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1

Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

2

DEGREES, MAJORS, AND OPTIONS This is a list of the degrees, majors, and options  

E-print Network

&S) International Studies* (L&S) Option: Culture in an Age of Globalization Option: Global Commons/Global Environment Option: Global Security Option: Politics and Policy in the Global Economy Italian* (L&S) Japanese* (L&S) Jewish Studies* (L&S) Option: Jewish Studies and Education Languages and Cultures of Asia* (L

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

3

Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY  

E-print Network

Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY CEP encourages all undergraduate to formalize these guidelines by implementing a policy that restricts qualification to one or more majors. CEP of the major qualifications policy on other undergraduate programs; · discuss the potential effects

California at Santa Cruz, University of

4

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND  

E-print Network

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL: EmergyAnalysis and Public Policy Options By Mark T. Brown Pamela Green, Agustin Gonzalez, and Javier Road Gainesville, Florida Tel (904) 392-2424 Fax (904) 392-3624 #12;EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES

Slatton, Clint

5

OPTIONAL LIFE INSURANCE SMOKING DECLARATION POLICY HOLDER POLICY NO.  

E-print Network

OPTIONAL LIFE INSURANCE SMOKING DECLARATION POLICY HOLDER POLICY NO. Simon Fraser University GL 37722 To qualify for reduced non-smoker optional life rates you must not have used smoking materials-smoker and have begun smoking, your premium will be converted to the smoker's premium rate. EMPLOYEE'S NAME

6

Programs for Young Children: State Policy Options. CPRE Policy Briefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A paper, "Young Children Face the States: Issues and Options for Early Childhood Programs," by W. Norton Grubb, is summarized in this policy brief. A discussion of the decisions that state policy makers must make and descriptions of the historical conflicts that persist within the early childhood movement and the current national status of early…

Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. Eagleton Inst. of Politics.

7

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND  

E-print Network

EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES, PUBLIC POLICY OPTIONS, AND DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE COASTAL, Museum Road Gainesville, Florida Tel (904) 392-2424 Fax (904) 392-3624 #12;EMERGY ANALYSIS PERSPECTIVES of Florida Phelps lab, Museum Road Gainesville, Florida Tel. (904) 392-2424 Fax (904) 392-3624 #12;EMERGY

Slatton, Clint

8

Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

Bezdek, Roger

9

Global population trends and policy options.  

PubMed

Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. PMID:22784532

Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

2012-07-14

10

MATHEMATICS WITH SECONDARY EDUCATION OPTION Mathematics Courses Major Education Courses  

E-print Network

MATHEMATICS WITH SECONDARY EDUCATION OPTION Mathematics Courses Major Education Courses 2 Area requirement) exams (061 & 063) in mathematics. EDU 104 is required for all education majors EDU 300, 305, Culture and Creativity course with C minimum all to be completed prior or concurrently with MAT 129 (4

Acosta, Charles A.

11

Accelerated Learning Options: A Promising Strategy for States. Policy Insights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of Policy Insights draws on findings from WICHE's report Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success, to lay out some of the important policy issues that decision makers might consider when adopting new state policy related to accelerated learning or modifying policies already in existence. The publication…

Michelau, Demaree

2006-01-01

12

Policy options to support biofuel production.  

PubMed

Biofuels for use in the transportation sector have been produced on a significant scale since the 1970s, using a variety of technologies. The biofuels widely available today are predominantly sugar- and starch-based bioethanol, and oilseed- and waste oil-based biodiesel, although new technologies under development may allow the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Measures to promote the use of biofuels include renewable fuel mandates, tax incentives, and direct funding for capital projects or fleet upgrades. This paper provides a review of the policies behind the successful establishment of the biofuel industry in countries around the world. The impact of direct funding programs and excise tax exemptions are examined using the United States as a case study. It is found that the success of five major bioethanol producing states (Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Minnesota) is closely related to the presence of funding designed to support the industry in its start-up phase, while tax exemptions on bioethanol use do not influence the development of production capacity. The study concludes that successful policy interventions can take many forms, but that success is equally dependent upon external factors, which include biomass availability, an active industry, and competitive energy prices. PMID:17846726

Mabee, W E

2007-01-01

13

Substitution Criteria and Policy for Major Items.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lack of adequate guidance and policy and, in some cases, conflicting guidance in the processing of major items that are used as substitutes for authorized items have created problems in the management of these items. This report investigates the exist...

U. R. Poskus

1979-01-01

14

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice  

E-print Network

National Transportation Policy Options: A Time for Choice A white paper for participants of the 2008 James L. Oberstar Forum The Next Authorization: Transforming Transportation Policy? April 6­7, 2008 Minneapolis, Minnesota Sponsored by Center for Transportation Studies University of Minnesota

Minnesota, University of

15

Option values of low carbon technology policies  

E-print Network

to specify the timing of information revelation and demand growth (see Karp and Zhang, 2006). This would raise the following questions: When and in which information set should the LCT policy be launched? Which scale the LCT deployment should... information discovery, he could be incited to do so when anticipating the future revelation of information; but, if he does implement an LCT policy when ignoring information discovery he should have to reduce it when anticipating information...

Finon, Dominique; Meunier, Guy

2012-06-19

16

America's children: economic perspectives and policy options.  

PubMed

American children are worse off than those in the previous generation in several important dimensions of mental, physical, and emotional well-being. During the 1960s cultural changes adversely affected children while their material condition improved substantially. By contrast, material conditions deteriorated in the 1980s, especially among children at the lower end of the income distribution. Public policies to improve the material condition of children require a transfer of resources from households that do not have children to those that do. Government programs such as tax credits and child allowances are more efficient and equitable than employer-mandated programs. PMID:1553531

Fuchs, V R; Reklis, D M

1992-01-01

17

Neurotoxicants: emerging issues and policy options  

SciTech Connect

Neurotoxicants are increasingly seen as significant public health hazards, the resolution of which is influenced by science as well as economics, politics, and emotions. Three topical issues are presented to illustrate the application or abuse of scientific data in the political arena and to suggest appropriate responsibilities of scientists beyond the generation of data. The examples include regulation of occupation-related neurotoxic exposure, transfer of neurotoxic pollutants among environmental media, and export of neurotoxic hazards to Third World countries. These examples illustrate the variety of ways in which neurotoxicants impinge on policy questions--from international trade, through ecosystem effects, to personal occupational health and safety.

Hulebak, K.L.

1987-03-01

18

Evaluating Policy Options for Biofuel Land Use Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of biofuels leads to global land use change (LUC) through increased land competition. LUC poses risks such as increased greenhouse gas emissions and food prices, that policymakers must balance against biofuel objectives. This paper examines policy approaches to lower LUC risk from biofuels. We propose a three-pronged policy approach: (1) promoting feedstocks that rely less on land; (2) reducing LUC risk for land-using feedstocks; and (3) stimulating investments that increase land productivity and environmental protection. We illustrate possibilities for model-based evaluation of LUC policy design options using two linked partial economic equilibrium simulation models (BEPAM/IMPACT). While the modeling addresses only a subset of mitigation options presented (including an 'iLUC factor'), it illustrates how this approach can shed light on the geographical distribution and magnitude of LUC resulting from specific policy designs.

Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.; Msangi, S.

2012-12-01

19

"THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY  

E-print Network

"THE NUCLEAR OPTION IN GREEK NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY: A RENAISSANCE OR A DJA VUE" by RAPHAEL MOISSIS? · the Commission: · Recognizes the contribution of nuclear energy in CO2 emission reduction. · Underlines of nuclear energy generation is reduced, it is essential that this reduction be phased

20

Michigan State University Faculty: Health Care Concerns, Policies, and Future Options  

E-print Network

Michigan State University Faculty: Health Care Concerns, Policies, and Future Options A Preliminary Report of the Health Care Options Task Force University Committee on Faculty Affairs: Budget Subcommittee ................................................................................................................... 13 HEALTH CARE OPTIONS TASK FORCE (HCOTF

21

Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.  

PubMed

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability. PMID:21866177

Pomeranz, Jennifer L

2012-02-01

22

Policy options in a worst case climate change world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic changes more rapid and extreme than assessed by the IPCC cannot be excluded, because of the possibility of positive\\u000a earth system feedbacks and thresholds. Do today’s policy makers have to take these into account, and if so, are the options\\u000a different from those considered today? The paper briefly summarizes the types of extreme climatic changes noted in the literature

Rob Swart; Natasha Marinova

2010-01-01

23

Language Policy at Major Sporting Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, are linguistically complex events that require large-scale language planning and policy. This chapter focuses on the Olympic Games and looks at the practicalities of the attitudes and responses to multilingualism and the language policies employed in this particular international event to…

Djite, Paulin G.

2009-01-01

24

Preeradication vaccine policy options for poliovirus infection and disease control.  

PubMed

With the circulation of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 1 and 3 continuing more than a decade after the original goal of eradicating all three types of WPVs by 2000, policymakers consider many immunization options as they strive to stop transmission in the remaining endemic and outbreak areas and prevent reintroductions of live polioviruses into nonendemic areas. While polio vaccination choices may appear simple, our analysis of current options shows remarkable complexity. We offer important context for current and future polio vaccine decisions and policy analyses by developing decision trees that clearly identify potential options currently used by countries as they evaluate national polio vaccine choices. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature we (1) identify the current vaccination options that national health leaders consider for polio vaccination, (2) characterize current practices and factors that appear to influence national and international choices, and (3) assess the evidence of vaccine effectiveness considering sources of variability between countries and uncertainties associated with limitations of the data. With low numbers of cases occurring globally, the management of polio risks might seem like a relatively low priority, but stopping live poliovirus circulation requires making proactive and intentional choices to manage population immunity in the remaining endemic areas and to prevent reestablishment in nonendemic areas. Our analysis shows remarkable variability in the current national polio vaccine product choices and schedules, with combination vaccine options containing inactivated poliovirus vaccine and different formulations of oral poliovirus vaccine making choices increasingly difficult for national health leaders. PMID:23461599

Thompson, Kimberly M; Pallansch, Mark A; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Wassilak, Steve G; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cochi, Stephen L

2013-04-01

25

Continuation Policy for the Environmental Science and Resource Management Major  

E-print Network

Continuation Policy for the Environmental Science and Resource Management Major This document of Science in Environmental Science and Resource Management program. While the University has regulations in Environmental Science and Resource Management program. Students are encouraged to frequently review

Anderson, Richard

26

The Role of the Option Value of College Attendance in College Major Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines extent expectations of attendance in graduate program and its payoffs affect undergraduate major choice. Results explain why some students choose to major in fields associated with poor job prospects for undergraduate degree holders. Option to attend graduate school is not significant factor in choosing to major in computer…

Eide, Eric; Waehrer, Geetha

1998-01-01

27

Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.  

PubMed

Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China's biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing. PMID:20372892

Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

2010-10-01

28

Transition study plans for current G&G students OPTION 1: Majors -Geology, Geophysics and Spatial Information Major  

E-print Network

Transition study plans for current G&G students OPTION 1: Majors - Geology, Geophysics and Spatial Approved Level II Remote Sensing III Geology Summer Sch GIS for Environmental Management III Geophysics Semester 1 Tectonics III Igneous & Metamorphic Geology III Geophysics III Exploration Methods III Semester

29

Health care cost containment: an overview of policy options.  

PubMed

While health care has become one of the leading policy concerns of the American public, cost containment has emerged as the most prominent underlying factor. Components of health care cost escalation include societal problems, consumer demand, an aging population, the technology explosion, administrative inefficiencies, the malpractice crisis, fraud and abuse, the lack of health promotion and disease prevention, the rising number of uninsured, and regulatory issues. The three major categories of health reform proposals, with characteristic cost containment features, are discussed. A comprehensive listing of available cost containment interventions is summarized in ten categories. PMID:8273941

Pane, G A; Taliaferro, E H

1994-01-01

30

Alleviating water scarcity in Northern China: balancing options and policies among Chinese decision-makers.  

PubMed

Water scarcity is mostly a man-made problem that increasingly affects people's lives and questions economic output in Northern China. Policy options addressing the serious water shortages in the region include conservation and water management reform, which is unpopular; grain imports and the downsizing of agriculture; derivation of Yangze water; derivation of the Amur and other international rivers. All solutions present major difficulties, whether domestic or international, for the Chinese authorities. While major decisions have not yet been taken, evidence shows major works such as water transfers from the Yangze or water pricing are not only unavoidable, but will not be enough to meet the growing demand for water in the region. PMID:12731785

Lasserre, F

2003-01-01

31

Nonprofit conversion: theory, evidence, and state policy options.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the contributions of nonprofit hospitals and health plans to healthcare markets and to analyze state policy options with regard to the conversion of nonprofits to for-profit status. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary national and state data from a variety of sources, 1980-present. STUDY DESIGN: Policy analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Development of a conceptual economic framework; analysis of empirical, legal, and theoretical literature; and review of statutes, rules, and court decisions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three main rationales support special status for nonprofits, especially hospitals: charity care, other community benefits, and consumer protection. The main social rationale for for-profits is their incentives for better efficiency. There are reasons to expect that nonprofit and for-profit goals differ; however, measured differences in community hospital cost, prices, and quality between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals are undetectable or inconclusive. Nonprofit hospitals do provide more uncompensated care than for-profit hospitals. Similarities between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals may exist because nonprofits may set norms that for-profits follow to some degree. States have substantial power and discretion in overseeing nonprofit conversions. Some have regularized oversight through new legislation that constrains, but does not eliminate, state officials' discretion. These statutes may be deferential to converting entities and their buyers or may be very restrictive of them. CONCLUSIONS: Overseeing the appropriate disposition of nonprofit assets in individual conversions is extremely important. States should also monitor local market conditions through community benefits assessments and other data collection, however, to accurately assess (and possibly redress) what is lost or gained from conversion. Local market conditions are likely more important in determining hospital behavior than ownership form. Potentially, a mix of for-profit and nonprofit hospitals in a given market may improve market performance due to constraints the two ownership types may exercise over one another. If nonprofits disappear, the states may need to maintain quality and access norms through regulation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9865231

Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M

1998-01-01

32

Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.  

PubMed

By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Wang, H; Zhai, F

2013-11-01

33

Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China  

PubMed Central

By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

2014-01-01

34

2012/2013 Animal Sciences Science and PreProfessional Option Pre-Major Courses  

E-print Network

permits. #12;Department of Anima Sciences l 2012/2013 Bachelor of Science Degree Program Student2012/2013 Animal Sciences ­ Science and PreProfessional Option Pre-Major Courses Course Prefix 307, ENGL 308, FSHD/FSHV 428 Major Requirements _________ AN S 102R Intro. To Animal Science ­ Lecture

Guerriero, Vince

35

Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) University Park Campus  

E-print Network

(GHA) 1.5 Social and Behavioral Science Selection (GS) 3 HORT 495 Internship or HORT 496 IndependentRecommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) University Park Chemistry I 1 HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science 3 HORT 202 Plant Propagation 3 ENGL 015 (GWS) Rhetoric

Guiltinan, Mark

36

Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Commonwealth Campuses (not including Berks)  

E-print Network

Chemistry I 3 Humanities (GH) 3 Social and Behavioral Science (GS) 3 United States Cultures (US) CanRecommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Commonwealth Credits: 13-17 Total Credits: 16 Semester 5 Credits Semester 6 Credits HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science

Guiltinan, Mark

37

Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Berks Campus  

E-print Network

3 Arts (GA) 3 STAT 200 (GQ) Elementary Statistics 4 Humanities (GH) 3 Social and Behavioral Science166 Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major - Science Option (HORT/SCIEN) Berks Campus and Analytic Geometry, or higher 3 HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science 3 HORT 202 Plant Propagation 3 ENGL 015

Guiltinan, Mark

38

Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

1987-01-01

39

2012/2013 Animal Sciences Equine Option Pre-Major Courses  

E-print Network

________ _____________________________________________ _____ ________ _____________________________________________ _____ ________ _____________________________________________ _____ #12;Department of Anima Sciences l 2012/2013 Bachelor of Science Degree Program Student Name2012/2013 Animal Sciences Equine Option Pre-Major Courses Course Prefix Course Title Units _________ AN S 215 Physiology of Domestic Animals 3 S MCB 184 or 181R/L _________ AN S 270 Introductory Horse Science

Guerriero, Vince

40

Recommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major -Design/Build Option (LSCPE/DESGN) University Park  

E-print Network

138 Ornamental Plant Materials 3 HORT 408 Landscape Plant Establishment and Maintenance 4 HORT 269 Credits HORT 466 Landscape Construction II 5 HORT 368 Landscape Planting Design 4 HORT 131 HerbaceousRecommended Academic Plan for Landscape Contracting Major - Design/Build Option (LSCPE

Guiltinan, Mark

41

The Pacific Islands. Policy options for telecommunications investment.  

PubMed

The Independent Commission for World-Wide Telecommunications Development (Maitland Commission) reported that telecommunication networks, including public telephone systems, are an infrastructure which aids economic development throughout the world. The Commissions objective is to bring the majority of the world's population within easy access of a telephone and, in time, other communications services. Development in the Pacific Islands region is slowed by a lack of efficient communications. The islands are spread over 29 million square kilometers of ocean and extremely vulnerable to natural disasters. Pacific Island Nations (PINs) have problems of foreign exchange, skill shortages, and poor credit terms. Telecommunications infrastructure audits showed the overall regional teledensity of 3 telephones per 100 population. The individual countries vary form 8.3 in Fiji to 1.5 in Papua New Guinea and 25.2 in New Zealand. The population of the developing island countries is in mostly rural areas where there is a chronic shortage of telephones. The constraints on radio systems can be overcome with satellite technology. The new technologies are coming on the market faster than these countries can afford to handle them. By using satellite technology and sharing facilities PINs can greatly reduce the cost of telecommunications systems. Fiber optic cables will be used to carry large volumes of traffic over major routes while satellites can be used for a array of services for the smallest PIN nation to the largest route rim country. Work is being done to standardize the equipment specifications and to develop policies for the coordination of regional telecommunications training. To further facilitate communications development in this area, changes need to be made in international funding priorities for development, and recommendations by the Maitland Commission must be taken seriously. PMID:12283234

Jussawalla, M; Ogden, M R

1989-03-01

42

Presentation to the Forecasters Club: The Economic Outlook and Options for Fiscal Policy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congressional Budget Office (CBO) expects that the economic recovery will proceed at a modest pace, leaving the unemployment rate above 8 percent until 2012. There are monetary and fiscal policy options that, if applied at a sufficient scale, would increa...

D. W. Elmendorf

2010-01-01

43

The response of ozone to transportation technology and policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the global economy grows, there is a corresponding increase in the number of passenger cars on the road and in the volume of goods shipped. Building on novel methods to estimate these transportation emissions, we evaluate the regional air quality impacts of personal vehicles and heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) for freight transport. In particular, we quantify the potential of technological and policy-based solutions to reduce mean ozone concentrations and the frequency of high ozone events. Although transportation contributes to a range of air quality challenges, ozone chemistry is particularly sensitive to vehicle emissions, with on-road vehicles accounting for 44 percent of all man-made U.S. NOx emissions, and HDDV accounting for nearly 42 percent of this on-road contribution. Our studies focus on the Upper Midwestern United States, where urban development, agricultural activities, lake effect meteorology, and cross-continental freight transport are all major drivers of ozone chemistry and transport. Results will be presented from a range of recently completed and ongoing studies evaluating the ozone impacts of urban vehicle travel, the response of freight emissions to fuel-conserving speed reduction measures, and the consequences of increased biofuel use.

Holloway, T.

2008-12-01

44

Complex Adaptive System Modelling of River Murray Salinity Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on complex adaptive system (CAS) simulation of the River Murray Basin in Australia to compare capacity of institutional options to maintain functioning of key river system within a \\

Jeffery D. Connor

2006-01-01

45

Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for responding to obesity in Finland.  

PubMed

The aim of the Finnish Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project study was to use a multi-criteria mapping method to assess stakeholder opinions on policies that might have relevance when planning policies targeting obesity prevention. When evaluating policies, criteria relating to 'Positive societal benefits' and 'Additional health benefits' were often considered important, along with the more obvious 'Efficacy in addressing obesity'. Other criteria (like economic factors) were of less importance. All policy options targeting at 'Educational and Research Initiatives' were highly ranked in the analysis by all stakeholders. Policies aimed at improving 'Food-Related Informational Initiatives' were also ranked well on average, although more variation between stakeholders existed. Policies targeting increased physical activity and easier access/provision to healthy foods received also relatively good rankings but with wide variation and doubts in the appraisals. Policies encouraging new technological innovations and institutional reforms were mostly ranked poorly and were not seen as solutions to obesity problem. Irrespective of the stakeholder group, it seems that while traditional educational policies were most highly ranked, several other policies are also viable options in the policy portfolio of obesity prevention. PMID:17371307

Borg, P; Fogelholm, M

2007-05-01

46

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options  

E-print Network

Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options Raphae¨l Bille � Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract Ocean acidification has emerged over research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus

Fortunat, Joos

47

Designing a funding system for rehabilitation services. Part 2: Policy objectives and options for achieving efficiency and quality of care.  

PubMed

This paper examines the objectives of a funding policy for rehabilitation services. A casemix funding system comprises two sets of instruments: a classification system and a payment system. Attention is given to identifying which policy objectives are best pursued through each of these instruments. The paper then analyses the effect of various instruments on creating incentives for efficiency and quality, and assesses policy options with regard to their capacity for dealing with the heterogeneity of rehabilitation patients and controlling various forms of gaming. In conclusion, the paper canvasses four major areas warranting consideration in advancing policy: the use of a blended payment system; dealing with functional gain; the development of an information base; and the focus on designated rehabilitation units. PMID:10154018

Duckett, S; Gray, L; Howe, A

1995-01-01

48

Options for sustainable passenger transport: an assessment of policy choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the current trends in transport are not changed, a sustainable transport system is not feasible. In order to achieve such a state, new technologies may be an interesting option. In this paper, several success and failure factors for the introduction of new technologies are analyzed. These possibilities are identified in different areas, notably economic, spatial, institutional, social\\/psychological and technological

Sytze A. Rienstra; Jaap M. Vleugel; Peter Nijkamp

1996-01-01

49

POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

50

Integrated analysis of policy options for protection of groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is directed at providing an integrated framework that a regional authority should use when assessing the potential impacts of any policy initiative directed at improving groundwater quality. In particular, a policy model is developed relying on three decision components (a farm-level production decisions model, a household decisions model and a regional policy decision model) where the objective is one of identifying the trade-offs that a regional authority will be confronted with as it strives to balance the preferences of farmers and households while endeavoring to maximize net economic welfare. The basic rule developed indicates that the regional authority must choose a policy whereby any increase (decrease) in regional income is just equal to the decrease (increase) in net benefits to households.

Uri, Noel D.; Huang, Wen-Yuan

1990-05-01

51

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively  

E-print Network

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

Liu, Paul

52

Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity: Cyprus national findings.  

PubMed

A multifaceted public health policy approach is required for reversing the current obesity epidemic. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project aimed to explore the consistency and/or variability of the perspectives of key stakeholders towards a range of different options to respond to the growing challenge of obesity among nine participating European member states. The multi-criteria mapping technique was used. Cyprus national data, when analysed in the public health and public policy context of Cyprus, collectively indicate that no single policy option appears to be unique in combating obesity, but rather need to be combined with other policy options. Specifically, measures are needed to improve levels of knowledge and understanding regarding food, diet, health and fitness beginning from early childhood with health professionals having an important role in this regard. These measures should be coupled with informational initiatives emphasizing the improvement of nutritional information labelling system, and the control of food and drink advertising. There was also a consensus regarding the need for modifying the supply of and demand for foodstuffs, but not via economic instruments. Practical feasibility, social acceptability, efficacy and social benefits but not the economic costs of the options were deemed the most important criteria for a successful implementation. PMID:17371306

Savva, S C; Chadjioannou, M; Tornaritis, M J

2007-05-01

53

Modelling Options for Policy Impact Analysis on African Dairy Farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the priorities for agricultural research in Eastern and Central Africa concluded that milk is the most important commodity for research and development in the region, based on its potential contribution to the agricultural GDP. It has been presumed that, the right policies, marketing systems and technical support must be sought for dairy development in Africa. In order to

Oghaiki Asaah NDAMBI

2008-01-01

54

Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

55

Panarchy, Adaptive Management and Governance: Policy Options for Building Resilience  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a com...

56

Environmental Policies to Reduce College Drinking: Options and Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this article is to provide an over- view of environmental strategies that may reduce college drinking. Drinking behavior is influenced by many environmental factors, includ- ing messages in the media, community norms and attitudes, public and institutional policies and practices and economic factors. College stu- dent drinking may be influenced by environmental factors on and off

TRACI L. TOOMEY; ALEXANDER C. WAGENAAR

57

The effect of limited options and policy interactions on water storage policy in south Florida.  

PubMed

Due to environmental constraints and reactive water management practices, water shortages exist across the Everglades ecosystem. A growing human population and continued wetlands damage and loss decrease the system's ability to provide water for sustained natural areas and for human uses. 'The Restudy' is an $8 billion plan to restore the Everglades while also continuing to provide water storage for urban and agricultural areas. The Restudy proposes a mix of water storage systems to provide for the predicted future growth in water demand. This mix is purported to be the most cost-efficient at providing water supplies, within the constraints of unchanged agricultural and urban land use. However, a sensitivity analysis of the Restudy's cost equation reveals that the total cost of water storage systems is influenced by real estate, land acquisition and water treatment costs. The interaction of land use and agricultural policies can affect these cost factors, and can change the relative cost-efficiency between storage systems. Real estate and land acquisition costs are affected by several 1996 Farm Bill provisions, which influence the cost of aboveground water storage systems versus Aquifer Storage and Recovery systems. The Governor's Commission for a Sustainable South Florida recommendations also influence the water storage options available to the Restudy. Due to the Restudy's initial assumptions and constraints, it may not advocate the most economically and ecologically sound remediation. PMID:11591032

Mayer, A L

2001-09-01

58

41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What are the major components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40...MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are...

2012-01-01

59

41 CFR 102-85.40 - What are the major components of the pricing policy?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What are the major components of the pricing policy? 102-85.40 Section 102-85.40...MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Pricing Policy-General § 102-85.40 What are...

2011-01-01

60

Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

Baxter, L.W.

1997-07-01

61

Conservation biology in Asia: the major policy challenges.  

PubMed

With about half the world's human population and booming economies, Asia faces numerous challenges to its biodiversity. The Asia Section of the Society for Conservation Biology has identified some key policy issues in which significant progress can be made. These include developing new sources of funding for forest conservation; identifying potential impacts of energy alternatives on the conservation of biodiversity; curbing the trade in endangered species of plants and animals; a special focus on the conservation of mountain biodiversity; enhancing relevant research; ensuring that conservation biology contributes to major international conventions and funding mechanisms; using conservation biology to build a better understanding of zoonotic diseases; more effectively addressing human-animal conflicts; enhancing community-based conservation; and using conservation biology to help address the pervasive water-deficit problems in much of Asia. These challenges can be met through improved regional cooperation among the relevant stakeholders. PMID:19627311

McNeely, Jeffrey A; Kapoor-Vijay, Promila; Zhi, Lu; Olsvig-Whittaker, Linda; Sheikh, Kashif M; Smith, Andrew T

2009-08-01

62

Strategic Options in Canadian Transport Policy: The Interface between Trade Pressures and Domestic Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is facing inexorable pressures to realign its bulk freight transportation policies, especially in Western Canada. National transportation policies, as one of the three legs of the National Policy (with a common tariff wall and policies in support of immigration from Great Britain), have been used since 1876 as a nation- building tool, to support and to build economic, social

Peter W. B. Phillips; James Nolan

63

Energy policies and the greenhouse effect volume two: Country studies and technical options  

SciTech Connect

This book is the second volume based on a 4-year study by the Energy and Environmental Programme at the Royal Institute of Interantional Affairs in the United Kingdom. First, the book provides an integrated discussion of the country studies and technical options that contain information for policy analysis. The second part explains how political, rather than technical or economic, constraints have inhibited widespread adoption of abatement policies in USA, UK, Japan, the former Soviet Union, China, and India.

Grubb, M.

1993-01-01

64

Page 1 of 10 Assessing the effectiveness of policy options to reduce CO2  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 10 Assessing the effectiveness of policy options to reduce CO2 emissions from surface for approximately a quarter of the UK's domestic CO2 emissions and over 90% of these emissions are from road contributor to UK CO2 emissions, and whilst efficiency improvements are expected to reduce emissions per

65

Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.  

PubMed

Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made. PMID:23600192

Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

2013-03-01

66

Upper-Division Course Options for Genetics Majors Major electives in general should be selected from upper-division lecture, laboratory,  

E-print Network

6/6/08 Upper-Division Course Options for Genetics Majors Major electives in general should, biology, cell biology, chemistry, computer science, ecology, entomology, genetics, marine science, math GENETICS GENE 4050. Behavior Genetics. 3 hours. Prerequisite: BIOL 1107-1107L or BIOL 1108-1108L

Arnold, Jonathan

67

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.  

PubMed

The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development. PMID:15083654

DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

2004-02-01

68

Major by Option Major/Option College Degree 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993  

E-print Network

40 39 24 20 22 Agricultural Short Course AG Bachelor's 1 3 Agronomy AG Bachelor's 1 2 4 13 Agronomy - Agronomy AG Bachelor's 3 Agronomy - Crop & Soil Mgmt AG Bachelor's 1 3 7 11 13 12 Agronomy - Crop Science/OPTIONS (by degree) Agronomy - Plant Protection AG Bachelor's 2 1 4 7 2 4 Agronomy - Science AG Bachelor's 1 5

Maxwell, Bruce D.

69

Major by Option Major/Option College Degree 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993  

E-print Network

/OPTIONS (by college) Agricultural Short Course AG Bachelor's 1 3 Agronomy AG Bachelor's 1 2 4 13 Agronomy AG Master's 1 2 10 7 6 12 14 12 Agronomy - Agronomy AG Bachelor's 3 Agronomy - Crop & Soil Mgmt AG Bachelor's 1 3 7 11 13 12 Agronomy - Crop Science AG Bachelor's Agronomy - Plant Protection AG Bachelor's 2 1 4

Maxwell, Bruce D.

70

Intellectual Property and Online Courses: Policies at Major Research Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes an investigation of the intellectual property policies of a stratified random sample of public and private Carnegie Doctoral Research-Extensive Universities. University policies were examined to determine whether or not they included provisions for distance education materials or courseware, what provisions were made for…

Loggie, Kathryn Ann; Barron, Ann E.; Gulitz, Elizabeth; Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Phyllis

2007-01-01

71

Brandeis University Health: Science, Society and Policy current number of majors  

E-print Network

) is an inter disciplinary major that focuses on health, health care and health policy. Courses include socialBrandeis University Health: Science, Society and Policy fast facts current number of majors: an interdisciplinary education in health and health care Popular second majors: anthropology, biology, psychology

Fraden, Seth

72

The ‘discouraged-business-major’ hypothesis: policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the ‘discouraged-business-majors’ (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often choose an economics major as their alternative. This paper explains

John Marangos

2012-01-01

73

The ‘discouraged?business?major’ hypothesis: policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the ‘discouraged?business?majors’ (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often choose an economics major as their alternative. This paper explains

John Marangos

2011-01-01

74

Acquiring Water for Environmental Use in Australia: An Analysis of Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid counties, such as Australia, the storage and extractive use of water is causing significant environmental damage and\\u000a traditional economic objectives of efficiency and maximising financial returns from surface water resources are often at conflict\\u000a the long-term sustainability of riverine ecosystems. Policy options for acquiring water to improve environmental flow regimes\\u000a include (a) reducing announced allocations, (b) recouping a

John Tisdell

2010-01-01

75

The major in Urban Studies is one of the options within the Committee Interdisciplinary Major (CIM) program. The  

E-print Network

. A sampling of the types of urban challenges that are examined includes poverty, segregation, public education works, com- munity organization, housing policy development and implementation, public education including law, education, urban planning, public administration, public health, economics, history

Saldin, Dilano

76

Elementary (K-8) Education Major (All grades must be completed with a "C" or better and a 2.75 GPA in major, minor & option.)  

E-print Network

and a 2.75 GPA in major, minor & option.) EDUCORE® ­ Discovering the Nature of the Disciplines 25 Credits; or approved elective Physical Science 3-4 Approved STEM elective See Approved List on back 3-4 GPHY121; GPHY Studies 3 PSCI 210IS American Government 3 EDU 331 Literature & Literacy for Children 3 EDU 370

Maxwell, Bruce D.

77

Expanding the Pool of Federal Policy Options to Promote Industrial Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Cox, Matthew [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL] [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

78

Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for responding to obesity in Italy.  

PubMed

This article deals with the phenomenon of obesity in contemporary Italian society. It is based on the fieldwork carried out during the year 2005 within the European Union-funded project 'PorGrow: policy options for responding to obesity' (see: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/PorGrow). The most recent statistical data on the spread of overweight and obesity in Italian society reveal that the phenomenon has reached a dimension that, albeit not as serious as in other Western countries, constitutes a serious threat to public health and to the national budget. The panel of stakeholders interviewed for this research showed awareness of this issue and generally agreed on the necessity to adopt a very multifaceted portfolio of policy measures to address the problem. Participants frequently regarded educational policies as the highest priority, followed by informational measures and infrastructural actions. Fiscal policy options were widely considered ineffective and unacceptable, and little enthusiasm was shown for technological innovations. In sum, while interviewees saw a real need for improved food habits on the part of Italian citizens, nonetheless in a country affected by many criticalities, the weakness of political will and the pressure of fast food culture remain severe obstacles in the fight against overweight and obesity. PMID:17371311

De Marchi, B; Casati, S; Tarlao, G

2007-05-01

79

The Information Society--A Challenge for Education Policies? Policy Options and Implementation Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to clarify the nature of the curriculum debate and to indicate the issues that need to be considered when formulating curriculum policy, this paper begins with a review of the educational reasons for using the New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT) and the thinking and experiences which lie behind them. Ways in which the…

Eraut, Michael

80

Major Issues of University Education Policy in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University education is believed to be one of the most controversial public policies in Hong Kong. Numerous changes have also occurred in the university education sector since the 1990s when the rapid expansion of university places was put into force. The most notable changes may include the institutionalization of quality assurance mechanisms,…

Lee, Michael H.

2005-01-01

81

Electricity demand-side management for an energy efficient future in China : technology options and policy priorities  

E-print Network

The main objective of this research is to identify robust technology and policy options which achieve substantial reductions in electricity demand in China's Shandong Province. This research utilizes a scenario-based ...

Cheng, Chia-Chin

2005-01-01

82

Working Lands Agri-environmental Policy Options and Issues for the Next United States Farm Bill  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. farm legislation is due to be updated in 2007, to become effective with the 2008 crop year. Major questions surround the role of environmental or conservation provisions in the new Federal farm bill. In this paper, I first present some background on the evolution of U.S. ‘agri-environmental policies’—policies encompassing conservation of agriculture’s natural resources and agriculture’s impact on the

Thomas L. Dobbs

2006-01-01

83

Policy options for alcohol price regulation: the importance of modelling population heterogeneity.  

PubMed

Context and aims Internationally, the repertoire of alcohol pricing policies has expanded to include targeted taxation, inflation-linked taxation, taxation based on alcohol-by-volume (ABV), minimum pricing policies (general or targeted), bans of below-cost selling and restricting price-based promotions. Policy makers clearly need to consider how options compare in reducing harms at the population level, but are also required to demonstrate proportionality of their actions, which necessitates a detailed understanding of policy effects on different population subgroups. This paper presents selected findings from a policy appraisal for the UK government and discusses the importance of accounting for population heterogeneity in such analyses. Method We have built a causal, deterministic, epidemiological model which takes account of differential preferences by population subgroups defined by age, gender and level of drinking (moderate, hazardous, harmful). We consider purchasing preferences in terms of the types and volumes of alcoholic beverages, prices paid and the balance between bars, clubs and restaurants as opposed to supermarkets and off-licenses. Results Age, sex and level of drinking fundamentally affect beverage preferences, drinking location, prices paid, price sensitivity and tendency to substitute for other beverage types. Pricing policies vary in their impact on different product types, price points and venues, thus having distinctly different effects on subgroups. Because population subgroups also have substantially different risk profiles for harms, policies are differentially effective in reducing health, crime, work-place absence and unemployment harms. Conclusion Policy appraisals must account for population heterogeneity and complexity if resulting interventions are to be well considered, proportionate, effective and cost-effective. PMID:19839965

Meier, Petra Sylvia; Purshouse, Robin; Brennan, Alan

2010-03-01

84

Test-Optional Admission Policies and Their Effect on the Composition of the Student Body at King's College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined test-optional admission policies and their effect on the composition of the student body at King's College. According to the College Board (2009), students from underrepresented populations do not perform as well as White students on standardized tests. Therefore, higher education institutions have established test-optional

Schmude, Michelle

2011-01-01

85

PETITION TO ADD A SECOND MAJOR SECOND MAJOR POLICY AND INFORMATION  

E-print Network

education or employment. 2. Why a minor, graduate degree, or mentoring experience will not suffice language second majors) are rare and must be approved by the college advisement center supervisors involved and the dean of the college responsible for the primary major. The second major proposal and approval process

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

86

Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for responding to obesity in Hungary.  

PubMed

Overweight and obesity increases risks for many diseases, while treating them is expensive. Trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity over the last two decades indicate the need for urgent interventions. Several different kinds of interventions could modify the obesogenic environment. The aim of this study was to map which policy options will be acceptable and effective in Hungary. Interviews were conducted with 21 stakeholders representing a wide range of viewpoints to evaluate seven core and 13 discretionary policy options under different criteria. The 21 Hungarian participants used 92 appraisal criteria covering a wide range of issues. Efficacy, practical feasibility, social acceptability and societal benefits were widely judged more important than the costs of measures. Significant additional social and health benefits were anticipated from changes in transport and planning policies, but the cost to the public sector was considered high and the implementation difficult. There was broad support for changes in patterns of food consumption and levels of physical activity. There was a consensus that without developing the attitudes of individuals to be more responsible for their health, environmental changes alone would not be enough to reverse the trend of the growing prevalence of obesity. PMID:17371310

Horváth, Z; Pankotai, M G; Szabolcs, I

2007-05-01

87

The effectiveness of recycling policy options: waste diversion or just diversions?  

PubMed

Recycling is becoming ever more important as waste generation rates increase globally. Policy-makers must decide which recycling practices to implement from the host of options at their disposal to best divert waste from landfill. This study strived to determine the most important characteristics in recycling programs that were associated with higher material recovery rates, including bag limits, user pay programs, the number of materials collected, curbside collection frequency, promotion and education (P&E) activities, Best Practice principles, and the type of recycling collection stream. Data collected from 223 recycling programs in Ontario during 2005-2010 were used to perform multiple regression analyses. The findings of this study suggest that attributes of convenience are more important to encourage recycling than those that penalize disposal, thus providing important implications for waste policy-makers, both in Ontario and in other jurisdictions. PMID:23312779

Mueller, William

2013-03-01

88

Cultural Resource Management Track for Undergraduate Majors in Anthropology Undergraduate majors may choose the Cultural Resource Management option, which satisfies  

E-print Network

Archaeology (ANTH 442/542), North American Archaeology (ANTH 443/543). Method and Theory (8 credits) Human for majors (44 credits). Required Courses (12 credits) Workshop: Archaeological Field School (ANTH 408 North Americans (ANTH 320), The Americas: Indigenous Perspectives (ANTH 325), Field Methods in Cultural

89

[Major revisionposted 10/17/11] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

/design/construction phases of all major construction projects to ensure the associated costs for the required telephone systems are properly included in the cost of the project and the equipment is properly installed. 5. Communication Services will coordinate with Building Maintenance for all services/equipment installations

Rock, Chris

90

Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

1992-12-01

91

Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

1992-12-01

92

Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2009-06-01

93

International Uncertainty, Foreign Policy Flexibility, and Surplus Majority Coalitions in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explains the prevalence of surplus majority government coalitions in Israel as a result of the interaction between international uncertainty and the need to preserve both government stability and latitude in the conduct of foreign policy. I develop a game-theoretic model of government formation in which the international environment is a source of uncertainty for the policy preferences of

Douglas M. Stinnett

2007-01-01

94

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Agriscience and Environmental Systems The agriscience and environmental systems major prepares students for successful careers in agricultural

Arnold, Jonathan

95

List of Major Options Major Option Requirement  

E-print Network

MAP after completing ECE 356) Global and Cultural Awareness Earth and Space Science Education (recorded on MyMAP after completing Geol 210) Physical Science Earth and Space Science Education (recorded on My

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

96

Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain nutrients once in the wetland. Finally, the function indicators are aggregated to provide an overall function score for each wetland. This overall value estimates a wetland's potential to provide ecosystem services compared to other wetlands on the landscape. The function indicators in combination with 'scarcity' as indicated by the historical wetland loss rates allows policy makers to adjust thresholds between wetland function scores and policy and management objectives. The wetland function assessment system offers a scientific foundation upon which wetland policy can be built. To exemplify its policy potential, we conduct quantitative ';future' scenarios to determine priority wetlands for protection under different development scenarios - this scenario analysis reveals the necessity of making tradeoffs among wetland functions, as wetlands with high ecological function may not be the same wetlands with high hydrological function. The project's resulting wetland function assessment system will improve conservation and restoration/remediation efforts by identifying high functioning wetlands, by revealing the necessity of tradeoffs, and by directing conservation towards preserving wetlands that provide important ecosystem services while allowing other wetlands to be developed.

Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

2013-12-01

97

Recommended Academic Plan for Horticulture Major -Business/Production Option (HORT/BSPRD) Berks Campus  

E-print Network

/Spanish Selection (Note A Below) 3 Social and Behavioral Science (GS) 3 United States Cultures (US) Can be combined Geometry 3 CHEM 111 (GN) Experimental Chemistry I 1 HORT 101 (GN) Horticultural Science 3 HORT 202 Plant) Introductory Macroeconomic Analysis and Policy 3 SOILS 101 (GN) Introductory Soil Science 3 HORT Plant

Guiltinan, Mark

98

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Romance Languages Students majoringThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major majors find employment in the public and private sectors. Majoring in Portuguese is possible at UGA only

Arnold, Jonathan

99

Recommended Academic Plan for Agricultural and Extension Education Major -Environmental Science Option (AEE/ENVSC)  

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Recommended Academic Plan for Agricultural and Extension Education Major - Environmental Science of Teaching in Agriculture and Environmental Science 1 AEE 350 Teaching Methods for Agricultural: 19 Semester 7 Credits Semester 8 Credits AEE 412 Methods of Teaching Agriculture and Environmental

Omiecinski, Curtis

100

Voting power and Qualified Majority Voting with a "no vote" option  

E-print Network

In recent years, enlargement of the European Union has led to increased interest in the allocation of voting weights to member states with hugely differing population numbers. While the eventually agreed voting scheme lacks any strict mathematical basis, the Polish government suggested a voting scheme based on the Penrose definition of voting power, leading to an allocation of voting weights proportional to the square root of the population (the "Jagiellonian Compromise"). The Penrose definition of voting power is derived from the citizens' freedom to vote either "yes" or "no". This paper defines a corresponding voting power based on "yes", "no" and "abstain" options, and it is found that this definition also leads to a square root law, and to the same optimal vote allocation as the Penrose scheme.

Martin Kurth

2008-05-21

101

Competition, strategic technology options and game theory in science and technology policy: the SEMATECH-Sandia National Laboratories partnership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The semiconductor industry consortium SEMATECH is used as the platform to study and critique science and technology policy on high tech consortia. The concepts of leveraging strategic technology options and competing in a game-theoretic context drive the analysis and research done. The authors focus especially on the collaborative R&D efforts undertaken by Sematech and Sandia National Laboratories

E. G. Carayannis; James Gover

1997-01-01

102

Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

2001-01-01

103

Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). PMID:21399411

Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

2011-01-01

104

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Philosophy Philosophy is a major that seeks on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Philosophy The University of Georgia CareerThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

105

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Plant Biology This major is aimed at givingThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. In addition to courses in botany, the undergraduate major will take core biology classes including

Arnold, Jonathan

106

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Greek The Greek major at UGA provides for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Greek The University of GeorgiaThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

107

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Film Studies Students majoring in Film for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Film Studies The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

108

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Environmental Resource Science This major://career.uga.edu/contact#careerconsultants What can I do with a major in Environmental Resource Science? The University of Georgia Career CenterThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

109

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Latin A major in Latin provides students for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Latin The University of GeorgiaThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

110

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Music Music majors may focus on a number.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Music The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

111

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Housing The Housing major gives students.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Housing The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

112

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Geography The Geography major is designed In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Geography The University of Georgia Career CenterThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

113

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Management Information Systems An MIS major with a major in Management Information Systems The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

114

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Horticulture The horticulture major provides I do with a major in Horticulture The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

115

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of English English is a major branch In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in English The University of Georgia Career Center ClarkThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

116

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of German Students majoring in German study one.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in German The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

117

Medicaid and marketplace eligibility changes will occur often in all states; policy options can ease impact.  

PubMed

Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), changes in income and family circumstances are likely to produce frequent transitions in eligibility for Medicaid and health insurance Marketplace coverage for low- and middle-income adults. We provide state-by-state estimates of potential eligibility changes ("churning") if all states expanded Medicaid under health reform, and we identify predictors of rates of churning within states. Combining longitudinal survey data with state-specific weighting and small-area estimation techniques, we found that eligibility changes occurred frequently in all fifty states. Higher-income states and states that had more generous Medicaid eligibility criteria for nonelderly adults before the ACA experienced more churning, although the differences were small. Even in states with the least churning, we estimated that more than 40 percent of adults likely to enroll in Medicaid or subsidized Marketplace coverage would experience a change in eligibility within twelve months. Policy options for states to reduce the frequency and impact of coverage changes include adopting twelve-month continuous eligibility for adults in Medicaid, creating a Basic Health Program, using Medicaid funds to subsidize Marketplace coverage for low-income adults, and encouraging the same health insurers to offer plans in Medicaid and the Marketplaces. PMID:24622387

Sommers, Benjamin D; Graves, John A; Swartz, Katherine; Rosenbaum, Sara

2014-04-01

118

In-Situ Exploration of Venus: Major Science Objectives, Investigations, and Mission Platform Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ missions to Venus have been recommended by both the 2011 and 2003 Decadal Studies of the NRC and have been proposed numerous times to NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers programs as well as to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Such missions would revolutionize our understanding of Venus, as they address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state via high precision measurements of (1) noble gases and their isotopes, and (2) reactive trace gases and aerosol associated with Venus's active photo- and thermo-chemistry and sulfur cycle, including components potentially responsible for the poorly-understood uv-absorbing haze layer. Fundamental questions, as promoted in recent VEXAG documents, include: (1) Did Venus, Mars, and Earth have a common origin? (2) What roles did comets from the outer Solar System play in delivering volatiles to Venus? (3) Did Venus once have and lose a global ocean? (4) How much has Venus outgassed, and what is the current rate of outgassing, particularly of sulfur, the major driver of Venus clouds? and (5) Through the deposition of energy within them, what role do these clouds play in (a) driving the cloud-level thermal structure and (b) generating and maintaining the super-rotating zonal windfield that covers the globe? Fundamental answers could be uniquely provided through in-situ sampling via mass spectrometry of the noble gases and their isotopes - in particular of the 8 stable Xe isotopes, the bulk abundances of Kr, and the 3 isotopes of Ne. Measurements of the relative abundances of the light isotopes of N, O, H, S and O, by, for example, tunable laser spectrometry, would provide additional insights into Venus's origin, surface outgassing and planetary escape. Such measurements could be performed by probes, landers, or balloons. On descent through the uv-absorbing layer and the surrounding H2SO4 cloud, each of these platforms could explore both the absorber and sulfur-cycle-associated reactive species and aerosols, thus addressing VEXAG desires for enhanced understanding of Venus' chemical cycles, aerosol properties, and radiative transfer. On descent to the surface, probes and landers can provide vertical profiles of temperatures and species abundances, as well as provide near-surface measurements of sulfur isotopes and trace sulfuric gases indicative of outgassing. Additional major in-situ goals dealing with Venus's global circulation and local dynamics can be addressed by a balloon platform floating within the convective middle cloud near ~55-km altitude. Drifting over a wide range of latitudes and all times-of-day and longitudes, such a floating platform could accurately measure (1) motions in all three dimensions - zonal, meridional, and vertical, including motions associated with convection and gravity waves, (2) simultaneous measurements of cloud particle size, their parent molecules, the local temperature, and vertical velocity, to study cloud formation/dissipation processes, and (3) the power and frequency of local lightning. Altogether, such in-situ measurements would potentially revolutionize our understanding of (1) Venus's circulation, including the role of waves and solar cloud heating in powering the planet's poorly-understood super-rotation, (2) Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Earth's neighbor formed and evolved over the aeons.

Baines, K. H.; Limaye, S. S.; Hall, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Bullock, M. A.; Crisp, D.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Russell, C. T.; Webster, C. R.; Zahnle, K. J.

2013-12-01

119

76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION:...

2011-08-16

120

Current polio global eradication and control policy options: perspectives from modeling and prerequisites for oral poliovirus vaccine cessation.  

PubMed

As the Global Polio Eradication Initiative progresses toward the eradication of wild polioviruses, national and global health leaders must still actively consider options for managing poliovirus risks, including risks associated with using oral poliovirus vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine continues to represent a highly effective tool, but its use causes noticeable, rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio and with low coverage it can evolve to become circulating vaccine-derived polioviruse that causes outbreaks. National leaders face a wide range of options, but their choices depend in part on global policies. This article explores the current set of global options for poliovirus eradication or control, discusses constraints and prerequisites for their implementation and offers some insights based on dynamic modeling to inform discussions and frame future economic analyses. PMID:22551030

Thompson, Kimberly M; Tebbens, Radboud J Duintjer

2012-04-01

121

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In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Interdisciplinary Studies The University of GeorgiaThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Interdisciplinary Studies A student

Arnold, Jonathan

122

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Early Childhood Education Teachers can have disciplines, most teachers will fulfill the academic requirements of a major in a chosen field

Arnold, Jonathan

123

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Latin American and Caribbean Studies The LACS major aims to produce students with high levels of language competence and in-depth, substantive

Arnold, Jonathan

124

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Dance The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of The study of dance provides students

Arnold, Jonathan

125

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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with a major in Political Science The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706-542-3375, wwwThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Political Science Political science studies

Arnold, Jonathan

126

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Ecology The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Ecology The mission of the Odum School

Arnold, Jonathan

127

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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The University of Georgia USDA Utility companies What can I do with a major in Environmental EconomicsThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Environmental Economics and Management

Arnold, Jonathan

128

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Sociology The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Sociology Sociology is the study of human

Arnold, Jonathan

129

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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Markets Zeneca, Inc. What can I do with a major in Agribusiness The University of Georgia Career CenterThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Agribusiness The animal science curriculum

Arnold, Jonathan

130

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Russian The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Russian With Russian being the language

Arnold, Jonathan

131

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Animal Science The University of Georgia Career CenterThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Animal Science The animal science curriculum

Arnold, Jonathan

132

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Mass Media Arts (Sources: University.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Mass Media Arts The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell HallThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

133

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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Winder-Barrow Schools What can I do with a major in Health and Physical Education? The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Health and Physical Education The Bachelor

Arnold, Jonathan

134

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Communication Studies Communication Studies. Communication Studies majors receive instruction in interpersonal and public communication, as well as acquire

Arnold, Jonathan

135

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and consider joining them as well. What can I do with a major in Animal Health The University of Georgia CareerThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Animal Health The degree program was designed

Arnold, Jonathan

136

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.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Computer Science The University of Georgia Career Center Clark HowellThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Computer Science Computer Science deals

Arnold, Jonathan

137

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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with a major in Cellular Biology The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706.542.3375, wwwThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Cell Biology Cell biologists are scientists

Arnold, Jonathan

138

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Criminal Justice At The University of GeorgiaThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major the social sciences and humanities in Arts and Sciences. A CJ major leads to a Bachelor of Arts Degree

Arnold, Jonathan

139

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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I do with a major in Japanese Language and Literature The University of Georgia Career Center ClarkThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Japanese Language and Literature The Japanese

Arnold, Jonathan

140

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Science Education Undergraduate students majoring in Science Education may earn the degree of Bachelor of Science in Education (B

Arnold, Jonathan

141

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.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in History The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of History History is the study and research

Arnold, Jonathan

142

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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I do with a major in Risk Management Insurance The University of Georgia Career Center Clark HowellThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Risk Management Risk management and insurance

Arnold, Jonathan

143

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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Westridge School What can I do with a major in Theatre The University of Georgia Career Center Clark HowellThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Theatre Theatre is a creative art in which

Arnold, Jonathan

144

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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Consulting Group Wells Fargo What can I do with a major in Economics The University of Georgia Career CenterThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Economics Economics includes the study

Arnold, Jonathan

145

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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with a major in Art History The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706.542.3375, wwwThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Art History The objective of a concentration

Arnold, Jonathan

146

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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with a major in Athletic Training The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706.542.3375, wwwThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Athletic Training The Athletic Training

Arnold, Jonathan

147

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Religion The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Religion The study of religion

Arnold, Jonathan

148

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Cognitive Science The University of GeorgiaThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Cognitive Science Cognitive science

Arnold, Jonathan

149

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Comparative Literature Comparative Literature of culture. With such a broad focus, students majoring in comparative literature can use their degree

Arnold, Jonathan

150

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Women's Studies At The University of Georgia What can I do with a major in Women's Studies The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell HallThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

151

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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of emphasis for this major. Students can choose an area of emphasis in: Fisheries, Wildlife, or PreThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Fisheries and Wildlife The Fisheries

Arnold, Jonathan

152

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Foreign Language Education The UniversityThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Foreign Language Education This program

Arnold, Jonathan

153

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Germanic and Slavic Studies The undergraduate major in Germanic and Slavic Languages is designed to provide students with communicative proficiency

Arnold, Jonathan

154

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Agricultural Education This program prepares in agriculture. Students majoring in Agricultural Education develop a broad background in the agricultural

Arnold, Jonathan

155

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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with a major in Environmental Chemistry The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Environmental Chemistry Environmental

Arnold, Jonathan

156

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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in Mathematics if a student chooses to do so. Mathematics Education is a restricted major admitting only 25This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Mathematics Education The Mathematics

Arnold, Jonathan

157

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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with a major in Natural Resources Recreation and Tourism The University of Georgia Career Center Clark HowellThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism

Arnold, Jonathan

158

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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I do with a major in Mathematics The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell Hall, 706This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Mathematics Mathematics is a powerful tool

Arnold, Jonathan

159

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Visual Arts Students in Visual Arts put their artistic skills and vision at the service of commercial clients, such as major corporations

Arnold, Jonathan

160

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Furnishings and Interiors The University of GeorgiaThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Furnishings and Interiors The curriculum

Arnold, Jonathan

161

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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://www.caes.uga.edu/academics/manrrs/ What can I do with a major in Poultry Science The University of Georgia Career Center Clark Howell HallThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Poultry Science Poultry is Georgia's largest

Arnold, Jonathan

162

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Chinese Language and Literature The Chinese graduate study, education, Foreign Service, and international business. Students majoring in Chinese

Arnold, Jonathan

163

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of International Business The Terry College of Business International Business Program is offered in conjunction with other Terry College majors

Arnold, Jonathan

164

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Family and Consumer Sciences Education The major in family and consumer sciences education is offered jointly by the College of Family and Consumer

Arnold, Jonathan

165

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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Skip Hop What can I do with a major in Fashion Merchandising The University of Georgia Career CenterThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Fashion Merchandising The Fashion

Arnold, Jonathan

166

Modeling SSI financial eligibility and simulating the effect of policy options.  

PubMed

This article simulates eligibility for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) among the elderly, analyzes factors affecting participation, and looks at the potential effects of various options to modify financial eligibility standards for the federal SSI program. We find that in the estimated noninstitutional elderly population of 30.2 million in the United States in 1991, approximately 2 million individuals aged 65 or older were eligible for SSI (a 6.6 percent rate of eligibility). Our overall estimate of the rate of participation among eligible elderly is approximately 63 percent, suggesting that more than a third of those who are eligible do not participate in the program. The results of our analysis of factors affecting participation among the eligible elderly show that expected SSI benefits and a number of demographic and socioeconomic variables are associated with the probability of participation. We also simulate the effects of various policy options on the poverty rate, poverty gap, annual program cost, the number of participants, and the average estimated benefits among participants. The simulations consider the potential effects of five policy alternatives: Increase the general income exclusion (GIE) from $20 to $80. Increase the earned income exclusion (EIE) from $65 to $260. Increase the federal benefit rate (FBR) by $50 for individuals and $75 for couples and eliminate the GIE. Increase the asset threshold to $3,000 for individuals and $4,500 for couples. Increase the asset threshold to $6,000 for individuals and $9,000 for couples. Using 1991 microdata from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security Administration administrative records and making adjustments reflecting aggregate program statistics, we present the results of our simulations for December 1999. The results show substantial variation in the simulated effects of the five policy alternatives along the various outcome dimensions considered. The simulated effects on the poverty gap of the elderly population range from a 7.9 percent reduction ("Increase the GIE from $20 to $80") to a 0.1 percent reduction ("Increase the EIE from $65 to $260"). All simulated interventions are expected to increase the rate of SSI participation among the elderly from a high of 20.3 percent ("Increase the GIE from $20 to $80") to a low of 0.5 percent ("Increase the EIE from $65 to $260"). We also find that the interventions that have greater estimated effects in terms of increased participation and reduced poverty tend to cost more. At the high end, we estimate that increasing the GIE from $20 to $80 could raise annual federal SSI cash benefit outlays by about 46 percent, compared with only 0.9 percent for increasing the EIE from $65 to $260. Similar to the EIE intervention, raising the resource thresholds by 50 percent would reduce the overall poverty gap of the elderly by only 0.2 percent, would increase SSI participation only modestly (by 1.3 percent), but would entail slightly higher program costs (by 1.4 percent). Increasing the asset threshold by 200 percent would have higher estimated effects on all three outcomes, but it would still be associated with relatively low increases in both costs and benefits. Finally, the simulated effects on the three key outcomes of increasing the FBR by $50 for individuals and $75 for couples, combined with eliminating the GIE, are relatively large but are clearly less substantial than increasing the GIE from $20 to $80. This work relies on data from the SIPP matched to administrative data on federal SSI benefits that provide a more accurate picture of SSI participation than has been feasible for previous studies. We simulate eligibility for federal SSI benefits by applying the program rules to detailed information on the characteristics of individuals and couples based on the rich array of demographic and socioeconomic data in the SIPP, particularly the comprehensive information SIPP provides on assets and monthly income. A probit model is estimated to anal

Davies, P S; Huynh, M; Newcomb, C; O'Leary, P; Rupp, K; Sears, J

167

Policy Options for Energy Conservation (82), a Checklist of Legislation to Conserve Energy Prepared for Consideration of Legislation Leaders of the Northeast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This checklist of legislation contains policy options for the conservation of energy in the Northeast. The 82 recommendations were made for conservation in the following areas: (1) saving energy in all buildings; (2) saving energy in residential construct...

1977-01-01

168

Starting Salary Differences Between Women and Men: Organization-Level Findings and an Analysis of Current Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the starting salaries paid by over 250 employers to 2,800 university graduates. Of the overall female-male salary difference of $4,396, the majority, or $3,175 (72%), occurred between employers; $1,221 (28%) occurred within employers. One policy implication is that within-organization policies such as pay equity could address up to $1,221 (28%) of the female-male pay difference. Although adjustment

Mary E. Graham; Gerhart Barry A

1993-01-01

169

This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss  

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also Marketing Careers) Marketing Manager/Sales Manager Medical Sales Rep. Police Officer Probation activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career Officer Behavior Analyst Case Manager/Worker Corrections Officer Direct Care Provider Elementary Teacher

Sura, Philip

170

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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evolved because of societal concern about persistent and emerging human dilemmas, social injustices Mountain Community Services Goodwill of North Georgia What can I do with a major in Social Work to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Social Work Social work as a profession has

Arnold, Jonathan

171

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

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, Fashion Merchandising, or Consumer Foods as well as Advertising, Public Relations, Journalism to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of Consumer Journalism The Consumer Journalism major provides the opportunity to combine an area of interest from the College of Family and Consumer

Arnold, Jonathan

172

Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.  

PubMed

Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

Shapiro, Gilla K

2014-07-01

173

Tax exemption for biofuels in Germany: Is bio-ethanol really an option for climate policy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002 the German Parliament decided to exempt biofuels from the gasoline tax to increase their competitiveness compared to conventional gasoline. The policy to promote biofuels is being justified by their allegedly positive effects on climate, energy, and agricultural policy goals. An increased use of biofuels would contribute to sustainable development by reducing greenhouse-gas emissions and the use of non-renewable

J. M. Henke; G. Klepper; N. Schmitz

2005-01-01

174

Education Policy as a Practice of Power: Theoretical Tools, Ethnographic Methods, Democratic Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines some theoretical and methodological parameters of a critical practice approach to policy. The article discusses the origins of this approach, how it can be uniquely adapted to educational analysis, and why it matters--not only for scholarly interpretation but also for the democratization of policy processes as well. Key to…

Levinson, Bradley A. U.; Sutton, Margaret; Winstead, Teresa

2009-01-01

175

Policy options to manage greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector: an Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between policy and science provides rich opportunity to frame both the policy and science agendas for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases from agriculture. The current Greenhouse Gas in Animal Agriculture Conference (2007) provides a valuable forum for the development and integration of the two. Compared with the level of investments worldwide into technologies to reduce emissions

David Ugalde; Jane van Vliet; Anthony McGregor; Bill Slattery

2008-01-01

176

Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on three prior…

Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

2009-01-01

177

Options for Policy Reforms to Enhance the Development Impact of Public and Private Investments in Smallholder Agricultural Water Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

While no panacea, expanding the availability of micro-AWM in rural SSA is a cost-effective and relatively rapid way to enable large numbers of poor rural people to improve their food security, nutritional status and incomes, thereby contributing to agricultural growth. However, this will require major innovations in policies, new and more effective implementation strategies, and strengthening of human and institutional

Douglas J. Merrey; Lindiwe Sibanda

178

Market Reactions to Central Bank Communication Policies :Reading Interest Rate Options Smiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the communication strategies of the Fed and the ECB and their impact on financial markets. Interest rates options were used to calculate daily probability distributions of market expectations and to examine how they are modified by central banks’ announcements. We found that Greenspan’s speeches have a stronger influence on rate levels and market uncertainty than Duisenberg’s. Moreover,

Marie Bričre

2006-01-01

179

US weapons-useable plutonium disposition policy: implementation of the MOX fuel option  

E-print Network

as the Department of Nuclear Engineering for contributions made to my graduate education. The Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium has also made significant contributions in support of this study and my graduate education. This study and my gmduate... ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. . II U. S. PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION AND USE . . . . . U. S. Plutonium Policy. III NONPROLIFERATION POLICY . 13 International Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime. . . . . U. S...

Gonzalez, Vanessa L

2012-06-07

180

EARTH HISTORY OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS A paleontologist studies the origin, evolution and diversification of life on this planet, as  

E-print Network

EARTH HISTORY OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS A paleontologist studies the origin paleontologists focus these studies on animals with a backbone. Here at NCSU, vertebrate paleontology they need for graduate studies in paleontology. They may also choose to use their training to inspire

Liu, Paul

181

The Leslie Harris Centre of Regional Policy and Development Major Activities, 2004/5 2010/11  

E-print Network

The Leslie Harris Centre of Regional Policy and Development Major Activities, 2004/5 ­ 2010 Applicants to the Strategic Partnership Initiative (SPI) Fund .20 Appendix 7: John Kenneth Galbraith Lecture

deYoung, Brad

182

The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.  

PubMed

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government. PMID:10133097

Gilson, L; Sen, P D; Mohammed, S; Mujinja, P

1994-03-01

183

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: a preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications.  

PubMed

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City's MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations, should prove useful to environmental managers, regulators, policy makers, community representatives and other stakeholders in making sound and acceptable decisions regarding the optimal handling of MSW. PMID:17379391

Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

2008-04-01

184

Reactivation of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Projects: Plant Status, Policy Issues, and Regulatory Options.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issue...

M. B. Spangler

1986-01-01

185

FOREST SECTOR CARBON BUDGET OF THE UNITED STATES: CARBON POOLS AND FLUX UNDER ALTERNATIVE POLICY OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents a model of the current and future carbon budget associated with the forest ecosystems of the conterminous U.S. he focus is on effects of economic and environmental policy changes for the period of 1990-2040. n this study, the concept of "forest ecosystem" h...

186

Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch), provides an…

Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

187

Policy and technological constraints to implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation options in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent assessment of agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has demonstrated significant potential for mitigation, but suggests that the full mitigation will not be realized due to significant barriers to implementation. In this paper, we explore the constraints and barriers to implementation important for GHG mitigation in agriculture. We also examine how climate and non-climate policy in different regions of

Pete Smith; Daniel Martino; Zucong Cai; Daniel Gwary; Henry Janzen; Pushpam Kumar; Bruce McCarl; Stephen Ogle; Frank O’Mara; Charles Rice; Bob Scholes; Oleg Sirotenko; Mark Howden; Tim McAllister; Genxing Pan; Vladimir Romanenkov; Uwe Schneider; Sirintornthep Towprayoon

2007-01-01

188

Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

Worsley, Anthony

2006-01-01

189

Agricultural development for poverty reduction - some options in support of public policy interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renewed focus on agriculture is emerging among donor organizations. In 2005, The World Bank published its report Agricultural Growth for the Poor. An Agenda for Development and Dfid published a policy paper entitled Growth and poverty reduction: the role of agriculture, and soon, the World Development Report 2008 entitled Agriculture for Development will be published. The key concern driving

Julio A. Berdegué; Helle Munk Ravnborg

190

Mitigating adverse socioeconomic impacts of energy development: present programs and mechanisms; further policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

New energy development and\\/or energy policies may lead to serious problems for communities accommodating sudden growth, new stresses; and conflicts in local economic and institutional relationships. Potential problems include: boom town impacts (infrastructure financing shortfalls, housing shortages, abandonment, social disruption) or conflict impacts (changes in comparative economic advantage, competition for scarce resources, interjurisdictional and regulatory conflicts, social disruption). Effective mitigation

K. D. Moore; D. M. Hammond; J. S. Gilmore; D. K. Flory; D. C. Coddington; D. W. Donald

1978-01-01

191

Farming Systems and Policy Options for Food Security in Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farming systems analysis is a holistic approach to the understanding of total livelihood and food security of farm families. A sound knowledge of the prevailing farming systems in an agro ecological zone is pertinent to the generation of agricultural and food security policies for farming families. This ensures that innovations to be developed are suitable to meet the economic needs

W. Doppler; P. Kormawa

192

Selecting the "Best Applicant(s)" with Limited Options and Policy Constraints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines issues related to teacher hiring and accountability policies, including the adequate yearly progress and highly qualified teacher provisions of the "No Child Left Behind" act. The focus of the case study is the nexus among findings from the teacher-quality research, realities of teacher labor markets, and accountability…

Ingle, William Kyle; Rutledge, Stacey A.

2010-01-01

193

The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the costs and risks of inaction, ambitious action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is economically rational. However, success in abating world emissions will ultimately require a least-cost set of policy instruments that is applied as widely as possible across all emission sources (countries, sectors and greenhouse gases). The main purpose of this paper is to explore feasible ways to

Jean-Marc Burniaux; Jean Chateau; Romain Duval; Stéphanie Jamet

2008-01-01

194

Global Food Crisis & Inflationary Pressures: Short and Medium to Long Term Policy Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is an initiative to pin down major factors behind exorbitant inflationary pressures in the global economy. The paper mentions that among other factors productivity shocks, external shocks, inflationary expectations and conversion of food crops into fuel generation are the major drivers of inflation (especially food inflation) in the present inflationary era. An attempt is also made to

Syed Kanwar Abbas

2008-01-01

195

Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

2012-08-01

196

Copper and zinc recycling in Australia: potential quantities and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents relevant data for industry and governmental policy makers with the aim of increasing the recycling rate of end-of-life copper and zinc in Australia in a technically and economically feasible way. The methodology used to quantify and spatially distribute end-of-life flows of copper and zinc is based on existing and anticipated in-use stocks, their residence times, and their

D. van Beers; A. Kapur; T. E. Graedel

2007-01-01

197

The Unsustainable Rise of the Disability Rolls in the United States: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Options  

E-print Network

Two ailments limit the effectiveness and threaten the long-term viability of the U.S. Social Security Disability Insurance program (SSDI). First, the program is ineffective in assisting the vast majority of workers with ...

Autor, David

2012-01-24

198

Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by legislative or regulatory authorities. Some renewable energy contracts pre-date the existence of RECs, however, and in these cases the disposition of RECs is often unclear. Similarly, because of the recent appearance of RECs, legislation and regulation mandating the purchase of renewable energy has sometimes been silent on the disposition of the RECs associated with that generation. The resulting uncertainty in REC ownership has hindered the development of robust REC markets and has, in some cases, led to contention between buyers and sellers of renewable generation. The purpose of this report is to provide information and insight to state policy-makers, utility regulators, and others about different approaches to clarifying the ownership of RECs. We focus exclusively on three distinct areas in which REC ownership issues have arisen: (1) Qualifying Facilities (QFs) that sell their generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978; (2) Customer-owned generation that benefits from state net metering rules; and (3) Generation facilities that receive financial incentives from state or utility funds. This is a survey report. It reviews how both the federal government and states have addressed these issues to date, and highlights the arguments that have been raised for different REC ownership dispositions. Our aim is to describe the arguments on each side, and the context for the debates that are occurring. We do not, in this report, provide a list of policy recommendations for how policymakers should be addressing these issues.

Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2006-04-05

199

Overview: Bellagio Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries.  

PubMed

The Bellagio 'Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries' (LMICs) was organized to pull together the current. We need not reiterate the importance of this topic or the speed of change in eating, drinking and moving facing us across the globe. The conference emerges from need to significantly step up the policies and programs to reduce obesity by learning from some current examples of best practice and strengthening the role of the academic and civil society players in translating global evidence and experience into action at the national level. There is also a need to empower the younger generation of scholars and activists in these countries to carry on this effort. The meeting was also timely because a number of funding agencies in the United States, Canada and the UK, at least, are beginning to focus attention on this topic. This set of papers provides not only examples of existing best practice but also a road map ahead for LMICs in the various areas of action needed to reduce obesity across LMICs. The meeting highlighted critical barriers to implementation that have blocked many initiatives. PMID:24102826

Popkin, B; Monteiro, C; Swinburn, B

2013-11-01

200

Policies To Help Disadvantaged Children: Financing Options for the 1990s. Changing Domestic Priorities Discussion Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates the costs of several approaches to increasing federal assistance to disadvantaged children and evaluates major funding strategies that could overcome the restrictions posed by the federal budget deficit. Approaches favored by conservatives, such as strengthening behavioral standards for children, sponsoring demonstration…

Barnes, Roberta Ott; And Others

201

Vocational Education as a Participant in the Economic Development Enterprise: Policy Options for the Decade Ahead.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the coming decade, three major developments will become important factors for change in vocational education. These are changes in the demographic profile and retirement practices, regional shifts in economic activity and in employment, and renewal of the industrial sector as a key ingredient in economic growth. Because of inflation, greater…

Lecht, Leonard A.

202

Low-income energy assistance programs: a profile of need and policy options  

SciTech Connect

This second report of the Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of DOE is twofold: to update information on the energy needs of low-income persons and governmental response to such needs; and to emphasize the need for energy-conservation programs that may alleviate the enormous financial burden placed on low-income people by rising energy prices. FOMAC has continued to develop further and refine its initial energy-conservation recommendations. Mainly, the updated assessment document finds that the poor will expend at least 35% of their income directly on energy and will spend at least 21% of their income on household energy. Other economic impacts of rising energy costs on low-income groups are summarized. Appropriations and stipulations by Congress to aid the lo-income people are reviewed. After careful review of various program designs, FOMAC continues to support the income indexing/vendor line of credit approach. This design provides assistance to elgible households based on: energy needed, cost of fuel, and percentage of income. The cost of implementing the FOMAC design nationally would, according to estimates, range from $3.5 to $4.6 billion for the 1980-1981 winter heating season. A figure of $1.6 to $2.2 billion is being discussed in the Congress. Meeting the ongoing energy needs of the poor will require a coherent national policy which consists of aid in paying energy bills and aid in the poor's effort to conserve energy. The report seeks to promote such policies. Needs assessment, government response, FOMAC model, comments on the programs, projected cost of 1980-1981 Energy Assistance Program, need for conservation programs, and program financing are discussed.

None

1980-07-01

203

Limitations of Single-Basket Trading: A Lesson from the Montreal Protocol for Climate Policy Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting stratospheric ozone has been widely recognized, with many viewing it as a model for international cooperation on global environmental issues. Years of collaborative problem solving by scientists, industry, and policymakers have provided numerous insights, some of which are applicable to addressing the international problem of anthropogenically-caused climate change. Here we suggest that one valuable lesson relates to the manner in which different greenhouse gases are controlled. The Montreal Protocol implemented a multi-basket scheme, which regulated various groups, or baskets, of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs); production and consumption trading were allowed within each basket, but not among baskets. This approach substantially reduced ODS emissions and the associated dangers of increased ozone losses. In contrast, discussions of greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation have generally focused on single-basket emissions trading. In particular, the Kyoto Protocol has allowed trading of emissions reductions among all regulated compounds. The flexibility of such an approach has the potential to lead to less expensive total abatement costs than if each GHG were regulated separately. Here we quantify the extent to which such a scheme may also lead to an ambiguous relationship between policy controls and the climate protection they provide over both short and long time horizons. We further show that the magnitude of this ambiguity depends strongly on the magnitude of the required emissions reduction. These results suggest it is important for policymakers to make a conscious and informed decision regarding whether the additional flexibility associated with a single-basket approach is worth the potentially reduced effectiveness for any particular reduction control level enacted. If it is not worth it, they should recognize that a multi-basket scheme has worked for protecting ozone and could also be effective for climate policy.

Daniel, J. S.; Solomon, S.; Sanford, T. J.; McFarland, M.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Friedlingstein, P.

2010-12-01

204

The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia: Considering U.S. Options. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…

Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

205

Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.  

PubMed

In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health insurance market to multinational companies, the proper channelling of tax incentives to set up medical institutions in backward areas, and reinforcing appropriate regulatory mechanisms. PMID:11238435

Purohit, B C

2001-03-01

206

Storage of spent fuel from the nation`s nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the ``spent fuel`` elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

Not Available

1989-10-01

207

Storage of spent fuel from the nation's nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the spent fuel'' elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

Not Available

1989-10-01

208

Quantifying Policy Options for Reducing Future Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in England: A Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

Aims To estimate the number of coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths potentially preventable in England in 2020 comparing four risk factor change scenarios. Methods and Results Using 2007 as baseline, the IMPACTSEC model was extended to estimate the potential number of CHD deaths preventable in England in 2020 by age, gender and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 quintiles given four risk factor change scenarios: (a) assuming recent trends will continue; (b) assuming optimal but feasible levels already achieved elsewhere; (c) an intermediate point, halfway between current and optimal levels; and (d) assuming plateauing or worsening levels, the worst case scenario. These four scenarios were compared to the baseline scenario with both risk factors and CHD mortality rates remaining at 2007 levels. This would result in approximately 97,000 CHD deaths in 2020. Assuming recent trends will continue would avert approximately 22,640 deaths (95% uncertainty interval: 20,390-24,980). There would be some 39,720 (37,120-41,900) fewer deaths in 2020 with optimal risk factor levels and 22,330 fewer (19,850-24,300) in the intermediate scenario. In the worst case scenario, 16,170 additional deaths (13,880-18,420) would occur. If optimal risk factor levels were achieved, the gap in CHD rates between the most and least deprived areas would halve with falls in systolic blood pressure, physical inactivity and total cholesterol providing the largest contributions to mortality gains. Conclusions CHD mortality reductions of up to 45%, accompanied by significant reductions in area deprivation mortality disparities, would be possible by implementing optimal preventive policies. PMID:23936122

Scholes, Shaun; Bajekal, Madhavi; Norman, Paul; O'Flaherty, Martin; Hawkins, Nathaniel; Kivimaki, Mika; Capewell, Simon; Raine, Rosalind

2013-01-01

209

Preparing elementary education majors to teach science using an inquiry-based approach: the Full Option Science System.  

PubMed

Science education traditionally has received insufficient attention. As a literature review shows, teacher preparation in science will be best served by improvements in pedagogy and in the content of required undergraduate science courses. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993, 1995) and the National Research Council (1993, 1995) have addressed this need in advocating a "science for all" that is highly significant for diverse learners. The No Child Left Behind Act emphasizes that reform of teacher preparation is part of an urgent national commitment to bring high-quality teacher candidates into the classroom. The Gallaudet University undergraduate teacher education program has developed an inquiry-based course that emphasizes integration of the sciences. Acquisition of the Full Option Science System, and its adaptation to and integration into the course, has resulted in specific curricular changes and positive results. PMID:15552340

Mangrubang, Fred R

2004-01-01

210

Admissions Policies Governing the Declaration of Academic Major and Academic Advising Models Relating to Student Outcomes in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze admissions policies pertaining to the declaration of academic majors for incoming students and structures of academic advising at American universities and how they relate to student outcomes. The student outcomes considered for the study were first to second year retention rates and graduation rates. …

Workinger, Heather A.

2011-01-01

211

Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

Mori, Miki

2014-01-01

212

[Major revisionposted 5/2/14 (replaces 11/4/1998 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

for the president. POLICY/PROCEDURE 1. General Policy An employee who resigns, retires, separates from. Letter of Resignation When resigning or retiring from a position at Texas Tech, employees should submit of resignation. The letter of resignation is to be submitted to Human Resources through the termination e

Rock, Chris

213

Vocational Education and Training: A Major Shift in World Bank Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the World Bank's policy paper on vocational and technical education and training. Argues that past failures in establishing effective vocational and technical education were a result of not applying conventional neoclassical economic theory. Asserts that the World Bank's policy paper corrects this approach. (CFR)

Foster, Phillip

1992-01-01

214

[Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].  

PubMed

In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship. PMID:17625644

Draibe, Sônia Miriam

2007-01-01

215

Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management

Pearl Moy; Nikhil Krishnan; Priscilla Ulloa; Steven Cohen; Paul W. Brandt-Rauf

2008-01-01

216

ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS, POLICY, AND MANAGEMENT MAJOR (Code No. 099) 2010-11 CHECKSHEET  

E-print Network

of Soil Science CSS 305 (4) and Problem Solving: Soil Sci. Appl. CSS 306 (1) Introduction to Water Science Politics PS 474 (4) Environmental Politics & Policy PS 475 (4) Science and Politics PS 476 (4) Rangeland Ecology & Management RNG 341 (3) SOCIAL SCIENCES Introduction to Macroeconomics ECON 202 (4) C

Tullos, Desiree

217

[Major revisionposted 5/9/12 (replaces 7/21/94 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure  

E-print Network

://www.depts.ttu.edu/communications/emergency/downloads/ttu-emergency-plan.pdf #12;.01: Emergency Management Plans DATE: May 9, 2012 PURPOSE: The purpose of this Operating Policy/Procedure (OP Emergency Management Plan (TTUEMP). REVIEW: This OP will be reviewed by September 1 of each year

Rock, Chris

218

Community Engagement & Education (CEED) with sub-major: Community-Based Organizations Policy & Leadership  

E-print Network

Development 3 credits ED POL 624 Gender and Education 3 credits ED POL 625 Race Relations in Education 3- Electives (choose 2 classes from the list below): 3 credits ED POL 304 Politics of Community Communities 3 credits ED POL 612 Community Participation and Power 3 credits ED POL 630 Race & Public Policy

Saldin, Dilano

219

The Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Colombia Major Changes and Current Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian economy experienced several shocks in the past ten years. The permanent fall of inflation, the adoption of inflation targeting (IT) and a financial crisis altered the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. Low inflation and IT reduced inflation persistence and contributed to anchor inflation expectations. The evidence is less conclusive with respect to the changes of the responsiveness of

Hernando Vargas H

2007-01-01

220

The Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Colombia Major Changes and Current Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colombian economy experienced several shocks in the past ten years. The permanent fall of inflation, the adoption of inflation targeting (IT) and a financial crisis altered the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. Low inflation and IT reduced inflation persistence and contributed to anchor inflation expectations. The evidence is less conclusive with respect to the changes of the responsiveness of

Hernando Vargas

221

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR A BS DEGREE IN BIOLOGY MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY  

E-print Network

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR A BS DEGREE IN BIOLOGY MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY Total credit hours required: 120I.D.#___________________________ REQUIREMENTS AND POLICIES FOR THE BS BIOLOGY MAJOR FALL2009BI-623 #12;Major: BS BIOLOGY Option: MEDICAL (freshmen and transfers) must be admitted to the Biology major by the Officeof

Hardy, Christopher R.

222

Electricity Demand-Side Management for an Energy Efficient Future in China: Technology Options and Policy Priorities  

E-print Network

and a policy analysis to formulate policy priorities based on the socio-economic and environmental realities: ______________________________________________________________ : Stephen R. Connors Director, Analysis Group for Regional Electricity Alternatives Thesis Supervisor, consumption and socio-economic conditions in large-scale electricity grid systems of Shandong and China, thus

de Weck, Olivier L.

223

1995 Farm Bill: Issues, Options, and an Analytical Framework for Integrated Economic and Environmental Policy Assessment, The  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viable agricultural policy should adapt to any changes occurring within the agricultural sector. With the growing focus on environmentally friendly agriculture, increased role for markets by reducing the influence of farm programs, agricultural-related global climate change, and budgetary pressures, the 1995 Farm Bill can lead the reorienting of farm policies toward achieving these goals and thus preserve the leadership

Stanley R. Johnson; P. G. Lakshminarayan; Bruce A. Babcock; Andrew Manale; David Zilberman

1994-01-01

224

Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, over consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products - as seen in the context of managing end-of-life refrigerators and appliances containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by

S Thompson; S Nicol

2007-01-01

225

Policy change to create supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating: which options are the most realistic for local government?  

PubMed

The objective is to identify and test regulatory options for creating supportive environments for physical activity and healthy eating among local governments in Victoria, Australia. A literature review identified nine potential areas for policy intervention at local government level, including the walking environment and food policy. Discussion documents were drafted which summarized the public health evidence and legal framework for change in each area. Levels of support for particular interventions were identified through semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants from local government. We conducted 11 key informant interviews and found support for policy intervention to create environments supportive of physical activity but little support for policy changes to promote healthy eating. Participants reported lack of relevance and competing priorities as reasons for not supporting particular interventions. Promoting healthy eating environments was not considered a priority for local government above food safety. There is a real opportunity for action to prevent obesity at local government level (e.g. mandate the promotion of healthy eating environments). For local government to have a role in the promotion of healthy food environments, regulatory change and suitable funding are required. PMID:21421579

Allender, Steven; Gleeson, Erin; Crammond, Brad; Sacks, Gary; Lawrence, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Loff, Bebe; Swinburn, Boyd

2012-06-01

226

Youth with Disabilities in Transition: Health Insurance Options and Obstacles. Healthy & Ready To Work (HRTW) Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the public and private health insurance options for young people with disabilities or chronic health conditions including several recent Federal initiatives to increase access to health care for working adults with disabilities. Discussion of public health insurance eligibility and coverage focuses on aspects of Medicaid and…

Schulzinger, Rhoda

227

Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

1991-01-01

228

Fair valuation of life insurance liabilities: The impact of interest rate guarantees, surrender options, and bonus policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes one of the most common life insurance products—the so-called participating (or with profits) policy. This type of contract stands in contrast to unit-linked (UL) products in that interest is credited to the policy periodically according to some mechanism which smoothes past returns on the life insurance company’s (LIC) assets. As is the case for UL products, the

Anders Grosen; Peter Lřchte Jřrgensen

2000-01-01

229

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

") Possible Job Titles Administrative Assistant Advertising Agent Advocate Anthropologist Biographer Business to these options when choosing a possible career path. Description of African American Studies African American of disciplines including Anthropology, Art, Economics, English, Geography, History, Philosophy, Political Science

Arnold, Jonathan

230

Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.  

PubMed

Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America. PMID:17612322

Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

2007-06-01

231

Tapping the leakages: Methane losses, mitigation options and policy issues for Russian long distance gas transmission pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian natural gas industry is the world's largest producer and transporter of natural gas. This paper aims to characterize the methane emissions from Russian natural gas transmission operations, to explain projects to reduce these emissions, and to characterize the role of emissions reduction within the context of current GHG policy. It draws on the most recent independent measurements at

Stefan Lechtenböhmer; Carmen Dienst; Manfred Fischedick; Thomas Hanke; Roger Fernandez; Don Robinson; Ravi Kantamaneni; Brian Gillis

2007-01-01

232

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited an understanding of the unique cognitive, social, and emotional needs of young adolescents. Researching Job Titles") Possible Job Titles Academic Interventionist Athletic Coach Camp Director Campus Staff Child Life

Arnold, Jonathan

233

Major Improvements in the Quality of Malaria Case-Management under the "Test and Treat" Policy in Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Monitoring implementation of the “test and treat” case-management policy for malaria is an important component of all malaria control programmes in Africa. Unfortunately, routine information systems are commonly deficient to provide necessary information. Using health facility surveys we monitored health systems readiness and malaria case-management practices prior to and following implementation of the 2010 “test and treat” policy in Kenya. Methods/Findings Between 2010 and 2013 six national, cross-sectional, health facility surveys were undertaken. The number of facilities assessed ranged between 172 and 176, health workers interviewed between 216 and 237 and outpatient consultations for febrile patients evaluated between 1,208 and 2,408 across six surveys. Comparing baseline and the last survey results, all readiness indicators showed significant (p<0.005) improvements: availability of parasitological diagnosis (55.2% to 90.7%); RDT availability (7.5% to 69.8%); total artemether-lumefantrine (AL) stock-out (27.2% to 7.0%); stock-out of one or more AL packs (59.5% to 21.6%); training coverage (0 to 50.2%); guidelines access (0 to 58.1%) and supervision (17.9% to 30.8%). Testing increased by 34.0% (23.9% to 57.9%; p<0.001) while testing and treatment according to test result increased by 34.2% (15.7% to 49.9%; p<0.001). Treatment adherence for test positive patients improved from 83.3% to 90.3% (p?=?0.138) and for test negative patients from 47.9% to 83.4% (p<0.001). Significant testing and treatment improvements were observed in children and adults. There was no difference in practices with respect to the type and result of malaria test (RDT vs microscopy). Of eight dosing, dispensing and counseling tasks, improvements were observed for four tasks. Overall AL use for febrile patients decreased from 63.5% to 35.6% (p<0.001). Conclusions Major improvements in the implementation of “test and treat” policy were observed in Kenya. Some gaps towards universal targets still remained. Other countries facing similar needs and challenges may consider health facility surveys to monitor malaria case-management. PMID:24663961

Zurovac, Dejan; Githinji, Sophie; Memusi, Dorothy; Kigen, Samuel; Machini, Beatrice; Muturi, Alex; Otieno, Gabriel; Snow, Robert W.; Nyandigisi, Andrew

2014-01-01

234

Propulsive options for a manned Mars transportation system  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation, five potential manned Mars transportation systems are compared. These options include: (1) a single vehicle, chemically propelled (CHEM) option, (2) a single vehicle, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) option, (3) a single vehicle solar electric propulsion (SEP) option, (4) a single vehicle hybrid nuclear electric propulsion (NEP)/CHEM option, and (5) a dual vehicle option (NEP cargo spacecraft and CHEM manned vehicle). In addition to utilizing the initial vehicle weight in low-earth orbit as a measure of mission feasibility, this study addresses the major technological barriers each propulsive scenario must surpass. It is shown that instead of a single clearly superior propulsion system, each means of propulsion may be favored depending upon the specified program policy and the extent of the desired manned flight time. Furthermore, the effect which aerobraking and multiple transfer cycles have upon mission feasibility is considered. 18 refs.

Braun, R.D.; Blersch, D.J.

1989-01-01

235

Telecommunication technologies development in countries of the former Yugoslavia : history, needs and policy options for the future  

E-print Network

In the first part of this thesis I give an overview of the political-economic and telecommunications sector developments in major western economies, as well as some of the advanced Eastern European countries. I use this ...

Sulejmanpašić , Adnan, 1976-

2005-01-01

236

Analysis of policy options for meeting the demand for wood fuels in the province of Ilocos Norte, the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

Ilocos Norte is the second most deforested province in the Philippines. It has a high demand for wood fuels for household cooking and tobacco curing. The government has constructed a 3-MW wood-fired electric power plant and is planning two pig iron furnaces that will require large amounts of wood charcoal. Key options for producing or saving large quantities of wood fuels are tree farming, improved woodstoves, bamboo substitution, and kerosene substitution. At realistic rather than ideal implementation effectiveness, the present value of net economic benefits (PVNB) is highest for woodstoves. Tree farming has the second highest PVNB when fuelwood is valued at the market price, but bamboo substitution does when fuelwood is shadow priced at the value of collection time. Kerosene substitution has a negative PVNB, and LPG or electricity are even more expensive fuels.

Hyman, E.L.

1985-01-01

237

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

major. Requirements and prerequisites should be considered in choosing courses in the first and second.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in English Education The University of Georgia Career Center Clark HowellThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

238

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

settings. There are two areas of emphasis that you can choose from in this major: Health Promotion.S. City Challenge What can I do with a major in Health Promotion The University of Georgia Career CenterThis information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major

Arnold, Jonathan

239

Public Employee Pension Funds and Social Investments: Recent Performance and a Policy Option for Changing Investment Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public employee pension funds have emerged as major sources of investment dollars for real estate development. The size of thtesefiunds has prompted periodic, but intense, interest in diverting some portion of the resources controlled by find managers into socially desired investments. Whiile thiere is a wide range of possible investments that could be classified as socially desirable, a commitment of

Mark S. Rosentraub; Tamar Shroitman

2004-01-01

240

Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div  

SciTech Connect

This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

None

1980-01-22

241

Report: treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste in North Rhine-Westphalia: policy-making and operation options.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes a long-term-investigation of the mechanical treatment of commercial, construction and demolition waste materials in North Rhine-Westphalia in the light of applied operation standards and a disposal ban on untreated waste. It is shown how both the allocation of output materials from mechanical treatment plants and the subsequent treatment channels have changed since enforcement of the ban in 2005. Based on the findings of the investigation, two waste management scenarios offering alternative policies have been defined and are discussed. It is suggested that consistent enforcement of the ban affects both the diversion of waste to incineration and the recovery of materials on a regional scale. On the other hand, potential energy recovery may be fully exploited only insofar as operators of mechanical treatment plants concentrate their business on the production of refuse-derived fuel. PMID:17439054

Karavezyris, Vassilios

2007-04-01

242

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

Consultant: acrain@uga.edu Laura Richardson, Academic Advisor: lrichard@terry.uga.edu Marketing Major of Marketing, 706-542-2123, www.terry.uga.edu/marketing #12;To learn what types of positions and companies UGA Homepage: http://www.terry.uga.edu/undergraduate/majors/marketing Terry College Admissions: www.terry

Arnold, Jonathan

243

In the wake of the Newtown tragedy, Washington is preparing for what may be a major legislative battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence.  

E-print Network

battle over gun control and policies to combat gun violence. Research into the causes and correlates of gun violence will undoubtedly play a major role in legislative debates. To contribute to this discussion and showcase the work of Yale scholars and national innovators on issues relating to gun violence

244

Policy options for stabilizing global climate. Draft report to Congress. Volume 2: Chapters VII-IX. Draft report  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses different energy sources, fuels, and substitutes in different scenarios to either reduce or control the pollution which causes the greenhouse effect therefore changes the climate of the world. It describes the substitute technologies and other means by which greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced relative to the scenarios described. A range of policies that might be used to promote such reductions are described, which address domestic and international issues. The report discusses the diverse sources and economic activities responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. The primary means of accomplishing the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the development and use of technologies that reduce energy requirements (i.e., improve energy efficiency), use less carbon-intensive fuels, or that replace or reduce emissions of other greenhouse gases. In addition to this technological approach, there are also several areas in which management strategies are the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly with respect to the buildup of gases resulting from some agricultural practices and forest resources.

Not Available

1989-02-01

245

Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond  

PubMed Central

With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

Breda, Joao Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnacao, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

2014-01-01

246

Optional modules outside of your major available to Liberal Arts students from departments in the School of Arts & Humanities 2014-15 academic year  

E-print Network

Britain Level 6 6AACHI07 Augustus: Power & Propaganda 6AACHI13 Alexander the Great 6AACHI15 The History Economy 5AAOB205 International Relations 5AAOB206 Foreign Policy Analysis 5AAOB209 Politics of Central in Early Modern Cultural History 5AAH2006 Church, State & Nation in mainland Britain, 1750-1839 5AAH2007

Applebaum, David

247

Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are for the aged care sector. Conclusions There is an urgent need for a national strategy that promotes a common approach to aged care leadership and management development, one that is sector-appropriate and congruent with the philosophy of person-centred care now predominant in the sector. The onus is on aged care industries as a whole and various levels of Government to make a concerted effort to establish relevant regulation, legislation and funding. PMID:20602798

2010-01-01

248

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR A BS DEGREE IN BIOLOGY: PRE-PODIATRY  

E-print Network

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR A BS DEGREE IN BIOLOGY: PRE-PODIATRY Total credit hours required: 120I.D.#___________________________ REQUIREMENTS AND POLICIES FOR THE BS BIOLOGY MAJOR FALL2009BI-821 #12;Major: BS BIOLOGY Option: PRE-PODIATRY.0 ____ ____ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ General Electives (as necessary) PODIATRY CLINICAL EDUCATION(24.0 credits) Upon completion of one year

Hardy, Christopher R.

249

This information describes typical occupations and employment settings associated with this major. Understand that some of these options may require additional training. Moreover, you are not limited to these options when choosing a possible career path.  

E-print Network

of accounting classes to provide the basic tools to enter an accounting position. Should a student wish://online.onetcenter.org (click on Find Occupations) Occupational Outlook Handbook http://www.bls.gov/oco (type in general term.career.uga.edu/gradsurveyresults/ and search for alumni on Linked In at www.linkedin.com. What can I do with a major in Accounting

Arnold, Jonathan

250

This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss  

E-print Network

Nole to learn more about industry demands, career expectations, and opportunities from professionals: www Comedy Clubs Television, Motion Pictures Sample Employers A sample of organizations that have hired learning outcomes associated with your major in the FSU Undergraduate Academic Program Guide Learning

Ronquist, Fredrik

251

The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools  

PubMed Central

Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary?=?6, middle school?=?2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n?=?4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27%?year 1, 30%?year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22%?year 1, 25%?year 2) children. Conclusions Healthy ONES adaptation of IHI’s rapid improvement process provided a promising model for implementing nutrition policy and environmental changes that can be used in a variety of school settings. This approach may be especially effective in assisting schools to implement the current federally-mandated wellness policies. PMID:22734945

2012-01-01

252

Human attitudes in environmental management: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and policy option simulations analysis for a coal-mine ecosystem in China.  

PubMed

Ecosystem management is a complex process, and every stakeholder's cognition plays a crucial role in it. In order to manage the ecosystem better, it is significant for the coal-mining environmental managers to choose appropriate measures, in accord with the stakeholders' interests. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystems among stakeholders and then simulate policy options in a typical coal-mine region in China. The Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) method was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management model in research area. Combining the initial state of variables and the adjacency matrix getting from FCM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to conduct simulations. The results found that among stakeholder groups' FCM model, 'air pollution' and 'water pollution' are the most frequently mentioned variables, while 'health effects' and 'expansion of related industries' are the core variables. However, different stakeholders expressed diverse perceptions on coal-mine ecosystem management. Mine workers paid more attention to occupational safety and their health impacts inducted by air and water pollution during coal-mine process. Local residents were concerned with local economic development and welfare facilities improvement; they also concerned their health impacts raised by coal-mine related problems such as air and water pollution, traffic and noises. Managers emphasized economic interests and environmental projects with immediate environmental effects other than long-term ecosystem improvement. Engineers mentioned more variables than other groups; they believed that air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity loss were important. Scenario analysis for policy simulation based on ANN suggested that the local governments and enterprises should place an emphasis on protecting farmland, increasing vegetation coverage, reducing solid contamination and improving energy efficiency to decrease air pollution. In addition, they should start from decreasing air pollution, protecting water environment, increasing vegetation coverage and paying attention to people's safety to improve health. National policy, public administration and enterprise countermeasures have positive influence to ecosystem management. The findings of this study could provide valuable information to researchers and administrators about stakeholders' knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystem management. These, in turn, could be incorporated into the development of protective measures for a coal-mine ecosystem in China. PMID:23266478

Zhang, Hong; Song, Jie; Su, Chao; He, Mengying

2013-01-30

253

America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

254

The Effect of the Lowered Age of Majority and Relaxed Dormitory Policies on Drug Usage by Dormitory Residents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1973, the state of Minnesota passed legislation lowering the legal age of adulthood from 21 to 18; this gave 18-year olds the opportunity to legally consume alcoholic beverages. At the same time, the University of Minnesota made policy changes which enabled dormitory residents to consume alcoholic beverages in their rooms. To ascertain the…

Kuznik, Anthony

1975-01-01

255

New Policy Options Through Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses past contributions technology has made to society and ways it will contribute to society's future. Included in these areas are basic biological research, laser technology, information systems, and space technologies. (CT)

Schmitt, Harrison

1981-01-01

256

Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.  

PubMed

HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health care and are wary of cost shifting from the public plan to private insurers. FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT-BASED COVERAGE: The availability of a health insurance exchange may have implications for the future of the employment-based health benefits system and raises major questions for workers. Will employers provide a fixed contribution for the purchase of insurance through an exchange? Would that be large enough to purchase coverage? Would it be flat or vary by such factors as worker health status, age, and/or marital status or the presence of children? Would it be taxed? For both employers and workers, the implications are enormous. PMID:19545086

Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

2009-06-01

257

Option Pricing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module analyzes the topic of option pricing. Binomial tree models and the Black-Scholes formulae are used to price call options on an underlying asset. . The put-call parity theorem is used to value put options. Background inFormation on options is provided as well as the theoretical implications of the models. Assessment of the models is evaluated through on an investigation of the strengths and shortcomings of the models compared with their empirical performance. The module evaluates the differences between European and American options using mathematical models. In addition, the module examines expansions of the model including adaptation to stocks that pay dividends, the market for foreign exchange, and options on portfolios such as market indices. In assessing the strengths and shortcomings of the models investigated, the existence of alternative models is introduced to allow the interested student pathways to learning after the module.

Percy, Rick

258

Public Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

American health care woes are no new phenomena, and recent history demonstrates the intensity of the concomitant debate that arises following the proposal of a new system or a special new element-namely, the public insurance option. Early in his tenure, President Clinton dared to undertake daunting reform efforts (including the creation of a public insurance option). Many argue that losing

Kristin Dolbeare; Nora Heaton; Ellen Thomas; Peter E Visser

2009-01-01

259

Adoption Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

260

AID renews ties with IPPF as major foreign aid policy changes are seen. But UNFPA funds being temporarily withheld.  

PubMed

The United States government and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) reestablished their relationship in November 1993, and the United States Agency for International Development (AID) committed $75 million to IPPF, after nine years of official US hostility because IPPF would not renounce abortion-related research and services. The administration also delivered to Congress a final draft of its rewrite of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA), with significant policy changes for international population aid. Preparations are underway for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, where the US intends to participate in the world debate, AID has awarded IPPF $13.2 million for fiscal 1994. The Reagan and Bush administrations had concluded that the presence of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in China, where coercive abortion does exist, made UNFPA guilty by association. But the Clinton administration determined that UNFPA did not support abortion services at all. Nevertheless, the Justice Department withheld UNFPA's initial fiscal 1994 funds pending a hearing. The administrator of AID expressed his strong support for UNFPA as well as IPPF following the signing of the cooperative agreement between IPPF and AID. He emphasized that support for family planning would remain the core of the US program, and that information about family planning is a fundamental right. The Clinton administration seeks to connect family planning and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, especially HIV/AIDS, safe motherhood, post-abortion contraceptive service, and the special needs of adolescents. A new FAA bill would encourage sustainable development by promoting economic growth, preserving the global environment, supporting democracy, and stabilizing world population growth. This will be the subject of congressional hearings in early 1994. The administration intends to eliminate the ban on the use of foreign aid funds for abortion, but the bill would continue to prohibit coercive abortion or sterilization. Because of severe budget constraints, AID has decided to close 21 mission offices overseas, reducing AID's presence to about 50 countries. PMID:12345356

1993-12-01

261

Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

2011-01-01

262

Changes in Regional Variation of Medicare Home Health Care Utilization and Service Mix for Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Procedures in Response to Changes in Reimbursement Policy  

PubMed Central

Background Significant variation in regional utilization of home health (HH) services has been documented. Under Medicare's Home Health Interim and Prospective Payment Systems, reimbursement policies designed to curb expenditure growth and reduce regional variation were instituted. Objective To examine the impact of Medicare reimbursement policy on regional variation in HH care utilization and type of HH services delivered. Research Design We postulated that the reimbursement changes would reduce regional variation in HH services and that HH agencies would respond by reducing less skilled HH aide visits disproportionately compared with physical therapy or nursing visits. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to examine regional variation in the month-to-month probability of HH selection, and the number of and type of visits among HH users. Subjects A 100 percent sample of all Medicare recipients undergoing either elective joint replacement (1.6 million hospital discharges) or surgical management of hip fracture (1.2 million hospital discharges) between January 1996 and December 2001 was selected. Results Before the reimbursement changes, there was great variability in the probability of HH selection and the number of HH visits provided across regions. In response to the reimbursement changes, though there was little change in the variation of probability of HH utilization, there were marked reductions in the number and variation of HH visits, with greatest reductions in regions with highest baseline utilization. HH aide visits were the source of the baseline variation and accounted for the majority of the reductions in utilization after implementation. Conclusions The HH interim and prospective payment policies were effective in reducing regional variation in HH utilization. PMID:19500167

FitzGerald, John D; Boscardin, W John; Ettner, Susan L

2009-01-01

263

Integrating mitigation and adaptation into climate and development policy: three research questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for developing synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation has become a recent focus of both climate research and policy. Presumably the interest in synergies springs from the appeal of creating win-win situations by implementing a single climate policy option. However, institutional complexity, insufficient opportunities and uncertainty surrounding their efficiency and effectiveness present major challenges to the widespread

Richard J. T. Klein; E. Lisa; F. Schipper

2005-01-01

264

System evaluations of laser power beaming options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The major technology options for high-energy FELs and adaptive optics available to the Space Laser Energy (SELENE) program are reviewed. Initial system evaluations of these options are described. A feasibility assessment of laser power beaming is given.

Montgomery, Edward E., IV

1992-01-01

265

Chicago Board Options Exchange Understanding Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding Stock Options by the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) provides a good non-technical introduction to options. It explains the benefits of options, differences between options and stocks, the pricing of options, and it provides some basic options strategies. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

1994-01-01

266

Options Study - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

2010-09-01

267

Major policies of the Union  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AGU Publications Committee and the Board of Journal Editors recently adopted standards for the conduct of the publications process of AGU. These standards articulate the way in which we believe most geophysicists behave when acting as author, editor, or reviewer. We do not perceive a problem with the ethical conduct in any phase of the AGU publications activity. Rather we are presenting what is common practice as a reminder to us all and as help to those who may be just embarking on their scientific careers.

268

The Future of Older Workers in America: New Options for an Extended Working Life. A Work in America Institute Policy Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the role of the older worker in the American labor force, to analyze reasons behind the changing role of the older worker, and to make recommendations for employers, unions, and the government on age-neutral personnel policies responsive to the needs of an increasingly older work force. Data on the demographic,…

Work in America Inst., Scarsdale, NY.

269

Numa Option Calculator: The Original Option Webulator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly. For those interested in pricing their own options, this Option Calculator, provided by Numa Financial Systems Ltd., calculates the adjusted Black-Scholes model to value European options.

1997-01-01

270

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

271

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing  

E-print Network

Clinical Nurse Leader Option Master of Nursing Graduate Degree Program Clinical Manual 2012....................................................................................................................1 Clinical Nurse Leader Major Role Function?.........................................................................2 Clinical Nurse Leader

Dyer, Bill

272

Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

2010-01-01

273

Linking research with policy is a major concern in South Asia, where few politicians and policymakers base their decisions on evidence.  

E-print Network

be translated into simple, short, readable, and attractive messages and communicated via appropriate means. n of understanding of potential mutual benefits and the complementary role of research and policy. These barriers can formats: policy briefs, books, video, presentations, websites, and face-to-face meetings. #12;Featured

Richner, Heinz

274

Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

Trask, Newell, J.

1994-01-01

275

Options Paper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently released, this options paper, one in a series of papers from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, is part of a comprehensive review of the 76-year old US deposit insurance system. Because the US banking system is going through a period of healthiness, the FDIC feels that this is the best time to "address the latent flaws in the system." The paper begins with a marvelous introduction to the history and uses of the US deposit insurance system, including a lengthy overview on the need for system reform. The second section examines the pricing of deposit insurance for individual banks. Section three discusses the ways in which deposit insurance losses are funded, and the fourth section considers the extent of insurance coverage. The paper is available in its entirety in HTML format.

276

Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

2014-06-01

277

Assessing land degradation and acknowledging adaptive policy options to face with changes: an integrated approach applied to a semiarid agropastoral system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of assessing land degradation on semiarid systems deals with challenges that have rarely been addressed. Land degradation is a human-induced and permanent reduction of key ecosystem functions and services at different temporal and spatial scale. Initial attempts to assess land degradation at a broader scale were based on expert opinion, however the empirical bases to sustain these estimations are weak and the ecological data are still scarce. In addition, such approaches are essentially subjective and they reflect the objectives and assumptions of those making the assessment, who are rarely land users themselves. Currently, the concept of "land degradation" is debated, and in the last years have emerged a growing number of efforts to develop land degradation participatory assessment methods that could capture a more complex understanding of human-environment interactions. This study proposes an interdisciplinary and hybrid methodology, combining local and scientific knowledge, to assess land degradation in mixed farming systems. Specifically, i) it describes and analyses the mixed farming system and it explores how historically political, social and institutional local factors have interacted with ecological process, ii) it identifies key ecosystem processes and services needed to support the agropastoral systems that are perceived to be under threat from land degradation; iii) it assesses the status and trends of these key ecosystem services; and iv) it identifies and evaluates potential management alternatives to prevent land degradation and cope with changes (e.g. climate change). We show how to achieve, through a co-construction of hybrid knowledge between scientific and farmers, a more accurate and reliable appraisal of land degradation, since farmer's perception is contextualized, dynamic and complex and involves simultaneously multiple temporal and spatial scales and multiple dimensions of analysis that could help the scientific exploration. The study reveals that the ecosystem services' exploration with local actors is a good method to reveal the multiple and sometimes conflictive local strategies and interests at stake. Ecosystem services assessment has also been used as an entry to discuss with local land users about adaptive management strategies to improve soil functions involved in the maintenance of the provision and regulation processes and land productivity that support local livelihoods face to changes. The integrated methodological framework adopted has a positive impact to empower local users, enlarging the access to adequate information and channels of communication between experts/local users, and improving their capacity to use the co-constructed hybrid knowledge. We argue that engaging the relevant and interested actors in the process is key to understand margin of flexibility for dialogue between local users, scientific and policy makers and it is a base for ownership of local actors in decision making processes that facilitates effective soil-land governance. Finally, we discuss how wide institutional changes at different levels are needed to support agro-environmental policies for communities, small and medium farmers and to undertake new adaptive management strategies to cope with uncertainties of future changes.

Tarrasón, D.; Ravera, F.; Reed, M.; Dougill, A.

2009-04-01

278

NSC Major Related Courses (15 hours required)  

E-print Network

HPAC for options) CHEM 1312/1112 Gen Chem II w/lab NSC 3361 Behavioral Neuroscience 17 Total Semester Methods NSC 4363 Neuropharmacology NSC major guided elective STAT's (See HPAC for options) Elective 15

O'Toole, Alice J.

279

Antiviral options for biodefense.  

PubMed

A key to biodefense strategies is an assessment of current therapies available as well as the expedited development of new antiviral therapeutic options. Viruses make up the majority of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Category A Priority Pathogens, agents that are considered to pose the greatest risk to public health and national security, and yet there are currently no approved treatments for most of these viral biodefense threats. A review of the Category A viral biothreat agents and strategies for the development of new therapeutics are presented here. PMID:23773331

Byrd, Chelsea M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Hruby, Dennis E

2013-10-01

280

Maturity and exercise price of executive stock options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a simple three-period model in which a manager can gather information before making an investment decision, this paper studies optimal contracts with various stock options. In particular, we show how the exercise price of executive stock options is related to a base salary, the size of the option grant, leverage, and the riskiness of a desired investment policy. The

Chongwoo Choe

2001-01-01

281

Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart policy change. The understanding of context, evidence and ideas, implementation and impact influenced how the participants considered and rated the options. Use of epistemic community actors identified the level of support for each option, helped elaborate the particularities of context, as well as the power and influence of ideas. Further examination of the potential barriers and opportunities for these options will determine if broader consensus, involving a wider range of stakeholders, can be achieved and policy change promoted. PMID:20565742

2010-01-01

282

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ...  

E-print Network

DOUBLE MAJORS Imaging Science + ... Applied Mathematics Biomedical Sciences Computer Science Undergraduate Research Internships and Cooperative Education (Co-op) (optional) Study Abroad WHY IMAGING SCIENCE Science: BS, MS, PhD Color Science: MS, PhD BS + MS/PhD Combos HUMAN VISION BIO- MEDICAL ASTRO- PHYSICS

Zanibbi, Richard

283

Choosing a Major  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By completing this tutorial, you should be able to: Find resources to help you find the correct business major for you. Access your business major options. Congratulations on choosing Utah State University and the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business as your educational partner. Now that you have been admitted to USU, you may have a few questions about where to go from here. Below you will find many resources that will help you ...

Heiniger, Joslyn

2009-09-27

284

Positioning Institutional Research as a Major Player in Policy Decisions: Problems To Solve, Actions To Take. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a project to create and integrate an institutional research function into the executive-level policy decision making process at a private university. The paper identifies ten problems that needed to be overcome; they include: timeliness, consideration of qualitative factors, the limited scope of institutional research…

Lohmann, David

285

Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

Lawton, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

286

Options Strategy Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numa Financial Systems provide an easy-to-use Options Strategy Guide where the options strategies are categorized to the user's expectations of the stock price. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes first published their formula for valuing an option in 1973. Robert Merton independently derived an alternative method for valuing options in 1973 as well. The availability of the Black and Scholes formula for valuing options has helped the options market to grow rapidly.

1995-01-01

287

AUGUST 2014 POLICY PAPER | Why did major global health institutions scale up ACTs but ignore combination zinc/oral rehydration therapy? | 1 Why did major global health institutions scale up artemisinin-based  

E-print Network

combination zinc/oral rehydration therapy? | 1 Why did major global health institutions scale up artemisinin-based recommended effective malaria combination drugs, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), but took recommend- ed effective malaria combination drugs, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), but took

Mullins, Dyche

288

Introductory Geology: Aspects and Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included are essays presenting diversified views on questions related to problems, procedures and the impact of the Introductory Course Program (ICP) in geology. The papers of this issue deal with such factors as the financial survival in curricular design and introductory course options, the problems of transfer of majors which may place…

Bowen, John E.; And Others

289

Thinking Through Evaluation Design Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses evaluation design options for teenage risk-reduction programs, with a focus on teenage sexual education and pregnancy prevention programs. Two major evaluation components covered are process evaluation and impact assessment. Process evaluation leads to a comprehensive description of the program—its goals and objectives, organization, procedures, content, personnel, and target population. Impact assessment seeks to determine what effect the

Peter Rossi

1997-01-01

290

POLICY SECTIONS POLICY OFFICE  

E-print Network

POLICY SECTIONS POLICY OFFICE POLICIES FORMS PROCEDURES UNIVERSITY POLICY #12;guide to WRITING POLICIES Administrative policies align opera- tions, set behavior expectations across the University system and communicate policy roles and responsibilities. You, as the policy owner or writer, have the important task

Minnesota, University of

291

The chinese brain drain and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain drain has become a growing problem in China’s overseas education, especially since the Tiananmen incident of June 1989.\\u000a Many students have found it more difficult to adjust to the home environment. Some are afraid they would be punished for political\\u000a reasons if they went home. Some use the issue as an opportunity to seek permanent overseas residence.\\u000a \\u000a Beijing is

Parris Chang; Zhiduan Deng

1992-01-01

292

Policy options for managing flood insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In much of the developed world, private sector insurance plays an important but often underappreciated role in the management of natural disasters. Insurance works by spreading individual and independent risks across all policyholders. This notion succeeds for uncorrelated risks such as theft and motor accidents, but is problematic where risks are highly correlated in space and time, as in the

KEVIN M. ROCHE; K. JOHN MCANENEY; ROBIN C. VAN DEN HONERT

2010-01-01

293

Credit Ratings Failures: Causes and Policy Options  

E-print Network

discusses how regulation can be designed to mitigate these problems in the future. The suggestion is that regulators should require rating agencies to be paid by investors rather than by issuers (or at least constrain the way they are paid by issuers) and force greater disclosure of information about the underlying

Qian, Ning

294

Expanding Policy Options for Educating Teenagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between

David Stern

2009-01-01

295

Syllabus Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration  

E-print Network

Syllabus ­ Natural Resource Policy & Administration 1 Natural Resource Policy & Administration FNR and related natural resources administration and policies in the United States; policy components; policy of the course, you should be able to: State the key provisions of major natural resource policies Explain

Watson, Craig A.

296

Lack of resources a major obstacle in program implementation. Niigata declaration. Parliamentarians pledge to translate commitment into support for population policies.  

PubMed

This article presents the reaffirmation of the 96 parliamentarians from 28 countries during the international conference in Niigata, Japan, concerning their pledge in translating their commitment into supporting the population policies and development. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Cairo Declaration on Population and Development were embraced by the parliamentarians. The ICPD+5 process and the International Forum of Parliamentarians on ICPD Review were utilized in the guideline implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action. The governments were solicited to implement and monitor the progress of the ICPD Programme of Action in addressing the need for water, food, natural resources, environment and population, reproductive health and gender equality. Recognizing the inseparable relationship between population and sustainable development, governments were urge to ensure that international understanding and conventions must be consistent with the provision of food security and human survival. The organization implores the UN and the UN Population Fund to pursue its role in the formulation and implementation of population policies in different countries and regional organizations like the Association of South-East Asian Nations and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. The goal of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is to address the population and developmental problems in a comprehensive and integral fashion and the development of a worldwide network of concerned parliamentarians for the promotion of peace, prosperity and equality. PMID:12295495

1999-01-01

297

What can I do with this major? AREAS EMPLOYERS  

E-print Network

STRATEGIES What can I do with this major? AREAS EMPLOYERS PUBLIC HEALTH HEALTH POLICY Provider Relations Government Relations Health Policy: Research Policy Analysis Policy Development-term care facilities Mental health facilities Managed care organizations Health finance organizations

Escher, Christine

298

Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

2011-01-01

299

Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may force…

Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

2006-01-01

300

Introduction to Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

International Finance and Commodities Institute (IFCI) and Axone Services & Development S.A. of Switzerland have developed an on-line course on options. The course is divided into six parts: Comparing Forward, Futures and Options; Options Basics; Basic Options Pricing; Structure and Functioning of an Options Exchange; Hedging; and Trading Strategies. Many of the lessons take the form of brief introductory remarks and then interactive multiple choice questions. At the end of the course there is an interactive quiz you can take to test your knowledge. Note that some prior knowledge of options is assumed.

1995-01-01

301

The majority rule in individual decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates an understudied decision heuristic, the majority rule. By using the rule, decision makers choose the option superior on most of the available cues. Cues are broadly defined, including advisors and attributes. We propose that decision makers are more likely to use the majority rule when encouraged to employ intra-cue comparison as opposed to intra-option inte- gration, and

Jiao Zhang; Christopher K. Hsee; Zhixing Xiao

2005-01-01

302

Today's "Neglected Majority"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

Risley, Rod A.

2007-01-01

303

Majority voting on orders  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize two lexicographic-type preference extension rules from a set X to the set ? of all orders on this set. Elements of X are interpreted as basic economic policy decisions, whereas elements of ? are conceived as political programs among which a collectivity has to choose through majority voting. The main axiom is called tournament-consistency, and states that whenever

Gilbert Laffond; Jean Lainé

2000-01-01

304

Breast Cancer: Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Download PDF Breast Cancer: Treatment Options This section has been reviewed and ... Cancer - About Clinical Trials › f t g e + Breast Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Overview Statistics ...

305

Introduction to Options  

E-print Network

prices or premiums are not predetermined, but rather are determined by the interaction of option buyers and sellers at the exchange. There are several important facts to remember when trading options. Most im- Mark Welch and James Mintert* 2 portant... prices or premiums are not predetermined, but rather are determined by the interaction of option buyers and sellers at the exchange. There are several important facts to remember when trading options. Most im- Mark Welch and James Mintert* 2 portant...

Mintert, James R.; Welch, Mark

2009-01-07

306

Major depression  

MedlinePLUS

... major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed ... responsible. This may be due to a problem with your genes. Or ...

307

The British Russian Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the economic rationale of the British put and call option, we present a new class of lookback options (by first studying the canonical ‘Russian’ variant) where the holder enjoys the early exercise feature of American options, whereupon his payoff (deliverable immediately) is the ‘best prediction’ of the European payoff under the hypothesis that the true drift of the stock

Kristoffer Glover; Goran Peskir; Farman Samee

2010-01-01

308

The British call option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alongside the British put option (Peskir and Samee [Appl. Math. Finance, 2011, 18, 537–563]) we present a new call option where the holder enjoys the early exercise feature of American options whereupon his payoff (deliverable immediately) is the ‘best prediction’ of the European payoff under the hypothesis that the true drift of the stock price equals a contract drift. Inherent

Goran Peskir; Farman Samee

2012-01-01

309

The British Put Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new put option where the holder enjoys the early exercise feature of American options whereupon his payoff (deliverable immediately) is the ‘best prediction’ of the European payoff under the hypothesis that the true drift of the stock price equals a contract drift. Inherent in this is a protection feature which is key to the British put option.

Goran Peskir; Farman Samee

2011-01-01

310

Rethinking Worklife Options for Older Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume contains 19 papers that were presented at a conference addressing critical issues related to employment options for older persons. They are arranged in four sections that cover early retirement policies and their implications; older workers of Asia and the Pacific; the impact of technological change on the employment prospects of older…

Habib, Jack, Ed.; Nusberg, Charlotte, Ed.

311

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11

312

Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mapping, data were gathered from 82 stakeholders (from 33 categories in Morocco and 36 in Tunisia) who appraised 12 obesity policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. Results The feasibility of policies in practical or political terms and their cost were perceived as more important than how effective they would be in reducing obesity. There was most consensus and preference for options targeting individuals through health education, compared with options that aimed at changing the environment, i.e. modifying food supply and demand (providing healthier menus/changing food composition/food sold in schools); controlling information (advertising controls/mandatory labelling) or improving access to physical activity. In Tunisia, there was almost universal consensus that at least some environmental-level options are required, but in Morocco, participants highlighted the need to raise awareness within the population and policy makers that obesity is a public health problem, accompanied by improving literacy before such measures would be accepted. Conclusion Whilst there is broad interest in a range of policy options, those measures targeting behaviour change through education were most valued. The different socioeconomic, political and cultural contexts of countries need to be accounted for when prioritizing obesity policy. Obesity was not recognized as a major public health priority; therefore, convincing policy makers about the need to prioritize action to prevent obesity, particularly in Morocco, will be a crucial first step. PMID:23230285

Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

2013-01-01

313

Forest management options for sequestering carbon in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A “Policy” scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a “Technical Potential” scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a

Omar R. Masera; Mauricio R. Bellon; Gerardo Segura

1995-01-01

314

Evaluating health policy capacity: Learning from international and Australian experience  

PubMed Central

Background The health sector in Australia faces major challenges that include an ageing population, spiralling health care costs, continuing poor Aboriginal health, and emerging threats to public health. At the same time, the environment for policy-making is becoming increasingly complex. In this context, strong policy capacity – broadly understood as the capacity of government to make "intelligent choices" between policy options – is essential if governments and societies are to address the continuing and emerging problems effectively. Results This paper explores the question: "What are the factors that contribute to policy capacity in the health sector?" In the absence of health sector-specific research on this topic, a review of Australian and international public sector policy capacity research was undertaken. Studies from the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia were analysed to identify common themes in the research findings. This paper discusses these policy capacity studies in relation to context, models and methods for policy capacity research, elements of policy capacity and recommendations for building capacity. Conclusion Based on this analysis, the paper discusses the organisational and individual factors that are likely to contribute to health policy capacity, highlights the need for further research in the health sector and points to some of the conceptual and methodological issues that need to be taken into consideration in such research. PMID:19245704

Gleeson, Deborah H; Legge, David G; O'Neill, Deirdre

2009-01-01

315

Future American energy policy  

SciTech Connect

People from businesses, public life, public advocacy groups, and experts on international energy met in February 1980 to explore the complex issues of energy policy at a conference entitled Energy Future: Policies and Consequences. The book begins with Crist's overview of current options. David Stockman then examines damaging energy myths and their effects in producing misguided energy policies. Other authors explore the social implications of energy policy, the failure of oil-company management and government to keep energy prices in line with costs, the economic implications of domestic energy policy, international attitudes toward US policy, and the implications of alternative energy sources and conservation. Laffer describes how American presidential economic policies differ from public perceptions. The book concludes with the hope of achieving a future balance of environmental concerns and increased production.

Crist, M.S.; Laffer, A.B. (eds.)

1982-01-01

316

Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance  

E-print Network

. Major III ­ Forensic Chemistry Major IV** ­ Biochemistry Option Chemistry Minor General Chemistry I & II or senior year Five Year BS/MS in Forensic Chemistry 21 additional credits of courses in Forensic SciencesChemistry Major and Minor At A Glance Major I ­ Pre-professional (Medicine, Dentistry, Business

Schmitt, William R.

317

Majoring in Geog-raphy without a  

E-print Network

stu- dent? One clue is that your interests make it difficult to choose a specialized major. ThirdMajoring in Geog- raphy without a focus or concen- tration is a great option for several reasons as undergraduates. A General Geography major allows them to have a mix of courses and majors/minors that are defined

de Doncker, Elise

318

Major Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than100 sites across the United States; investigator-initiated grants; postdoctoral training; and specialized resources for researchers.

319

Physical Therapy Career Options Human Biology Health & Society (HBHS)  

E-print Network

date. Graduates in Physical Therapy-Related Programs Upon graduation about 10% of our majors indicate65 Physical Therapy Career Options Human Biology Health & Society (HBHS) Nutritional Sciences ­ CHE-CALS) ________________________________________________________________________________________ Many NS-CHE, NS-CALS and HBHS majors consider physical therapy as a career option because

Chen, Tsuhan

320

Approximate option pricing  

SciTech Connect

As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-04-08

321

COURSE OF STUDY: DISTANCE OPTION MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Development in the Social Environment, Issues in Child Welfare, Health Care Policies and Programs and PovertyCOURSE OF STUDY: DISTANCE OPTION MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK PROGRAM Three-year curriculum grid example First Year ­ 19 credits Fall Winter Spring SW 520 Social Work and Social Welfare Policy (4 credit hours

322

CONSUMER AND COMMUNITY STUDIES MAJOR Minimum Major Hours: 35  

E-print Network

CONSUMER AND COMMUNITY STUDIES MAJOR Minimum Major Hours: 35 1. DEPARTMENT CORE (8 Credit Hours Credit Hours) Sem Grade Course Credits FCS 3450 Family Economic Issues (QI/BF) -or- FCS 3500 Consumer and Family Finance (CFP) 3 3 FCS 3600 Consumer and Community Policy 3 3. CAPSTONE (3-4 Credit Hours) Sem

Tipple, Brett

323

Currently there is no canola insurance policy for New Jersey. If you are interested however, in protecting your investment there are some options. If you have 3 years of prior yield records  

E-print Network

conditions Earthquake Failure of irrigation or water supply Fire Insects Plant disease Price change Volcanic, in protecting your investment there are some options. If you have 3 years of prior yield records for canola agent will help you request protection from RMA (Risk Manage- ment Agency) to transfer a canola crop

Goodman, Robert M.

324

Earth Sciences Geology Option  

E-print Network

courses, core Earth Sciences courses, and focused coursework in the option. A graduation checklistEarth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its composition and internal structure to its history and the processes that shape its surface. Our planet

Kurapov, Alexander

325

The British Asian Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the economic rationale of Peskir and Samee (2008a,b), we present a new class of Asian options where the holder enjoys the early exercise feature of American options whereupon his payoff (deliverable immediately) is the ‘best prediction’ of the European payoff under the hypothesis that the true drift of the stock price equals a contract drift. Inherent in this is

Kristoffer Glover; Goran Peskir; Farman Samee

2010-01-01

326

The British Asian Option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the economic rationale of [7] and [8] we present a new class of Asian options where the holder enjoys the early exercise feature of American options whereupon his payoff (deliverable immediately) is the ‘best prediction’ of the European payoff under the hypothesis that the true drift of the stock price equals a contract drift. Inherent in this is a

Kristoffer Glover; Goran Peskir; Farman Samee

2009-01-01

327

Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.  

PubMed

The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

2012-10-16

328

Major depression.  

PubMed

Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

2014-09-01

329

Major coronary anomalies in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major coronary artery anomalies are extremely rare in childhood. We wanted to assess the historical and diagnostic features and the therapeutic options of three distinct types of coronary artery anomalies: abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), coronary fistula and coronary stenosis. In a retrospective study, 33 children with these types of coronary artery disease

Daniël Wolf; Tom Vercruysse; Bert Suys; Nico Blom; Dirk Matthys; Jaap Ottenkamp

2002-01-01

330

Capture-Ready Power Plants -Options, Technologies and Economics Mark C. Bohm  

E-print Network

1 Capture-Ready Power Plants - Options, Technologies and Economics by Mark C. Bohm Bachelor and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Capture-ready Power Plants ­ Options, Technologies and Costs by Mark C. Bohm for the Degree of Master of Science in Technology and Policy ABSTRACT A plant can be considered to be capture

331

Policy on Gender Neutral Housing Policy on Gender-Neutral  

E-print Network

Policy on Gender Neutral Housing 10/01/2013 Policy on Gender-Neutral Housing I. Purpose and Scope Gender-neutral housing gives students the option to reside with another student, regardless of sex, gender, gender identity or gender expression. II. Definitions Gender-neutral housing is defined

Sridhar, Srinivas

332

Expensing options solves nothing.  

PubMed

The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system. PMID:12510541

Sahlman, William A

2002-12-01

333

Guardianship as a therapeutic option.  

PubMed

The HIV/AIDS epidemic has posed a significant challenge to our legal system, demanding that it evolve to provide more flexible ways for parents to transfer guardianship of their children to other caring adults in a timely and minimally traumatic manner. Although a number of states have responded to the challenge, adopting new guardianship options such as delegations of parental authority for limited purposes, standby guardianship, co-guardianships, and subsidized guardianships, the majority of states still do not provide this continuum of options. Moreover, few states have established multidisciplinary programs that help parents take full advantage of the new guardianship options. Few have even begun to address the complex needs of the "second" families. Few have developed plans to meet the needs of the older AIDS-affected youth. How well we ensure the quality and continuity of parental care for children whose parents are living with HIV and AIDS, or who later die of it, is one of the tests of our generation. If we fail to meet this challenge, we are knowingly placing thousands of children and youth at enormous, predictable, and potentially fatal risk. PMID:10768075

Geballe, S D

2000-04-01

334

Active Management of Real Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business opportunities to introduce new products at a later date are treated as real options. These real options are modeled as exchange options for which both the underlying and strike assets are risky. The distance to breakeven for an exchange option measures how far a real option is currently expected to be from having a net present value of zero

Tom W. Miller

2011-01-01

335

NSC Major Related Courses (15 hours required)  

E-print Network

advisor for options) CHEM 1312/1112 Gen Chem II w/lab NSC 3361 Behavioral Neuroscience 16 Total Semester Hours NSC 4353 Neuroscience Lab Methods NSC 4363 Neuropharmacology NSC major guided elective Elective

O'Toole, Alice J.

336

Syrtis Major  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent dark, triangular albedo feature (dark by contrast with its surroundings) on the Martian equator, centered approximately at 10 °N, 70 °E. It takes its name from the historical name for the larger of two quicksands off the North African coast. Syrtis Major is prominent in telescopic views of the planet, and was in fact the first feature of Mars ever to be recorded, in a sketch made by C...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

337

Mathematics & Degree options  

E-print Network

132 Mathematics & Statistics Degree options MMath (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Applied Mathematics Pure Mathematics Statistics BSc or MA (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Statistics [If you wish (Joint Honours Degrees) Mathematics and one of: Biology Chemistry Computer Science Economics Geography

Brierley, Andrew

338

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

339

Cogeneration System Design Options  

E-print Network

and thermal needs of a firm, and what kind of operating economics and system paybacks have been achieved. Several cogeneration options are also illustrated to eliminate the problems and uncertainties of dealing with uninterested or non-cooperative utilities...

Gilbert, J. S.

340

Physics & Astronomy Degree options  

E-print Network

148 Physics & Astronomy Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics MPhys (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics Theoretical Physics BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Physics) Theoretical Physics and Mathematics MSci (Joint Honours Degree) Physics and Chemistry Entrance Requirements

Brierley, Andrew

341

77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...categorized as agricultural trade options and a broader range of risk management tools...of the Markets The trade option exemption...important hedging and risk management tool for...above) highlighted trade options as a fundamental risk management tool...

2012-04-27

342

Internet Stock Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, in Red Herring, Charles Conn, CEO of Ticketmaster Online-City-Search explained the difficulties of hiring people in San Francisco: "Everyone seems to know someone whose company just got bought for millions of dollars," and according to Conn, job seekers in the Internet industry put stock options high on their list of benefits and incentives. This week's In The News examines stock options as they affect high-tech companies and their employees. On July 1, 1999, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that 42 local companies, mainly Internet start-ups, had gone public in the preceding six months with the astounding gain of 138 percent. Throughout the Silicon Valley, employees of computer companies are hedging their bets, hoping that the companies they work for will be the next eBay or Amazon. However, the chances of striking it rich through Internet stock options are slim. High-tech employees move from company to company looking for better options at promising start-ups, while computer companies improve their option packages in order to entice their workers to stay. The seven resources discussed provide news, articles, and background information on the lures and pitfalls of Internet stock options.

Missner, Emily D.

343

Nevada Transportatoion Options Study  

SciTech Connect

This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

2006-05-25

344

Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

2013-09-01

345

Global plutonium management: A security option  

SciTech Connect

The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

Sylvester, K.W.B.

1998-12-31

346

Syrtis Major  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

(Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

2002-01-01

347

CO 2 Emissions Impact of Sustainable Food Procurement: Informing University Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter intends to aid university administrators designing sustainable food policy in dining areas by evaluating the\\u000a environmental impact of “sustainable” food alternatives – local and organic – using the related environmental metrics “embedded\\u000a energy” and CO2 emissions. The authors calculate CO2-equivalent emissions associated with local and organic options for fresh fruits and vegetables commonly served in a major\\u000a Midwestern

Esther E. Bowen; Pamela A. Martin

348

Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected  

E-print Network

June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

349

of Social Work and Social Policy  

E-print Network

School of Social Work and Social Policy School M.Sc. in Disability Studies #12;The M and benefit from the input of the different academic centres involved in the M.Sc. including: Social Work Dublin) School of Social Work and Social Policy School of Social Work and Social Policy #12;Two options

O'Mahony, Donal E.

350

Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options  

E-print Network

Edit Test Options Page 1 Edit Test Options Format Test Information 1. Enter a Name for the Test. 2. Choose a color for the title text of the Test. (Optional) 3. Enter a Description in the Text Box. The description is visible to Students before they click on the link to take the Test. (Optional) 4. If you want

Xu, Shouhuai

351

Environmental Science, Policy, and Undergraduate Handbook  

E-print Network

Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Undergraduate Handbook 2008-2009 Society and Environment A Social Sciences Major Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management College;2 Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Undergraduate Affairs CONTACT INFORMATION Walk-up Location 249

352

14.74 Foundations of Development Policy, Spring 2004  

E-print Network

Explores the foundations of policy making in developing countries. Goal is to spell out various policy options and to quantify the trade-offs between them. Special emphasis on education, health, gender, fertility, adoption ...

Duflo, Esther, 1972-

353

Development of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Major in The Earth System, Environment and Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humanity faces great challenges in the 21st Century to understand and limit our impact on the Earth System. To address these challenges, it is essential to understand the nature and implications of environmental change, and the complexity of the Earth system. We need to educate citizens that have the background to make new developments in understanding technical aspects of the Earth System, and to develop an understanding the interactions between society and the Earth System sufficient to make informed policy choices. Traditional disciplinary departments and majors don't fully address this; teaching and research talent in the study of the Earth System is spread over many disciplinary-oriented departments. At the University of Illinois, we are currently developing a new cross-disciplinary undergraduate major being called The Earth system, environment and Society. This development is co-sponsored by a number of departments centered in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences (but including other departments throughout the university). Our intention is that this major will be a catalyst for bringing together the many disciplines involved in Earth System Science education. The curriculum and course for study will focus on the science and human dimensions of the Earth system, with special emphasis on the processes and issues related to the environment across a range of spatial scales from local and regional to global. Along with meeting the requirements expected of all students in a liberal arts and sciences major, students in The Earth System, Environment and Society major will be required to complete a core set of courses designed to introduce students to all of the different components of the Earth System (students will choose from course options in both the sciences and the social sciences). After completing the core courses, students will then focus their studies on one of the two options within the major, Science of the Earth System (this option will emphasize the full complexities of the science of the Earth system) and Human Dimensions of the Earth System (this option will have a heavier focus on the relationship of Earth System Science to policy and decision analysis and to society and social science interactions). The two options will allow students to prepare for career paths, including graduate study, in any number of possible areas.

Wuebbles, D. J.

2003-12-01

354

Administration Policy Complete Policy Title  

E-print Network

Administration Policy Complete Policy Title: McMaster University Alcohol Policy Policy Number, 1998 Supersedes/Amends Policy dated: May 11, 1998 Responsible Executive: Vice-President (Administration policy and the written copy held by the policy owner, the written copy prevails. INTRODUCTION Mc

Haykin, Simon

355

Computer Science Degree options  

E-print Network

82 Computer Science Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Computer Science and one of: Economics Logic and Philosophy of Science Management Management Science MSci (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science Entrance Requirements (see also pages 164 - 205

Brierley, Andrew

356

Our Energy Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

357

Earth Sciences Geography Option  

E-print Network

Earth Sciences with Geography Option Geography is the study of Earth's environments, landscapes, international development, diplomacy, military service; · Teaching and research. #12;Earth Sciences 97331-5506 phone: 541-737-1201 fax: 541-737-1200 email: earth.sciences@oregonstate.edu web: http

Kurapov, Alexander

358

ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

359

Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors’ decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from earlier studies. This research complements

Ravi Pappu

2004-01-01

360

Program Overview The University of Utah Master of Public Policy program  

E-print Network

in a substantive policy area (e.g., Business Policy Regulation, Land Use and Water Policy, Social and Child WelfareProgram Overview The University of Utah Master of Public Policy program is an interdisciplinary of the policy process, better analyze policy options, and program seeks to balance economic and political

Tipple, Brett

361

Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

Lipo, T. A.

1995-01-01

362

CHANGES IN MAJORS, DEGREES AND OPTIONS BY MAJOR University of Wisconsin-Madison  

E-print Network

)Rename: Master of Arts-Agricultural and Applied Economics (ALS)Add: Master of Science-Agricultural and Applied 021 Agricultural and Applied Economics (Effective First Semester 1997-98) Change: 021 Agricultural and Applied Economics 027 Agricultural Economics to 021 Agricultural and Applied Economics (Masters Level

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

363

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

238 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences Director Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: B.A. This interdisciplinary major focuses on policy issues that are of public interest. Students in policy studies evaluate and analyze both the determinants and the effects of policy decisions, gaining an understanding of the policy

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

364

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

250 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences Director Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: BA This interdisciplinary major focuses on policy issues that are of public interest. Students in policy studies evaluate and analyze both the determinants and the effects of policy decisions, gaining an understanding of the policy

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

365

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

238 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences DIRECTOR Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: BA This interdisciplinary major focuses on policy issues that are of public interest.Stu- dents in policy studies evaluate and analyze both the determinants and the effects of policy decisions, gaining an understanding of the policy

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

366

Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences  

E-print Network

231 Policy Studies The School of Social Sciences Director Donald Ostdiek Degree Offered: B.A. This interdisciplinary major focuses on policy issues that are of public interest. Students in policy studies evaluate and analyze both the determinants and the effects of policy decisions, gaining an understanding of the policy

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

367

Operational options for green ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

2012-09-01

368

Building an Interdepartmental Major in Speech Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a popular and innovative major program of study in speech communication at St. Cloud University in Minnesota: the Speech Communication Interdepartmental Major. The paper provides background on the program, discusses overall program requirements, presents sample student options, identifies ingredients for program success,…

Litterst, Judith K.

369

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major The Department of Health and Human://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health- human-development/health-human-development/food-nutrition-major- dietetics-option) is designed and Human Development advising office located in the Hosaeus PE Complex. The nutrition science option (http://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health-human

Maxwell, Bruce D.

370

Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

Weil, Alan

371

Reconsidering California Transport Policies: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Uncertain Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past decade, the state of California has set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions targets across all sectors of the economy. The first major target occurs in 2020, when the state hopes to have reduced statewide greenhouse gas emission from their current levels to 1990 levels. This 320-page paper from RAND researcher Ryan Keefe takes a critical look at the policies adopted by California in its attempt to achieve these long-term goals. Visitors can look over the complete document if they are so inclined, but there is a brief summary available as well. The paper provides a history of climate policy in California, sections on policy options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles, and new methods for evaluating California's light-duty transportation policies. Finally, the paper also includes a wealth of graphs, charts, and technical appendices.

Keefe, Ryan

2012-02-24

372

Factors Affecting Option Premium Values  

E-print Network

prices or buyers against ris- ing prices. A put option allows producers to establish a price floor or minimum selling price. With a put the producer can benefit from a price rally. The buyer of a put option pays an option premium but does not have... to establish a margin account. For this premium, the put option buyer has the right, but not the obliga- tion, to sell a futures contract at a predetermined price known as the ?strike? price. Call Options Call options protect buyers from rising prices...

Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

1999-06-23

373

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted in accordance with all  

E-print Network

CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted%2029%2013.pdf Option 2 of University Policy 4-009.2 http://www.fa.ucf.edu/Forms/PCard/41-980.pdf Cell Phone Payroll FAQs (for Policy 4-900.2) http://hr.ucf.edu/files/CellPhonePayrollFAQ.pdf Cell Phone Allowance

Wu, Shin-Tson

374

Small Satellite Propulsion Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced chemical and low power electric propulsion offer attractive options for small satellite propulsion. Applications include orbit raising, orbit maintenance, attitude control, repositioning, and deorbit of both Earth-space and planetary spacecraft. Potential propulsion technologies for these functions include high pressure Ir/Re bipropellant engines, very low power arcjets, Hall thrusters, and pulsed plasma thrusters, all of which have been shown to operate in manners consistent with currently planned small satellites. Mission analyses show that insertion of advanced propulsion technologies enables and/or greatly enhances many planned small satellite missions. Examples of commercial, DoD, and NASA missions are provided to illustrate the potential benefits of using advanced propulsion options on small satellites.

Myers, Roger M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Curran, Francis M.; Schneider, Steven J.

1994-01-01

375

Cooling options for Astromag  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of the various cooling options for the Astromag particle physics experiment is presented. The baseline design for the cryogenic system involves using a natural circulation fountain-effect driven flow loop (Hofmann type). The present paper considers two alternative options for cooling. The first design involves a thermal strap made of a high-conductivity metal, e.g., high-purity aluminum or copper, which connects the coil to the helium reservoir. Venting helium vapor can also be used to minimize the temperature of the magnet and recover from a quench. The second design is based on an He II heat pipe concept where steady state heat transport is by counterflow. Cavitation is prevented by use of a porous plug. Forced flow He II is also available but only during extraordinary operating conditions.

Maytal, B. Z.; Van Sciver, S. W.

1992-01-01

376

Center for Energy and Environmental Policy BROWNFIELDS  

E-print Network

and development, environmental justice, conservation and renewable energy options, integrated resource planning efforts to integrate community participation, environmental justice and sustainable developmentCenter for Energy and Environmental Policy BROWNFIELDS: FROM REDEVELOPMENT TO REVITALIZATION

Delaware, University of

377

The safeguards options study  

SciTech Connect

The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

378

Novel operative treatment options.  

PubMed

There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. PMID:19494685

Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

2009-01-01

379

118 Environmental Science and Policy Environmental Science and Policy  

E-print Network

118 · Environmental Science and Policy Environmental Science and Policy ADVISORY COMMITTEE: A of the need for an appropriate balance between breadth and depth of training, the Environmental Science in another discipline. The Environmental Science and Policy major provides breadth in basic course work

Lewis, Robert Michael

380

The Window Strategy with Options  

E-print Network

The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

1999-06-23

381

Milk Futures, Options and Basis  

E-print Network

The milk futures and options market enables producers and processors to manage price risk. This publication explains hedging, margin accounts, basis and how to track it, and other fundamentals of the futures and options market....

Haigh, Michael; Stockton, Matthew; Anderson, David P.; Schwart Jr., Robert B.

2001-10-12

382

Options for Heart Valve Replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... position of the damaged valve aortic valve TAVI/TAVR procedure — Transcatheter aortic valve replacement Newer surgery options ... Replacement - Ross Procedure - Newer Surgery Options - What is TAVR? - Types of Replacement Valves • Healthy Living Goals • Personal ...

383

Fraud Policy Governance Policy  

E-print Network

and Conduct Policy for the processes involved where academic fraudulent activities are suspected. 2 persons (such as technical experts with IT or forensic accounting skills) as well as external agencies (e

Frean, Marcus

384

POLICY: A:VPFA # / Purchasing Policy PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

POLICY: A:VPFA # / Purchasing Policy PROCEDURES: APPENDIX: Approved: April 1, 2013 Revised: Cross References: Purchasing Policy Capital Projects and Renovations Policy Conflict of Interest Policy Sustainability Policy Green Procurement Policy 1 of 9 PROCEDURES: Purchasing Policy AUTHORITY: University

Martin, Jeff

385

Interpolation and American options pricing  

E-print Network

Interpolation and American options pricing Shi-hau Liao Department of finanace National Taiwan and American options accurately and efficiently has been a main concern in many studies. Although the closed. In the thesis, the method is proposed to build a look-up table for European and American option values

Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

386

Theory of Rational Option Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long history of the theory of option pricing began in 1900 when the French mathematician Louis Bachelier deduced an option pricing formula based on the assumption that stock prices follow a Brownian motion with zero drift. Since that time, numerous researchers have contributed to the theory. The present paper begins by deducing a set of restrictions on option pricing

Robert C. Merton

1973-01-01

387

Economics & Finance Degree options  

E-print Network

in markets. Macroeconomics is the study of phenomena which affect the national economy, such as unemployment understanding of key aspects of business management and government policy formation. First Year Microeconomics of quantitative methods and an understanding of the economic system in general, including the UK economy. Second

Brierley, Andrew

388

Adaptation options in agriculture to climate change: a typology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation in agriculture to climate change is important for impact andvulnerability assessment and for the development of climate change policy. A wide variety of adaptation options has been proposed as having thepotential to reduce vulnerability of agricultural systems to risks related toclimate change, often in an ad hoc fashion. This paper develops atypology of adaptation to systematically classify and characterize

Barry Smit; Mark W. Skinner

2002-01-01

389

Options Reporting and the Political Costs of CEO Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managers' systematic influence on accounting policy is well documented in the earnings management literature. Recent studies in the “management of information” line of research suggest that such influence is exhibited in financial reporting more generally, including supplemental disclosures in proxy statements. Using 1996 compensation data, I extend recent research on how firms report the value of options paid to their

Terry A. Baker

1999-01-01

390

Current treatment options for the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optional statement  The metabolic syndrome is defined as a condition characterized by a set of clinical criteria: insulin resistance, visceral\\u000a obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to the epidemic of this syndrome in the\\u000a United States are visceral obesity, physical inactivity, and an atherogenic diet. The available current evidence suggests\\u000a that the first step in management of

Prakash C. Deedwania; Natalia Volkova

2005-01-01

391

Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.  

PubMed

This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures. PMID:22783610

Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

2012-01-01

392

Adolescent pregnancy options.  

PubMed

The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

Resnick, M D

1992-09-01

393

Options for commercial tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Systems studies have been performed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) to assess commercial tokamak options. One study investigates the economics of high-beta operation and determines an optimum operating range of 10 to 20% beta, with a corresponding neutron wall loading of 6 to 8 MW/m/sup 2/. A second study determines conditions under which small, low-power tokamaks can be economically combined into a 1200-MW(electric) multiplex power plant. The results of these studies have directed future efforts at the FEDC toward a high-beta, tokamak design using a modular maintenance configuration.

Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

1986-07-01

394

Energy, Product, and Economic Implications of Environmental Compliance Options- A Southern California Case Study  

E-print Network

to selecting an option to implement. We discuss how the options are assembled into an array of coping strategies for environmental compliance. This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a database of regulations and technology options. (A major Southern...

Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Dennison, W. J.

395

Using System Dynamics to Extend Real Options Use: Insights from the Oil & Gas Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current work examines the application of system dynamics to real options through work with a major energy firm to apply real options. Five key challenges facing the real options community are presented and potential system dynamics contributions to these challenges are discussed. Two cases from a BP research project illustrate how system dynamics can be used to develop and

Scott T Johnson; Tim Taylor; David N Ford

396

Used nuclear fuel storage options including implications of small modular reactors  

E-print Network

This work addresses two aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle system with significant policy implications. The first is the preferred option for used fuel storage based on economics: local, regional or national storage. The ...

Brinton, Samuel O. (Samuel Otis)

2014-01-01

397

75 FR 56631 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Notice of Filing and Immediate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Interpretation .01 of Section 3 of Article XII.\\5...See Article XII, Section 3, Interpretation and Policy .01, of OCC's By-Laws. See Securities Exchange...Release No. 46595 (October 3, 2002...proliferation of option strikes caused by successive...

2010-09-16

398

Student's Full Legal Name _____________________________________________Date of Birth ___________________ SFA ID or SSN (optional) _______________________________________________  

E-print Network

___________________ SFA ID or SSN (optional) _______________________________________________ TPHSC Form1 1 High School School Program for students who entered Grade 9 BEFORE the 20072008 School Year BACKGROUND Texas public university under the Uniform Admissions Policy (Texas Education Code §§51

Long, Nicholas

399

Retrieval options study  

SciTech Connect

This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

Not Available

1980-03-01

400

Trade Policy  

E-print Network

In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science ...

Ashford, Nicholas A.

2014-01-01

401

Policy Planning to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Preceded by the State Workbook: Methodologies for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions, this document by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) serves to guide states in "identifying and evaluating options to mitigate emissions" affecting global climate change. Each of the report's three parts details climate change and policy options. Part one discusses the Initiation of Climate Change Programs. Part two describes sources of emissions and potential policy options. Part three completes the report by offering "guidance in preparing the State Action Plan." Appendices supply a glossary, references, state plans, and a specific example reduction plan.

Agency., United S.

1998-01-01

402

Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State  

SciTech Connect

President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

Garcia, N.

1996-04-01

403

Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

2012-01-01

404

Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop  

PubMed Central

Abstract Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a “policy effectiveness–feasibility loop” (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach. PMID:23226897

Bowman, Sarah; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

2012-01-01

405

2012/2013 Animal Sciences Industry Option Food Safety Path  

E-print Network

Intro. to Human Health Risk Assessment 3 S #12;Department of Anima Sciences l 2012/2013 Bachelor2012/2013 Animal Sciences ­ Industry Option Food Safety Path Pre-Major Courses Course Prefix 307, ENGL 308, FSHD/FSHV 428 Major Requirements _________ AN S 102R Intro. To Animal Science ­ Lecture

Guerriero, Vince

406

On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program is addressing key issues associated with critical national needs. This paper compares the major options with these major âoutcomeâť objectives - waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety as well as âprocessâť objectives associated with readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in

Steven J. Piet; Ralph G. Bennett; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mark Roth; J. D. Smith; Robert Hill; James Laidler; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

2004-01-01

407

Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013)  

E-print Network

Internship Administration (Policy effective Spring 2013) The purpose of this policy is to provide or repository for both non-credit and credit bearing internships. Employers and organizations wishing to post an internship opportunity have the option to contact the Career Center and indicate their interest in a Siena

408

Public policy and the supply of food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current policies and programs affecting the supply of food are examined and options assessed for changes that would help generate a food supply consistent with the US population eating according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Potential policy and program changes are identified in three categories: eliminating existing domestic farm and trade program limitations on the US food supply; creating

Keith Collins

1999-01-01

409

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2012-10-01

410

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2011-10-01

411

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2013-10-01

412

48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917...CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer...standardized determination and finding before exercising an option in accordance with FAR...

2010-10-01

413

Lower Cost Energy Options  

E-print Network

LOWER COST ENERGY OPTIONS Malcom E. Maze Manager, Corp. Energy Management Abbott Laborator1es Abbott Park, Ill1no1s Before I start talk1ng about lower cost energy opt10ns, wh1ch 1s the subject of my talk today, I'd 11ke to tell you a 11...ttle b1t about Abbott Laborator1es. Abbott 1s a world-w1de health care company w1th 27 manufactur1ng and research fac111t1es 1n the U.S. and Puerto R1co totall1ng more than 10,000,000 square feet of floor space. The company has also has manufactur1...

Maze, M. E.

414

TOPEX satellite option study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic design of the fleet satellite communication spacecraft (FLTSATCOM) can easily accommodate any of the three payload options for the ocean dynamic topography experiment (TOPEX). The principal mission requirements as well as the payload accommodations and communications systems needed for launching this payload are reviewed. The existing FLTSATCOM satellite design is identified and the approaches for the proposed propulsion system are described in addition to subsystems for mechanical; power; attitude and velocity control; and telemetry, tracking and control are described. The compatability of FLTSATCOM with the launch vehicle is examined and its capabilities vs TOPEX requirements are summarized. Undetermined changes needed to meet data storage, thermal control, and area to mass ratio requirements are discussed. Cost estimates are included for budgetary and planning purposes. The availability of the described design is assessed based on the continuing production of FLTSATCOM spacecraft during the schedule span planned for TOPEX.

1982-01-01

415

Purchasing Policies University Policies  

E-print Network

purchase order, UCD Buy order, Bookstore order, campus purchase requisition, or the departmental purchasing quality and price. Materials purchased through the use of personal funds or personal credit cards bypass in the campus Policy and Procedure Manual section 350-10 and as such there is no guarantee that these costs

Kolner, Brian H.

416

Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

Sanders, Diana W.

2001-01-01

417

PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --1 PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS --2  

E-print Network

and the world: Developmental Psychology, Social Psy- chology, Cognitive Psychology, Theories of PersonalityPSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 1 #12;PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS -- 2 Handbook for Undergraduate Psychology Majors......................................................................................................................................2 A. Psychology Program Goals and Purpose B. Declaration of Major C. History of Marquette University

Sanders, Matthew

418

Security Policy Reconciliation in Distributed Computing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major hurdle in sharing resources between organizations is heterogeneity. Therefore, in order for two organizations to collaborate their policies have to be resolved. The process of resolving different policies is known as policy reconciliation, which in general is an intractable problem. This paper ad- dresses policy reconciliation in the context of security. We present a formal framework and hierarchical

Hao Wang; Somesh Jha; Miron Livny; Patrick Drew Mcdaniel

2004-01-01

419

Remembering chosen and assigned options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown systematic choice-supportive memory for past choices, wherein people tend to overattribute positive\\u000a features to options they chose and negative features to unchosen options (Mather & Johnson, 2000; Mather, Shafir, & Johnson,\\u000a 2000). In contrast, the present experiments showed no choice-supportive memory bias for assigned options. Rather than having\\u000a a general motivation to recall the chosen or

Mara Mather; Eldar Shafir; Marcia K. Johnson

2003-01-01

420

New treatment options for onychomycosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Onychomycosis is the most common nail disorder. The causative pathogens are not only dermatophytes in the majority of cases (Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes), but also yeasts of the genus Candida and molds. A wide variety of topical antifungal agents are proposed for first-line treatment of superficial onychomycosis, when the matrix is not involved. New treatment options using light were recently introduced, such as thermal lasers, non-thermal lasers, and photodynamic therapy. For thermal lasers, a temperature increase in the nail of around 50°C seems to be a prerequisite for success. For non-thermal lasers, the clinical data are very debatable and their mechanism of action still remains mysterious. For photodynamic therapy, 5-aminolevulinic acid is used. The therapy consists of exciting protoporphyrin IX with red light that penetrates relatively deeply. Further clinical studies of larger series of patients and with longer follow-up are still needed to reach a definitive conclusion on the value of these devices. PMID:25148411

Mordon, Serge R; Betrouni, Nacim; Trelles, Mario A; Leclčre, Franck Marie

2014-12-01

421

Learning Goals for Undergraduate Forestry and Natural Resources Majors Undergraduate Student Learning Initiative  

E-print Network

Learning Goals for Undergraduate Forestry and Natural Resources Majors Undergraduate Student Learning Initiative University of California ­ Berkeley The Forestry and Natural Resources (FNR) major-changing world. The FNR major includes a professional option (Forestry and Natural Sciences, Professional

Wildermuth, Mary C

422

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy  

PubMed Central

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

2009-01-01

423

Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy.  

PubMed

The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

Jackson, Richard J; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K

2009-07-01

424

Environmental and Resource Science Major Advisor Checklist  

E-print Network

Environmental and Resource Science Major Advisor Checklist Name (III, 5), 9B (I, 5) and 9C (II, 5). Mathematics (6-8) MAT 16A (I II III, 3) and 16B (I II III, 3 from: ARE 147/Resource and Environ. Policy Analysis (3, III) [prereq: ECN 1A, open to non-majors only

Hernes, Peter J.

425

Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major  

E-print Network

Chemistry II 4 NUTR 221CS - Basic Human Nutrition 3 PHSX 205 - College Physics I 4 PHSX 207 - CollegeMontana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Nutrition Science Option The nutrition science option is designed to prepare a student for admission to medical (allopathic

Maxwell, Bruce D.

426

Global warming policy: A coherent-sequential approach  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses these two closely related themes: (1) the need for structuring and evaluating global climate policy sequentially and (2) the need to incorporate the analysis of real options which may contribute significantly to global climate policy. This paper is organized into four sections. The first section deals with benefit-cost analysis and capital budgeting as they are generally practiced and discusses the reasons why the traditional benefit-cost formulation is inadequate. The second section then discusses the case of one financial option, namely, the European Call Option and discusses some important results. The third section of the paper addresses some of the important results or principles derived in the literature on real options, and while most of the mathematics is not easily transferred nor relevant to the global climate policy, there are many principles that can be applied. In the fourth section the author discusses the implications of a real option environment for the policy process.

Manicke, R.L.

1996-12-31

427

Energy Options for Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Produced for public interest, the Environmental Education Group has prepared this two-part review of the current state of energy utilization, the nature of the energy crisis, and approaches to energy production. The major section is a presentation of alternative sources of energy that are neglected, are of possible aid in the near future, or are…

Tratner, Karen Lee

428

Chinese Foreign Policy Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.

429

Revisiting Graduation Requirements and Diploma Options for Youth with Disabilities: A National Study. Technical Report 49  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the results of a national study on the current status of state graduation policies and diploma options for youth with disabilities. It examines state policies in relation to their intended benefits as well as possible unintended consequences, and compared the findings with a similar study conducted by Johnson and Thurlow in…

Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen E.

2007-01-01

430

A National Study on Graduation Requirements and Diploma Options for Youth with Disabilities. Topical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study builds on the earlier work of Thurlow et al. (1995) and Guy et al. (1999). These earlier studies examined state graduation policies and diploma options across all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The purposes of these earlier studies were to: (1) provide policy makers and state education agency personnel information on the…

National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET), University of Minnesota, 2004

2004-01-01

431

Maintenance and supply options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

1988-01-01

432

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement  

E-print Network

LASER SAFETY POLICY Policy Statement Each department that acquires or operates lasers for use in the university's Laser Safety Manual. Reason for Policy/Purpose If improperly used or controlled, lasers can produce multiple injuries, including burns, blindness, and electrocution. This policy and the university

Vertes, Akos

433

Prediction Model for Policy Loans of Insurance Company  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase revenue, insurance companies have to explore extra operating income sources beyond policy proceeds. Interest income from policy loans is currently growing, and is achieving significant attention. Policy loan seems a good option to extend insurance company earnings. However, unlike a regular financial institution, an insurance company is rarely a primary candidate of applicant for loan applications. Hence, insurance

Chen-shu Wang; Yeu-ruey Tzeng

2007-01-01

434

NORMATIVE SCIENCE: A CORRUPTING INFLUENCE IN ECOLOGICAL POLICY?  

EPA Science Inventory

Is normative science corrupting the proper use of science in evaluating ecological policy options? Science is "normative" when it contains tacit policy values and thus, by extension, supports particular policy preferences. He will use the case study of "ecosystem health" as an ...

435

Manpower Policies and Programs; A Review, 1935-75.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Constituting an update to a previous publication that interpreted the directions of United States manpower policy subsequent to World War II, this publication places the previous essay in the historical context of manpower policies that reach back to the Great Depression of the 1930's and the Employment Act of 1946; and to policy options now…

Clague, Ewan; Kramer, Leo

436

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Larry Myer

2006-04-30

437

Perspective on our energy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is going to have to depend on an increasing mix of energy recovery and conversion processes, and they all have problems. These problems are discussed from the perspective of a national laboratory which has had the opportunity to conduct research and development on many of the options. Energy options discussed are: energy conservation; liquid fuels and how

J. H. Scott

1982-01-01

438

Bounds for Asian basket options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michčle

2008-09-01

439

A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

Bacon, Kathy A.

2010-01-01

440

MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT AND RESTORE  

EPA Science Inventory

MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT, AND RESTORE Ideally, major human and environmental monitoring networks should provide the scientific information needed for policy and management decision-making processes. It is widely recognized that reliable...

441

Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables through the pricing system. Based on past policy experience, it is unlikely that such an approach would allow PV to compete in Delaware as an energy supply option in the next ten to twenty years. Alternatively, a market-based, or green pricing, approach will not create significant market opportunities for PV as a centralized energy supply option. However, structural policies designed to encourage the explicit recognition of the localized benefits of distributed resources could result in PV being introduced into the electrical system early in the next century.

Letendre, Steven Emery

442

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR A BS DEGREE IN BIOLOGY RESPIRATORY THERAPY  

E-print Network

MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR A BS DEGREE IN BIOLOGY RESPIRATORY THERAPY Total credit hours required: 120 #12;Major: BS BIOLOGY Option: RESPIRATORY THERAPY Major Field Requirements: 57.0 credits Other.P. When applicable, up to six of the REQUIRED RELATED courses may be credited toward the Liberal Arts Core

Hardy, Christopher R.

443

Population Policy, 1984.  

PubMed

This summary of Hungary's Population Policy of 1984 states that the primary objectives of the policy are 1) reducing the speed of population decline, 2) slowing population growth and achieving a more favorable age distribution, and 3) avoiding the emergence of new major peaks in birth numbers. This new policy gives equal importance to factors which influence fertility and those which influence mortality. The need to integrate population policy into socioeconomic planning is also reflected in the formal time frames offered by the policy. The policy stresses the importance of education and communication to influence public attitudes towards healthy lifestyles and family life. The need for demographic research is recognized as is the importance of public opinion research in developing appropriate actions to meet the stated goals. Instead of advocating a desired family size, the new policy seeks to establish conditions which make it easier for a family to achieve its desired fertility; for example, establishing a maternity fee as a fixed proportion of a mother's previous income for mothers who stay at home to raise their children until a certain age. The development of these measures depends upon analysis of labor market policies, the national budget, and the fertility of age cohorts of women. PMID:12289388

1988-01-01

444

Capital mobility and sudden stops: consequences and policy options  

E-print Network

This dissertation attempts in three essays to contribute to the growing body of research on the problems associated with sudden stops of capital inflows, known to have been at the heart of many recent emerging market crises. It does...

Ball, Christopher Patrick

2004-09-30

445

Financing Emissions Reduction in Asia: Policy Options and Constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change due to emissions from fast growing developing economies of Asia is sounding an alarm bell for policymakers not only in Asia, but also in the world. This situation raises the urgent need for undertaking measures to control emissions with due consideration of the prevailing socio-economic situation specific to Asia, which still houses large proportions of the poor. Without

Nawalage S. Cooray; Gamini Wijesekere

2012-01-01

446

California Policy Options: Supplying California’s Need for Nurses  

E-print Network

Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and HumanProfessions, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services;Professions (2002) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Rickles, Jordan; Ong, Paul M; Spetz, Joanne

2005-01-01

447

The Farm Credit Crisis: Policy Options and Consequences.  

E-print Network

. The cyclical impact of the recession on export demand is clear. Since 1979, world trade in food and feed grains and in oilseed crops has grown at an annual rate of 1.6 percent -- well below the eight percent rate for 1972-1979. Since 1981, U.S. farm export...-term trend changes are taking place in world agricultural prod uct markets? Then solutions appropriate to cyclical problems would prove ineffective, costly and perhaps even counterproductive. Secular Factors It is increasingly apparent to agricultural...

Duncan, Marvin; Harrington, David H.; Brake, John; Boehlje, Michael; Lee, Warren; Barry, Peter J.; Penson, John B.; Hughes, Dean W.; Knutson, Ronald D.: Richardson, James W.; Jolly, Robert W.; Lins, David A.; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Guither, Harold D.; Marshall, J. Paxton; Barkley, Paul W.

1986-01-01

448

DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS  

E-print Network

-uses, such as space and water heating, than to burn natural gas to generate electricity to serve the end-use energy energy efficient to burn natural gas directly for space or water heating than it is to generate heating systems. #12;2 Figure 1 shows a comparison of the total gas requirements for space and water

449

A&S/Business Dual Major 1 of 10 June 30, 2008 A&S/Business Dual Major  

E-print Network

A&S/Business Dual Major 1 of 10 June 30, 2008 A&S/Business Dual Major Business Programs degree options for programs in business: · Students enrolled in the College of Business Administration (CBA) earn a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration (BSBA) degree and major in Accounting

Jiang, Huiqiang

450

Making real options really work.  

PubMed

As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets. PMID:15605572

van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

2004-12-01

451

Alcohol Policy  

MedlinePLUS

... alcohol policy at the State government level. Minimum Legal Drinking Age Even with this flexibility for the States, Congress ... promote certain alcohol policies, such as the minimum legal drinking age. The Federal Uniform Drinking Age Act of 1984 ...

452

Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

Ferguson, K.L.

1994-08-09

453

Management of major system programs and projects. Handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Handbook establishes the detailed policies and processes for implementing NMI 7120.4, 'Management of Major System Programs and Projects'. It constitutes a comprehensive source of the specific policies and processes governing management of major development programs/projects and is intended as a resource to the entire program/project management (PPM) community.

1993-01-01

454

Policy Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores some aspects of the relations between literacy education and the processes and history of thinking about public policy making. Discusses two broad abstractions--knowledge and power--that constitute a heuristic of the policy moment. Argues that a critical understanding of policy is required to enable literacy educators and researchers to…

Lo Bianco, Joseph

2001-01-01

455

Pharmaceutical policy reform in the Russian Federation.  

PubMed

Of Russia's 142 million citizens, fewer than 20 million are enrolled in outpatient drug coverage plans. The current government aims to establish universal health insurance including outpatient medicines. Based on the current political and regulatory environment, this report explores pharmaceutical pricing options for Russia that balance greater access to medicines with achieving government plans of boosting local pharmaceutical production. To match innovative medicine prices with their health benefits, in the long run, we suggest that Russia consider adopting value-based pricing, and in the short term, that it introduce direct price negotiations and price drugs according to reference countries that use health technology assessment. Although generic market shares are high, generic medicine prices are higher than they should be. We propose tenders at the manufacturer level for the pricing of high-selling generics, and free pricing for products with sufficient market competition. These policy recommendations are a jumping-off point for further discussion about how pharmaceutical policy could aid this major economy to achieve its population health and health service goals. PMID:24603082

Rudisill, Caroline; Vandoros, Sotiris; Antoun, Joseph George

2014-06-01

456

Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies  

SciTech Connect

NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

1986-08-01

457

2011 Global food policy report  

Microsoft Academic Search

IFPRI's 2011 Global Food Policy Report—the first in a new annual series—provides an in-depth, contextualized look at the past year's major food policy developments and events. It both raises and answers these key questions: What happened in food policy in 2011 and why? What challenges and opportunities resulted? What could have been done differently? What should be done in the

2012-01-01

458

Cluster?Based Technology Policy—The German Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German Federal Government has undertaken a series of particularly interesting policy experiments in the field of technology policy in recent years, a major policy innovation being the explicit recognition of regional clustering aspects in federal support programmes. The paper provides a categorization and assessment of these policy experiments and tries to shed some new light on two fundamental policy

Dirk Dohse

2007-01-01

459

Notes: Installation vs. Echelon Stock Policies for Multilevel Inventory Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares installation and echelon stock policies for multilevel inventory control. The major results are for serial and assembly systems. For (Q, r)-rules, echelon stock policies are, in general, superior to installation stock policies. A Kanban-policy is identified as a restricted type of installation stock (Q, r)-policy.

Sven Axsäter; Kaj Rosling

1993-01-01

460

NORM disposal options, costs vary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum producers have various options with different associated costs for disposing of oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). NORM can be disposed of both on the lease site and at offsite commercial disposal facilities.

J. A. Veil; K. Smith

1999-01-01

461

Public Radio: Options in Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two strategies for achieving public radio's share of the audience--block and format programming. A rationale for choosing either of these alternatives, limitations on program options, and format principles are examined. (RAO)

Mullally, Donald P.

1978-01-01

462

More options | Back Today's news  

E-print Network

Go More options | Back issues Home Today's news Current issue Special issues & data The Faculty Research & Books Government & Politics Money & Management Information Technology Students Athletics International Community Colleges Short Subjects Gazette Corrections Help Contact us Subscribe Manage your

Salvucci, Dario D.

463

Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa  

SciTech Connect

Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

Makundi, Willy R.

1998-06-01

464

30 CFR 90.3 - Part 90 option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option.  

...forth procedures for miners to exercise this option, and establishes...substances and having a distinctive physical structure. Representative...option; notice of eligibility; exercise of option. (a) Any...in writing of eligibility to exercise the option. (b)...

2014-07-01

465

Alternative defence policy  

SciTech Connect

This book considers key questions connected with the present crisis, questions such as Would conventional deterrence really be effective. Just what is the Labour Party's policy. How precisely might Britain be transformed into a non-aligned, non-military state. The future of British defence policy is an issue of major concern not just in Britain but throughout the world, especially in the United States where there are major anxieties in the Pentagon about what will happen if the Labour Party wins an election outright. British defence policy is currently in a state of crisis. The former position where a reasonably united establishment on one hand confronted nuclear disarmers on the other has been replaced by a position where a wide spectrum of different opinions is held not just by the peace movement and the opposition parties but by many people in the Conservative party and the military also.

Burt, G.

1987-01-01

466

Cost Analyses for Remedial Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The economic analysis of remedial options is a key activity in any remedial selection process. It is typically employed in\\u000a the feasibility study phase of remedy selection to aid in selecting the optimal remedial option for a site, in concert with\\u000a a number of other criteria. In this case, for dissolved phase chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater, the capital and\\u000a recurring

Mark Harkness; Rachel Farnum

467

Manned Mars mission astronomy options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronomical observations during the transit phase, in orbit about Mars, and from the surface present important scientific objectives. Primary astronomical objectives are being summarized by J. Burns (University of New Mexico). Additional or alternative options will be introduced here, together with their strengths, weaknesses, viability, and value. It is important to note at the outset that not all possible options are necessarily important or viable.

Suess, S. T.

1986-01-01

468

Environmental policy in majoritarian systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper sheds new light on the determination of environmental tax policies in majoritarian federal electoral systems, such as the U.S., and derives implications for the environmental federalism debate on whether the national or local government should have authority over environmental taxes. In the absence of majority bias, the socially preferred policy would be federal district-level taxation which accounts both

Per G. Fredriksson; Xenia Matschke; Jenny Minier

2010-01-01

469

Federal Tax Policy Towards Energy  

E-print Network

On Aug. 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PL 109-58). This was the first major piece of energy legislation enacted since 1992 following five years of Congressional efforts to pass energy ...

Metcalf, Gilbert E.

470

Pricing and hedging a barrier option  

E-print Network

Barrier options are options where the payoff depends on whether the underlying asset's price reaches a certain level during a certain period of time. This path-dependency makes these options difficult to manage in practice. In this work, general...

Bogossian, Alan

2012-06-07

471

17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.  

...the commodity option transaction, or the products or by-products thereof, and such offeror is offering or entering into the commodity option transaction...the commodity option transaction, or the products or by-products thereof, and such...

2014-04-01

472

17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the commodity option transaction, or the products or by-products thereof, and such offeror is offering or entering into the commodity option transaction...the commodity option transaction, or the products or by-products thereof, and such...

2013-04-01

473

Financing School Infrastructure: What Are the Options?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes local, state, and federal school infrastructure funding options. Local funding options include bond issues, special local-option sales taxes, and voter-approved mills and sinking funds. Describes use of federal Qualified Zone Academy Bonds. (PKP)

Sielke, Catherine C.

2001-01-01

474

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors  

E-print Network

Native American Studies Major Major Advisors Laura Jimenez-Olvera & Dewey St. Germaine 532 & 530://ethnicstudies.berkeley.edu/ Undergraduate Program The Native American Studies Program exists to broaden the understanding of students interested in the history, culture, and contemporary situations of Native Americans in the United States

Walker, Matthew P.

475

Third Grade Reading Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

Rose, Stephanie

2012-01-01

476

Recent trends in Japanese industrial policy: giant leap from technology policy to innovation policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given as follows. Japanese economy is now stunned with depression, which might lead to world-level economic crisis. Therefore, the Japanese government is now trying to reinvent technology policy to innovation policy along with restructuring of governmental agencies. Therefore, we had interviews from researchers in private sector and think-tanks, and had discussion with professors majoring in science and

K. Fujisuel; M. Eto; S. Tamada

1999-01-01

477

Majors/Programs G M Major/Program Degree Admission Specialist Phone E-mail  

E-print Network

(865) 974-1341 mcarver6@utk.edu Health Behavior and Health Education (concentration under Education-1342 mlesher@utk.edu Literacy Studies (concentration under Education major) PhD Ms. Margaret Carver (865) 974 major) PhD Ms. Margaret Carver (865) 974-1341 mcarver6@utk.edu Health Policy Graduate Certificate Ms

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

478

114 Animal and Sciences PhD Major Code Major College Bachelor's Master's Doctor's  

E-print Network

114 Animal and Sciences PhD Major Code Major College Bachelor's Master's Doctor and Business CAFLS BS 110 Policy Studies PhD 112 Animal and Veterinary Sciences CAFLS BS 113 Plant and Environmental Sciences CAFLS MS PhD 114 Animal and Veterinary Sciences (MS

Bolding, M. Chad

479

State Policy Considerations for Geothermal Development in Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a brief background report that outlines the various policy options open to Hawaii in developing its geothermal energy resources. Topics that are addressed included: uses of the resource; outcomes of exploration and development; constraints on geot...

E. M. Grabbe, R. M. Kamins

1975-01-01

480

Modeling aviation's global emissions, uncertainty analysis, and applications to policy  

E-print Network

(cont.) fuel burn results below 3000 ft. For emissions, the emissions indices were the most influential uncertainties for the variance in model outputs. By employing the model, this thesis examined three policy options for ...

Lee, Joosung Joseph, 1974-

2005-01-01

481

Investment Project Valuation Based on the Fuzzy Real Options Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to propose a fuzzy approach for investment project valuation in uncertain environments from the aspect of real options. The traditional approaches to project valuation are based on discounted cash flows (DCF) analysis which provides measures like net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). However, DCF-based approaches exhibit two major pitfalls.

Shu-Hsien Liao; Shiu-Hwei Ho

2010-01-01

482

A fuzzy real option approach for investment project valuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to propose a fuzzy approach for investment project valuation in uncertain environments from the aspect of real options. The traditional approaches to project valuation are based on discounted cash flows (DCF) analysis which provides measures like net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). However, DCF-based approaches exhibit two major pitfalls.

Shiu-Hwei Ho; Shu-Hsien Liao

2011-01-01

483

School of Art -Montana State University GRAPHIC DESIGN OPTION  

E-print Network

School of Art - Montana State University GRAPHIC DESIGN OPTION 120 credits are required must be taken in sequence. Graphic Design majors must pass portfolio review before going on to 300, GDSN 371 Motion Graphics, GDSN 372 Adv. Web Design, GDSN 373 Illustration, GDSN 374 Digital

Dyer, Bill

484

Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program. Part 2: User and programmer documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

User and programmer oriented documentation for the flexible body option of the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program are provided. The user information provides sufficient knowledge of the development and use of the option to enable the engineering user to successfully operate the modified program and understand the results. The programmer's information describes the option structure and logic enabling a programmer to make major revisions to this part of the TOLA computer program.

Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

1975-01-01

485

Majority Gate Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methods for realizing simple threshold functions of n arguments by networks of k-input majority gates, where k?n. An optimal network realization of the 5-argument majority function using 3-input majority gates is given, and it is then generalized by steps with realizations for the (2n-l)-argument majority function (where n = 3, 4, ...) using (2n-3)-input majority gates, and

S. Amarel; G. Cooke; R. O. Winder

1964-01-01

486

Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

2011-01-01

487

Portland State University Smoking/Tobacco Policy  

E-print Network

Portland State University Smoking/Tobacco Policy Introduction In 2007 the PSU Tobacco Policy Committee conducted an extensive evaluation of the PSU smoking/tobacco policy. The evaluation consisted, work, study or visit the campus from a major health concern: secondhand smoke. In the 2006 report

Bertini, Robert L.

488

Therapeutic options for severe asthma  

PubMed Central

As the overall prevalence of asthma has escalated in the past decades, so has the population of patients with severe asthma. This condition is often difficult to manage due to the relative limitation of effective therapeutic options for the physician and the social and economic burden of the disease on the patient. Management should include an evaluation and elimination of modifiable risk factors such as smoking, allergen exposure, obesity and non-adherence, as well as therapy for co-morbidities like gastro-esophageal reflux disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Current treatment options include conventional agents such as inhalational corticosteroids, long acting ?2 agonists, leukotriene antagonists, and oral corticosteroids. Less conventional treatment options include immunotherapy with methotrexate, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, biological drugs like monoclonal antibodies, tumor necrosis factor-? blockers and oligonucleotides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, antimicrobials and bronchial thermoplasty. PMID:23056066

Mathew, Jilcy; Chandy, Dipak

2012-01-01

489

INTERIM POLICY JANUARY 9, 2004  

E-print Network

INTERIM POLICY JANUARY 9, 2004 CORNELL UNIVERSITY POLICY LIBRARY Health and Safety POLICY 2 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ POLICY STATEMENT. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ REASON FOR POLICY

Chen, Tsuhan

490

Planning for Career Options. Career Options Series for Undergraduate Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook is part of a set of self-guidance publications prepared by Catalyst, a national nonprofit organization, and written specifically for undergraduate women to help them bring their aspirations into focus, develop realistic career goals and plan for career options in fields which, at the managerial and professional levels, have been…

Krohn, Miriam H.

491

Advanced Monte Carlo Methods: American Options  

E-print Network

doesn't fit well with Monte Carlo methods which go forwards in time American options ­ p. 4 #12;ProblemAdvanced Monte Carlo Methods: American Options Prof. Mike Giles mike.giles@maths.ox.ac.uk Oxford for Monte Carlo methods is the accurate and efficient pricing of options with optional early exercise

Giles, Mike

492

Advanced Monte Carlo Methods: American Options  

E-print Network

backwards in time doesn't fit well with Monte Carlo methods which go forwards in time American options ­ pAdvanced Monte Carlo Methods: American Options Prof. Mike Giles mike.giles@maths.ox.ac.uk Oxford for Monte Carlo methods is the accurate and efficient pricing of options with optional early exercise

Giles, Mike

493

Empirical Performance of Alternative Option Pricing Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial progress has been made in developing more realistic option pricing models. Empirically, however, it is not known whether and by how much each generalization improves option pricing and hedging. The authors fill this gap by first deriving an option model that allows volatility, interest rates, and jumps to be stochastic. Using S&P 500 options, they examine several alternative models

Charles Quanwei Cao; Gurdip S. Bakshi; Zhiwu Chen

1997-01-01

494

Empirical Performance of Altemative Option Pricing Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial progress has been made in developing more realistic option pricing models. Empirically, however, it is not known whether and by how much each generahzation improves option pricing and hedging. We fill this gap by first deriving an option model that allows volatility, interest rates and jumps to be stochastic. Using S&P 500 options, we examine several altemative models from

GURDIP BAKSHI; CHAELES CAO; ZHIWU CHEN

2003-01-01

495

Design Evolution Study - Aging Options  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new subsurface area (high cost); surface aging in the complete waste package (risk to the waste package and impact on the Waste Handling Facility); and aging in the stainless steel liner (impact on the waste package design and new high risk operations added to the waste packaging process). The selection of a design basis for aging will be made in conjunction with the other design re-evaluation studies.

P. McDaniel

2002-04-05

496

Newer Management Options in Leprosy  

PubMed Central

Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

2013-01-01

497

The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

Liberal Education, 2009

2009-01-01

498