Note: This page contains sample records for the topic major policy options from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

2

Dynamic ecological-economic modelling for regional planning: A case study of environmental impacts of mobility, induced by major policy options in the Brussels-Capital region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the project is to analyse the ecological aspects of mobility induced by major regional policy options, such as office relocation and expansion, transport and other urban policies for the case study of Brussels-Capital region. For this purpose a system of models will be developed, including: 1) Demographic forecasts of dynamics of population and employment (per sector) in

Pavel Safonov; Walter Hecq

3

U. S. enrgy policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hard to put a satisfactory energy policy in place because of conflicts in goals, along with institutions that do not force their reconciliation. The road ahead can be made less dangerous by moving as many issues as possible into arenas where reconciliation rather than conflict is possible. What may occur, however, is that institutions will change so

1978-01-01

4

Ranking policy options for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development calls for choices among alternative policy options. It is a common view that such choices can be justified\\u000a by appealing to an evaluative ranking of the options with respect to how their consequences affect a broad range of prudential\\u000a and moral values. Three philosophically motivated proposals for analysing evaluative rankings are discussed: the measured\\u000a merits model (e.g. Chang),

Georg Brun; Gertrude Hirsch Hadorn

2008-01-01

5

Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

Norwood, Frank W.

6

Contingent Repayment Student Assistance Plans. An Outline of Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document on contingent student assistance repayment plans in Ontario universities contains a paper on policy options for repayment plans and the manual for a simulation model for testing policy options. The policy options paper begins by describing the contingent repayment concept in which the test for receiving a public subsidy is shifted…

Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

7

Global population trends and policy options.  

PubMed

Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. PMID:22784532

Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

2012-07-14

8

State options for low-carbon coal policy  

SciTech Connect

There is growing state-level interest in the USA in accelerating the development of low-carbon coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS). Many states have adopted greenhouse gas emission targets and made commitments to low-carbon energy, and believe that these polices will result in job creation, air quality improvements, and reliable low-cost energy supplies. This paper provides an overview of options for states to encourage the deployment of carbon capture and sequestration. It describes actions (including legislation, regulations, and incentives) throughout the country. It also reviews in greater detail the range of policies available to state Public Utility Commissions for advancing deployment of CCS. Many states are adopting meaningful incentives for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and, as a handful of states are beginning to demonstrate, a number of these incentives can apply to CCS as well. States also have a number of authorities relevant to advancement of clean coal power, particularly within the domain of state public utility commissions (PUCs). State commissions have a wide array of policy options available to them in pursuing this goal, and will play a crucial role in determining the speed and effectiveness with which such technologies are deployed. States also enjoy major advantages, such as their direct jurisdiction over many critical power plant issues (including siting and retail ratemaking) that federal agencies do not possess. Regardless of the final form of federal greenhouse gas rules, states have the chance to gain experience as first movers and policy innovators, and will play an important role in shaping a low-carbon future. Although national policy is essential, a proactive approach by state policymakers and regulators to drive CCS can reduce future compliance costs, speed the required technological developments, and pave the way for future national policy.

Richard Cowart; Shanna Vale; Joshua Bushinsky; Pat Hogan

2008-02-15

9

Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.  

PubMed

David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with internships and civic engagement projects, for example, may produce better results for many young people and also may promote academic achievement for teenagers who do not thrive in conventional classrooms and for those who face academic and social challenges when they move from one place to another. Stern argues that the limited success of today's high schools makes such new initiatives well worth trying and evaluating. www.futureofchildren.org PMID:21141711

Stern, David

2009-01-01

10

How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.  

PubMed

In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs. PMID:22635185

Ogden, Lydia L

2012-01-01

11

Substitution Criteria and Policy for Major Items.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lack of adequate guidance and policy and, in some cases, conflicting guidance in the processing of major items that are used as substitutes for authorized items have created problems in the management of these items. This report investigates the exist...

U. R. Poskus

1979-01-01

12

Federal Policy Options for Property Tax Relief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four policy alternatives could be used by the Federal Government for State and local property tax relief. Such relief has been sought to reduce the regressivity of the property tax, shield low - income households from large tax liabilities, enable the eld...

1977-01-01

13

A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

Phelps, James L.

2011-01-01

14

Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans  

SciTech Connect

This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

Doris, E.

2011-09-01

15

Evaluating Policy Options for Biofuel Land Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biofuels leads to global land use change (LUC) through increased land competition. LUC poses risks such as increased greenhouse gas emissions and food prices, that policymakers must balance against biofuel objectives. This paper examines policy approaches to lower LUC risk from biofuels. We propose a three-pronged policy approach: (1) promoting feedstocks that rely less on land; (2) reducing LUC risk for land-using feedstocks; and (3) stimulating investments that increase land productivity and environmental protection. We illustrate possibilities for model-based evaluation of LUC policy design options using two linked partial economic equilibrium simulation models (BEPAM/IMPACT). While the modeling addresses only a subset of mitigation options presented (including an 'iLUC factor'), it illustrates how this approach can shed light on the geographical distribution and magnitude of LUC resulting from specific policy designs.

Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.; Msangi, S.

2012-12-01

16

Defining Quality Education: An Analysis of State Educational Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current public demands for increased educational quality can best be met at the state education agency (SEA) level, but the SEA is faced with the fact that no single, clearly acceptable definition of educational quality exists. As a result of this lack of consensus, the SEA must examine the policy options available before taking action. First,…

Hansen, Kenneth H.

17

Changes Over Time in Attitudes Towards Health Care Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective - To obtain information from a cohort of physicians about their attitudes toward current health policy options and initiatives and compare their current attitudes with their attitudes in 1993. Design - Mailed surveys in 1993 and 1999. Participants - Family medicine residency-trained physicians who achieved certification between 1989 and 1991 and resided in Ontario in 1993. Main Outcome Measures

Christel A. Woodward; May Cohen; Barbara Ferrier; Judy Brown

2000-01-01

18

Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future\\u000a energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss\\u000a the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The\\u000a resource availability

Lei Shen; Litao Liu; Zhijun Yao; Gang Liu; Mario Lucas

2010-01-01

19

Language Policy at Major Sporting Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, are linguistically complex events that require large-scale language planning and policy. This chapter focuses on the Olympic Games and looks at the practicalities of the attitudes and responses to multilingualism and the language policies employed in this particular international event to…

Djite, Paulin G.

2009-01-01

20

Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratep...

D. Lippert D. O'Toole E. Doris J. Fetter P. Finch R. Braccio S. Busche

2010-01-01

21

Nonprofit conversion: theory, evidence, and state policy options.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the contributions of nonprofit hospitals and health plans to healthcare markets and to analyze state policy options with regard to the conversion of nonprofits to for-profit status. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary national and state data from a variety of sources, 1980-present. STUDY DESIGN: Policy analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Development of a conceptual economic framework; analysis of empirical, legal, and theoretical literature; and review of statutes, rules, and court decisions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three main rationales support special status for nonprofits, especially hospitals: charity care, other community benefits, and consumer protection. The main social rationale for for-profits is their incentives for better efficiency. There are reasons to expect that nonprofit and for-profit goals differ; however, measured differences in community hospital cost, prices, and quality between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals are undetectable or inconclusive. Nonprofit hospitals do provide more uncompensated care than for-profit hospitals. Similarities between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals may exist because nonprofits may set norms that for-profits follow to some degree. States have substantial power and discretion in overseeing nonprofit conversions. Some have regularized oversight through new legislation that constrains, but does not eliminate, state officials' discretion. These statutes may be deferential to converting entities and their buyers or may be very restrictive of them. CONCLUSIONS: Overseeing the appropriate disposition of nonprofit assets in individual conversions is extremely important. States should also monitor local market conditions through community benefits assessments and other data collection, however, to accurately assess (and possibly redress) what is lost or gained from conversion. Local market conditions are likely more important in determining hospital behavior than ownership form. Potentially, a mix of for-profit and nonprofit hospitals in a given market may improve market performance due to constraints the two ownership types may exercise over one another. If nonprofits disappear, the states may need to maintain quality and access norms through regulation. Images Figure 1

Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M

1998-01-01

22

Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China  

PubMed Central

By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China.

Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

2014-01-01

23

Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.  

PubMed

By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Wang, H; Zhai, F

2013-11-01

24

Alleviating water scarcity in Northern China: balancing options and policies among Chinese decision-makers.  

PubMed

Water scarcity is mostly a man-made problem that increasingly affects people's lives and questions economic output in Northern China. Policy options addressing the serious water shortages in the region include conservation and water management reform, which is unpopular; grain imports and the downsizing of agriculture; derivation of Yangze water; derivation of the Amur and other international rivers. All solutions present major difficulties, whether domestic or international, for the Chinese authorities. While major decisions have not yet been taken, evidence shows major works such as water transfers from the Yangze or water pricing are not only unavoidable, but will not be enough to meet the growing demand for water in the region. PMID:12731785

Lasserre, F

2003-01-01

25

Policy Options on Intellectual Property Rights, China Regional Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Chinese government's inability to enforce international laws on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) is a growing concern for United States (US) policy makers. Our government's policy on IPR with respect to China must be modified to ensure our national ...

M. Falvey

2003-01-01

26

United States Policy Options in the Western Indian Ocean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines United States interests in the Western Indian Ocean and recommends a policy toward the area. It analyzes the economic and regional importance of the main states in the area: Madagascar, Mozambique, Mauritius, The Comoros, and The Seyc...

M. F. Cordasco

1982-01-01

27

Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Policy Options for Cannabis: Status Quo and Legalisation  

PubMed Central

Aims To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised–regulated option was conducted. Method A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). Findings The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised–regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised–regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Conclusion Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case.

Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

2014-01-01

28

Major conservation policy issues for biodiversity in Oceania.  

PubMed

Oceania is a diverse region encompassing Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, New Zealand, and Polynesia, and it contains six of the world's 39 hotspots of diversity. It has a poor record for extinctions, particularly for birds on islands and mammals. Major causes include habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, and overexploitation. We identified six major threatening processes (habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation, pollution, and disease) based on a comprehensive review of the literature and for each developed a set of conservation policies. Many policies reflect the urgent need to deal with the effects of burgeoning human populations (expected to increase significantly in the region) on biodiversity. There is considerable difference in resources for conservation, including people and available scientific information, which are heavily biased toward more developed countries in Oceania. Most scientific publications analyzed for four threats (habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation, and pollution) are from developed countries: 88.6% of Web of Science publications were from Australia (53.7%), New Zealand (24.3%), and Hawaiian Islands (10.5%). Many island states have limited resources or expertise. Even countries that do (e.g., Australia, New Zealand) have ongoing and emerging significant challenges, particularly with the interactive effects of climate change. Oceania will require the implementation of effective policies for conservation if the region's poor record on extinctions is not to continue. PMID:19627315

Kingsford, R T; Watson, J E M; Lundquist, C J; Venter, O; Hughes, L; Johnston, E L; Atherton, J; Gawel, M; Keith, D A; Mackey, B G; Morley, C; Possingham, H P; Raynor, B; Recher, H F; Wilson, K A

2009-08-01

29

Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity: Cyprus national findings.  

PubMed

A multifaceted public health policy approach is required for reversing the current obesity epidemic. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project aimed to explore the consistency and/or variability of the perspectives of key stakeholders towards a range of different options to respond to the growing challenge of obesity among nine participating European member states. The multi-criteria mapping technique was used. Cyprus national data, when analysed in the public health and public policy context of Cyprus, collectively indicate that no single policy option appears to be unique in combating obesity, but rather need to be combined with other policy options. Specifically, measures are needed to improve levels of knowledge and understanding regarding food, diet, health and fitness beginning from early childhood with health professionals having an important role in this regard. These measures should be coupled with informational initiatives emphasizing the improvement of nutritional information labelling system, and the control of food and drink advertising. There was also a consensus regarding the need for modifying the supply of and demand for foodstuffs, but not via economic instruments. Practical feasibility, social acceptability, efficacy and social benefits but not the economic costs of the options were deemed the most important criteria for a successful implementation. PMID:17371306

Savva, S C; Chadjioannou, M; Tornaritis, M J

2007-05-01

30

Policy implementations for organic agriculture: A real options approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming has experienced a vast increase within the EU, despite the fact that it implies greater risk and uncertainty than that of conventional farming. This is the result of the increased environmental concern and the rising demand for quality food, which led to the implementation of the organic policy scheme. Nevertheless, the production of organic fruits, including cherries, is

Irene Tzouramani; Angelos E. Liontakis; Alexandra Sintori; George Alexopoulos

2009-01-01

31

Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

32

Panarchy, Adaptive Management and Governance: Policy Options for Building Resilience  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a com...

33

Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

Baxter, L.W.

1997-07-01

34

Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

2009-09-01

35

Population level policy options for increasing the prevalence of smokefree homes  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify and evaluate the options for population level government policies to increase the prevalence of homes free of secondhand smoke. Methods The literature was searched for population level policy options and evidence on them. Three criteria were used to evaluate the policy options: effectiveness, the reductions on inequalities in secondhand smoke exposure, and cost effectiveness. The setting was four developed, English speaking jurisdictions: Britain, USA, Australia, and New Zealand. Results Evidence from all four countries shows some association between relatively comprehensive tobacco control programmes and lower prevalence levels of smoking in homes. The evidence of the effect of such programmes on inequalities in smokefree home prevalence is limited. No published evidence was found of the cost effectiveness of the programmes in achieving changes in smokefree homes. Within comprehensive programmes, there is some indirect evidence that some mass media campaigns could increase the prevalence of smokefree homes. Structural options that have potential to support smokefree homes include smokefree places legislation, and laws for the protection of children. Conclusion The available evidence to date suggests that comprehensive tobacco control programmes (to reduce the prevalence of smoking in the total population) are likely to be the most effective and sustainable option for increasing the prevalence of smokefree homes.

Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

2006-01-01

36

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.  

PubMed

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

2004-02-01

37

Acquiring Water for Environmental Use in Australia: An Analysis of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid counties, such as Australia, the storage and extractive use of water is causing significant environmental damage and\\u000a traditional economic objectives of efficiency and maximising financial returns from surface water resources are often at conflict\\u000a the long-term sustainability of riverine ecosystems. Policy options for acquiring water to improve environmental flow regimes\\u000a include (a) reducing announced allocations, (b) recouping a

John Tisdell

2010-01-01

38

Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.  

PubMed

Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far. PMID:23897413

Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-01

39

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

2013-10-01

40

Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.  

PubMed

This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV. PMID:21925786

Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

2012-02-01

41

A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate change  

SciTech Connect

The structure of this executive summary invites a word of explanation for the reader. Conventionally, such a summary presents the principal findings of a study and summarizes the research design and procedures by which the results were obtained. This report, however, is designed as a reference document consisting of a compendium of generic policy instruments and specific policy options that are available to the US Government in the event that it decides to encourage significant private sector to prevent, mitigate, or adapt to climate change. As such, most of the body of this report consists of summaries of existing knowledge about and experience with these policy instruments, and identifies opportunities and constraints for their application. The study did not attempt to establish a bottom-line recommendation, therefore, one cannot be presented here. 11 tabs.

Not Available

1989-10-01

42

Analysis of Major Item Redistribution/Substitution Policies. Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prevalent utilization of substituted major items for authorized major items requires that the management of these substitutes be improved throughout DARCOM. This report investigates four primary areas of interest to HQ DARCOM: the cost of redistributi...

U. R. Poskus

1980-01-01

43

The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

Marangos, John

2012-01-01

44

Test-Optional Admission Policies and Their Effect on the Composition of the Student Body at King's College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined test-optional admission policies and their effect on the composition of the student body at King's College. According to the College Board (2009), students from underrepresented populations do not perform as well as White students on standardized tests. Therefore, higher education institutions have established test-optional

Schmude, Michelle

2011-01-01

45

Implementing Policy Options to Strengthen the Nexus between Postsecondary Education and Workforce Development. Commission Report 08-07  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December 2007, the California Postsecondary Education adopted the last in an initial series of reports on the nexus between postsecondary education and workforce development by requesting staff to return with plans and priorities to pursue implementation of ten general policy options, grouped into three categories. One option is already being…

California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

2008-01-01

46

Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options  

PubMed Central

Background Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? Methods We interviewed a small sample of émigré South African physicians (n = 7) and a larger purposive sample of representatives of Canadian federal, provincial, regional and health professional departments/organizations (n = 25); conducted a policy colloquium with stakeholder organizations (n = 21); and undertook new analyses of secondary data to determine recent trends in health human resource flows between sub-Saharan Africa and Canada. Results Flows from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada have increased since the early 1990s, although they may now have peaked for physicians from South Africa. Reasons given for this flow are consistent with other studies of push/pull factors. Of 8 different policy options presented to study participants, only one received unanimous strong support (increasing domestic self-sufficiency), one other received strong support (increased health system strengthening in source country), two others mixed support (voluntary codes on ethical recruitment, bilateral or multilateral agreements to manage flows) and four others little support or complete rejection (increased training of auxiliary health workers in Africa ineligible for licensing in Canada, bonding, reparation payments for training-cost losses and restrictions on immigration of health professionals from critically underserved countries). Conclusion Reducing pull factors by improving domestic supply and reducing push factors by strengthening source country health systems have the greatest policy traction in Canada. The latter, however, is not perceived as presently high on Canadian stakeholder organizations' policy agendas, although support for it could grow if it is promoted. Canada is not seen as "actively' recruiting" ("poaching") health workers from developing countries. Recent changes in immigration policy, ongoing advertising in southern African journals and promotion of migration by private agencies, however, blurs the distinction between active and passive recruitment.

Labonte, Ronald; Packer, Corinne; Klassen, Nathan

2006-01-01

47

Organized medicine and Scandinavian professional unionism: hospital policies and exit options in Denmark and Sweden.  

PubMed

Strikes by junior hospital doctors over the issue of on-call remuneration in Denmark and Sweden in 1981 are analyzed to clarify the impact of public-sector cost-control policies on intra- and interprofessional solidarity within the Scandinavian professional peak associations. The junior doctors' grievances could find expression either through increased "voice" within the medical negotiating machinery, or by pursuing the exit option in having the medical associations quit the peak associations. The article explains why the "exit" option was selected in Denmark, while in Sweden the granting of additional voice helped persuade the medical association to withdraw its exit threat and to remain within the peak association. The two cases are interpreted as presaging a divergence in the paths being taken by the various Scandinavian welfare states. PMID:4045171

Heidenheimer, A J; Johansen, L N

1985-01-01

48

Should payment policy be changed to allow a wider range of EMS transport options?  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine and other national organizations have asserted that current payment policies strongly discourage emergency medical services (EMS) providers from transporting selected patients who call 911 to non-ED settings (eg, primary care clinics, mental health centers, dialysis centers) or from treating patients on scene. The limited literature available is consistent with the view that current payment policies incentivize transport of all 911 callers to a hospital ED, even those who might be better managed elsewhere. However, the potential benefits and risks of altering existing policy have not been adequately explored. There are theoretical benefits to encouraging EMS personnel to transport selected patients to alternate settings or even to provide definitive treatment on scene; however, existing evidence is insufficient to confirm the feasibility or safety of such a policy. In light of growing concerns about the high cost of emergency care and heavy use of EDs, assessing EMS transport options should be a high-priority topic for outcomes research. PMID:24209960

Morganti, Kristy G; Alpert, Abby; Margolis, Gregg; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Kellermann, Arthur L

2014-05-01

49

Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2009-06-01

50

ACEEE's greatest hits. Volume 1: Major reports helping to shape energy efficiency policies and programs  

SciTech Connect

Forty-seven reports published during the past decade which have had major impacts on, and continue to influence, energy efficiency policies and programs. Selected from all sectors of ACEEE's research programs.

NONE

2000-07-01

51

Limiting air pollution from transport: economic evaluation of policy options for the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies addressing air pollution from transport have in the past mainly focused on SO>SUB align=right>2>\\/SUB>, NO>SUB align=right>x>\\/SUB> and VOC through vehicle emission and fuel quality regulation. More recently however, CO>SUB align=right>2>\\/SUB> emissions and particulates have come on the agenda because of global warming and the perception of the major role of particulates in health damage. This shift is also reflected

Stef Proost; Denise Van Regemorter; Frederic Lantz; Valerie Saint-Antonin

2000-01-01

52

Pursuing an integrated development and climate policy framework in Africa: options for mainstreaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change presents a major threat to the prospects for sustained economic development in Africa. In spite of this, climate\\u000a change concerns do not feature prominently in the implementation of national and regional development programmes. The present\\u000a paper identifies the likely trade-offs and synergies that may emerge from an integrated ‘development-climate’ approach to\\u000a policy making. Also, the paper presents the

Chuku Agbai Chuku

2010-01-01

53

Broadcasting and Telecommunications. Yukon 2000: Toward a Communications Policy. Part I: A Background Paper. Facts, Figures and Definitions and Part II. Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These two booklets, which describe the current status of communications in the Yukon Territory and consider future policy options, focus on the broadcasting industry, including radio and television, and the telecommunications industry, which comprises telephone, telegraph, and cable systems. The first booklet, a background paper, briefly describes…

Yukon Dept. of Community and Transportation, Whitehorse.

54

On-the-Job Improvements in Teacher Competence: Policy Options and Their Effects on Teaching and Learning in Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two policy options for improving teacher competence, inservice training and regular classroom supervision, were studied through a survey of approximately 400 rural primary schools in Thailand. Results do not indicate improvement resulting from inservice training but do show improvement resulting from intensity of supervision. Implications for…

Raudenbush, Stephen W.; And Others

1993-01-01

55

Rediscovering Governance: Using Policy Options to Address the Needs of Older Americans. Lessons Learned from Eight Local Demonstrations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines a project undertaken to demonstrate how a policy options strategy can be developed to respond to a problem of concern to the elderly, to service providers, to local government officials, and to others with a concern for issues facing t...

H. Scogin D. Henton J. Collub

1985-01-01

56

Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E. A.

2001-01-01

57

[The development of therapeutic education in France: current public policies and treatment options].  

PubMed

Therapeutic patient education (TPE) has significantly expanded in the last few years. This article explains the major trends underpinning and supporting its development in France, and how they have rendered it a central place in the system, and provided an integral role for therapeutic education within the wider perspective of medical care and treatment options. The organisation of TPE is analysed and numerous initiatives in hospitals, medical and health care structures, social centres, cities, and non-profit organisations are described. This analysis suggests a range of proposals in order to structure and integrate TPE in a sustainable manner for the long term, as well as to expand the existing initiatives to have a broader reach across the country. PMID:17933380

Grenier, Béatrice; Bourdillon, François; Gagnayre, Rémi

2007-01-01

58

Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of knowledge in the field by comparing different state-of-the-art temporal forest carbon modeling efforts, and discusses whether or to what extent a deterministic ';carbon debt' accounting is possible and appropriate. It concludes upon the possible scientific and eventually political choices in temporal carbon accounting for regulatory frameworks including alternative options to address unintentional carbon losses within forest ecosystems/bioenergy systems.

Lamers, P.

2013-12-01

59

Majority Voting in Multidimensional Policy Spaces: Kramer-Shepsle versus Stackelberg  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study majority voting over a bidimensional policy space when the voters' type space is either uni- or bidimensional. We show that a Condorcet winner fails to generically exist even with a unidimensional type space. We then study two voting procedures widely used in the literature. The Stackelberg (ST) procedure assumes that votes are taken one dimension at a time

Philippe De Donder; Michel Le Breton; Eugenio Peluso

2010-01-01

60

Reactor-Based Management of Used Nuclear Fuel: Assessment of Major Options  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms).

Phillip J. Finck; Roald A. Wigeland; Robert N. Hill

2011-01-01

61

76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION:...

2011-08-16

62

Optimal replacement policies for non-uniform cache objects with optional eviction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement policies for general caching ap- plications and Web caching in particular have been exten- sively addressed in the literature. Many policies that focus on document costs, size, probability of references and tem- poral locality of requested documents, have been proposed. In many cases these policies are ad-hoc attempts to take advantage of the statistical information contained in the stream

Omri Bahat; Armand M. Makowski

2003-01-01

63

Atypical Antipsychotics and Other Therapeutic Options for Treatment of Resistant Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Antidepressant therapies, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are current first-line treatments for Major Depressive Disorder. However, over 50% of treated patients show an inadequate response to initial antidepressant therapy. If the therapeutic outcomes from two antidepressant therapies are suboptimal, potentially resulting in Treatment Resistant Depression, subsequent strategies include switching to another antidepressant or augmenting treatment by combining with other agents. When combined with SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics have supplementary action on dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems. Studies on combined treatment with atypical antipsychotics have shown significantly increased remission rates, shortened response times, and favorable side effects. Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics is now an acceptable treatment strategy which leads to increased remission rates and better outcomes for patients.

Seo, Rubo J.; MacPherson, Holly; Young, Allan H.

2010-01-01

64

In-Situ Exploration of Venus: Major Science Objectives, Investigations, and Mission Platform Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ missions to Venus have been recommended by both the 2011 and 2003 Decadal Studies of the NRC and have been proposed numerous times to NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers programs as well as to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Such missions would revolutionize our understanding of Venus, as they address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state via high precision measurements of (1) noble gases and their isotopes, and (2) reactive trace gases and aerosol associated with Venus's active photo- and thermo-chemistry and sulfur cycle, including components potentially responsible for the poorly-understood uv-absorbing haze layer. Fundamental questions, as promoted in recent VEXAG documents, include: (1) Did Venus, Mars, and Earth have a common origin? (2) What roles did comets from the outer Solar System play in delivering volatiles to Venus? (3) Did Venus once have and lose a global ocean? (4) How much has Venus outgassed, and what is the current rate of outgassing, particularly of sulfur, the major driver of Venus clouds? and (5) Through the deposition of energy within them, what role do these clouds play in (a) driving the cloud-level thermal structure and (b) generating and maintaining the super-rotating zonal windfield that covers the globe? Fundamental answers could be uniquely provided through in-situ sampling via mass spectrometry of the noble gases and their isotopes - in particular of the 8 stable Xe isotopes, the bulk abundances of Kr, and the 3 isotopes of Ne. Measurements of the relative abundances of the light isotopes of N, O, H, S and O, by, for example, tunable laser spectrometry, would provide additional insights into Venus's origin, surface outgassing and planetary escape. Such measurements could be performed by probes, landers, or balloons. On descent through the uv-absorbing layer and the surrounding H2SO4 cloud, each of these platforms could explore both the absorber and sulfur-cycle-associated reactive species and aerosols, thus addressing VEXAG desires for enhanced understanding of Venus' chemical cycles, aerosol properties, and radiative transfer. On descent to the surface, probes and landers can provide vertical profiles of temperatures and species abundances, as well as provide near-surface measurements of sulfur isotopes and trace sulfuric gases indicative of outgassing. Additional major in-situ goals dealing with Venus's global circulation and local dynamics can be addressed by a balloon platform floating within the convective middle cloud near ~55-km altitude. Drifting over a wide range of latitudes and all times-of-day and longitudes, such a floating platform could accurately measure (1) motions in all three dimensions - zonal, meridional, and vertical, including motions associated with convection and gravity waves, (2) simultaneous measurements of cloud particle size, their parent molecules, the local temperature, and vertical velocity, to study cloud formation/dissipation processes, and (3) the power and frequency of local lightning. Altogether, such in-situ measurements would potentially revolutionize our understanding of (1) Venus's circulation, including the role of waves and solar cloud heating in powering the planet's poorly-understood super-rotation, (2) Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Earth's neighbor formed and evolved over the aeons.

Baines, K. H.; Limaye, S. S.; Hall, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Bullock, M. A.; Crisp, D.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Russell, C. T.; Webster, C. R.; Zahnle, K. J.

2013-12-01

65

Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis  

SciTech Connect

The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

1996-03-01

66

Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis,

Joule Andrea Bergerson

2005-01-01

67

Economics and the Environment: A Survey of Issues and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns over the pace, scope and causes of environmental degradation have led to a renewed interest in the way environmental and economic policies interact. This paper first reviews the main causes for excessive use of environmental resources in a market economy, and how governments may conduct policies to counter environmental degradation. The focus of the paper then shifts towards the

Jon Nicolaisen; Peter Hoeller

1990-01-01

68

Education Policy as a Practice of Power: Theoretical Tools, Ethnographic Methods, Democratic Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines some theoretical and methodological parameters of a critical practice approach to policy. The article discusses the origins of this approach, how it can be uniquely adapted to educational analysis, and why it matters--not only for scholarly interpretation but also for the democratization of policy processes as well. Key to…

Levinson, Bradley A. U.; Sutton, Margaret; Winstead, Teresa

2009-01-01

69

Complying With The National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy: Copyright Considerations and Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This White Paper is written primarily for policymaking staff in universities and other institutional recipients of NIH support responsible for ensuring compliance with the Public Access Policy. The January 11, 2008, Public Access Policy imposes two new compliance mandates. First, the grantee must ensure proper manuscript submission. The version of the article to be submitted is the final version over

Michael W. Carroll

2008-01-01

70

Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on three prior…

Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

2009-01-01

71

Assessment of agricultural policy options for sustainable ground-water management: a case study of wetland conservation in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decrease in water resources is one of the major preoccupations of international institutions in the present context. In several parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean area, over-exploitation of water is the result of easy availability and minimal investment costs but it causes serious damage to wetland ecosystems. Agricultural and environmental policies incorporating water management problems must therefore

Consuelo Varela-Ortega

72

Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options  

PubMed Central

The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.

Quanbao, Jiang; Marcus W., Feldman

2013-01-01

73

The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.  

PubMed

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government. PMID:10133097

Gilson, L; Sen, P D; Mohammed, S; Mujinja, P

1994-03-01

74

Protecting Privacy on the Canadian Information Highway: Policy Developments and Regulatory Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of statutory and non-statutory data-protection provisions currently governing the processing of personal data in Canada's private sector, including federal and provincial legislation and efforts at self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice. Considers a more comprehensive system of regulation, contemporary policy

Bennett, Colin J.

1996-01-01

75

FOREST SECTOR CARBON BUDGET OF THE UNITED STATES: CARBON POOLS AND FLUX UNDER ALTERNATIVE POLICY OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents a model of the current and future carbon budget associated with the forest ecosystems of the conterminous U.S. he focus is on effects of economic and environmental policy changes for the period of 1990-2040. n this study, the concept of "forest ecosystem" h...

76

Food Self-Reliance and Food Self-Sufficiency: Evaluating the Policy Options,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the paper is to clarify the costs and benefits of using food imports to meet domestic food needs. Three types of food policies are delineated: (1) self-sufficiency - food needs are met entirely from domestic consumption; (2) trade-dependenc...

S. R. Pearson T. E. Josling W. P. Falcon

1986-01-01

77

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications.  

PubMed

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City's MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

2008-04-01

78

Pension Reform and Gender Gaps in Latin America: What are the Policy Options?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several Latin American countries have implemented structural reforms in their social security-pension systems. These reforms have modified the traditional public pay-as-you-go defined benefit (PAYG-DB) schemes, introducing multipillar systems where fully funded defined contribution (FF-DC) schemes play an important role. Gender gaps in coverage and benefits under PAGY-DB and FF-DC schemes have been one of the policy issues missing in most

Fabio M. Bertranou

2001-01-01

79

Bioenergy transition in rural China: Policy options and co-benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current situation of bioenergy development in China, particularly on its relationship to sustainable rural development. It argues that the current government strategy, investment policy and industrial interest are over-emphasized on biomass-burning power generation as part of the clean energy development trajectories, which may not lead to the most cost-effective outcomes in terms of investments, resource use

Lin Gan; Juan Yu

2008-01-01

80

Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have\\u000a a profound effect on the country’s population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination\\u000a in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination.\\u000a Using a population simulation

Quanbao Jiang; Shuzhuo Li; Marcus W. Feldman

2011-01-01

81

Worker Adjustment to Plant Shutdowns and Mass Layoffs: An Analysis of Program Experience and Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American economy is in a state of flux; it will probably generate more displaced workers; and it has yet to determine a policy to assist such workers in preparing for and locating new jobs. Although the extent of the problem is not entirely known, a low estimate is that some 2.2 million workers may have been affected by plant closings and mass…

Barth, Michael C.; Reisner, Fritzie

82

[Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].  

PubMed

From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed. PMID:21147432

Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

2010-01-01

83

Positioning the Indian coal-power sector for carbon mitigation: key policy options  

SciTech Connect

The report continues the series of Pew Center papers that explore strategies for addressing CO{sub 2} emissions from using coal to provide electricity. The domestic and international steps outlined in this paper could greatly advance the development and implementation of a GHG-mitigation strategy in the Indian coal-power sector, while allowing the sector to contribute suitably to the country's energy needs. The key to success will be adopting a deliberate approach, with short- and long-term perspectives in mind, that allows for the development of an integrated energy and climate policy. 58 refs., 2 tabs.

Chikkatur, A.P.; Sagar, A.D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Kennedy School of Government

2009-01-15

84

Eastern Europe's resource crisis, with special emphasis on energy resources: dependence and policy options  

SciTech Connect

An examination is made of Eastern Europe's energy resource shortages impact on its future economic and political development and its dependence on the Soviet Union as its main source of supply. The possible solutions to this problem are considered, as well as the impact of those solutions. How this dependence operates in insuring a dependable supply of Soviet oil, natural gas, coal, electricity, and various raw materials through, wherever possible, an exchange arrangement, leaving a sufficiently wide margin to satisfy both domestic needs and hard currency markets of individual East European countries is discussed. While stressing mostly regional disparities in resource endowment and the energy resource supply problem faced by the six European CMEA countries, the discussion also deals with the consequences of their resource dependence on efforts to build a modern industrial base, for which a dependable and growing supply of various raw materials is essential. Chapters are: Energy Crisis in the 1970s; Eastern Europe's Options in the 1980s. (MCW)

Hoffman, G.W.

1981-01-01

85

Air Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from Livestock Operations: Valuation and Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of ammonia (NH3), which is a precursor of fine particulate matter (PM2.5)—arguably, the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. The industry is also a major emitter of methane (CH4), which is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce

Jhih-Shyang Shih; Dallas Burtraw; Karen Palmer; Juha Siikamäki; Viney Aneja; S. Arya; D.-S. Kim; Ian Rumsey; H. L. Arkinson; H. Semunegus; K. S. Bajwa; D. A. Dickey; L. A. Stefanski; L. Todd; K. Mottus; W. P. Robarge; C. M. Williams; Carsten Skjøth; Thomas Ellermann; Ole Hertel; Steen Gyldenkærne; Mette Mikkelsen; Susan Schiffman; Brevick Graham; Chris Henry; Peter Watts; Peter Nicholas; Yael Laor; Jacek Koziel; Lingshuang Cai; Uzi Ravid; Stephen Goetz; Yang Zhang; Chris Occhipinti; William Showers; Dev Niyogi; Linda Geiser; Anne Ingersoll; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Scott Copeland; Stefania Korontzi; Jessica McCarty; Christopher Justice; Semra Tuncel; Nur Oztas; M. Erduran

2008-01-01

86

Overview: Bellagio Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries.  

PubMed

The Bellagio 'Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries' (LMICs) was organized to pull together the current. We need not reiterate the importance of this topic or the speed of change in eating, drinking and moving facing us across the globe. The conference emerges from need to significantly step up the policies and programs to reduce obesity by learning from some current examples of best practice and strengthening the role of the academic and civil society players in translating global evidence and experience into action at the national level. There is also a need to empower the younger generation of scholars and activists in these countries to carry on this effort. The meeting was also timely because a number of funding agencies in the United States, Canada and the UK, at least, are beginning to focus attention on this topic. This set of papers provides not only examples of existing best practice but also a road map ahead for LMICs in the various areas of action needed to reduce obesity across LMICs. The meeting highlighted critical barriers to implementation that have blocked many initiatives. PMID:24102826

Popkin, B; Monteiro, C; Swinburn, B

2013-11-01

87

Health issues and the practicing radiologist: defining concepts and developing recommendations for leave options and policies.  

PubMed

Radiologists today are faced with the challenges of maintaining and balancing individual and family health needs and the demands of the workplace. To provide the highest quality and safest care of our patients, a corresponding ethos of support for a healthy workforce is required. There is a paucity of targeted information describing protections for and maintenance of the health of the practicing radiologist, in both private and academic settings. However, a review of existing family and medical leave policies may be helpful to practice leaders and practicing radiologists as a platform for the development of strategic workforce plans. This writing, by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources, addresses the following areas: (1) medical leave, (2) maternity and/or paternity leave, and (3) disability. PMID:24007608

Heilbrun, Marta E; Bender, Claire E; Truong, Hang B; Bluth, Edward I

2013-09-01

88

US Foreign policy in the war against terrorism: Challenges, prospects, and ROK's desirable options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the September 11 incident, the US should consider investing more resources in Northeast Asia and Europe rather than focusing all its energy on the terrorists. While consolidating its existing grand strategy of promoting democracy and the market economy, the US may need to draw more support from its major allies to be better prepared against the multi?spectrum conflicts. As

2001-01-01

89

Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.  

PubMed

In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health insurance market to multinational companies, the proper channelling of tax incentives to set up medical institutions in backward areas, and reinforcing appropriate regulatory mechanisms. PMID:11238435

Purohit, B C

2001-03-01

90

Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Trade-Policy Options for the United States and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the Michigan Model of World Production and Trade to simulate the economic effects on the United States, Japan, and other major trading countries\\/regions of the Doha Round of WTO multilateral trade negotiations and a variety of regional\\/bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) involving the United States and Japan. We estimate that an assumed reduction of post-Uruguay Round tariffs

Drusilla K. Brown; Alan V. Deardorff; Robert M. Stern

2003-01-01

91

TRIPS, the Doha Declaration and increasing access to medicines: policy options for Ghana.  

PubMed

There are acute disparities in pharmaceutical access between developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries make up approximately 80% of the world's population but only represent approximately 20% of global pharmaceutical consumption. Among the many barriers to drug access are the potential consequences of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. Many developing countries have recently modified their patent laws to conform to the TRIPS standards, given the 2005 deadline for developing countries. Safeguards to protect public health have been incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement; however, in practice governments may be reluctant to exercise such rights given concern about the international trade and political ramifications. The Doha Declaration and the recent Decision on the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health may provide more freedom for developing countries in using these safeguards. This paper focuses on Ghana, a developing country that recently changed its patent laws to conform to TRIPS standards. We examine Ghana's patent law changes in the context of the Doha Declaration and assess their meaning for access to drugs of its population. We discuss new and existing barriers, as well as possible solutions, to provide policy-makers with lessons learned from the Ghanaian experience. PMID:16336685

Cohen, J C; Gyansa-Lutterodt, M; Torpey, K; Esmail, L C; Kurokawa, G

2005-01-01

92

Paying the medical cost of the HIV epidemic: a review of policy options.  

PubMed

The complex health care needs of people with HIV infection highlight inadequacies in our health care financing system and raise the question of how best to pay for care. AIDS requires a broad continuum of care to maintain high quality and reasonable costs. A simultaneous need is to assure access to care for patients with HIV infection who lack insurance or entitlement to health care benefits. We suggest new and practical payment mechanisms that can encourage the availability of comprehensive care for people with HIV infection. We suggest changes in state and federal payment policies that would make the cost of providing AIDS care more of a collective, community responsibility. We recommend mandated workplace insurance, extension of Medicaid eligibility to all with incomes below the federal poverty level, an opportunity for individuals with incomes to 200% of the poverty level to purchase Medicaid coverage, mechanisms to encourage public and private agencies to pay for continued health insurance after loss of employment, and a shortened waiting period for Medicare disability. PMID:2404099

Makadon, H J; Seage, G R; Thorpe, K E; Fineberg, H V

1990-01-01

93

Maternity waiting homes and institutional birth in Nicaragua: policy options and strategic implications.  

PubMed

With the aim of promoting institutional births and reducing the high maternal and child mortality rates in rural and poor zones, the government of Nicaragua is supporting the creation of maternity waiting homes. This study analyzes that strategy and examines the factors associated with the use of maternity waiting homes and institutional birth. To that end, we apply a quantitative approach, by means of an econometric analysis of the data extracted from surveys conducted in 2006 on a sample of women and parteras or traditional birth attendants, as well as a qualitative approach based on interviews with key informants. Results indicate that although the operation of the maternity waiting homes is usually satisfactory, there is still room for improvement along the following lines: (i) disseminating information about the homes to both women and men, as the latter frequently decide the course of women's healthcare, and to parteras, who can play an important role in referring women; (ii) strengthening the postpartum care; (iii) ensuring financial sustainability by obtaining regular financial support from the government to complement contributions from the community; and (iv) strengthening the local management and involvement of the regional government. These measures might be useful for health policy makers in Nicaragua and in other developing countries that are considering this strategy. PMID:22052420

García Prado, Ariadna; Cortez, Rafael

2012-01-01

94

Can Futures and Options Markets Hold the Milk Price Safety Net? Policy Conflicts and Market Failures in Dairy Hedging  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Department of Agriculture's Dairy Options Pilot Program promoted hedging by producers, and was a test case for similar programs in other agricultural industries. Rapidly shifting milk pricing policies impeded quantitative hedging evaluations while the program was active. Hedging appears capable of reducing price variance by 50–60% in most regions, and favors large, sophisticated producers in heavy cheese manufacturing regions.

Leigh J. Maynard; Christopher Wolf; Matthew Gearhardt

2005-01-01

95

Assessing the impact of different rural development policy design options on the adoption of innovation across five case studies in EU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovation and new technology adoption represent two central elements for the enterprise and industry development process in agriculture. The objective of the paper is to provide an ex-ante analysis of the effectiveness of alternative policy design options concerning the RDP measures intended to provide incentives for investment\\/innovation adoption in five case study areas across Europe. The model implemented is based

Fabio Bartolini; Matteo Floridi; Laure Latruffe; Edward Majewski; Dimitre Nikolov; Nico B. P. Polman; Davide Viaggi

2010-01-01

96

The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia: Considering U.S. Options. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

97

A policy analysis of major decisions relating to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the blood supply  

PubMed Central

CREUTZFELDT–JAKOB DISEASE (CJD) IS THE FIRST major challenge that the blood system has faced since the completion of the Krever inquiry in 1997. We report the results of a detailed policy analysis comparing 2 CJD-related decisions: a 1995 recall of blood from a donor with classic CJD and the 1999 decision to defer donations from individuals with a 6-month travel history to the UK between 1980 and 1996 due to concerns related to variant CJD. Overall, we observed that decision-making improved significantly from 1995 to 1999. In 1998/99 the potential threat of variant CJD was identified at an early stage, and a systematic risk assessment process was initiated. Decision-making was consultative and involved consumers. However, the perception existed that further improvement could take place in the areas of transparency of process and interaction of organizations. We observed that the presence of a second operator had an important impact on decision-making in 1998/99.

Wilson, Kumanan; Hebert, Paul C.; Laupacis, Andreas; Dornan, Christopher; Ricketts, Maura; Ahmad, Nadya; Graham, Ian

2001-01-01

98

A policy analysis of major decisions relating to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and the blood supply.  

PubMed

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the first major challenge that the blood system has faced since the completion of the Krever inquiry in 1997. We report the results of a detailed policy analysis comparing 2 CJD-related decisions: a 1995 recall of blood from a donor with classic CJD and the 1999 decision to defer donations from individuals with a 6-month travel history to the UK between 1980 and 1996 due to concerns related to variant CJD. Overall, we observed that decision-making improved significantly from 1995 to 1999. In 1998/99 the potential threat of variant CJD was identified at an early stage, and a systematic risk assessment process was initiated. Decision-making was consultative and involved consumers. However, the perception existed that further improvement could take place in the areas of transparency of process and interaction of organizations. We observed that the presence of a second operator had an important impact on decision-making in 1998/99. PMID:11468958

Wilson, K; Hébert, P C; Laupacis, A; Dornan, C; Ricketts, M; Ahmad, N; Graham, I

2001-07-10

99

The impact of major floods on flood risk policy evolution: Insights from Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on conceptual work conducted within the UK, the authors examine the incremental and crisis?driven nature of changes in flood risk mitigation policies in Bangladesh since the 1950s. They highlight the key factors which have influenced the incremental and catalytic changes in policy, noting in particular the role and attitudes of international agencies and donors. By exploring incremental changes as

Parvin Sultana; Clare Johnson; Paul Thompson

2008-01-01

100

NCI Announces New Smoke-free Meeting Policy to Address Major Public Health Hazard  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute today announced a new policy requiring that all meetings and conferences organized or primarily sponsored by NCI be held in a state, county, city, or town that has adopted a comprehensive smoke-free policy, unless specific circumstances justify an exemption.

101

Admissions Policies Governing the Declaration of Academic Major and Academic Advising Models Relating to Student Outcomes in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze admissions policies pertaining to the declaration of academic majors for incoming students and structures of academic advising at American universities and how they relate to student outcomes. The student outcomes considered for the study were first to second year retention rates and graduation rates. …

Workinger, Heather A.

2011-01-01

102

[Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].  

PubMed

In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship. PMID:17625644

Draibe, Sônia Miriam

2007-01-01

103

Development Challenge of the Eighties: Major Policy Addresses, 1981-1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Executive Directors of The World Bank commissioned this publication to mark the retirement of A. W. Clausen after five years of most distinguished services as President of the institution. Tom Clausen believed strongly that the objectives, policies, a...

A. W. Clausen

1986-01-01

104

NASA policy on pricing shuttle launch services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper explains the rationale behind key elements of the pricing policy for STS, the major features of the non-government user policy, and some of the stimulating features of the policy which will open space to a wide range of new users. Attention is given to such major policy features as payment schedule, cost and standard services, the two phase pricing structure, optional services, shared flights, cancellation and postponement, and earnest money.

Smith, J. M.

1977-01-01

105

Impact of radio resource allocation policies on the TD-CDMA system performance: evaluation of major critical parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impact of major critical parameters and the effect of some radio resource allocation policies on the TD-CDMA system performance. Critical parameters are related either to the user behavior (e.g., user mobility, activity factors) or to processing techniques and algorithms implemented to control network performance and individual radio link quality (e.g., joint detection imperfection, handover margin, timeout

Doru Calin; Marc Areny

2001-01-01

106

Translation as a Career Option for Foreign Language Majors. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to provide the college foreign language major with practical observations on translation and interpretation as possible professions. The skills and training required of competent translators are discussed, and their responsibilities, working conditions and approximate salary figures for various translating tasks are…

Tinsley, Royal L., Jr.

1976-01-01

107

Educational Policy and the Two Major Approaches to Disaster Relief in the Third World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, two major schools of thought regarding disaster and disaster assistance are identified and examined in order to bring to light their underlying assumptions about assistance and development in the Third World. The first section discusses the context of the problem, citing figures and presenting charts to illustrate the scope and…

Harris, Christopher

108

Promoting ecotourism in the buffer zone areas of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve: An option to resolve people—policy conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fascination for mountains, breathtaking natural beauty, rich cultural diversity, socioeconomic traditions, history and lifestyles attract mountaineers, trekkers, naturalists ascetics, explorers and cultural tourists from all over the world to the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and adjoining areas. Expedition\\/mountaineering and tourism, as a livelihood option for the people living in the buffer zone areas of NDBR, was important, next

R. K. Maikhuri; U. Rana; K. S. Rao; S. Nautiyal; K. G. Saxena

2000-01-01

109

Youth with Disabilities in Transition: Health Insurance Options and Obstacles. Healthy & Ready To Work (HRTW) Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the public and private health insurance options for young people with disabilities or chronic health conditions including several recent Federal initiatives to increase access to health care for working adults with disabilities. Discussion of public health insurance eligibility and coverage focuses on aspects of Medicaid and…

Schulzinger, Rhoda

110

A prospective view on European pharmaceutical research and development. Policy options to reduce fragmentation and increase competitiveness.  

PubMed

This article analyses 3 areas of policy that could reduce the fragmentation and improve the competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical sector. It argues that a potential solution to the issue of fragmentation of pharmaceutical research, development and innovation may be the development of policies at the European level, in those areas that European institutions have a competence. These areas may not necessarily rely exclusively on solving the issue of pricing and reimbursing pharmaceuticals as European Union (EU) Member States invoke the subsidiarity principle to claim policy exclusivity in this area. By contrast, policy areas where European institutions have a competence may include: i) a more intensified collaboration in science and technology policy (supporting the science base, identifying education needs for the future, collaborating in the development of new technologies and fostering university-industry collaboration); ii) support of research and development (R&D) by means of directly channelling funds into basic pharmaceutical research, avoiding duplication of the research effort, developing a set of research priorities, tackling the issue of technology transfer, promoting university-industry and cross-border collaborations or providing incentives that would induce private R&D activities in areas with large socioeconomic impact; and iii) an improvement in the environment for the financing of innovation in the EU, by means of selective use of tax policy at the national level (and where applicable, at the EU level), institutional reform in order to widen the pool of available funds for private investment, and the introduction of schemes that would encourage individuals and institutions to hold equity in innovative companies. The article identifies specific research, regulatory, medical and financing needs that require policy intervention, evaluates the possible dynamic implications of such interventions and highlights the benefits that may accrue from their implementation. PMID:10178646

Kanavos, P

1998-02-01

111

Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario analysis focuses on life cycle issues and considers various generation and control technologies. When advanced technologies such as gasification with carbon capture and sequestration are used, emissions during generation decrease to a level where environmental discharges from extraction, processing and transportation become the dominant concern. The location of coal, coal composition and mining method are important in determining the overall impacts. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Bergerson, Joule Andrea

112

The Costs of Compliance: A CGE Assessment of Canada’s Policy Options under the Kyoto Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractCanada has committed itself under the Kyoto Protocol to reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 on average by six per cent from the base 1990 level. As of 2009, however, Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions are far above its 1990 level which calls for stringent short-term policy measures if Canada is to meet its legally binding commitment. This paper

Christoph Böhringer; Thomas F. Rutherford

2010-01-01

113

Oregon Early Options Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines current policies and practices in regard to Oregon high school student participation in college courses and programs. A total of 112 of Oregon's public and private high schools responded to a January 1998 mailed survey concerning early college options programs and policies. It was found that an estimated 6,660 students were…

Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

114

A Window of Opportunity for the Transformation of National Mental Health Policy in Turkey Following Two Major Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

Striking at the nation’s highly populated industrial heartlands, two massive earthquakes in 1999 killed over 25,000 people in Turkey. The economic cost and the humanitarian magnitude of the disaster were unprecedented in the country’s history. The crisis also underscored a major flaw in the organization of mental health services in the provinces that were left out of the 1961 reforms that aimed to make basic health services available nationwide. In describing the chronology of the earthquakes and the ensuing national and international response, this article explains how the public and governmental experience of the earthquakes has created a window of opportunity, and perhaps the political will, for significant reform. There is an urgent need to integrate mental health and general health services, and to strengthen mental health services in the country’s 81 disparate provinces. As Turkey continues her rapid transformation in terms of greater urbanization, higher levels of public education, and economic and constitutional reforms associated with its projected entry into the European Union, there have also been growing demands for better, and more equitably distributed, health care. A legacy of the earthquakes is that they exposed the need for Turkey to create a coherent, clearly articulated national mental health policy.

Munir, Kerim; Ergene, Tuncay; Tunaligil, Verda; Erol, Nese

2011-01-01

115

Policies  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute staff actively seek input from subject matter experts in developing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) policies and guidelines to help govern the way investigators implement tissue and clinical data collections, data access and publications using the TCGA data sets.

116

Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are for the aged care sector. Conclusions There is an urgent need for a national strategy that promotes a common approach to aged care leadership and management development, one that is sector-appropriate and congruent with the philosophy of person-centred care now predominant in the sector. The onus is on aged care industries as a whole and various levels of Government to make a concerted effort to establish relevant regulation, legislation and funding.

2010-01-01

117

The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools  

PubMed Central

Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary?=?6, middle school?=?2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n?=?4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27%?year 1, 30%?year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22%?year 1, 25%?year 2) children. Conclusions Healthy ONES adaptation of IHI’s rapid improvement process provided a promising model for implementing nutrition policy and environmental changes that can be used in a variety of school settings. This approach may be especially effective in assisting schools to implement the current federally-mandated wellness policies.

2012-01-01

118

Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial Energy Efficiency. A Survey of International Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the secto...

L. Price C. Galitsky J. Sinton

2005-01-01

119

America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

120

Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

2008-01-01

121

A Creative Quandary: Policy Issues and Options at the Intersection of Art, Technology and Intellectual Property Prepared for the American Assembly, \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

American policy and legal frameworks concerning the treatment of intellectual property are evolving at a dizzying pace in this era of digitization, interconnectivity, and globalization. Technological capabilities are also rapidly evolving, creating both new problems and opportunities for law, policy, entrepreneurship, and creativity. How the forces of policy, law, and technology act upon and respond to intellectual property concerns of

Margaret J. Wyszomirski

122

Idaho's Energy Options  

SciTech Connect

This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

Robert M. Neilson

2006-03-01

123

Acid rain options  

SciTech Connect

A number of contributions made to a series of seminars on acid rain options held by the Air Pollution Control Association are presented. They include statements on US and Canadian policy and legislation, and views from coal producers, electric utilities and motor vehicle manufacturers on measures to counteract or prevent the effects of acid rain.

Perhac, R.M.

1985-03-01

124

Majors Exploration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Put on your safari hat, open your mind and get ready to enter the world of majors explorations. If you ever wondered about a field of study and whether it is right for you, you are about to find out. You will also learn where majors and fields lead for careers that may interest you. All you need for the journey is the mind of the explorer and a commitment to thoroughly investigating the options which await you.

Prentice Hall (Prentice Hall)

2012-01-05

125

Surgical Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatments for Spinal Pain Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artificial Disc Replacement Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic ... Discectomy Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy Spinal Fusion ... Medicine Surgical Options Anterior Cervical ...

126

Rehabilitation Options  

MedlinePLUS

... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Rehabilitation Options SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments ... Finish Home > Treatment and Care > Continuum of Care > Rehabilitation Options Listen Beginning the Healing Process After undergoing ...

127

Discrete Barrier and Lookback Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrete barrier and lookback options are among the most popular path-dependent options in markets. However, due to the discrete monitoring policy almost no ana- lytical solutions are available for them. We shall focus on the following methods for discrete barrier and lookback option prices: (1) Broadie-Yamamoto method based on fast Gaussian transforms. (2) Feng-Linetsky method based on Hilbert transforms. (3)

S. G. Kou

128

When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

129

Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited.

2011-01-01

130

iREX MPO : A MultiPath Option for the iREX Inter-Domain QoS Policy Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inter-domain Resource Exchange (iREX) architecture uses economic market mechanisms to automate the deployment of end-to-end (E2E) inter-domain (ID) quality of service (QoS) policy among resource consumer and resource provider Internet Service Providers (ISPs). In iREX, each policy reservation is deployed on a single E2E ID path made up of the most \\

Ariffin Datuk Yahaya; Tatsuya Suda

2008-01-01

131

Integrating mitigation and adaptation into climate and development policy: three research questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for developing synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation has become a recent focus of both climate research and policy. Presumably the interest in synergies springs from the appeal of creating win–win situations by implementing a single climate policy option. However, institutional complexity, insufficient opportunities and uncertainty surrounding their efficiency and effectiveness present major challenges to the widespread

Richard J. T. Klein; E. Lisa F. Schipper; Suraje Dessai

2005-01-01

132

Integrating mitigation and adaptation into climate and development policy: three research questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for developing synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation has become a recent focus of both climate research and policy. Presumably the interest in synergies springs from the appeal of creating win-win situations by implementing a single climate policy option. However, institutional complexity, insufficient opportunities and uncertainty surrounding their efficiency and effectiveness present major challenges to the widespread

Richard J. T. Klein; E. Lisa; F. Schipper

2005-01-01

133

Policy Options for Dryland Salinity Management: An Agent-Based Model for Catchment Level Analysis Keywords: Technology adoption, landholder heterogeneity, interdependencies, policy analysis, agent-based model, spatial model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dryland salinity management requires the integration of hydrologic, economic, social and policy aspects into an interactive method that decision makers can use to evaluate the economic and environmental consequences of alternative land use\\/management practices as well as various policy choices. This requires that modelling frameworks be open and accessible to a range of disciplines as well as allowing flexibility in

Shamsuzzaman Bhuiyan

134

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

135

Impact of single versus multiple policy options on the economic feasibility of biogas energy production: Swine and dairy operations in Nova Scotia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production was investigated for swine and dairy operations under Nova Scotia, Canada farming conditions, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period (PP) economic decision criteria. In addition, the effects of selected environmental and “green” energy policy schemes on co-generation of on-farm biogas energy production and other co-benefits

Bettina B. Brown; Emmanuel K. Yiridoe; Robert Gordon

2007-01-01

136

Enhancing renewable and sustainable energy development based on an options-based policy evaluation framework: Case study of wind energy technology in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global warming and climate change have shifted the focus of industrial development towards low-carbon renewable energy (RE), as evidence by global efforts to develop RE-based sustainable energy policies. However, the generally cost-ineffective nature of RE investments explains continued governmental subsidies and draft assistance measures to encourage related industrial development, reduce research and development (R&D) costs, and increase innovativeness. Besides measures

Shun-Chung Lee; Li-Hsing Shih

2011-01-01

137

System evaluations of laser power beaming options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

Montgomery, Edward E., IV

1992-01-01

138

Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

2010-01-01

139

Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Attributable to Major Risk Factors is Similar in Argentina and the United States: the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Argentina and the U.S. Argentina is 92% urban, with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels approximating the U.S. Methods The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model is a national-scale computer model of CHD and stroke. Risk factor data were obtained from the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America Study (2003–04), Argentina National Risk Factor Survey (2005) and U.S. national surveys. Proportions of cardiovascular events over 2005–2015 attributable to risk factors were simulated by setting risk factors to optimal exposure levels [systolic blood pressure (SBP) 115 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) 2.00 mmol/l (78 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) 1.03 mmol/l (60 mg/dl), absence of diabetes, and smoking]. Cardiovascular disease attributable to body mass index (BMI) > 21 kg/m2 was assumed mediated through SBP, LDL, HDL, and diabetes. Results Cardiovascular disease attributable to major risk factors was similar between Argentina and the U.S., except for elevated SBP in men (CHD 8 % points higher in Argentine men, 6% higher for stroke). CHD attributable to BMI > 21 kg/m2 was substantially higher in the U.S. (men 10–11 % points higher; women CHD 13–14% higher). Conclusions Projected cardiovascular disease attributable to major risk factors appeared similar in Argentina and the U.S., though elevated BMI may be responsible for more of U.S. cardiovascular disease. A highly urbanized middle-income nation can have cardiovascular disease rates and risk factor levels comparable to a high income nation, but fewer resources for fighting the epidemic.

Moran, Andrew; DeGennaro, Vincent; Ferrante, Daniel; Coxson, Pamela G.; Palmas, Walter; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Goldman, Lee

2011-01-01

140

Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

Trask, Newell, J.

1994-01-01

141

Demographic and economic factors of labour supply: Long-term projections and policy options for France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents labour supply scenarios in France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom for the years 2025 and 2050. These projections were based on the examination of the dynamics of the major contributing factors to the labour supply (LS), i.e. working-age population (WAP), labour force participation rate (LFPR), employment rate (ER) and labour utilisation (LU; defined as time worked

Serguey Ivanov

2009-01-01

142

Recombinant Erythropoietin: Payment Options for Medicare.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The special report evaluates alternative payment policies that Medicare might use to pay for recombinant erythropoietin. Identifies nine options and analyzed their implications across several dimensions: quality of care, access to care, costs and efficien...

1990-01-01

143

Real Options, Capital Structure, and Taxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a valuation approach for real options when the capital structure of the underlying project\\/firm is levered, assuming that the goal is the maximization of total firm\\/project value (i.e., under a first-best investment policy). We analyze also the eect of dierent financing schemes on the value of the real option and on the exercise policy. The main finding

Carmen Aranda Leon; Andrea Gamba; Gordon A. Sick

144

DCTD — Major Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Major Initiatives Search Grants Search Clinical Trials Ongoing Projects NCI Grants Policies Grant Application and Review Process DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

145

Positioning Institutional Research as a Major Player in Policy Decisions: Problems To Solve, Actions To Take. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a project to create and integrate an institutional research function into the executive-level policy decision making process at a private university. The paper identifies ten problems that needed to be overcome; they include: timeliness, consideration of qualitative factors, the limited scope of institutional research…

Lohmann, David

146

Analyzing exposure, use, and policies related to tobacco use on campus for the development of comprehensive tobacco policies at Canadian post-secondary institutions.  

PubMed

Canadians in their early twenties represent the highest prevalence of reported tobacco use among all age groups. With the majority of Canadian young adults accessing post-secondary education, post-secondary institutions can facilitate targeting of health promotion efforts to curb tobacco use among young adults. Effective targeting requires clear comprehensive campus tobacco policies. However, the development and implementation of comprehensive campus tobacco policies has been lacking among Canadian post-secondary institutions. As the first step towards the development of a comprehensive campus tobacco policy at the University of Guelph, an on-line survey of students, faculty and staff was conducted in November 2012. The objectives of this survey were two-fold: (1) Determine the current level of exposure to second-hand smoke on campus, the type and frequency of tobacco use, opinions on seven different tobacco policy options, and the level of awareness of current tobacco policies and programs and; (2) Determine if any associations between opinions on tobacco policy options and exposure to second-hand smoke and tobacco use existed. The results of this survey demonstrate that tobacco use is associated with opinions on tobacco policy options and that the level of awareness of tobacco policies and programs is relatively low and is not associated with tobacco use. This study represents one of the first studies to examine the association between tobacco use and support of policy options and awareness of tobacco policies and programs. As other post-secondary institutions develop comprehensive tobacco policies, these findings will serve as a comparison for other similar institutions. PMID:23800956

Wallar, Lauren E; Croteau, Sarah; Estill, Amy; Robson, Liz; Papadopoulos, Andrew

2013-12-01

147

Reprocessing option for spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

The options available to utilities for disposal of fuel discharged from their nuclear reactors is not limited to bury or burn. Many utilities in Europe and Japan have already opted to reprocess their spent fuel in the United Kingdom and/or France. This enables the utility to recycle the recovered uranium and plutonium and allows the utilities' countries to formulate a waste disposal policy without the time constraints that would otherwise be placed on them. This paper gives an insight into how and why British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is continuing to provide services to reprocess and recycle spent nuclear fuel. The closed fuel cycle represents the complete irradiated fuel management option and, with its use of well-established technologies, reprocessing of spent fuel is the only option that is available to utilities now.

Woolf, D.N. (British Nuclear Fuels PLC, Risley (United Kingdom))

1991-11-01

148

Antiviral options for biodefense.  

PubMed

A key to biodefense strategies is an assessment of current therapies available as well as the expedited development of new antiviral therapeutic options. Viruses make up the majority of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Category A Priority Pathogens, agents that are considered to pose the greatest risk to public health and national security, and yet there are currently no approved treatments for most of these viral biodefense threats. A review of the Category A viral biothreat agents and strategies for the development of new therapeutics are presented here. PMID:23773331

Byrd, Chelsea M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Hruby, Dennis E

2013-10-01

149

Cybersecurity: Stakeholder incentives, externalities, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information security breaches are increasingly motivated by fraudulent and criminal motives. Reducing their considerable costs has become a pressing issue. Although cybersecurity has strong public good characteristics, most information security decisions are made by individual stakeholders. Due to the interconnectedness of cyberspace, these decentralized decisions are afflicted with externalities that can result in sub-optimal security levels. Devising effective solutions to

Johannes M. Bauer; Michel J. G. van Eeten

2009-01-01

150

Municipal Sludge Management Planning and Policy Options,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to: introduce municipal public decision makers to the issues relating to wastewater treatment plant sludge production treatment and use/disposal. The report is organized as follows: Chapter Two gives a description of basic wast...

E. Epstein J. Alpert

1987-01-01

151

Policy options for stabilizing global climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of this paper is designed to answer the following questions in turn: What is the greenhouse effect What evidence i there that the greenhouse effect is increasing How will the Earth's climate respond to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations What activities are responsible for the greenhouse gas emissions How might emissions and climate change in the future What

D. A. Lashof; D. A. Tirpak

1990-01-01

152

Financing solar energy: state policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

To encourage the use of solar energy resources, the state must organize existing public and private resources. The political and economic conditions for such an effort already exist: consumer dissatisfaction with utility rate increases, pressure on utilities for less expensive alternatives, the maturation of the solar energy industry, and public acceptance of solar energy as one means of meeting the

Roberti

2009-01-01

153

Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. PMID:22019449

Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

2012-02-01

154

Competition Policy and the Global Trading System: A Developing-Country Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

March 1997The major options for encouraging trade competition and banning anticompetitive practices are unlikely to have much of a downside for developing countries. Those that are most advantageous are likely to be opposed by special interest groups in industrial countries.Starting in the late 1980s, policy makers and academics began increasingly to call for the development of multilateral discipline on anticompetitive

Bernard Hoekman

1999-01-01

155

Explore Your Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... New Account Search Effective Health Care Explore Your Treatment Options It’s Your Health. Home Why Explore Your Options ... for a long time, ask your doctor about treatment options. The answers you get may help improve your ...

156

CHRONIC URTICARIA AND TREATMENT OPTIONS  

PubMed Central

Chronic urticaria has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and causes. Still, despite our best efforts no cause may be found in the majority of cases. The treatment options are: Primary prevention in the form of avoidance of aggravating factors; counseling; antihistamines; leukotriene receptor antagonists; prednisolone; sulfasalazine and a host of immunosuppressives like methotrexate, cyclosporine, omalizumab etc.

Godse, Kiran Vasant

2009-01-01

157

Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

2011-01-01

158

Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may force…

Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

2006-01-01

159

Bidding with Outside Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce and experimentally test an auction model that allows for outside options of bidders as substitutes for the auctioned object under the private values assumption. Theoretically and in the experiments, bidders respond to their individual outside options and to variations of common knowledge about competitors outside options. Interestingly, private outside options induce concave equilibrium bidding functions with uniformly distributed

Oliver Kirchkamp; Eva Poen; J. Philipp Reiß

2004-01-01

160

Residential conservation options for Wisconsin: an analysis of residential space heating energy use, 1970 to 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines three weatherization policy options and their impacts on residential-space-heating energy consumption in Wisconsin. The weatherization policies were analyzed with the Wisconsin Residential Energy Model to determine potential energy savings for the state. By comparing the weatherization policy options to a projection of present and future conservation efforts, a quantitative determination of possible energy savings was established. Along

E. L. Hershberg; G. C. Krohm; J. C. Yingling

1979-01-01

161

Mortality derivatives and the option to annuitise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most US-based insurance companies offer holders of their tax-sheltered savings plans (VAs), the long-term option to annuitise their policy at a pre-determined rate over a pre-specified period of time. Currently, there is approximately one trillion dollars invested in such policies, with guaranteed annuitisation rates, in addition to any guaranteed minimum death benefit. The insurance company has essentially granted the policyholder

Moshe A. Milevskya; S. David Promislow

2001-01-01

162

Evaluating health policy capacity: Learning from international and Australian experience  

PubMed Central

Background The health sector in Australia faces major challenges that include an ageing population, spiralling health care costs, continuing poor Aboriginal health, and emerging threats to public health. At the same time, the environment for policy-making is becoming increasingly complex. In this context, strong policy capacity – broadly understood as the capacity of government to make "intelligent choices" between policy options – is essential if governments and societies are to address the continuing and emerging problems effectively. Results This paper explores the question: "What are the factors that contribute to policy capacity in the health sector?" In the absence of health sector-specific research on this topic, a review of Australian and international public sector policy capacity research was undertaken. Studies from the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia were analysed to identify common themes in the research findings. This paper discusses these policy capacity studies in relation to context, models and methods for policy capacity research, elements of policy capacity and recommendations for building capacity. Conclusion Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the organisational and individual factors that are likely to contribute to health policy capacity, highlights the need for further research in the health sector and points to some of the conceptual and methodological issues that need to be taken into consideration in such research.

Gleeson, Deborah H; Legge, David G; O'Neill, Deirdre

2009-01-01

163

Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step.

Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

2013-01-01

164

Introduction to Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

International Finance and Commodities Institute (IFCI) and Axone Services & Development S.A. of Switzerland have developed an on-line course on options. The course is divided into six parts: Comparing Forward, Futures and Options; Options Basics; Basic Options Pricing; Structure and Functioning of an Options Exchange; Hedging; and Trading Strategies. Many of the lessons take the form of brief introductory remarks and then interactive multiple choice questions. At the end of the course there is an interactive quiz you can take to test your knowledge. Note that some prior knowledge of options is assumed.

1995-01-01

165

Environmental Policy with Pollutant Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities to meet an interactive pollutant constraint at minimum cost have been considered. Efflulent charges, transferable discharge permits and the command and control strategy have been used to represent the environmental policy options. It tur...

A. Endres

1984-01-01

166

Today's "Neglected Majority"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

Risley, Rod A.

2007-01-01

167

The City House and the Country House: Land-Use Policies and Rural Poverty in the Northeast. Coal, Poverty, and Development Policy in Eastern Kentucky. Development and Management of Forest Resources for Rural Development in the Pacific Northwest. Natural and Human Resources: Major Public Policy and Minority Rural Land Ownership, Management, and Use. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series, Part V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workshop collection contains four case studies regarding particular relationships between specific resources and clientele or user groups, and three discussions based on those four papers and/or conference discussions. The first paper discusses urban land use origins and compares urban policies with rural policies suggesting that future rural…

Popper, Frank J.; And Others

168

Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies  

PubMed Central

The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

2012-01-01

169

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

170

7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level âThe coverage level...documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO) is available and selected by you. This...percentage is applicable under the combined MPCI/CEO policy when losses under the MPCI...

2010-01-01

171

7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level âThe coverage level...documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO) is available and selected by you. This...percentage is applicable under the combined MPCI/CEO policy when losses under the MPCI...

2009-01-01

172

Forest management options for sequestering carbon in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A “Policy” scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a “Technical Potential” scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a

Omar R. Masera; Mauricio R. Bellon; Gerardo Segura

1995-01-01

173

Food Policy Old and New  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of the food system and the nature of food policy are both changing, as urbanisation, technical change and the industrialisation of the food system transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed in developing countries. This overview presents an evaluation framework and explores new policy options. Some issues feature more prominently in richer, more urbanised, more industrialised

Simon Maxwell; Rachel Slater

2003-01-01

174

Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

1992-03-01

175

Human resources for health in Palestine: a policy analysis. Part I: Current situation and recent developments.  

PubMed

Human Resources for Health Development (HRD) has been a priority and focus of attention in the Palestinian healthcare system since the changeover of authority on the system at the end of 1994. This analysis examines HRD between 1994 and 2001. The aim is to provide an insight into and better understanding of the issue in a conflicting and transitional context. The results of this analysis are presented in two parts. Part I looks at the current situation and recent developments in Human Resources for Health (HRH) in Palestine. On the one hand, it analyses the relationship between HRH deficiencies and major policy options and strategies. On the other hand, it examines the correlation between HRH policy development and the policy context. Particular attention is given to the links between national health policy priorities and health sector reform initiatives. Part II focuses on the process of HRH policy formulation and implementation. PMID:12694959

Hamdan, Motasem; Defever, Mia

2003-05-01

176

Energy Efficiency: Major Issues and Policy Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of loc...

1981-01-01

177

Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

2013-09-01

178

Approximate option pricing  

SciTech Connect

As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-04-08

179

The Origins of Options  

PubMed Central

Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

2012-01-01

180

The safeguards options study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne

E. A. Hakkila; M. F. Mullen; C. T. Olinger; W. D. Stanbro; A. P. Olsen; C. T. Roche; R. R. Rudolph; A. M. Bieber; J. Lemley; E. Filby

1995-01-01

181

Guarantee and embedded options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent economic events, the changing attitude of regulators, and a possible global change in reporting to shareholders have put the options and guarantees included in today's insurance products at the top of the list of management's concerns. Indeed, many senior insurance executives around the world have indicated that they regard the identification, pricing, management, and valuation of guarantees and options

Gary Finkelstein; Emma McWilliam; Steve Nagle; Paul de Beus; Rob van Leijenhorst; Lotte Maas; Jiajia Cui

182

Electricity Real Options Valuation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

Broszkiewicz-Suwaj, E.

2006-11-01

183

Infinite reload options: Pricing and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infinite reload options allow the user to exercise his reload right as often as he chooses during the lifetime of the contract. Each time a reload occurs, the owner receives new options where the strike price is set to the current stock price. We consider a modified version of the infinite reload option contract where the strike price of the new options received by the owner is increased by a certain percentage; we refer to this new contract as an increased reload option. The pricing problem for this modified contract is characterized as an impulse control problem resulting in a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. We use fully implicit timestepping and prove that the discretized equations are monotone, stable and consistent, implying convergence to the viscosity solution. We also derive a globally convergent iterative method for solving the non-linear discrete equations. Numerical examples show that both the exercise policy and the option value are very sensitive to the percentage increase in the reload strike.

Bélanger, A. C.; Forsyth, P. A.

2008-12-01

184

Impacts of the Global Economic Crisis on Child Poverty and Options for a Policy Response in Cameroon. Incidences de la crise économique mondiale de 2008\\/09 et des options de politiques de réponse sur la pauvreté des enfants au Cameroun  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to evaluate the potential impacts of the 2008\\/09 global economic crisis on child poverty in Cameroon. It also explores the potential effects that policy responses to such a crisis could have on children. In order to do this, the study uses a macro-micro methodology. A dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is used to simulate various scenarios

Christian Arnault Emini; Paul Ningaye; Sami Bibi; John Cockburn; Ismaël Fofana; Luca Tiberti

2010-01-01

185

77 FR 43897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rule Change To Increase Position and Exercise Limits for EEM Options July 20, 2012...Limits) to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the iShares MSCI...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for EEM options to 500,000...

2012-07-26

186

76 FR 44633 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rule Change To Increase the Position and Exercise Limits for Options on the Standard...its rules to increase the position and exercise limits for options on the Standard and...Policy .07 to increase the position and exercise limits for SPY options from...

2011-07-26

187

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

188

CO 2 Emissions Impact of Sustainable Food Procurement: Informing University Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter intends to aid university administrators designing sustainable food policy in dining areas by evaluating the\\u000a environmental impact of “sustainable” food alternatives – local and organic – using the related environmental metrics “embedded\\u000a energy” and CO2 emissions. The authors calculate CO2-equivalent emissions associated with local and organic options for fresh fruits and vegetables commonly served in a major\\u000a Midwestern

Esther E. Bowen; Pamela A. Martin

189

Strategy as a portfolio of real options.  

PubMed

In financial terms, a business strategy is much more like a series of options than like a single projected cash flow. Executing a strategy almost always involves making a sequence of major decisions. Some actions are taken immediately while others are deliberately deferred so that managers can optimize their choices as circumstances evolve. While executives readily grasp the analogy between strategy and real options, until recently the mechanics of option pricing was so complex that few companies found it practical to use when formulating strategy. But advances in both computing power and our understanding of option pricing over the last 20 years now make it feasible to apply real-options thinking to strategic decision making. To analyze a strategy as a portfolio of related real options, this article exploits a framework presented by the author in "Investment Opportunities as Real Options: Getting Started on the Numbers" (HBR July-August 1998). That article explained how to get from discounted-cash-flow value to option value for a typical project; in other words, it was about reaching a number. This article extends that framework, exploring how, once you've worked out the numbers, you can use option pricing to improve decision making about the sequence and timing of a portfolio of strategic investments. Timothy Luehrman shows executives how to plot their strategies in two-dimensional "option space," giving them a way to "draw" a strategy in terms that are neither wholly strategic nor wholly financial, but some of both. Such pictures inject financial discipline and new insight into how a company's future opportunities can be actively cultivated and harvested. PMID:10185434

Luehrman, T A

1998-01-01

190

SEATSAT programs option analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary analysis of the costs of SEASAT follow-on options is presented. All the options assume the existence of SEASAT-A as currently defined in the SEASAT Economic Assessment. It is assumed that each option will continue through the year 2000 and approach operational system status in the 1983-1986 period, depending upon the sensor package selected. The launch vehicle assumed through 1983 is the Atlas Agena. After 1983, it is assumed SEASAT-A will switch to the use of the Space Shuttle. All cost estimates are 1976 dollars for fiscal year cost accounting, with no inflation rate included.

Luckl, L.

1976-01-01

191

ERS Data Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Factors which affect ERS-1 data policy are summarized. The pricing policy is aimed at three major targets: (1) to identify a partnership with meteorological/sea state forecasting organizations which is consistent with their modus operandi which at the sam...

L. Marelli

1988-01-01

192

Active Management of Real Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business opportunities to introduce new products at a later date are treated as real options. These real options are modeled as exchange options for which both the underlying and strike assets are risky. The distance to breakeven for an exchange option measures how far a real option is currently expected to be from having a net present value of zero

Tom W. Miller

2011-01-01

193

Porphyria Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... only. For treatment options for Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) , Congenital Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (CEP) and Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria (HEP) ... Contact Us About Porphyria AIP VP HCP ADP PCT EPP CEP HEP Diet and Nutrition History of ...

194

Hydrogen hybrid option.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hyd...

J. R. Smith

1993-01-01

195

A Menu of Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Armed with a few topical and organizational strategies, primary grade teachers can successfully introduce their young scientists to science notebooks. The following overview of notebook methods offers a menu of options to help you develop creative and mea

Joyner, Valerie

2010-11-01

196

Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

2009-07-31

197

Internet Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, in Red Herring, Charles Conn, CEO of Ticketmaster Online-City-Search explained the difficulties of hiring people in San Francisco: "Everyone seems to know someone whose company just got bought for millions of dollars," and according to Conn, job seekers in the Internet industry put stock options high on their list of benefits and incentives. This week's In The News examines stock options as they affect high-tech companies and their employees. On July 1, 1999, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that 42 local companies, mainly Internet start-ups, had gone public in the preceding six months with the astounding gain of 138 percent. Throughout the Silicon Valley, employees of computer companies are hedging their bets, hoping that the companies they work for will be the next eBay or Amazon. However, the chances of striking it rich through Internet stock options are slim. High-tech employees move from company to company looking for better options at promising start-ups, while computer companies improve their option packages in order to entice their workers to stay. The seven resources discussed provide news, articles, and background information on the lures and pitfalls of Internet stock options.

Missner, Emily D.

198

Nevada Transportatoion Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

2006-05-25

199

Financing in Sync--Policy Brief. Policy Insights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper notes that financing policy is potentially the most powerful policy tool states can use to influence how institutions, students, and employers behave in ways consistent with broader public purposes. It is often not wielded effectively. After identifying elements of financing policy and major issues that relate to these elements, the…

Jones, Dennis

200

Policy implications for familial searching  

PubMed Central

In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

2011-01-01

201

Policy implications for familial searching.  

PubMed

In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

2011-01-01

202

Major Andre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

1976-01-01

203

Foreign and Security Policy Decisionmaking Under Yeltsin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the role of key institutions that influence Russian foreign and security policy decision making under President Yeltsin. This report was written as part of a larger project on 'Russia's Strategic Objectives and Options in Europe.'.

F. S. Larrabee T. W. Karasik

1997-01-01

204

Reconsidering California Transport Policies: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Uncertain Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past decade, the state of California has set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions targets across all sectors of the economy. The first major target occurs in 2020, when the state hopes to have reduced statewide greenhouse gas emission from their current levels to 1990 levels. This 320-page paper from RAND researcher Ryan Keefe takes a critical look at the policies adopted by California in its attempt to achieve these long-term goals. Visitors can look over the complete document if they are so inclined, but there is a brief summary available as well. The paper provides a history of climate policy in California, sections on policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles, and new methods for evaluating California's light-duty transportation policies. Finally, the paper also includes a wealth of graphs, charts, and technical appendices.

Keefe, Ryan

2012-02-24

205

48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

2013-10-01

206

Family Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directive supersedes Secretary of Defense Memorandum, 'Department of Defense Family Policy,' establishes policies, assigns responsibilities, and prescribes procedures on family policy for Department of Defense (DoD) military personnel in Active, Natio...

W. York

1988-01-01

207

Alternative grand strategy options for the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold war grand strategy of the United States—containment—became outmoded with the demise of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. This article is a description and review of three U.S. post?cold war grand strategy options, as articulated by different prominent members of the U.S. defense and foreign policy community. The three options—noninterventionism, unipolarism, and multilateralism—capture virtually

John J. Kohout III; Steven J. Lambakis; Keith B. Payne; Robert S. Rudney; Willis A. Stanley; Bernard C. Victory; Linda H. Vlahos

1995-01-01

208

Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

Weil, Alan

209

Toward a National Ocean Policy, 1976 and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each chapter in this publication takes up a specific issue, analyzes its importance to the United States, discusses its evolution in the international negotiating process, and considers the various policy options in the context of the treaty making exercise. The criteria for evaluating policy options are included. The eight chapters are: (1) The…

Osgood, Robert E.; And Others

210

The hydrogen hybrid option  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

Smith, J.R.

1993-10-15

211

The valuation of compound options  

Microsoft Academic Search

can be generalized to value many corporate liabilities. The compound call option formula derived herein considers a call option on stock which is itself an option on the assets of the lirm. This perspective incorporates leverage effects into option pricing and consequently the variance of the rate of return on the stock is not constant as Black-&holes assumed, but is

Robert Geske

1979-01-01

212

Diagrammatic approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real option valuation requires the combination of financial option pricing methods with business-based optimization techniques. In this article a diagrammatic representation of real option deals is introduced, which allows the full complexity of real option formulations to be discussed with non-technical practitioners. Examples from finance and the energy industry are presented and discussed. .

Leppard, Steve

2001-02-01

213

Career Options in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a credit/no credit course which focuses on career options in chemistry. The course (consisting of 15 one-hour seminar-type sessions) includes guest speakers for several sessions and an emphasis (in introductory sessions) on graduate school in chemistry, the chemical industry, resumes, and interviews. Also briefly describes an internship…

Belloli, Robert C.

1985-01-01

214

Option pricing and momentum  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a stock pays a stochastic dividend, a negative correlation between the returns on the stock and the innovations to the dividend yield induces momentum in stock returns. This situation may arise if managers are reluctant to fully ad- just dividends to changes in earnings. This paper studies the pricing of options in such a case, within a new model

Juan Carlos Rodríguezy

215

Our Energy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

216

Community Options for Elders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the Winnebago County (Wisconsin) Community Options Program, begun in January, 1982, which provides for a comprehensive assessment of all elderly persons within the target area who are at risk of becoming institutionalized. The paper focuses on the planning activities for the first year of the pilot program including community…

Poulsen, Joyce G.

217

Minnesota's Open Enrollment Option.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the implementation and early effects of Minnesota's open-enrollment option, which allows families to apply to enroll their children in a public school in any nonresident school district in the state. During 1989-90, surveys were mailed to 2,663 participating families, 1,966 secondary school students, and all 432 district…

Rubenstein, Michael C.; And Others

218

Treatment options for paraphimosis.  

PubMed

Paraphimosis is a frequently presented complaint in the emergency department. This review outlines the treatment options available for resolving this condition: manual reduction methods, osmotic methods, puncture and aspiration methods and treatments using sharp incision. The technique of penile block local anaesthesia is described. A technique sequence for treatment is suggested. PMID:15857356

Little, B; White, M

2005-05-01

219

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

2002-01-01

220

NCLB Transfer Policy Seen as Flawed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines what some people see as flaws in the transfer policy provision of the No Child Left Behind law. Advocates of the policy are calling for providing schools with incentives to accept transfers and for giving parents more time, information, and options, among other changes. States need to hold districts' feet to the fire, those…

Hendrie, Caroline

2005-01-01

221

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

222

Major Depression Can Be Prevented  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

2012-01-01

223

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

Lipo, T. A.

1995-01-01

224

Small satellite propulsion options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced chemical and low power electric propulsion offer attractive options for small satellite propulsion. Applications include orbit raising, orbit maintenance, attitude control, repositioning, and deorbit of both Earth-space and planetary spacecraft. Potential propulsion technologies for these functions include high pressure Ir/Re bipropellant engines, very low power arcjets, Hall thrusters, and pulsed plasma thrusters, all of which have been shown to operate in manners consistent with currently planned small satellites. Mission analyses show that insertion of advanced propulsion technologies enables and/or greatly enhances many planned small satellite missions. Examples of commercial, DoD, and NASA missions are provided to illustrate the potential benefits of using advanced propulsion options on small satellites.

Myers, Roger M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Curran, Francis M.; Schneider, Steven J.

1994-01-01

225

Paraphimosis: current treatment options.  

PubMed

Paraphimosis is a urologic emergency, occurring in uncircumcised males, in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the corona and forms a tight band of constricting tissue. Often iatrogenically induced, paraphimosis can be prevented by returning the prepuce to cover the glans following penile manipulation. Treatment often begins with reduction of edema, followed by a variety of options, including mechanical compression, pharmacologic therapy, puncture technique and dorsal slit. Prevention and early intervention are key elements in the management of paraphimosis. PMID:11142469

Choe, J M

2000-12-15

226

The Institutional Dimension in Policy Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Policy assessment from an institutional perspective follows the concept of institutions for sustainability, which is defined\\u000a as the necessary institutional structure capable of delivering economic, social, and environmental sustainability objectives.\\u000a Thus, the effectiveness of a policy and the cost-effectiveness of its implementation depend to a large extent on the degree\\u000a of compatibility between this policy option and the respective institutional

Insa Theesfeld; Christian Schleyer; Konrad Hagedorn; Jean-Marc Callois; Olivier Aznar; Johanna Alkan Olsson

227

Drug legalization, harm reduction, and drug policy.  

PubMed

The current U.S. policy options on drug use are reviewed in the context of the history of drug policy in the United States. A restrictive drug policy is a deterrent to drug use and helps reduce drug-related costs and societal problems. Although legalization or decriminalization of drugs might reduce some of the legal consequences of drug use, increased drug use would result in harmful consequences. PMID:7639447

DuPont, R L; Voth, E A

1995-09-15

228

Followup review of major system aquisitions and major projects  

SciTech Connect

In 1985, we reviewed the Department's procedures and practices for managing and controlling its major acquisition program, both for major systems and major projects. The 1985 review resulted in the identification of significant deficiencies. We found, for example, deficiencies relating to documentation and reporting requirements for major acquisitions. The purpose of this review was to determine if this condition had been corrected. The review included an examination of applicable laws, Executive Orders, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars, and Department policies. We examined key documents prepared for major acquisitions and reviewed reports used by senior Departmental officials to monitor these projects. Our audit was based primarily on a limited review of documentation available at Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. We did not extend our review of the issues raised in this report because we concluded that the management of major acquisitions was of such importance to the Department at this time that expedited reporting was needed.

Not Available

1990-11-21

229

Wake Forest U. Joins Ranks of Test-Optional Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wake Forest University will no longer require applicants to submit standardized test scores, the university announced last week. The move makes Wake Forest, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, one of the most prominent institutions with a "test optional" admissions policy. The university's decision reveals the increasing complexity of the national…

Hoover, Eric; Supiano, Beckie

2008-01-01

230

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact and vulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having the potential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related to climate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops a typology of adaptation to

Barry Smit; MARK W. SKINNER

2002-01-01

231

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact andvulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having thepotential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related toclimate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops atypology of adaptation to systematically classify and characterize

Barry Smit; Mark W. Skinner

2002-01-01

232

Compensatory Education Part I Program No. 56. Options in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains Part I of a transcript of a broadcast from "Options in Education", an electronic weekly magazine covering news, features, policy and people in the field of education. Compensatory education is disussed by : government personnel (e.g. a congressional aide; a school superintendent); education personnel (e.g., an educational…

George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

233

Treatment Options for Pituitary Tumors  

MedlinePLUS

... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ... gland or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview There are different types of treatment ...

234

Theory of Rational Option Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long history of the theory of option pricing began in 1900 when the French mathematician Louis Bachelier deduced an option pricing formula based on the assumption that stock prices follow a Brownian motion with zero drift. Since that time, numerous researchers have contributed to the theory. The present paper begins by deducing a set of restrictions on option pricing

Robert C. Merton

1973-01-01

235

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

236

Electronic Funds Transfer and Monetary Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive analysis of the institutions, the instruments, and the channels of influence of monetary policy in the national economy is presented. It includes an examination of major points of impact of electronic funds transfer on monetary policy base...

1976-01-01

237

Policy Problematization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

Webb, P. Taylor

2014-01-01

238

Treatment options for hyperhidrosis.  

PubMed

Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating beyond what is expected for thermoregulatory needs and environmental conditions. Primary hyperhidrosis has an estimated prevalence of nearly 3% and is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Most cases of hyperhidrosis involve areas of high eccrine density, particularly the axillae, palms, and soles, and less often the craniofacial area. Multiple therapies are available for the treatment of hyperhidrosis. Options include topical medications (most commonly aluminum chloride), iontophoresis, botulinum toxin injections, systemic medications (including glycopyrrolate and clonidine), and surgery (most commonly endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy [ETS]). The purpose of this article is to comprehensively review the literature on the subject, with a focus on new and emerging treatment options. Updated therapeutic algorithms are proposed for each commonly affected anatomic site, with practical procedural guidelines. For axillary and palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, topical treatment is recommended as first-line treatment. For axillary hyperhidrosis, botulinum toxin injections are recommended as second-line treatment, oral medications as third-line treatment, local surgery as fourth-line treatment, and ETS as fifth-line treatment. For palmar and plantar hyperhidrosis, we consider a trial of oral medications (glycopyrrolate 1-2 mg once or twice daily preferred to clonidine 0.1 mg twice daily) as second-line therapy due to the low cost, convenience, and emerging literature supporting their excellent safety and reasonable efficacy. Iontophoresis is considered third-line therapy for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high although so are the initial levels of cost and inconvenience. Botulinum toxin injections are considered fourth-line treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis; efficacy is high though the treatment remains expensive, must be repeated every 3-6 months, and is associated with pain and/or anesthesia-related complications. ETS is a fifth-line option for palmar hyperhidrosis but is not recommended for plantar hyperhidrosis due to anatomic risks. For craniofacial hyperhidrosis, oral medications (either glycopyrrolate or clonidine) are considered first-line therapy. Topical medications or botulinum toxin injections may be useful in some cases and ETS is an option for severe craniofacial hyperhidrosis. PMID:21714579

Walling, Hobart W; Swick, Brian L

2011-10-01

239

Current treatment options for the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optional statement  The metabolic syndrome is defined as a condition characterized by a set of clinical criteria: insulin resistance, visceral\\u000a obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to the epidemic of this syndrome in the\\u000a United States are visceral obesity, physical inactivity, and an atherogenic diet. The available current evidence suggests\\u000a that the first step in management of

Prakash C. Deedwania; Natalia Volkova

2005-01-01

240

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01

241

Investment in antiviral drugs: a real options approach.  

PubMed

Real options analysis is a promising approach to model investment under uncertainty. We employ this approach to value stockpiling of antiviral drugs as a precautionary measure against a possible influenza pandemic. Modifications of the real options approach to include risk attitude and deviations from expected utility are presented. We show that risk aversion counteracts the tendency to delay investment for this case of precautionary investment, which is in contrast to earlier applications of risk aversion to real options analysis. Moreover, we provide a numerical example using real world data and discuss the implications of real options analysis for health policy. Suggestions for further extensions of the model and a comparison with the expected value of information analysis are put forward. PMID:19816857

Attema, Arthur E; Lugnér, Anna K; Feenstra, Talitha L

2010-10-01

242

Novel preventive treatment options.  

PubMed

A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close to that point. These include: approximal sealants; fluoride applications, including slow-release devices; measures to help remineralize demineralized tissue, including 3 different methods of delivering amorphous calcium phosphate; measures to help modify the biofilm to reduce the cariogenic challenge, including ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral health can be best supported through novel preventive systems. Further research is also required involving double-blind randomized controlled trials in order to bring further benefits of more effective caries control to patients. Implementation in practice should follow promptly as new techniques are shown to be clinically valuable for individual patients. PMID:19494683

Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D; Kambara, M

2009-01-01

243

Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

2013-01-01

244

Using System Dynamics to Extend Real Options Use: Insights from the Oil & Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work examines the application of system dynamics to real options through work with a major energy firm to apply real options. Five key challenges facing the real options community are presented and potential system dynamics contributions to these challenges are discussed. Two cases from a BP research project illustrate how system dynamics can be used to develop and

Scott T Johnson; Tim Taylor; David N Ford

245

Capacity, Competitiveness, and Capitol Mobility in the World Economy: Challenge to U.S. Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of research undertaken to define the policy problems that are being created for the United States by growing competitiveness in international trade, and to determine the policy options for responding to these problems. The problems a...

W. H. Branson J. D. Richardson

1982-01-01

246

Domestic Shipping and Maritime Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper analyzes the major components of the U.S. Domestic Merchant Marine and sketches the background behind a major shift in maritime policy, as well as the major program elements, as established at the National Planning Conference on Domestic Shippin...

W. T. Sansone

1972-01-01

247

NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration: Policy vs. practice  

SciTech Connect

Overwhelmed with environmental protection documentation requirements, a number of Federal agencies are grappling with the complexities of attempting to integrate'' the documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). While there is some overlap between the general environmental policy objectives of NEPA, and the much more specific waste cleanup objectives of CERCLA and RCRA, there are also major differences and outright conflicts. This paper identifies both problems and opportunities associated with implementing emerging and evolving Federal agency policy regarding integration of the procedural and documentation requirements of NEPA, CERCLA, and RCRA. The emphasis is on NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration policy and practice at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The paper provides a comparative analysis of NEPA, CERCLA, and RCRA processes and discusses special integration issues including scoping, development and analysis of alternatives, risk assessment, tiering, scheduling, and the controversy surrounding applicability of NEPA to CERCLA or RCRA cleanup activities. Several NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration strategy options are evaluated and an annotated outline of an integrated NEPA/CERCLA document is included.

Hansen, R.P. (Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)); Wolff, T.A. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01

248

TOPEX satellite option study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic design of the fleet satellite communication spacecraft (FLTSATCOM) can easily accommodate any of the three payload options for the ocean dynamic topography experiment (TOPEX). The principal mission requirements as well as the payload accommodations and communications systems needed for launching this payload are reviewed. The existing FLTSATCOM satellite design is identified and the approaches for the proposed propulsion system are described in addition to subsystems for mechanical; power; attitude and velocity control; and telemetry, tracking and control are described. The compatability of FLTSATCOM with the launch vehicle is examined and its capabilities vs TOPEX requirements are summarized. Undetermined changes needed to meet data storage, thermal control, and area to mass ratio requirements are discussed. Cost estimates are included for budgetary and planning purposes. The availability of the described design is assessed based on the continuing production of FLTSATCOM spacecraft during the schedule span planned for TOPEX.

1982-01-01

249

Notes: Installation vs. Echelon Stock Policies for Multilevel Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares installation and echelon stock policies for multilevel inventory control. The major results are for serial and assembly systems. For (Q, r)-rules, echelon stock policies are, in general, superior to installation stock policies. A Kanban-policy is identified as a restricted type of installation stock (Q, r)-policy.

Sven Axsäter; Kaj Rosling

1993-01-01

250

Environmental policy, assessment and communication  

SciTech Connect

This second volume in the Gower ethnoscapes Series explores the realm of environmental policy and presents analysis of three major public policy issues: growing public concern over environmental factors; growing awareness of the relationship between environment, crime and adolescent development; and increased environmental awareness in relation to population growth and housing needs (especially housing for the elderly and mass housing for third world nations).

Canter, D.; Krampen, M.; Stea, D.

1988-01-01

251

Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies  

SciTech Connect

NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

1986-08-01

252

Revisiting Graduation Requirements and Diploma Options for Youth with Disabilities: A National Study. Technical Report 49  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the results of a national study on the current status of state graduation policies and diploma options for youth with disabilities. It examines state policies in relation to their intended benefits as well as possible unintended consequences, and compared the findings with a similar study conducted by Johnson and Thurlow in…

Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen E.

2007-01-01

253

Third Grade Reading Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

Rose, Stephanie

2012-01-01

254

Trustees and Public Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Washington-based national organizations are seen as effective in dealing with the government, especially on technical questions. But when major policy issues are to be decided, it is suggested that a college president or board member is more effective. Knowing the committee structure is seen as necessary for influencing legislation. (Author/MLW)

Saunders, Charles B.; Bellows, Everett H.

1980-01-01

255

New options for environmental policy in central and eastern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discussion of sustainable development focused attention on new environmental goals and raised the issue of improving resource productivity. A first step towards sustainability would be to slow-down and reduce the man-induced movements of materials: this is the focus of dematerialization approach which emphasizes what socialist countries used to neglect most – minimizing the use of scarce input factors. This

Maria Jolanta Welfens

1999-01-01

256

Policy Options in Building Socialism New Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a significant historical task to build socialism new rural areas in the modernization process. Although the relative importance of agriculture is decreasing, it is still serving as the economic base and playing important role in economic development. Whether the farmers can share the fruits of economic development or not will affect directly the build of socialism new rural

HE Shu-Quan

2007-01-01

257

Desertification in the Sudan: causes, effects and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desertification is the spread of desert-like conditions in arid and semi-arid conditions. It is a result of pressure from both climatic and human factors. Desertification in the Sudan has been accelerating at a faster rate over the last two decades, leading to marginalization and the loss of arable land. The main factors contributing to desertification include drought, population growth, the

S. L. Laki

1994-01-01

258

An assessment of Hawaii's biomass enrgy options: Economics and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology for converting agricultural biomass to generate electrical power by the direct combustion method has long been established on sugarcane plantations in the state of Hawaii. Increasing uncertainty over energy supplies and pyramidal escalation of energy prices in recent years have served to refocus both state and national attention on the operational feasibility and economic viability of alternate Biomass

Kasturi

1980-01-01

259

Access to land in rural India - policy issues and options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to land is deeply important in rural India, where the incidence of poverty is highly correlated with lack of access to land. The author provides a framework for assessing alternative approaches to improving access to land by India's rural poor. He considers India's record implementing land reform and identifies an approach that includes incremental reforms in public land administration

Robin Mearns

1999-01-01

260

Cundy's Harbor Working Waterfront Study Village Profile and Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a profile of the Cundys Harbor village and its working waterfront. It also sets out some strategies for protecting the character and vitality of Cundys Harbors working waterfront and for addressing some of the challenges facing working...

2004-01-01

261

Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: Background and Policy Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Critical infrastructure consists of systems and assets so vital to the United States that their incapacity would harm the nation's physical security, economic security, or public health. Critical infrastructure is often geographically concentrated, so it ...

P. W. Parfomak

2007-01-01

262

POLICY OPTIONS FOR ENHANCING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN ROAD TRANSPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. BACKGROUND Road transport causes vast environmental, planning and sociological problems in modern society. The increasing dominance of motor vehicles throughout the 20th century as a means of transport has caused poor air quality in urban areas, declining quality of life in inner city areas as a result of traffic congestion and the slow decline of public transport. This has

Adrian Bradbrook

263

Pharmaceutical policy reform in the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

Of Russia's 142 million citizens, fewer than 20 million are enrolled in outpatient drug coverage plans. The current government aims to establish universal health insurance including outpatient medicines. Based on the current political and regulatory environment, this report explores pharmaceutical pricing options for Russia that balance greater access to medicines with achieving government plans of boosting local pharmaceutical production. To match innovative medicine prices with their health benefits, in the long run, we suggest that Russia consider adopting value-based pricing, and in the short term, that it introduce direct price negotiations and price drugs according to reference countries that use health technology assessment. Although generic market shares are high, generic medicine prices are higher than they should be. We propose tenders at the manufacturer level for the pricing of high-selling generics, and free pricing for products with sufficient market competition. These policy recommendations are a jumping-off point for further discussion about how pharmaceutical policy could aid this major economy to achieve its population health and health service goals. PMID:24603082

Rudisill, Caroline; Vandoros, Sotiris; Antoun, Joseph George

2014-06-01

264

Castles or Cattle? Community Economics and Policy Alternatives in the Competition for Ranch Open Space Values (62)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the welfare (total and distributional) implications associated with the policy options available to Routt County, Colorado to manage its ranch open space. The policy options to be analyzed are a lodging tax, a mill-levy tax, a sales tax, and zoning. IMPLAN is used to quantify the economic impacts (fiscal, total and distributional) and run the policy simulations.

Lindsey Ellingson

265

Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.  

PubMed

Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system. PMID:24374463

Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

2014-01-15

266

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

2004-10-03

267

Maintenance and supply options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

1988-01-01

268

AFCI Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2009-09-01

269

Foreign Policy Decision Making, Garbage Cans, and Policy ShiftsThe Eisenhower Administration and the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organizational process, bureaucratic politics, and presidential management models of U.S. foreign policy decision making have dominated scholarly analysis. However, these models have difficulty explaining major changes in policy. This article modifies the garbage-can model of organizational choice, combining it with the foreign policy decision-making models, to explain policy shifts. If the four streams of policy hypothesized by the garbage-can

William W. Newmann

1998-01-01

270

Policy Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Policy institutions around the United States spend a staggering $1.5 billion on research each year. Many of them do an excellent job in terms of putting their policy papers, working papers, factsheets, and so on online for use by the public and scholars. Of course, it can be very difficult to locate some of them, and that's where the Policy Archive steps in. Sponsored by the Center for Governmental Studies (CGS) and the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Library, the Policy Archive site brings together thousands of full text documents, reports, videos, and multimedia material generated by these various think tanks and institutions. Additionally, policy institutions and the like can learn how to submit their own work to the archive. Visitors can also sign up to receive email newsletters about the latest research in the topic areas that are of interest to them.

271

A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

Bacon, Kathy A.

2010-01-01

272

Option Backdating and Board Interlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of board connections in explaining how the controversial practice of backdating employee stock options spread to a large number of firms across a wide range of industries. The increase in the likelihood that a firm begins to backdate stock options that can be explained by having a board member who is interlocked to a previously identified

John Bizjak; Michael Lemmon; Ryan Whitby

2009-01-01

273

Repository Benefits of AFCI Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results described in this report summarize the evaluations of potential benefits to a geologic repository for a variety of AFCI options that were studied during FY04. Many of the options were examined in response to a request by Burton Richter, chair ...

R. A. Wigeland T. H. Bauer

2005-01-01

274

Stock Options: The Backdating Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] Employee stock options are contracts giving employees the right to buy the company’s common stock at a specified exercise price, at a specified time or during a specified period, and after a specified vesting period. The value of the option when granted lies in the prospect that the market price of the company’s stock will increase by the time

James M Bickley; Gary Shorter

2008-01-01

275

Martingale approach to real options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We formulate a general mathematical model for investments in real assets from the perspective of the real options approach. We then derive an analytic expression for its price under a market completeness assumption. This expression is the solution of a stochastic optimization problem. The generality of the model is such that it can also provide a framework for the study of financial options. .

Hughston, Lane P.; Zervos, Mihail

2001-02-01

276

Identity Options in Russian Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a new analytical approach to the study of identity options offered in foreign and second language textbooks. This approach, grounded in poststructuralist theory and critical discourse analysis, is applied to 2 popular beginning Russian textbooks. Two sets of identity options are examined in the study: imagined learners…

Shardakova, Marya; Pavlenko, Aneta

2004-01-01

277

Spectrum policy issues in wireless education programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the author has spent most of his career as a practitioner of spectrum policy in both government entities and the private sector, he has also been involved in engineering education in spectrum policy both at MIT and at Virginia Tech. Spectrum policy issues can have a major impact on the practical aspects of which wireless technologies move from the

Michael Marcus

2012-01-01

278

Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

2011-01-01

279

Economic Crimes Policy Team: Cellular Telephone Cloning. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Economic Crimes Policy Team was chartered to advance the Commission's work in several areas, including the development of options for implementing the directives contained in the Wireless Telephone Protection Act (Pub. L. No. 105-172; April 24, 1998)....

P. Biderman A. Blanchard T. Brown P. Desio J. Gabriel G. Gilmore C. Kitchens L. Maxfield R. Pierce M. Rushen

2000-01-01

280

Economic Crimes Policy Team: Cellular Telephone Cloning. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Economic Crimes Policy Team was chartered to advance the Commission's work in several areas, including the development of options for implementing the directives contained in the Wireless Telephone Protection Act (Pub. L. No. 105-172; April 24, 1998)....

P. Biderman A. Blanchard T. Brown P. Desio J. Gabriel G. Gilmore C. Kitchens L. Maxfield R. Pierce M. Rushen

2000-01-01

281

Public opinion polling on gun policy.  

PubMed

Faced with the national epidemic of gun violence, legislators should be especially sensitive to their constituents' support for various policy options. This support is best evidenced by well-conducted public opinion polls. We review public opinion polls on gun policy since 1987. Although the public support for a number of promising interventions targeting the design and manufacture of firearms has not been meaningfully investigated, strong support is evidenced for most other gun-control options. The public also believes, contrary to Supreme Court rulings, that the Second Amendment to the Constitution protects a broad individual right to bear arms. PMID:8125437

Vernick, J S; Teret, S P; Howard, K A; Teret, M D; Wintemute, G J

1993-01-01

282

Social policy and child health.  

PubMed

Under the rubric of social policy and child mental health are two overlapping but conceptually different areas. The first set is the social policy questions with direct relevance to child mental health programs per se; that is, decisions about whether a given child mental health proposal merits the investment of community resources. The second category of social forces is that which has important secondary consequences for child mental health although child mental health per se may never enter the discussion; for example, policy decisions which have a major impact on family life (women's rights, tax policy, divorce law, employment policy, etc.). This paper will review the first category, the overt policy issues, before moving on to the second category, the "convert" child health debate. PMID:7919614

Eisenberg, L

1994-03-01

283

Major Facilities for Materials Research and Related Disciplines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the request of the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy, the National Research Council formed the Major Materials Facilities Committee to recommend priorities for major facilities for materials research. These facilities, defined as thos...

1984-01-01

284

MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT AND RESTORE  

EPA Science Inventory

MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT, AND RESTORE Ideally, major human and environmental monitoring networks should provide the scientific information needed for policy and management decision-making processes. It is widely recognized that reliable...

285

Stata 8 Graphics: Options, sub-options and sub-sub-options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stata 8 graphics have changed out of all recognition from that available in earlier versions. It was not just that a whole new array of options and sub-options were introduced, but the graph syntax itself completely changed. Just trying to produce a simple plot of x against y using Stata 7 syntax (graph x y) produced bewildering error messages e.g.

Tim Collier

2005-01-01

286

Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Center on Global Climate Change has recently placed online the October 1999 report entitled "Developing Countries & Global Climate Change: Electric Power Options in Korea." Written by Jin-Gyu Oh and others, the report (.pdf format) discusses the implications of Korea's energy choices -- coal, gas, nuclear, or renewable energy -- and how the chosen "mix of policy, growth, and technology will affect investment costs and the local and global environment."

Chandler, William.; Jo, Sung B.; Kim, Jinwoo.; Logan, Jeffrey.; Oh, Jin-Gyu.; Roh, Dong-Seok.

1999-01-01

287

Evaluation of Dairy Effluent Management Options Using Multiple Criteria Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes how options for managing dairy effluent on the Lower Murray River in South Australia were evaluated using multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Multiple criteria analysis is a framework for combining multiple environmental, social, and economic objectives in policy decisions. At the time of the study, dairy irrigation in the region was based on flood irrigation which involved returning effluent to the river. The returned water contained nutrients, salts, and microbial contaminants leading to environmental, human health, and tourism impacts. In this study MCA was used to evaluate 11 options against 6 criteria for managing dairy effluent problems. Of the 11 options, the MCA model selected partial rehabilitation of dairy paddocks with the conversion of remaining land to other agriculture. Soon after, the South Australian Government adopted this course of action and is now providing incentives for dairy farmers in the region to upgrade irrigation infrastructure and/or enter alternative industries.

Hajkowicz, Stefan A.; Wheeler, Sarah A.

2008-04-01

288

Making real options really work.  

PubMed

As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets. PMID:15605572

van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

2004-12-01

289

The 21st Century Challenge: Moving the Youth Agenda Forward. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Public Policy Issues Monograph.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains nine papers devoted to the labor market problems faced by out-of-school and other disadvantaged young people in the United States and policy options and strategies for addressing those problems. The papers update the data on out-of-school young adults, review the lessons learned from past youth programs and policies,…

Pines, Marion, Ed.

290

Management of major system programs and projects. Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Handbook establishes the detailed policies and processes for implementing NMI 7120.4, 'Management of Major System Programs and Projects'. It constitutes a comprehensive source of the specific policies and processes governing management of major development programs/projects and is intended as a resource to the entire program/project management (PPM) community.

1993-01-01

291

Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook  

SciTech Connect

Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

Not Available

2011-11-01

292

Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa  

SciTech Connect

Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

Makundi, Willy R.

1998-06-01

293

Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... following stages are used for bladder cancer: Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ) Enlarge Stage ... staging tests , above. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Papillary Carcinoma and Carcinoma in Situ) Treatment of ...

294

Incontinence Treatment: Newer Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel Management Biofeedback Surgical Treatments Newer Treatment Options Tips on Finding ... changes Dietary changes Medication Bowel management/retraining program Biofeedback therapy Surgical treatments Newer procedures or devices Tips ...

295

Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

296

Global Health and Foreign Policy  

PubMed Central

Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

2010-01-01

297

Global health and foreign policy.  

PubMed

Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

2010-04-01

298

Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

Klem, M.J.

1996-10-23

299

Europe '92. Decentralizing environmental policy in the single market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of the EC's internal market by the end of 1992 appears to necessitate a harmonization of environmental policies in the European Community. Against this background, the paper analyzes the options for decentralizing environmental policy in Europe and indicates some limitations of this approach.

Horst Siebert; R O. Box

1991-01-01

300

Post-Structuralism and Policy Research in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically examines some of the challenges to policy research posed by post-modernist and post-structuralist thinking. Argues that policy research poses particular problems because there must always come a point of closure on options. Researchers must find ways of negotiating the shifting configurations in the relationship between research,…

Humes, Walter; Bryce, Tom

2003-01-01

301

Essays on Urban Transportation and Transportation Energy Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation outlines three topics on urban transportation energy, emphasizing the role of transportation energy policy, and aims to provide a single comprehensive framework to evaluate and compare different pricing and regulatory policy options for reducing transportation fuel consumption in the United States. In the first chapter, I examine the effect of population density on motor fuel (i.e., highway gasoline)

Chun Kon Kim

2008-01-01

302

Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

303

A comparison of two privacy policy languages: EPAL and XACML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current regulatory requirements in the U.S. and other countries make it increasingly important for Web Services to be able to enforce and verify their compliance with privacy policies. Structured policy languages can play a major role by supporting automated enforcement of policies and auditing of access decisions. This paper compares two policy languages that have been developed for use in

Anne H. Anderson

2006-01-01

304

Issues in Policy, Assessment, and Equity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National educational reform presents an unprecedented opportunity to combine policy options, the best technological knowledge, and American concerns about equity and fairness. There are three principal concerns regarding equity in assessment of Limited-English-proficient (LEP) and other student populations: (1) if students are not assessed because…

Baker, Eva L.

305

Energy policy in a changing social order  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

Schaller, D.A.

1981-01-01

306

Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

Amara, Muhammad Hasan

2003-01-01

307

End of Television and Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transformation of television has altered the capacity of the state to control the agenda for making war, convening peace, and otherwise exercising its foreign policy options. In the age of the state gatekeeper, there was at least the illusion (and often the reality) that the government could substantially control the flow of images within its borders. With transformations in

Monroe E. Price

2009-01-01

308

Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a

Gilles Dussault; Carl-Ardy Dubois

2003-01-01

309

Market Environmentalism, New Environmental Policy Instruments, and Climate Policy in the United Kingdom and Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for effective and efficient climate policy has led to a major expansion in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary agreements (New Environmental Policy Instruments [NEPIs]) at national and international levels. Yet, despite the prevalence of these instruments as an outcropping of the broader shift toward neoliberal approaches to environmental policies, tremendous diversity exists in the way signatories

Ian Bailey

2007-01-01

310

Education Policies in Perspective: An Appraisal of OECD Country Educational Policy Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of studies of national educational policy conducted by member nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from 1965 to 1979 is presented. The major objective of the report is to identify lessons from past educational policies of the various countries to serve as guides for current and future policy

Kogan, Maurice

311

External shocks and policy change: Three Mile Island and Swedish nuclear energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of the dynamics of policy change, the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) has attracted much attention. The ACF hypothesizes that external perturbations are a necessary condition for major policy change. Despite the import- ance of this insight, this article argues that it is still necessary to conduct research to uncover the micro-level processes at work when policies change

Daniel Nohrstedt

2005-01-01

312

The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

313

How can leaders’ perceptions guide policy analysis in an era of governance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the challenges facing policy analysts is how to improve policy processes in the era of governance. The present article\\u000a examines how “perceptions analysis,” i.e. the identification of perceptions of different leaders in a specific policy field,\\u000a may contribute to policy analysis. The article focuses on two questions: What explains leaders’ support for different policy\\u000a options? Can the examination

Lihi Lahat

2011-01-01

314

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder about the connection between history and contemporary policymaking. Well, the passionate and dedicated individuals at the History & Policy organization are committed to looking at the intersection of these two areas of inquiry and research. History & Policy is a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. It is managed by its four founding historians, and visitors to the site can browse their papers by theme, author, or keyword. The papers offer a wide range of perspectives on history and policy-related matters, and recent works have included papers on social housing and tenant participation, genocide in the twentieth century, and "The Prime Minister as World Statesman". Practicing historians can also sign up to join their network, and anyone is welcome browse through their events calendar and register for email updates.

2008-01-01

315

Population policy.  

PubMed

Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program. PMID:12341036

1987-03-01

316

Migrants, refugees and foreign policy: prevention and intervention strategies.  

PubMed

The authors discuss policy development options to deal with migrants and refugees to developed countries. "Our principal argument--perhaps to state the obvious--is that international migration and refugee movements are foreign policy, not simply domestic, issues. Nevertheless, citizens and policy makers are all too often unaware that if they want to secure their borders against unwanted population flows, this cannot be done simply by unilateral decisions to regulate entry." The focus is on Germany and the United States. PMID:12321917

Weiner, M; Munz, R

1997-03-01

317

A policyholder's utility indifference valuation model for the guaranteed annuity option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insurance companies often include very long-term guarantees in participating life insurance products, which can turn out to be very valuable. Under a guaranteed annuity options (G.A.O), the insurer guarantees to convert a policyholder's accumulated funds to a life annuity at a fixed rated when the policy matures. Both financial and actuarial approaches have been used to valuate of such options.

Matheus R Grasselli; Sebastiano Silla

2009-01-01

318

How procurement options influence risk management in construction projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before proceeding with a project, a client has to choose an appropriate procurement option that facilitates an effective project organization in general and a thorough risk management process in particular. By identifying three procurement variables that have a major influence on risk management: project delivery method, form of payment, and use of collaboration or partnering arrangements, the effect of each

Ekaterina Osipova; Per Erik Eriksson

2011-01-01

319

Informatics Policies  

Cancer.gov

NIH Data Sharing PolicyNIH expects and supports the timely release and sharing of final research data from NIH-supported studies for use by other researchers. Investigators submitting an NIH application will be required to include a plan for data sharing

320

Design Evolution Study - Aging Options  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new subsurface area (high cost); surface aging in the complete waste package (risk to the waste package and impact on the Waste Handling Facility); and aging in the stainless steel liner (impact on the waste package design and new high risk operations added to the waste packaging process). The selection of a design basis for aging will be made in conjunction with the other design re-evaluation studies.

P. McDaniel

2002-04-05

321

Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial progress has been made in developing more realistic option pricing models. Empirically, however, it is not known whether and by how much each generalization improves option pricing and hedging. The authors fill this gap by first deriving an option model that allows volatility, interest rates, and jumps to be stochastic. Using S&P 500 options, they examine several alternative models

Charles Quanwei Cao; Gurdip S. Bakshi; Zhiwu Chen

1997-01-01

322

Empirical Performance of Altemative Option Pricing Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial progress has been made in developing more realistic option pricing models. Empirically, however, it is not known whether and by how much each generahzation improves option pricing and hedging. We fill this gap by first deriving an option model that allows volatility, interest rates and jumps to be stochastic. Using S&P 500 options, we examine several altemative models from

GURDIP BAKSHI; CHAELES CAO; ZHIWU CHEN

2003-01-01

323

Policy oscillation is overshooting.  

PubMed

A majority of approximate dynamic programming approaches to the reinforcement learning problem can be categorized into greedy value function methods and value-based policy gradient methods. The former approach, although fast, is well known to be susceptible to the policy oscillation phenomenon. We take a fresh view to this phenomenon by casting, within the context of non-optimistic policy iteration, a considerable subset of the former approach as a limiting special case of the latter. We explain the phenomenon in terms of this view and illustrate the underlying mechanism with artificial examples. We also use it to derive the constrained natural actor-critic algorithm that can interpolate between the aforementioned approaches. In addition, it has been suggested in the literature that the oscillation phenomenon might be subtly connected to the grossly suboptimal performance in the Tetris benchmark problem of all attempted approximate dynamic programming methods. Based on empirical findings, we offer a hypothesis that might explain the inferior performance levels and the associated policy degradation phenomenon, and which would partially support the suggested connection. Finally, we report scores in the Tetris problem that improve on existing dynamic programming based results by an order of magnitude. PMID:24491826

Wagner, Paul

2014-04-01

324

Health policy processes in maternal health: A comparison of Vietnam, India and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a comparative analysis to assess and explain the strengths and weaknesses of policy processes based on 9 case-studies of maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.Policy processes are often slow, inadequately coordinated and opaque to outsiders. Use of evidence is variable and, in particular, could be more actively used to assess different policy options. Whilst an

Andrew Green; Nancy Gerein; Tolib Mirzoev; Philippa Bird; Stephen Pearson; Le Vu Anh; Tim Martineau; Maitrayee Mukhopadhyay; Xu Qian; K. V. Ramani; Werner Soors

2011-01-01

325

Gearing-up governance for sustainable development: Patterns of policy appraisal in UK central government  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK is reportedly an international leader in the application of environmental policy appraisal (EPA). From the late 1980s until 2004, UK central government sought to produce ex ante assessments of the potential environmental impacts of different policy options. Critics maintain that EPA had a very limited impact on policy-making activities in Whitehall departments. However, the empirical basis for these

Duncan Russel; Andrew Jordan

2007-01-01

326

Policy Manual - Infection Control Policies - References  

Cancer.gov

 CCR Home   About CCR   CCR Intranet        Laboratory of Pathology LP Home Clinical Services Basic Sciences Training LP Staff Accessibility of Web Site Policy Manual Main Page LP Forms and Checklists Infection Control Policies General Infection Policies Categorization

327

Option trading and oil futures markets  

SciTech Connect

This book describes mechanics of options trading, particularly their use to complement trading in oil futures and forward markets to increase agents' flexibility in hedging against price risks. The main determinants of option premiums and a number of option pricing models are discussed as are the Black and Scholes Model, issues of options and oil-indexed bonds: The Philbro Proposal, NYMEX Crude Oil Option Contract and Standard Oil Issue.

Chassard, C.; Halliwell, M.

1986-01-01

328

Pricing Long-Lived Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the authors propose a variation of the Black-Scholes option pricing model which is based upon examination of experimental data for long-lived warrants. The authors find that the Black-Scholes model gives incorrect results for perpetual warra...

R. M. Oliver J. F. Robinson

1974-01-01

329

Nontraditional Options Workshop. Participants Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook presents materials for a Nontraditional Options Workshop designed to introduce women to predominantly male vocational programs and careers. The workshop provides career awareness, vocational information, and hands-on exploration of nontraditional programs offered at Blackhawk Technical College (BTC), Wisconsin. Introductory materials…

Pierce, Beth Ann, Comp.

330

Treatment Options in Cushing's Disease.  

PubMed

Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a grave disease that requires a multidisciplinary and individualized treatment approach for each patient. Approximately 80% of all patients harbour a corticotroph pituitary adenoma (Cushing's disease) with excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropin-hormone (ACTH) and, consecutively, cortisol. The goals of treatment include normalization of hormone excess, long-term disease control and the reversal of comorbidities caused by the underlying pathology. The treatment of choice is neurosurgical tumour removal of the pituitary adenoma. Second-line treatments include medical therapy, bilateral adrenalectomy and radiation therapy. Drug treatment modalities target at the hypothalamic/pituitary level, the adrenal gland and at the glucocorticoid receptor level and are commonly used in patients in whom surgery has failed. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the second-line treatment for persistent hypercortisolism that offers immediate control of hypercortisolism. However, this treatment option requires a careful individualized evaluation, since it has the disadvantage of permanent hypoadrenalism which requires lifelong glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy and bears the risk of developing Nelson's syndrome. Although there are some very promising medical therapy options it clearly remains a second-line treatment option. However, there are numerous circumstances where medical management of CD is indicated. Medical therapy is frequently used in cases with severe hypercortisolism before surgery in order to control the metabolic effects and help reduce the anestesiological risk. Additionally, it can help to bridge the time gap until radiotherapy takes effect. The aim of this review is to analyze and present current treatment options in Cushing's disease. PMID:22346367

Rizk, Ahmed; Honegger, Juergen; Milian, Monika; Psaras, Tsambika

2012-01-01

331

Future Options for HDD Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HDD industry is at a critical technology cross roads and it is paramount that we quickly establish comprehensive paths to push beyond the superparamagnetic limit. Several promising technology options have been explored to increase the areal density beyond the limit such as bit patterned magnetic recording (BPMR), heat assisted magnetic recording (HAMR), and microwave assisted magnetic recording (MAMR). In

Y. Shiroishi; K. Fukuda; I. Tagawa; H. Iwasaki; S. Takenoiri; H. Tanaka; H. Mutoh; N. Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

332

Gay Marriage: The Third Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled in October 2006 that gay and lesbian couples must be guaranteed the same rights and benefits as heterosexual couples, the legislature saw only two possibilities: establishing civil unions or legalizing same-sex marriages. They chose the first alternative without considering a possible third option: civil unions for all couples and no marriages performed by

Murray Hausknecht

2007-01-01

333

Tool for Ranking Research Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

2005-01-01

334

National US public policy on global warming derived from optimization of energy use and environmental impact studies  

SciTech Connect

This paper will discuss possible United States policy responses to global warming. The components of a voluntary program for emissions control will be presented as well as regulatory options, including a carbon tax and tradeable permits. The advantages and disadvantages of both options will be discussed as well as the need for a consistent overall policy response to climate change.

Reck, R.

1993-12-31

335

Globalisation and social policy.  

PubMed

This paper discusses six major themes: that economic and social issues are closely interdependent and that the appropriate stance is to work on both together, simultaneously; that though the threats from globalisation have been exaggerated, there can be substantial costs as well as considerable benefits; that constraints on national policy are significant but are less severe than is commonly considered; that the vitality-the vigour-of national and international political processes must be increased to cope effectively with the changes which are underway; that the private sector, unions and civil society have crucial roles in the provision of services and in advocating socially responsible values, standards and policies; and that one of the most effective means of addressing the erosion of national autonomy from globalisation is for countries to cooperate in setting and implementing shared objectives and international standards and establishing more global public goods. PMID:12219761

Langmore, J

2001-01-01

336

OptionSource.com: Preparing Investors for Success in Options Trading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OptionSource.com was developed by Schaeffer's Investment Research to help educate investors about options trading. A large part of the site is devoted to familiarizing novice investors with options investing. To that end, a five-lesson series introduces investors to options trading. In addition, the site covers basic and more complex options trading strategies. Research on options trading, daily options market commentary, and an options glossary are also available. Investors may also obtain the latest stock and options quotes at the site.

1998-01-01

337

Options for left internal mammary harvest in minimal access coronary surgery  

PubMed Central

The left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to the left anterior descending artery bypass remains the gold standard for coronary artery bypass grafting. This review focuses on the three major options for LIMA takedown when using minimal access options to achieve this bypass, namely standard minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB), thoracoscopic MIDCAB, and robotically assisted MIDCAB.

Itagaki, Shinobu

2013-01-01

338

Hydroelectricity, an option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil-fueled power plants for electricity generation are a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). These plants can be replaced effectively by nuclear power, hydroelectricity and other less significant options such as biomass, hydrogen, wind and solar power. Among the replacement options, nuclear power is unpopular for various reasons. Hydrogen must be produced from either natural gas or electrolysis, and might

André Chamberland; S. Levesque

1996-01-01

339

Current treatment options for recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer  

PubMed Central

Loco-regional control rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has improved significantly in the past decade. However, local recurrence still represents a major cause of mortality and morbidity in advanced stages, and management of local failure remains a challenging issue in NPC. The best salvage treatment for local recurrent NPC remains to be determined. The options include brachytherapy, external radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and nasopharyngectomy, either alone or in different combinations. In this article we will discuss the different options for salvage of locally recurrent NPC. Retreatment of locally recurrent NPC using radiotherapy, alone or in combination with other treatment modalities, as well as surgery, can result in long-term local control and survival in a substantial proportion of patients. For small-volume recurrent tumors (T1–T2) treated with external radiotherapy, brachytherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery, comparable results to those obtained with surgery have been reported. In contrast, treatment results of advanced-stage locally recurrent NPC are generally more satisfactory with surgery (with or without postoperative radiotherapy) than with reirradiation.

Suarez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Shaha, Ashok R.

2010-01-01

340

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections.  

PubMed

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T; Stark, Damien

2012-12-01

341

Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections  

PubMed Central

Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis.

Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

2012-01-01

342

30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. 90.3 Section 90.3...Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any miner...notified in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b) Any miner...

2013-07-01

343

Report on the APCA international seminar series - Acid rain options  

SciTech Connect

The APCA Board of Directors has initiated program themes focused on key environmental issues. Thus far, this initiative has resulted in special programming in the areas of acid rain, hazardous waste management, and indoor air pollution and its control. Programming efforts in the area of acid rain led in 1984 to the highly successful International Seminar Series on Acid Rain Options. The seminars were presented in five cities: Pittsburgh, Chicago, Newark, Boston, and Columbia, Maryland during the period May 1984 through January 1985. The series addressed the various policy options proposed for dealing with acid rain in the U.S. and Canada. Appropriate consideration was given to scientific, economic, social, and environmental aspects. This book presents the papers discussed in these seminars.

Not Available

1985-01-01

344

[Management options of caesarean scar pregnancy].  

PubMed

Cesarean scar pregnancy is an uncommon ectopic gestation. Without timely and proper management,it may cause major bleeding,uterine rupture,and other life-threatening complications. The causes of this condition remain unclear,and no standardized management has been available,although some medical and surgical treatment modalities have been suggested. The main treatment objectives include preventing massive blood loss,preserving the uterus function,and maintain the women's health and quality of life. Current data do not support expectant management. After early diagnosis,single or combined medical and surgical treatment options should be provided to avoid uterine rupture and haemorrhage,so as to preserve the uterus and thus the fertility. PMID:24791804

Li, Jin-jin; Liu, Xin-yan

2014-04-01

345

The changing treatment options for CMV retinitis.  

PubMed

The author examines new treatment options and services for people with cytomegalovirus (CMV), a major opportunistic infection of people with advanced AIDS. The following CMV drugs: ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir, ISIS 2922, and MSL 109, are examined in terms of their mechanism of action and how the virus evades them. The use of ganciclovir implants and oral ganciclovir are examined, as are efforts of testing for CMV in the central nervous system. It is revealed that effective, less harsh combinations of drugs to manage CMV are gradually emerging, but that corporate strategies and scientific mishap are impeding achievement of optimal therapeutic strategies. The only treatment currently and easily available is intravenous ganciclovir and foscarnet combined, which requires long-term infusion and has adverse effects. PMID:11362648

Gilden, D

1995-01-01

346

Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

Bushnell, Dennis M.

2012-01-01

347

Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes  

PubMed Central

Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

2008-01-01

348

National water policy: Shifts continue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years national water policy has continued to follow a path toward decentralization and greater reliance on nonstructural means for solving problems. Neither the Bush administration nor the Clinton administration have sought fundamental changes to general water policies that evolved at the federal level from the period of rapid change in the 1970's and the less volatile but still active period before 1988. Yet, significant changes have occurred through the federal appropriation process, executive decisions, and innovations at the state and local levels. Important changes have occurred in floodplain management strategies, water transfers and water banking, urban water use efficiency, and the distribution of financial burdens among federal, state and local governments. Major changes in surface and groundwater policies and management of public water supplies could occur in the spate of water and environmental policies that are up for reauthorization in 1995.

Moreau, David H.

1995-07-01

349

EXTREME POLICIES MODELED WITHIN THE LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT POLICY SIMULATOR (LAMPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several variations on the current behavior of four major landowner groups in the Coast Range of Oregon were simulated using the LAMPS model. The simulation of current and future behavior is termed the Base Case, and assumptions regarding this behavior were derived from numerous meetings with landowner groups associated with the management of Coast Range forests. The extreme policies we

Pete Bettinger; Marie Lennette

350

Intellectually Gifted Students: Issues and Policy Implications. Policy Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines policy issues in the area of gifted education. The first section reviews the problem area including definitions of giftedness and aims of gifted education. The next section briefly outlines major research influences which focus on learning rate, socialization, school achievement, and life achievement. The third section reviews…

Howley, Craig B.

351

Integrating emissions transfers into policy-making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net emissions transfers via international trade from developing to developed countries have increased fourfold in the past two decades--from 0.4 GtCO2 in 1990 to 1.6 GtCO2 in 2008. Consumption of goods and services in developed countries is one of the main driving forces of those emissions transfers. Therefore several proposals have been made to assign the responsibility for those emissions to the beneficiary, that is, to the consumer. Although consumption-based analyses have become popular, few proposals have been made for integrating emissions transfers into actual policy making. This study advances and critically evaluates three potential policy options that could be integrated in the climate-policy framework of developed countries. An energy-economic model with global coverage is used for the analysis. I find that connecting emissions transfers to international offset responsibilities is the most promising option from an environmental and economic perspective and may provide another rationale for international climate finance. The two alternative policy options of adjusting domestic emissions targets in developed countries and of implementing carbon-related tariffs and export subsidies are found to be environmentally ineffective in the latter case and economically detrimental, especially for developing countries, in both cases.

Springmann, Marco

2014-03-01

352

Preparation of Undergraduate Home Economics Education Majors for Career Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted (1) to identify the methods used by land-grant institutions to increase the career awareness of home economics majors and (2) to identify the specific minors, options, or emphasis areas that are being implemented at these institutions to increase the career alternatives of home economics education majors. A questionnaire…

Lambert, Maureen S.; Clayton, Kermeta Kay

353

Commercializing Intellectual Properties at Major Research Universities: Income Distribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the income distribution permitted from patent and copyright policies of major U.S. research institutions revealed wide variation in distribution patterns and policies, within and between patent and copyright incomes, but little information about the impact of recent federal patent legislation. (MSE)

Heathington, K. W.; And Others

1986-01-01

354

Educational Research in China: Guiding Principles and Major Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This account of efforts to reconstruct educational research in China, guided by Marxist principles and reflective of a national policy of building a "socialist spiritual civilization," presents the major requirements of that endeavor. Educational sciences are to be guided by four understandings: correct theories; realistic policies; improved…

Wu, Wei

355

Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced

Melissa Pearson; Anthony B Zwi; Nicholas A Buckley

2010-01-01

356

The Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Smoking Rates: A Tobacco Control Scorecard  

Microsoft Academic Search

his article reviews studies of the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking rates with the aim of providing guidance on the importance of different policies. Based on past studies, we estimate the magnitude of effects of major tobacco control policies, how their effects depend on the manner in which the policies are implemented, the relationship between the different policies,

David T. Levy; Frank Chaloupka; Joseph Gitchell

2004-01-01

357

THE CASE OF THE NATIONAL SOLIDARITY PROGRAM IN MEXICO: A STUDY IN COMPARATIVE POLICY TERMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many policy scholars have noted that the policy termination literature has to date compiled an inadequate set of studies from which to posit theoretic propositions. Comparative policy analysis is in much the same position. This paper addresses both of these concerns by, first, offering a case study of a major policy initiative in Mexico, Pronasol, and second, using American policy

Peter deLeon; José Mario Hernández-Quezada

2001-01-01

358

Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered  

SciTech Connect

Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

DOE

2002-05-02

359

Biomass energy in North American policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of biomass energy in the federal government policies of Canada, Mexico and the USA on the development and utilization of biomass energy. These policies span the entire spectrum from poor to excellent. One of the main driving forces displacing fossil fuels today is environmental issues. But there are still major

Donald L Klass

1995-01-01

360

Putting Prisoners to Work: Policies and Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that the issue of work by prisoners is a major policy concern for correctional administrators, this article outlines the history of prison work programs, the policy implications of such endeavors, and advocates the creation of an opportunity structure for inmates within prison work programs. (Author)

Vito, Gennaro F.

1985-01-01

361

Policy opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations are given regarding National Science Foundation (NSF) astronomy programs and the NASA Space Astrophysics program. The role of ground based astronomy is reviewed. The role of National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) in ground-based night-time astronomical research is discussed. An enhanced Explored Program, costs and management of small and moderate space programs, the role of astrophysics within NASA's space exploration initiative, suborbital and airborne astronomical research, the problems of the Hubble Space Telescope, and astronomy education are discussed. Also covered are policy issues related to the role of science advisory committees, international cooperation and competition, archiving and distribution of astronomical data, and multi-wavelength observations of variable sources.

Mccray, Richard; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Acton, Loren W.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bless, Robert C.; Brown, Robert A.; Burbidge, Geoffrey; Burke, Bernard F.; Clark, George W.; Cordova, France A.

1991-01-01

362

MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS).

JACK N. BAILEY, DWAYNE CHESTNUT, JAMES COMPTON AND RICHARD D. SNELL

1997-11-10

363

Future Directions for Environmental Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmentalism is an elusive concept with many meanings. Its changing character is examined together with an analysis of how it is likely to influence public policy across a broad front. The paper also reviews the major environmental issues which QECD c...

T. O'Riordan

1984-01-01

364

New Directions in Rural Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of major economic forces shaping the future of rural America provides insights about the likely importance and effectiveness of various broad program alternatives as components of a rural development policy. The rural economic base was transformed during the 1960s and 1970s from a primary dependence on natural resource activities,…

Deavers, Kenneth L.

365

22 CFR 161.5 - Major decision points and timing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) NEPA and Departmental Decisionmaking § 161.5 Major decision points and timing. (a) The responsible...

2013-04-01

366

Determining health insurance coverage of technology: problems and options.  

PubMed

By deciding which medical procedures are eligible for reimbursement, health insurance programs possess the potential to affect significantly technology use and health care spending. Traditionally, insurers have adopted a passive stance and made relatively few negative coverage determinations. However, resistance to rapidly rising costs has created a powerful inducement for third-party payors to become more prudent purchasers of health care services. Consequently, both Medicare and Blue Cross--Blue Shield are considering the implementation of changes that may ultimately result in more restrictive coverage decisions. This article examines the coverage process of Medicare and Blue Cross--Blue Shield and the policy changes that both programs are considering. In addition, it discusses the strengths and drawbacks of four coverage policy options: restricting insurance coverage of unproven procedures, introducing cost-effectiveness criteria, educating physicians and educating consumers. PMID:6796788

Greenberg, B; Derzon, R A

1981-10-01

367

Public Claims on U. S. Output: Federal Budget Options in the Last Half of the Seventies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The volume focuses on the long-term outlook for the Federal budget in terms of the overall balance between outlays and receipts and the possible program options that might be considered in policy planning over the long term. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the budget outlook for the last half of the 1970's. Chapters 3-10 discuss possible program…

American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

368

Corporate Share Repurchases in the 1990s: What Role Do Stock Options Play.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates how the growth of stock option programs has affected corporate payout policy. Given that earnings per share (EPS) is widely used in equity valuation, some corporations may opt to repurchase shares to avoid the dilution of EPS that ...

S. J. Weisbenner

2000-01-01

369

Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments worldwide and in the U.S. are enacting a variety of measures to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from various economic sectors. Tools to prioritize these measures are generally lacking in analytical rigor. On the other hand, the research literature continues to proliferate with assessments of energy efficiency and GHG mitigation options that can be adapted to the policy evaluation

Nicholas P. Lutsey

2008-01-01

370

The Strategic Exercise of Options: Development Cascades and Overbuilding in Real Estate Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops an equilibrium framework for strategic option exercise games. The author focuses on a particular example: the timing of real estate development. An analysis of the equilibrium exercise policies of developers provides insights into the forces that shape market behavior. The model isolates the factors that make some markets prone to bursts of concentrated development. The model also

Steven R Grenadier

1996-01-01

371

Cross-State Study of High-Stakes Testing Practices and Diploma Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to public demands for better-quality high school graduates and to requirements of No Child Left Behind legislation, states have developed a variety of policies such as high-stakes exit exams and diploma options. Additionally, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997, students with disabilities must be…

Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen Evans; Mavis, Ann

2007-01-01

372

48 CFR 234.7100 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Cost and Software Data Reporting 234.7100 Policy. (a) The cost and software data reporting (CSDR) requirement...are contractor cost data reporting and software resources data reporting....

2013-10-01

373

44 CFR 206.3 - Policy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.3 Policy...the suffering and damage that result from major disasters and emergencies by: (a) Providing...

2013-10-01

374

History & Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's an old saw that those who forget the past are doomed to repeat it, but the History & Policy group takes this maxim very seriously. The group represents a collaboration between the University of Cambridge, The Institute of Historical Research, and The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The purpose of the group is to "demonstrate the relevance of history to contemporary policymaking" and to increase the influence of historical research over current policy. Currently, their core output happens to be their papers, which are available from their homepage. Visitors can click on the "H&P papers" area to read through the latest papers, and they can also browse around via subject heading. Some of the recent titles include "North Korea and the nuclear threat", "Why history matters-and why medieval history also matters", and "China, globalization and the west: A British debate, 1890-1914". Additionally, visitors can sign up to join their email list and learn more about their network of historians.

375

Engaging with Policy Makers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

2011-10-01

376

Treatment Options for Overactive Bladder Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment Options for OAB Treatment Options for Overactive Bladder Overactive bladder treatment is generally approached using one or a ... includes dietary changes , fluid management , pelvic muscle exercises , bladder retraining , and biofeedback ; over the Counter Non-Prescription ...

377

Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples.

Fuller, D.M.

1995-04-01

378

Valuing the Mortgage Borrower's Prepayment Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the value of the prepayment option that normally accompanies a fixed-rate mortgage. Using the two-state option-pricing model developed by Bartter and Rendleman, the paper presents simulations of prepayment option values using several sets of interest rate parameters. The sensitivity of the value of the option to changes in various aspects of the mortgage contract is assessed. Prepayments

Arden R. Hall

1985-01-01

379

Pricing and hedging long-term options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do long-term and short-term options contain differential information? If so, can long-term options better differentiate among alternative models? To answer these questions, we first demonstrate analytically that differences among alternative models usually may not surface when applied to short-term options, but do so when applied to long-term contracts. Using S&P 500 options and LEAPS, we find that short- and long-term

Gurdip Bakshi; Charles Cao; Zhiwu Chen

2000-01-01

380

Do corporations award CEO stock options effectively?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes stock option awards to CEOs of 792 U.S. public corporations between 1984 and 1991. Using a Black-Scholes approach, I test whether stock options' performance incentives have significant associations with explanatory variables related to agency cost reduction. Further tests examine whether the mix of compensation between stock options and cash pay can be explained by corporate liquidity, tax

David Yermack

1995-01-01

381

Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options Questionnaire"…

Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

2006-01-01

382

Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

2007-01-01

383

Pricing and Hedging Long-Term Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical studies find that once an option pricing model has incorporated stochastic volatility, allowing interest rates to be stochastic does not improve pricing or hedging any further while adding random jumps to the modeling framework only helps the pricing of extremely short-term options but not the hedging performance. Given that only options of relatively short terms are used in

Charles Quanwei Cao; Gurdip S. Bakshi; Zhiwu Chen

1998-01-01

384

Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site. Financial incentives for project development are generally structured to provide tribes with access to conventional financing mechanisms. Grant funding for project construction is currently difficult to obtain. Substantial new opportunities for bio-fuel development may exist in the next few years with passage of the 2007 Farm Bill, and through opportunities made available through Oklahoma’s new Bio-energy Center. A review of potential alternatives to Pawnee Nation’s current electricity supply scenario revealed that a range of options could be viable. These include the following scenarios: business as usual, alternative supply, negotiate lower rates with City of Pawnee, focus on reducing energy usage, develop electric utility organization. Under any circumstances, Pawnee Nation should purse strategies to reduce energy usage, as this is the simplest means of reducing electric costs and environmental impacts. The research team also recommends that Pawnee Nation initiate some focused discussions with the City of Pawnee, with GRDA, and with IEC to discuss its wholesale supply purchase options. These discussions will better inform the Pawnee Energy Team of the specific pros and cons of its wholesale power supply options, and will assist the Team’s broader decision-making on utility-related issues. The ultimate path chosen by Pawnee Nation will depend on further consideration of priorities and potential barriers by Pawnee Nation’s Energy Team.

Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

2009-07-21

385

Two new replacement policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two replacement policies that can be used in deciding whether one should replace or repair a system are investigated. The first is a local policy where a decision is made based on average lifetime per unit cost of repair. The second is a global policy. Mathematical properties of these policies are developed, and some examples show that the two policies

Nader Ebrahimi; Reader Aids

1993-01-01

386

Space transportation - Options and opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development space transportation options to earth orbit and beyond are summarized. The performance of available launch systems is reviewed, including the Scout, Delta, Long March 3, Atlas Centaur, Ariane 3, Titan 34D, Proton, the Japanese M-3S-II, N-1, and H-1, and the Space Shuttle. Launch vehicle which are planned or are under development are examined, including the Conestoga, Industrial Launch Vehicle, Titan II, Delta II, H-II, Ariane 5, Titan IV, and the NASA/DOD Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle. Also, issues pertinent to the development of space transportation vehicles are considered, such as reliability, reduced unit cost, reduced lead time, and improved payload accommodations.

Loftus, J. P., Jr.; Ried, R. C.; Bristow, R. B.

1988-01-01

387

Ballistic comet exploration mission options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To attain the fundamental goals of cometary exploration, rendezvous and sample return missions are necessary. This paper investigates various trajectory options and provides a comprehensive set of mission opportunities available for launches in the 1990s. The modes of explorations considered are rendezvous and flybys with atomized-sample-return missions. For each type of exploration, the paper describes various classes and modes of trajectories available, their inherent characteristics, and the techniques of identifying useful trajectories. The energy requirement associated with these missions and the performance possibilities are provided.

Yen, Chen-Wan L.

1989-01-01

388

Pricing and hedging Asian basket spread options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asian options, basket options and spread options have been extensively studied in the literature. However, few papers deal with the problem of pricing general Asian basket spread options. This paper aims to fill this gap. In order to obtain prices and Greeks in a short computation time, we develop approximation formulae based on comonotonicity theory and moment matching methods. We compare their relative performances and explain how to choose the best approximation technique as a function of the Asian basket spread characteristics. We also give explicitly the Greeks for our proposed methods. In the last section we extend our results to options denominated in foreign currency.

Deelstra, Griselda; Petkovic, Alexandre; Vanmaele, Michèle

2010-04-01

389

Evidence on public policy: methodological issues, political issues and examples.  

PubMed

In this paper I discuss how evidence on public policy is generated and in particular the issue of evaluation of public policies. In economics, the issue of attribution and the identification of causal links has recently received considerable attention. Important methodological issues have been tackled and new techniques have been proposed and used. Randomized Control Trials have become some sort of gold standard. However, they are not exempt from problems and have important limitations: in some case they cannot be constructed and, more generally, problems of external validity and transferability of results can be important. The paper then moves on to discuss the political economy of policy evaluations for policy evaluations to have an impact for the conduct of actual policy, it is important that the demand for evaluation comes directly from the policy making process and is generated endogenously within it. In this sense it is important that the institutional design of policy making is such that policy making institutions are incentivized to use rigorous evaluation in the process of designing policies and allocating resources to alternative options. Economists are currently involved in the design and evaluation of many policies, including policies about health, nutrition and education. The role they can play in these fields is not completely obvious. The paper argues that their main contribution is in the modelling of how individual reacts to incentives (including those provided by public policies). PMID:24553852

Attanasio, Orazio P

2014-03-01

390

Increasing Understanding of Public Problems and Policies--1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication reports the major discussions at a conference that was held to improve the policy education efforts of extension workers responsible for public affairs programs. It begins with abstracts of the 22 presentations. Four papers deal with public policy education in the 1990s: "To Inform Their Discretion: Policy Education and Democratic…

Halbrook, Steve A., Ed.; Grace, Teddee E., Ed.

391

Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Alaska  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This individual profile provides information on Alaska's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam first…

Center on Education Policy, 2011

2011-01-01

392

National Disability Policy: A Progress Report, December 2001-December 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annual report of the National Council on Disability surveys major legal and policy developments during the year 2002 and offers recommendations for legal/policy measures and for research. The first chapter identifies legal and policy issues that cross traditional areas, focusing on six themes: (1) the mainstreaming of disability issues; (2)…

National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

393

Evaluating Regional Competitiveness Policies: Insights from the New Economic Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potter J. Evaluating regional competitiveness policies: insights from the New Economic Geography, Regional Studies. This paper examines the relevance of theoretical insights emerging from the New Economic Geography (NEG) for the evaluation of regional competitiveness policies. The major value of the NEG for evaluation is that it offers a clear theory of change on how policy can be expected to

Jonathan Potter

2009-01-01

394

Policy Plan for Kansas Department of Education. Fiscal Year 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy plan for the Kansas State Department of Education is composed of two major sections. The first part includes a description of the department and its mission and functions; the agency's goals, objectives, and policies; and the finance and sources of finance for funding educational programs. The second section involves three policy

Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

395

Child Care and Public Policy: A Dilemma at All Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an analysis of public policy issues associated with state and federal child care developments, laws, regulations, and bills. It is intended to aid policy makers, government officials, consumers, and practitioners of child care programs. The report examines three major areas of policy: (1) federal legislative action which…

Keating, Tom

396

Anterior Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Diverse Disease with Evolving Treatment Options  

PubMed Central

Anterior femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a major etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of hip arthritis. In this condition, mechanical abnormalities of the hip joint lead to early hip dysfunction, inflammation, cartilage injury, and eventual joint degradation. FAI is now more commonly diagnosed and there is an increasing need for a thorough understanding of the broad spectrum of clinical presentation for the disease as well as more precise definition of the possible surgical options.

Zebala, Lukas P; Schoenecker, Perry L; Clohisy, John C

2007-01-01

397

Robotic lunar exploration: Architectures, issues and options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US ‘vision for space exploration’ articulated at the beginning of 2004 encompasses a broad range of human and robotic space missions, including missions to the Moon, Mars and destinations beyond. It establishes clear goals and objectives, yet sets equally clear budgetary ‘boundaries’ by stating firm priorities, including ‘tough choices’ regarding current major NASA programs. The new vision establishes as policy the goals of pursuing commercial and international collaboration in realizing future space exploration missions. Also, the policy envisions that advances in human and robotic mission technologies will play a key role—both as enabling and as a major public benefit that will result from implementing that vision. In pursuing future international space exploration goals, the exploration of the Moon during the coming decades represents a particularly appealing objective. The Moon provides a unique venue for exploration and discovery—including the science of the Moon (e.g., geological studies), science from the Moon (e.g., astronomical observatories), and science on the Moon (including both basic research, such as biological laboratory science, and applied research and development, such as the use of the Moon as a test bed for later exploration). The Moon may also offer long-term opportunties for utilization—including Earth observing applications and commercial developments. During the coming decade, robotic lunar exploration missions will play a particularly important role, both in their own right and as precursors to later, more ambitious human and robotic exploration and development efforts. The following paper discusses some of the issues and opportunities that may arise in establishing plans for future robotic lunar exploration. Particular emphasis is placed on four specific elements of future robotic infrastructure: Earth Moon in-space transportation systems; lunar orbiters; lunar descent and landing systems; and systems for long-range transport on the Moon.

Mankins, John C.; Valerani, Ernesto; Della Torre, Alberto

2007-06-01

398

Repository benefits of AFCI options.  

SciTech Connect

The results described in this report summarize the evaluations of potential benefits to a geologic repository for a variety of AFCI options that were studied during FY04. Many of the options were examined in response to a request by Burton Richter, chair of the Advanced Nuclear Transformation Technology (ANTT) Subcommittee of NERAC, to perform an initial evaluation of the potential benefit to a geologic repository from processing commercial spent nuclear fuel to separate certain chemical elements and to recycle some of these elements in thermal spectrum reactors such as light water reactors. The measure of repository benefit has been defined as the allowable increase in repository drift loading consistent with satisfying all repository thermal design limits, since loading of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain is currently limited by temperature constraints. Such an increase in drift loading can be used to either reduce the size of a repository of given capacity, or to increase the capacity of a repository of a given size. Any changes in estimated peak dose caused by the resulting alteration in the radionuclide inventory of the repository have not been evaluated, but are the subject of a separate ongoing study.

Wigeland, R. A.; Bauer, T. H.

2005-07-05

399

Cholangiocarcinoma--current treatment options.  

PubMed

The treatment for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains a challenge because of the aggressive nature of the disease and the absence of effective treatments besides surgical resection (HR) and liver transplantation (LT). In intrahepatic CCA, HR remains the treatment of choice whereas with concomitant liver disease such as cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), LT is the only option. Hilar CCA or Klatskin tumours have in recent decades been managed with a more aggressive surgical approach to achieve R0 resection. This approach usually involves preoperative portal embolisation, followed by liver resection – sometimes extensive and even with portal vein resection. The recent protocols that combine preoperative neoadjuvant chemoirridation and LT show promising results that need to be confirmed. The development of diagnostic modalities (tumour markers, cytology and radiology) are of the utmost importance to identify these patients at an early stage to preserve radical surgery possible. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a malignant disease of the epithelial cells in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. While still a rare malignant disease, CCA is the second most common primary malignancy of the liver. The incidence is increasing; especially the incidence of intrahepatic CCA (1). The treatment of CCA is challenging as it is usually difficult to diagnose when radical surgical treatment, resection (HR) or liver transplantation (LT) is possible. The lack of effective medical treatment makes a radical surgical resection or hepatectomy the only therapeutic option. Most of the CCAs are unresectable at presentation and the prognosis for these patients is dismal. PMID:21491796

Friman, S

2011-01-01

400

Cost-effective policy instruments for greenhouse gas emission reduction and fossil fuel substitution through bioenergy production in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change mitigation and security of energy supply are important targets of Austrian energy policy. Bioenergy production based on resources from agriculture and forestry is an important option for attaining these targets. To increase the share of bioenergy in the energy supply, supporting policy instruments are necessary. The cost-effectiveness of these instruments in attaining policy targets depends on the availability

Johannes Schmidt; Sylvain Leduc; Erik Dotzauer; Erwin Schmid

2011-01-01

401

Policy Sciences and Policy Research Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consideration is given to the question whether policy research organizations, or a subset of them, have a potentially important role in contributing to the supply of policy analysts, through advanced teaching and training programs.

C. Wolf

1970-01-01

402

Pegram Lecture: Science Policy & Current Policy Issues  

SciTech Connect

Drawing on his experience as a research scientist, academic administrator, national laboratory director and presidential science advisor, Marburger focuses on the intellectual machinery of science policy and current policy issues.

John H. Marburger, III

2008-11-18

403

Policy Manual - Emergency Management - Standard Policies  

Cancer.gov

Standard policies remain in effect during an emergency. Details may be found throughout the LP policy manual. The CC Emergency Management Plan and NIH Occupant Evacuation Plan apply to employees in the LP.

404

Social determinants of health and health equity policy research: Exploring the use, misuse, and nonuse of policy analysis theory.  

PubMed

Despite a dramatic growth in SDH/HE (social determinants of health/health equity) public policy research and demonstrated government interest in promoting equity in health policies, health inequities are actually growing among some populations and there is little evidence that "healthy public policies" are being adopted and implemented. Moreover, these issues are typically failing to even reach governments' policy agendas, which is a critical step towards serious debate and the identification of policy options. This systematic review pursues three main objectives. First, is to identify barriers to SDH/HE issues reaching the government policy agenda. Second, to evaluate the characteristics of peer-reviewed research articles that utilize common policy analysis theories. And third, to determine the extent to which the SDH/HE literature utilizes common policy analysis theories. Our systematic review, conducted in June 2012, identified 6200 SDH/HE related articles in the peer-reviewed literature; however, only seven articles explicitly used a commonly recognized policy analysis theory to inform their analysis. Our analysis revealed that the SDH/HE policy literature appears to be focused on advocacy rather than analysis and that the use of policy analysis theory is extremely limited. Our results also suggest that when such theories are incorporated into an analysis they are often not comprehensively employed. We propose explanations for this non-use and misuse of policy analysis theory, and conclude that researchers may have greater influence in helping to get SDH/HE issues onto government policy agendas if they gain a greater understanding of the policy process and the value of incorporating policy analysis theories into their research. Using a policy analysis lens to help identify why healthy public policies are typically not being adopted is an important step towards moving beyond advocacy to understanding and addressing some of the political barriers to reforms. PMID:24641879

Embrett, Mark G; Randall, G E

2014-05-01

405

Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4  

SciTech Connect

In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

Schlegel, Jeff

2002-05-01

406

Multifunctionality, Agricultural Policy, and Environmental Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to supplying food and fiber, agriculture is a source of public goods and externalities. This article addresses two questions. First, do price and income support policies promote a multifunctional agriculture in an effective manner? Second, would policies targeted more directly at multifunctional attributes be more efficient than price and income support policies? The answer to the first question

David G. Abler

2004-01-01

407

Population policy.  

PubMed

The government of Sri Lanka has instituted incentives for those who practice family planning and field service programs to motivate people to undergo sterilizations on a voluntary basis. The policy stresses the education of the people on the effects of population growth on quality of life and general development. Clinical and other contraceptive services offer many choices. In May of 1977 a program was introduced to pay a financial incentive to each female or male who was sterilized, Rs. 65 for females and Rs. 35.5 for males. An additional incentive was offered to government or corporation employees-3 days medical leave for males and 7 for females after sterilization. In 1980 this was expanded to unemployed or self employed people as well. The a mount of the financial incentive has varied over the years. During difficult financial times, the amount has been reduced but then later reinstated. These payments are for expenses incurred and are not intended as an enticement to be sterilized. PMID:12281614

1986-06-01

408

China's inspiration from European Union low-carbon policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing low-carbon economy is a strategic option in response to global climate change at present. With technical renovation, energy system transformation and market-based policy in European Union(EU) countries, EU has made itself a good model in low-carbon economy development. It will be most favorable to further improve China's low-carbon policy & system and to promote a better development of low-carbon

JingWei Liu; Ying Wang

2011-01-01

409

Enhanced policies for the improvement of electricity efficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-efficiency improvement is considered as an important option to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, the possibilities to implement new policies to improve the efficiency of electricity end-use are explored.The following policy actions are considered:•introduction of a ‘1W standard’ for standby power consumption of appliances,•incremental standards for large electric appliances,•design guidelines for small electric appliances,•a technology-forcing standard for lighting,•a

Kornelis Blok

2005-01-01

410

Effective EU and Member State policies for stimulating CCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is widely recognised as an option to mitigate climate change, consistent and effective EU policies to advance CCS are still absent. This paper discusses policy instruments for advancing large-scale deployment of CCS in the European Union, and evaluates them in a multi-criteria analysis. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) is a cost-effective instrument for

Heleen Groenenberg; Heleen de Coninck

2008-01-01

411

Options and Instruments for a Deep Cut in CO2 Emissions: Carbon Dioxide Capture or Renewables, Taxes or Subsidies?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares both the main physical options and the principal policy instruments to realize a deep cut in carbon dioxide emissions necessary to control global climate change. A top-down energy-economy model is used that has three emission reduction options: energy savings, a transition towards less carbon-intensive or non-carbon energy resources, and the use of carbon dioxide capture and storage

Reyer Gerlagh; Bob van der Zwaan

2006-01-01

412

Treatment options for actinic keratoses.  

PubMed

Actinic keratoses are rough, scaly lesions that commonly occur on sun-exposed areas of the skin. The prevalence of the condition increases with age. Actinic keratoses are thought to be carcinomas in situ, which can progress to squamous cell carcinomas. The decision to treat can be based on cosmetic reasons; symptom relief; or, most importantly, the prevention of malignancy and metastasis. Treatment options include ablative (destructive) therapies such as cryosurgery, curettage with electrosurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Topical therapies are used in patients with multiple lesions. Fluorouracil has been the traditional topical treatment for actinic keratoses, although imiquimod 5% cream and diclofenac 3% gel are effective alternative therapies. There are too few controlled trials comparing treatment modalities for physicians to make sound, evidence-based treatment decisions. PMID:17894135

McIntyre, William J; Downs, Michael R; Bedwell, Sondra A

2007-09-01

413

Options for Martian propellant production  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative evaluation methodology for utilizing in-situ resources on Mars for the production of useful substances. The emphasis is on the chemical processes. Various options considering different feedstock (mostly, carbon dioxide, water, and iron oxides) are carefully examined for the product mix and the energy needs. Oxygen, carbon monoxide, alcohols, and other chemicals are the end products. The chemical processes involve electrolysis, methanation, and variations. It is shown that maximizing the product utility is more important than the production of oxygen, methane, or alcohols. An important factor is the storage of the chemicals produced. The product utility is dependent, to some extent, upon the mission. A combination of the stability, the enthalpy of formation, and the mass fraction of the products is seen to yield a fairly good quantitative feel for the overall utility and maximum mission impact.

Dowler, Warren; French, James; Ramohalli, Kumar

1991-01-01

414

Making of federal coal policy  

SciTech Connect

Focusing on the period from February 1973 to January 1981, this book examines the evolution of policies for managing federally owned coal and compares that management with land-use zoning policies. The author relates coal policies to the broad, progressive movement, and its effort to substitute scientific socio-economic studies for philosophy that could control the federal coal leasing program. The book is divided into six major sections dealing with the conservationist movement, the substitution of a plan for a free market, judicial mandates for central planning, the record of land-use planning, interpretations of liberalism, and the socialist experiment in America. At issue through the long dispute has been whether the leasing program should encourage and support western coal development. 350 references.

Nelson, R.H.

1983-01-01

415

Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level  

SciTech Connect

This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

Busche, S.

2010-12-01

416

China's One-Child Policy, a Policy without a Future.  

PubMed

The Chinese Communist Party government has been forcefully promoting its jihua shengyu (planned fertility) program, known as the "one-child policy," for more than three decades. A distinctive authoritarian model of population governance has been developed. A pertinent question to be asked is whether China's one-child policy and the authoritarian model of population governance have a future. The answer must be no; they do not. Although there are many demographic, economic, and social rationales for terminating the one-child policy, the most fundamental reason for opposing its continuation is drawn from ethics. The key ethical rationale offered for the policy is that it promotes the common social good, not only for China and the Chinese people but for the whole human family. The major irony associated with this apparently convincing justification is that, although designed to improve living standards and help relieve poverty and underdevelopment, the one-child policy and the application of the authoritarian model have instead caused massive suffering to Chinese people, especially women, and made them victims of state violence. A lesson from China-one learned at the cost of individual and social suffering on an enormous scale-is that an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of the common good is the creation of adequate constraints on state power. PMID:24867083

Nie, Jing-Bao

2014-07-01

417

CTEP — Major Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Major Initiatives CTEP Home CTEP

418

48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17.207 Section 17...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising... (c) The contracting officer may exercise options only after determining...

2013-10-01

419

Major Depressive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major depressive disorder or “unipolar depression” is a common condition likely related to several etiologies. Recent research\\u000a has focused on the biological underpinnings of major depressive disorder as well as treatment advances, involving both pharmacotherapy\\u000a and psychotherapy. In this chapter, the epidemiology, clinical picture, biological theories regarding etiology, clinical presentation\\u000a in primary care and mental health jhysettings, and treatment of

David L. Dunner

420

Natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma and current treatment options.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver cancer and the most severe complication of chronic liver disease. The annual number of new cases worldwide is approximately 550,000, representing more than 5% of human cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The stages of the malignancy as well as the severity of the underlying liver disease are essential factors in planning the therapeutic approach. Curative treatment options are represented mainly by surgery (ie, resection or transplantation), but most patients are not candidates for a curative option, and only palliative treatment could be given to these patients. Among palliative treatments, only chemoembolization has been proven to be effective, but other options are currently being investigated. Major risk factors for HCC are well known and are dependent on the geographic area. In Europe, the United States, and Japan, the main risk factors are liver cirrhosis, hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol, and tobacco; in contrast, in Africa and Asia, these factors are hepatitis B and C virus, tobacco use, and aflatoxin exposure. Cirrhosis from any cause is a predisposing factor for HCC and could be considered as a premalignant condition. The present concept of carcinogenesis in HCC is a multistage process. This article describes the natural history of HCC and discusses the various treatment options available at present. PMID:18243838

Raoul, Jean-Luc

2008-03-01

421

The Impact of Major on College Persistence among Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the impact of student major on college persistence among freshmen. Differences found for various majors and gender are explained by differences in the relative magnitudes of goal-commitment, subject-interest, social-forces, and self-image effects. Provides some educational policy recommendations. (SLD)

Leppel, Karen

2001-01-01

422

GIS, Visualization and Spatial Analysis for Major Hazards in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The paper reports some recent developments made using GIS for mapping and visualizing major hazards in Europe. In order to support European policies and decision making relating to major hazards it is necessary to have an overview of the locations and types of the relevant hazards in the European Union and Candidate Countries. Such an overview should support the

Robert Peckham

423

Research Policy and Academic Performativity: Compliance, Contestation and Complicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research, a major purpose of higher education, has become increasingly important in a context of global economic competitiveness. In this paper, we draw on data from email interviews with academics in Britain to explore responses to current research policy trends. Although the majority of academics expressed opposition to current policy

Leathwood, Carole; Read, Barbara

2013-01-01

424

Coping with Recession: Public Policy, Economic Downturns and Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses recession and the major policy considerations that states and institutions must face in the current economic downturn. It explores the public policy implications of three major variables: (1) each of the 50 states has a unique higher education system; (2) each state also has a unique revenue and budgetary process; and (3) each…

Callan, Patrick M.

425

Space Policy and Humanities Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In his 14 January 2004 speech on the future of space exploration, U.S. President George W. Bush proposed a return to the Moon followed by ``human missions to Mars and to worlds beyond.'' Bush's proposal called for robotic missions and new manned space vehicles to replace an aging set of space shuttles, and sought a new justification for space exploration. In the words of former NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, in The Vision for Space Exploration, this plan is not ``merely for the sake of adventure, however exciting that might be, but seeks answers to profound scientific and philosophic questions.'' Bush's proposal stimulated renewed reflection on the goals of our nation's space policy and on the means (financial and otherwise) for achieving these goals. A return to such first-order questioning of our goals for space has been long overdue. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board, which was convened by NASA in 2003 following the shuttle disaster, described ``a lack, over the past three decades, of any national mandate providing NASA a compelling mission requiring human presence in space'' [Keiper, 2003].

Frodeman, Robert

2005-05-01

426

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is addressing key issues associated with critical national needs. This paper compares the major options with these major “outcome” objectives - waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety as well as “process” objectives associated with readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. Working together, separation, transmutation, and fuel technologies provide complete energy systems that can improve waste management compared to the current “once-through/no separation” approach. Future work will further increase confidence in potential solutions, optimize solutions for the mixtures of objectives, and develop attractive development and deployment paths for selected options. This will allow the nation to address nearer-term issues such as avoiding the need for additional geological repositories while making nuclear energy a more sustainable energy option for the long-term. While the Generation IV Initiative is exploring multiple reactor options for future nuclear energy for both electricity generation and additional applications, the AFCI is assessing fuel cycles options for either a continuation or expansion of nuclear energy in the United States. This report compares strategies and technology options for managing the associated spent fuel. There are four major potential strategies, as follows: · The current U.S. strategy is once through: standard nuclear power plants, standard fuel burnup, direct geological disposal of spent fuel. Variants include higher burnup fuels in water-cooled power plants, once-through gas-cooled power plants, and separation (without recycling) of spent fuel to reduce the number and cost of geological waste packages. · The second strategy is thermal recycle, recycling some fuel components in thermal reactors. This strategy extends the useful life of the geologic repository, producing energy from the fissile transuranics in spent fuel while reducing plutonium. · The third strategy is thermal+fast recycle. The difference from the second strategy is that more components of spent fuel can be recycled to reduce both fissile and non-fissile transuranics, but at the cost of developing and deploying at least one fast reactor or accelerator driven system. A mix of thermal and fast reactors would implement this strategy. · The fourth strategy is pure fast recycle; fuel would not be recycled in thermal reactors, which would be phased out in favor of deploying fast spectrum power reactors.

Steven J. Piet; Ralph G. Bennett; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mark Roth; J. D. Smith; Robert Hill; James Laidler; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

2004-10-01

427

National Disability Policy: A Progress Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This National Council on Disability (NCD) annual progress report to the President and Congress covers the period December 2005 through December 2006. The report is divided into 13 chapters, each dealing with a major area of public policy. These subject-specific chapters are preceded by an introductory Major Trends section that identifies…

National Council on Disability, 2008

2008-01-01

428

International Economic Policy in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

These eight lectures by noted economist William Cline provide a clear and concise account of some of the most important macroeconomic issues facing the world economy. Designed for the nonspecialist but a source of fresh insight for the specialist as well, the lectures synthesize the major trends in international economic policy for the 1990s. Major themes include domestic and international

William R. Cline

429

US nuclear weapons policy  

SciTech Connect

We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

May, M.

1990-12-05

430

Modeling alliance activity: Opportunity cost eVects and manipulations in an iterated prisoner's dilemma with exit option  

Microsoft Academic Search

We model the two-Wrm alliance as an iterated prisoners' dilemma game with an exit option and test several theoretical predictions over two experimental studies. A new major eVect on alliance performance arises by including the exit option (i.e., the option to end the alliance and receive a Wxed payoV that is less than the payoV for mutual cooperation but greater

Darryl A. Seale; Richard J. Arend; Steven Phelan

2006-01-01

431

Valuation of American options via basis functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief review of recent developments in the pricing and hedging of American options, this paper modifies the basis function approach to adaptive control and neuro-dynamic programming, and applies it to develop: 1) nonparametric pricing formulas for actively traded American options and 2) simulation-based optimization strategies for complex over-the-counter options, whose optimal stopping problems are prohibitively difficult to solve

Tze Leung Lai; Samuel Po-Shing Wong

2004-01-01

432

Option contracting in the California water market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary water transfers, as achievable under option contracts, capture gains from trade that would go unrealized if only\\u000a permanent transfers of water rights were possible. This paper develops a bilateral option contracting model for water which\\u000a includes the possibility of conveyance losses and random delivery. Seller-optimal and socially optimal option contracts are\\u000a characterized in terms of relevant base and strike

Claire D. Tomkins; Thomas A. Weber

2010-01-01

433

Noise policy: Past and present  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leo Beranek and the firm Bolt Beranek and Newman have played a defining role in the formulation of noise policy in America. The firm that he and Richard Bolt founded in 1948 with fewer than a half-dozen others grew to become the world's largest acoustical consulting firm with more than 2000 employees. Two decades later in 1971, Leo Beranek was a key founder of the Institute of Noise Control Engineering of the U.S.A. The Institute, which inaugurated the INTER-NOISE series of annual noise congresses in 1972 under Beranek's direction, played a major role in the enactment by the Congress of the Noise Control Act of 1972. NCA-72 identified the Environmental Protection Agency as the leading Federal agency with oversight responsibilities responsible for implementing the noise policies defined by the Congress. In 1981, funding for EPA's noise program was withdrawn. Since then, leadership at the Federal level for implementing a coordinated national noise policy has been absent, but a dozen Federal agencies remain active in the noise field. With the exception of aircraft, no product emission regulations on major sources of noise are enforced today. To rectify this situation, Leo Beranek has recently been playing a leadership role in a concerted effort to rejuvenate America's national noise policy.

Lang, William W.

2001-05-01

434

Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: Becoming Policy Aware, Policy Wise and Policy Active.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stemming from my article entitled, "Teachers and the Policy Reform Agenda: The Changing Emphasis in Educational Policy Analysis," this article describes the changing landscape of educational policy analysis. Here, I illustrate that traditionally teachers have been, to a certain degree, involved in policy processes. However, the degree to which…

Naidu, Sham

2011-01-01

435

Aid, Policies, and Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a new database on foreign aid to examine the relationships among foreign aid, economic policies, and growth per capita GDP. We find that aid has a positive impact on growth in developing countries with good fiscal, monetary, and trade policies but has little effect in the presence of poor policies. Good policies are ones that are themselves

Craig Burnside; David Dollar

2000-01-01

436

Governor's Policy Statement, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Governor's Policy Statement has been written so that Goergians not only can review this Administration's policies but also can see actions taken or proposed in order to implement each policy. Each policy area contains a brief description of the presen...

1977-01-01

437

School Parent Involvement Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This school parent involvement policy is divided into three sections: (1) Development and Adoption of the Parent Involvement Policy; (2) Contents of the Parent Involvement Policy; and (3) Distributing and Revising the School's Parent Involvement Policy. This paper presents the provision of the Section 1118 of Title I of the No Child Left Behind…

Center for Law and Education (NJ3), 2005

2005-01-01

438

Policy mapping for establishing a national emergency health policy for Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The number of potential life years lost due to accidents and injuries though poorly studied has resulted in tremendous economic and social loss to Nigeria. Numerous socio-cultural, economic and political factors including the current epidemic of ethnic and religious conflicts act in concert in predisposing to and enabling the ongoing catastrophe of accident and injuries in Nigeria. Methods Using the "policymaker", Microsoft-Windows® based software, the information generated on accidents and injuries and emergency health care in Nigeria from literature review, content analysis of relevant documents, expert interviewing and consensus opinion, a model National Emergency Health Policy was designed and analyzed. A major point of analysis for the policy is the current political feasibility of the policy including its opportunities and obstacles in the country. Results A model National Emergency Health Policy with policy goals, objectives, programs and evaluation benchmarks was generated. Critical analyses of potential policy problems, associated multiple players, diverging interests and implementation guidelines were developed. Conclusions "Political health modeling" a term proposed here would be invaluable to policy makers and scholars in developing countries in assessing the political feasibility of policy managing. Political modeling applied to the development of a NEHP in Nigeria would empower policy makers and the policy making process and would ensure a sustainable emergency health policy in Nigeria.

Aliyu, Zakari Y

2002-01-01

439

Real Options And The Escalation Of Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconstrained real options can lead to escalation of commitment, primarily outside unregulated for-profit organizations. However, these escalations can be mitigated via agency and attribution theories.

William B. Joyce; Stephen J. Larson

2008-01-01

440

Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18–64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. Results The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Conclusions Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Implications Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures.

Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

2013-01-01

441

Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that in 2000 almost 175 million people, or 2.9% of the world's population, were living outside their country of birth, compared to 100 million, or 1.8% of the total population, in 1995. As the global labour market strengthens, it is increasingly highly skilled professionals who are migrating. Medical practitioners and nurses represent a small proportion of highly skilled workers who migrate, but the loss of health human resources for developing countries can mean that the capacity of the health system to deliver health care equitably is compromised. However, data to support claims on both the extent and the impact of migration in developing countries is patchy and often anecdotal, based on limited databases with highly inconsistent categories of education and skills. The aim of this paper is to examine some key issues related to the international migration of health workers in order to better understand its impact and to find entry points to developing policy options with which migration can be managed. The paper is divided into six sections. In the first, the different types of migration are reviewed. Some global trends are depicted in the second section. Scarcity of data on health worker migration is one major challenge and this is addressed in section three, which reviews and discusses different data sources. The consequences of health worker migration and the financial flows associated with it are presented in section four and five, respectively. To illustrate the main issues addressed in the previous sections, a case study based mainly on the United Kingdom is presented in section six. This section includes a discussion on policies and ends by addressing the policy options from a broader perspective.

Stilwell, Barbara; Diallo, Khassoum; Zurn, Pascal; Dal Poz, Mario R; Adams, Orvill; Buchan, James

2003-01-01

442

Life cycle assessment of automobile/fuel options.  

PubMed

We examine the possibilities for a "greener" car that would use less material and fuel, be less polluting, and would have a well-managed end-of-life. Light-duty vehicles are fundamental to our economy and will continue to be for the indefinite future. Any redesign to make these vehicles greener requires consumer acceptance. Consumer desires for large, powerful vehicles have been the major stumbling block in achieving a "green car". The other major barrier is inherent contradictions among social goals such as fuel economy, safety, low emissions of pollutants, and low emissions of greenhouse gases, which has led to conflicting regulations such as emissions regulations blocking sales of direct injection diesels in California, which would save fuel. In evaluating fuel/vehicle options with the potential to improve the greenness of cars [diesel (direct injection) and ethanol in internal combustion engines, battery-powered, gasoline hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cells], we find no option dominates the others on all dimensions. The principles of green design developed by Anastas and Zimmerman (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 94A-101A) and the use of a life cycle approach provide insights on the key sustainability issues associated with the various options. PMID:14700331

MacLean, Heather L; Lave, Lester B

2003-12-01

443

Family planning policies and programmes in eight low-income countries: a comparative policy analysis.  

PubMed

The extent to which family planning programmes are successful at reducing fertility remains a major debate among population scholars. A comparative policy analysis of four pairs of low-income countries (Bangladesh/Pakistan, Thailand/Philippines, Tunisia/Algeria and Zimbabwe/Zambia) was carried out to understand why some countries develop appropriate and effective programmes, while other countries do not. The study found that the formation of coalitions among policy elites, spread of policy risk, and institutional and financial stability were factors which supported or inhibited the adoption of strong population policies and family planning programmes. PMID:9722114

Lee, K; Lush, L; Walt, G; Cleland, J

1998-10-01

444

Youth Gangs and Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have begun to document the changing organizational forms of youth gangs in the United States. The emergence\\/re-emergence of these gangs, often accompanied by increased violence and involvement in drug use and\\/or trafficking, poses major public policy issues. However, little empirical research has been conducted on this subject, and very few studies have been based on interviews with gang

C. Ronald Huff

1989-01-01

445

Potential External (non-DOE) Constraints on U.S. Fuel Cycle Options  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program will be conducting a screening of fuel cycle options in FY2013 to help focus fuel cycle R&D activities. As part of this screening, performance criteria and go/no-go criteria are being identified. To help ensure that these criteria are consistent with current policy, an effort was initiated to identify the status and basis of potentially relevant regulations, laws, and policies that have been established external to DOE. As such regulations, laws, and policies may be beyond DOE’s control to change, they may constrain the screening criteria and internally-developed policy. This report contains a historical survey and analysis of publically available domestic documents that could pertain to external constraints on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. “External” is defined as public documents outside DOE. This effort did not include survey and analysis of constraints established internal to DOE.

Steven J. Piet

2012-07-01

446

Major international sport profiles.  

PubMed

Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed. PMID:12296532

Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

2002-08-01

447

Integrating science, economics and law into policy: The case of carbon sequestration in climate change policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon sequestration, the extraction and storage of carbon from the atmosphere by biomass, could potentially provide a cost-effective means to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. The claims on behalf of carbon sequestration may be inadvertently overstated, however. Several key observations emerge from this study. First, although carbon sequestration studies all report results in terms of dollars per ton, the definition of that term varies significantly, meaning that the results of various analyses can not be meaningfully compared. Second, when carbon sequestration is included in an energy-economy model of climate change policy, it appears that carbon sequestration could play a major, if not dominant role in a national carbon emission abatement program, reducing costs of emissions stabilization by as much as 80 percent, saving tens of billions of dollars per year. However, the results are very dependant upon landowners' perceived risk. Studies may also have overstated the potential for carbon sequestration because they have not considered the implementation process. This study demonstrates that three factors will reduce the cost-effectiveness of carbon sequestration. First, the implementation costs associated with measurement and governance of the government-private sector relation are higher than in the case of carbon source control. Second, legal constraints limit the range of instruments that the government can use to induce private landowners to expand their carbon sinks. The government will likely have to pay private parties to expand their sinks, or undertake direct government production. In either case, additional revenues will be required, introducing social costs associated with excess burden. Third, because of the very long time involved in developing carbon sinks (up to several decades) the government may not be able to make credible commitments against exactions of one type or another that would effectively reduce the value of private sector investments in carbon sinks. Consequently, the private sector will increase the rate of return required for participation, increasing the cost of this option. Carbon sequestration can still be a major factor in a national carbon emission abatement program. However, because of the interplay of science, economics and law, the most commonly prescribed environmental policy instruments--marketable allowance and taxes--have little or no direct role to play in the implementation process.

Richards, Kenneth

448

Treatment options of spontaneous pneumothorax.  

PubMed

Penumothorax is a benign condition with high morbidity and high recurrence rate; and remains a significant clinical problem worldwide. The exact underlying pathogenesis is probably multifocal and is still unclear. The initial approach to the management of spontaneous pneumothorax differs from country to country and it is very difficult to establish an international standard protocol. Needless to say, that the safest and most cost-effective treatment protocol for a particular center should be used. However, first episode of primary spontaneous pneumothorax can be managed conservatively and there is no consensus on optimal treatment of patients presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax specially those with first event. On the contrary, there is some consensus that some treatment is mandatory with second or recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax. Regardless of the chosen therapeutic modality, the treatment goals of spontaneous pneumothorax consist of elimination of the pleural air and also prevention of future recurrence. Therapeutic options include bed rest, oxygen supplementation, manual aspiration, chest tube drainage, thoracoscopic and surgical interventions. Till present, there are no prospective, randomised comparative studies between various treatment strategies but only few between various therapeutic techniques are available. PMID:18610677

Al-Qudah, Abdullah

2006-01-01

449

Immunological treatment options for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The exact pathophysiological mechanism leading to dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia is still unclear, but inflammation is postulated to be a key player: a dysfunction in the activation of the type 1 immune response seems to be associated with decreased activity of the key enzyme in tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism, indoleamine 2,3- dioxygenase (IDO), resulting in increased production of kynurenic acid - a N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist in the central nervous system (CNS) - and reduced glutamatergic neurotransmission. The differential activation of microglia cells and astrocytes as functional carriers in the immune system in the CNS may also contribute to this imbalance. Existing antipsychotics, which predominantly act as dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, have several shortcomings. The immunological effects of many existing antipsychotics, however, rebalance in part the immune imbalance and the overproduction of kynurenic acid. The immunological imbalance results in an inflammatory state with increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and increased cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Growing evidence from clinical studies with COX-2 inhibitors points to favourable effects of anti-inflammatory therapy in schizophrenia, in particular in an early stage of the disorder. Further options for immunomodulating therapies in schizophrenia will be discussed. PMID:22283758

Müller, Norbert; Myint, Aye-Mu; Schwarz, Markus J

2012-06-01

450

Creating Tobacco Control Policy at the Local Level: Implementation of a Direct Action Organizing Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the community activation and policy change process in seven Minnesota communities involved in the Tobacco Policy Options for Prevention (TPOP) study. The study's intervention employed a direct action organizing model, which relies on mobilizing large numbers of people to alter decision making and leverage the power of elites. As part of the organizing process, TPOP organizers and

Therese M. Blaine; Jean L. Forster; Deborah Hennrikus; Stephen ONeil; Mark Wolfson; Huy Pham

1997-01-01

451

Energy conservation policy evaluation. Study module 1A, volume 2: Technical appendix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed technical analyses of energy conservation measures are presented. For each measure there is a description of how the measure works to reduce consumption; an assessment of potential savings, costs, and returns to adopters; probable 'normal' adoption rates under present policies; and potential adoption rates if some additional conservation policy options are implemented. Environmental residuals from energy end uses, and

K. Bergstresser; R. E. Berney; L. F. Carter; L. B. Craine; R. C. Dunlap

1978-01-01

452

Alternative Schools. Policy and Legislation across the United States. Research Report 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative schools have emerged over the years as one educational option for students who are not successful in traditional school settings. The number of these schools is growing rapidly, yet we know very little about similarities in policy and practice across states. This report provides a list and review of current state legislation and policy

Lehr, Camilla A.; Lanners, Eric J.; Lange, Cheryl M.

2003-01-01

453

Balancing design options with Sherpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application specific processors offer the potential of rapidly designed logic specifically constructed to meet the performance and area demands of the task at hand. Recently, there have been several major projects that attempt to automate the process of transforming a predetermined processor configuration into a low level description for fabrication. These projects either leave the specification of the processor to

Timothy Sherwood; Mark Oskin; Brad Calder

2004-01-01

454

Options in energy storage technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing and emerging technologies for energy storage have the potential to vastly increase power system flexibility and improve system response characteristics, while minimizing environmental damage. The use of energy storage technologies provides two major benefits to an electric power transmission system: more effective use of existing systemwide plant investment, flexibility in systemwide operations and better response to price changes. Stored

F. R. Jr. Harty; F. Depenbrock; P. W. Ward; D. L. Shectman

2009-01-01

455

Stem cells as promising therapeutic options for neurological disorders.  

PubMed

Due to the limitations of pharmacological and other current therapeutic strategies, stem cell therapies have emerged as promising options for treating many incurable neurologic diseases. A variety of stem cells including pluripotent stem cells (i.e., embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) and multipotent adult stem cells (i.e., fetal brain tissue, neural stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells from various sources) have been explored as therapeutic options for treating many neurologic diseases, and it is becoming obvious that each type of stem cell has pros and cons as a source for cell therapy. Wise selection of stem cells with regard to the nature and status of neurologic dysfunctions is required to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy. To this aim, the stem cell-mediated therapeutic efforts on four major neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke, will be introduced, and current problems and future directions will be discussed. PMID:23097262

Yoo, Jongman; Kim, Han-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Youn

2013-04-01

456

[Lysosomal storage diseases - update and new therapeutic options].  

PubMed

Lysosomal storage diseases represent a group of about 50 genetic disorders. The deficiencies of lysosomal and non-lysosomal proteins cause an accumulation of compounds which are normally degraded within the lysosome. There are currently no therapeutic options to cure patients suffering from a lysosomal storage disease. Due to their progressive nature there is considerable morbidity and mortality. Thus, an early treatment to maintain major systemic functions is of utmost importance. While so far only symptomatic therapies are in use, the newly available enzyme replacement therapies offer a real causal approach for selected storage diseases. Many of these disorders are characterised by pathognomonic eye findings. Therefore, the ophthalmological examination provides the opportunity for an early and non-invasive diagnosis and a chance to initiate early treatment. This review is intended to give a survey of the most common lysosomal storage diseases, particularly with regard to ophthalmological changes as well as illustrate new therapeutic options. PMID:20309790

Schöpfer, K; Miebach, E; Beck, M; Pitz, S

2011-02-01

457

Gastroparesis: a review of current and emerging treatment options  

PubMed Central

Gastroparesis is a motility disorder of the stomach causing delay in food emptying from the stomach without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. The majority of cases are idiopathic. Patients need to be diagnosed properly by formal testing, and the evaluation of the severity of the gastroparesis may assist in guiding therapy. Initially, dietary modifications are encouraged, which include frequent and small semisolid-based meals. Promotility medications, like erythromycin, and antiemetics, like prochlorperazine, are offered for symptom relief. In patients who are refractory to pharmacologic treatment, more invasive options, such as intrapyloric botulinum toxin injections, placement of a jejunostomy tube, or implantation of a gastric stimulator, can be considered. Hemin therapy and gastric electric stimulation are emerging treatment options that are still at different stages of research. Regenerative medicine and stem cell-based therapies also hold promise for gastroparesis in the near future.

Enweluzo, Chijioke; Aziz, Fahad

2013-01-01

458

Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence in Alberta, Canada: The Construction of a Policy Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's exposure to violence in the home has been a major issue for policy makers worldwide. The study examines how child protection policy makers in one Canadian province represent the problem of children's exposure. The current policy representation is problematic because it locates the problem within the broader framework of family violence. By doing so, policy makers equate the violence

Kendra L. Nixon

2011-01-01

459

Promoting Organic Food: Information Policy Versus Production Subsidy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developed countries governments aim to increase the market share of organic products. Assuming that organic farming creates a positive externality, we address the question of how this environmental benefit can be internalized best. Using the concept of heterogeneous producers and consumers we compare two policy options to enhance organic supply and demand with respect to their efficiency and distributional

Christoph Tribl; Klaus Salhofer

2005-01-01

460

Graduate Medical Education and Public Policy: A Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes graduate medical education (GME) in the United States and outlines some options for future policy related to GME. GME is the process of providing academic and clinical education to physicians after they have graduated from an accredited medical school. GME typically occurs in teaching hospitals or other health care settings.…

Henderson, Tim

461

Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately

Judith A. Cherni; Joanna Kentish

2007-01-01

462

Including Alternate Assessment Results in Accountability Decisions. NCEO Policy Directions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternate assessments provide a mechanism for students with complex disabilities to be included in assessment systems. An integral part of maximizing the benefits of assessing students is to include the results of alternate assessments in school accountability systems. This report addresses policy options for including the results of alternate…

Quenemoen, Rachel; Thurlow, Martha

463

The Extent and Nature of Educational Policy Bargaining. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the extent of policy bargaining, as well as factors that might explain variation in its extent. Results of interviews in 6 districts with over 15,000 enrollment indicate that bargaining is more extensive than predicted in the curriculum, student placement, and teacher selection areas. States without the teacher strike option

Goldschmidt, Steven M.; And Others

464

Public Policy and Union Security in the Public Sector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys the legal status of union security in the public sector and indicates that the basic policy options are to limit union security to the voluntary dues check-off, to authorize the parties to negotiate union or agency shop agreements, or to establish a mandatory fee for the exclusive representative. (Author/IRT)

Nelson Nels E.

1978-01-01

465

Mobilizing the Moral Majority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moral Majority has been more successful in mobilizing conservative Christians than three other evangelical groups--Third Century Publishers, Christian Voice, and the Religious Roundtable. According to the literature on social movements, four possible explanations for the success of such groups are that they have access to financial resources,…

Liebman, Robert C.

466

REACH. Major Appliance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

English, Charles; And Others

467

The Major Facilitator Superfamily  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In 1998 we updated earlier descriptions of the largest family of secondary transport carriers found in living organisms, the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). Seventeen families of transport proteins were shown tocomprise,this superfamily. We here report expansion of the MFS to include 29 established families as well asfive probable families. Structural, functional, and mechanistic features of the constituent permeases,are described,

Milton H. Saier; J. thomas Beatty; Andre Goffeau; Kevin T. Harley; Wilbert H. m. Heijne; Su-chi Huang; Donald L. Jack; Peter S. Jähn; Katharine Lew; Jia Liu; Stephanie S. Pao; Ian T. Paulsen; Tsai-tien Tseng; Pritbir S. Virk

1999-01-01

468

SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 5: Using research evidence to frame options to address a problem  

PubMed Central

This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policymakers and those supporting them may find themselves in one or more of the following three situations that will require them to characterise the costs and consequences of options to address a problem. These are: 1. A decision has already been taken and their role is to maximise the benefits of an option, minimise its harms, optimise the impacts achieved for the money spent, and (if there is substantial uncertainty about the likely costs and consequences of the option) to design a monitoring and evaluation plan, 2. A policymaking process is already underway and their role is to assess the options presented to them, or 3. A policymaking process has not yet begun and their role is therefore to identify options, characterise the costs and consequences of these options, and look for windows of opportunity in which to act. In situations like these, research evidence, particularly about benefits, harms, and costs, can help to inform whether an option can be considered viable. In this article, we suggest six questions that can be used to guide those involved in identifying policy and programme options to address a high-priority problem, and to characterise the costs and consequences of these options. These are: 1. Has an appropriate set of options been identified to address a problem? 2. What benefits are important to those who will be affected and which benefits are likely to be achieved with each option? 3. What harms are important to those who will be affected and which harms are likely to arise with each option? 4. What are the local costs of each option and is there local evidence about their cost-effectiveness? 5. What adaptations might be made to any given option and could they alter its benefits, harms and costs? 6. Which stakeholder views and experiences might influence an option's acceptability and its benefits, harms, and costs?

2009-01-01

469

Educational Research and Planning as a Career Option for a Mathematics Major.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes her career development from mathematics instructor to director of institutional research at a large community college. She discusses the impact of mathematics on her career, illustrates her present job by describing three recently completed research projects, and strongly recommends that mathematics instructors encourage some…

Tatham, Elaine L.

470

"Statistics Anxiety" among Sociology Majors: A First Diagnosis and Some Treatment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many sociologists now seem to assume that most, if not all, sociology students enter statistics courses full of anxiety. The problem is that this assumption is based solely on anecdotal and informal evidence. The present study seeks to correct this problem. The author begins by examining the nature and quality of the evidence that sociologists…

DeCesare, Michael

2007-01-01

471

Mission design options for human Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

Paul D. Wooster; Robert D. Braun; Jaemyung Ahn; Zachary R. Putnam

2007-01-01

472

Zinc Bromide Waste Solution Treatment Options  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort was to identify treatment options for 20,000 gallons of low-level radioactively contaminated zinc bromide solution currently stored in C-Area. These options will be relevant when the solutions are declared waste.

Langston, C.A.

2001-01-16

473

Can risk make an option more attractive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing to accept enough risk, but not too much, is an importan t survival skill. Recently, a model have been developed to predict people behaviou r in dealing with risk. It states that attractiveness of an option depends on: Exp erienced Reward and Risk. Particularly, the riskier is the option the more attractiv e it will be perceived. This model

David Polezzi; Annalisa Baglieri; Lorella Lotto; Giuseppe Sartori

474

Option price forecasting using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, forecasting of the option prices of Nikkei 225 index futures is carried out using backpropagation neural networks. Different results in terms of accuracy are achieved by grouping the data differently. The results suggest that for volatile markets a neural network option pricing model outperforms the traditional Black-Scholes model. However, the Black-Scholes model is still good for pricing

Jingtao Yao; Yili Li; Chew Lim Tan

2000-01-01

475

Perpetual American options under Levy processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider perpetual American options assuming, that under a chosen equivalent martingale measure the shock returns follow a Levy process. For put and call options, their analogs for more general payoffs, and a wide class, of Levy processes, which contains Brownian motion, normal inverse Gaussian processes, hyperbolic processes, truncated Levy processes and their mixtures, we obtain formulas for the optimal

S. I. Boyarchenko; S. Z. Levendorskii

2002-01-01

476

Martingale Approach to Pricing Perpetual American Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The method of Esscher transforms is a tool for valuing options on a stock, if the logarithm of the stock price is governed by a stochastic process with stationary and independent increments. The price of a derivative security is calculated as the expectation, with respect to the risk-neutral Esscher measure, of the discounted payoffs. Applying the optional sampling theorem

Hans U. GERBER; Elias S. W. SHIU

1994-01-01

477

Writing about Clients: Ethical Considerations and Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, the decision to prepare clinical case material for publication is a decision that cannot be taken lightly. The decision involves reviewing ethical considerations and choosing among various options to safeguard client privacy. Such options include seeking the client's permission, disguising case material, and developing composite case…

Sperry, Len; Pies, Ronald

2010-01-01

478

TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS FOR ACID RAIN CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions...

479

78 FR 38843 - Single Application Option  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...provide an additional option for individual authors/claimants registering a single (one...registration more attractive to individual authors of single works. This application option...registration of single works where the author is also the copyright owner and the...

2013-06-28

480

Electric retail market options: The customer perspective  

SciTech Connect

This report describes various options that are now available for retail electric customers, or that may become available during the next few years as the electric utility industry restructures. These options include different ways of meeting demand for energy services, different providers of service or points of contact with providers, and different pricing structures for purchased services. Purpose of this document is to examine these options from the customer`s perspective: how might being a retail electric customer in 5--10 years differ from now? Seizing opportunities to reduce cost of electric service is likely to entail working with different service providers; thus, transaction costs are involved. Some of the options considered are speculative. Some transitional options include relocation, customer-built/operated transmission lines, municipalization, self-generation, and long-term contracts with suppliers. All these may change or diminish in a restructured industry. Brokers seem likely to become more common unless restructuring takes the form of mandatory poolcos (wholesale). Some options appear robust, ie, they are likely to become more common regardless of how restructuring is accomplished: increased competition among energy carriers (gas vs electric), real-time pricing, etc. This report identified some of the qualitative differences among the various options. For customers using large amounts of electricity, different alternatives are likely to affect greatly service price, transaction costs, tailoring service to customer preferences, and risks for customer. For retail customers using small amounts of electricity, there may be little difference among the options except service price.

Hadley, S.W.; Hillsman, E.L.

1995-07-01

481

Online trading algorithms and robust option pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we show how to use efficient online trading al- gorithms to price the current value of financial instruments, such as an option. We derive both upper and lower bounds for pricing an option, using online trading algorithms. Our bounds depend on very minimal assumptions and are mainly derived assuming that there are no arbitrage opportunities.

Peter Demarzo; Ilan Kremer; Yishay Mansour

2006-01-01

482

Technological options for acid rain control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses technological options for acid rain control. Compliance with Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will require careful scrutiny of a number of issues before selecting control options to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. One key consideration is the effect of fuel switching or control technology upon the existing dust

F. T. Princiotta; C. B. Sedman

1993-01-01

483

Real estate development as an option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subject to legal limitations, the owner of undeveloped real estate can determine both the date and density at which to develop his property. Alternatively, he can abandon his property. The value of these options depends partly on the stochastic evolution through time of the operating revenues and construction costs of developed property. In this paper the option pricing problem is

Joseph T. Williams

1991-01-01

484

Power beaming options for the Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on power beaming options for the space station are presented. Topics covered include: power plant locations; beamed power options (lasers or microwaves); space power system technology; planned TSS experiment; microwave transmission experiment for space shuttle cargo bay; and power transmission configuration from space shuttle to free-flying platform.

Glaser, Peter E.

1990-01-01

485

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many options for exploration of the Moon and Mars have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration VSE was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of the moon and Mars and those of the Augustine human spaceflight commission for the implications of each architecture on the Environmental Control and Life Support, ExtraVehicular Activity and Thermal Control systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

2009-01-01

486

Exploration Architecture Options - ECLSS, EVA, TCS Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many options for exploration of space have been identified and evaluated since the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was announced in 2004. Lunar architectures have been identified and addressed in the Lunar Surface Systems team to establish options for how to get to and then inhabit and explore the moon. The Augustine Commission evaluated human space flight for the Obama administration and identified many options for how to conduct human spaceflight in the future. This paper will evaluate the options for exploration of space for the implications of architectures on the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS), ExtraVehicular Activity (EVA) and Thermal Control System (TCS) Systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each architecture and options are presented.

Chambliss, Joe; Henninger, Don; Lawrence, Carl

2010-01-01

487

Fort Collins Science Center: Policy Analysis and Science Assistance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most resource management decisions involve the integrated use of biological, sociological, and economic information. Combining this information provides a more comprehensive basis for making effective land management and conservation decisions. Toward this end, scientists in the Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch (PASA) of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) contribute expert knowledge for natural resources management by conducting biological, social, economic, and institutional analyses of conservation policies and management practices. PASAi??s mission is to integrate biological, social, and economic research so that resource managers can use the resulting information to make informed decisions and resolve resource management confl icts. PASA scientists pursue and conduct scientific analyses that help agencies and Native American tribes to (1) identify impending policy controversies and areas where social and natural science research is needed to address future policy questions; (2) develop methods and approaches to assist researchers in preparing scientific evidence; (3) assess habitat alteration in a manner consistent with policy needs; and (4) evaluate policy options. Branch scientists also evaluate policy options (e.g., effects of different land treatments, fish and wildlife management practices, or visitor/recreation management practices) in response to specifi c questions faced by policymakers and managers.

Lamb, Berton L.

2004-01-01

488

Agricultural nonpoint source water pollution policy: The case of California's Central Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonpoint sources of pollution, primarily from agricultural sources, are a major cause of water quality impairment. Yet policies to address this issue remain underexplored in the literature. This article first reviews the agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution policy literature and categorizes its major findings. The North American literature, in particular, rarely analyses NPS policies already in force, and pays even

Brian M. Dowd; Marc Los Huertos

2008-01-01

489

Distributional effects of environmental policies in Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental protection policies generate an equity question concerning the fair allocation of environmental benefits and costs. This paper presents evidence from Greece during the 1980s. The findings reveal that Greek environmental policies, in the form of government self-regulatory programs, are mostly regressive in nature. At the regional level these programs combine all forms of vertical equity. Since the public sector finances the majority of related expenditures out of taxes, the regressive elements of environmental policies have been reinforced by discretionary fiscal measures and tax evasion, accompanied by inflation, which have distorted the country's progressive tax system.

Lekakis, Joseph N.

1990-07-01

490

Decentralized control of Markovian decision processes: Existence Sigma-admissable policies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of formulating and analyzing Markov decision models having decentralized information and decision patterns is examined. Included are basic examples as well as the mathematical preliminaries needed to understand Markov decision models and, further, to superimpose decentralized decision structures on them. The notion of a variance admissible policy for the model is introduced and it is proved that there exist (possibly nondeterministic) optional policies from the class of variance admissible policies. Directions for further research are explored.

Greenland, A.

1980-01-01