office of Laboratory Safety, selecting a departmental deputy laser safety officer, mandating training for its laser operators

Vertes, Akos

496

42 CFR 457.70 - Program options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01...options. 457.70 Section 457.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.70 Program options....

2010-10-01

497

42 CFR 457.70 - Program options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01...options. 457.70 Section 457.70 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...Health Insurance Programs and Outreach Strategies § 457.70 Program options....

2011-10-01

498

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

SciTech Connect

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

499

Ethnic Studies Undergraduate Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

. Students majoring in ethnic studies study the history, culture, politics, and sociology of Third World.e., Gender & Women's Studies, Sociology, Geography) Upper Division (9 courses) · Ethnic Studies 101A & 101B and Asian Diaspora Studies, Chicano Studies, Gender & Women's Studies, or Native American Studies

Walker, Matthew P.

500

Wireless Power Transmission Options for Space Solar Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Solar Power (SSP), combined with Wireless Power Transmission (WPT), offers the far-term potential to solve major energy problems on Earth. In this paper WPT options using radio waves and light waves are considered for both long-term and near-term SSP applications. In the long-term, we aspire to beam energy to Earth from geostationary Earth orbit (GEO), or even from the

M. W. Henley; Seth D. Potter; J. Howell; J. C. Mankins

2002-01-01