Science.gov

Sample records for major policy options

  1. Major & Minor Options 2014 -2015

    E-print Network

    Shyu, Mei-Ling

    Biology* (BS) Biology (AB or BS) Chemistry (AB or BS) Classics (AB) Computer Science* (AB or BS & Molecular Biology Biology Business Business Law Business Technology (formerly CIS) Economics Studies Latin American Studies Mathematics Marine Policy Marine Science*** Meteorology*** Microbiology

  2. Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Committee on Educational Policy MAJOR QUALIFICATION POLICY CEP encourages all undergraduate and Disqualification Policies to the UCSC Academic Senate (http://senate.ucsc.edu/committees/cep-committee-on-educational spring's schedule of classes and in related Admissions publications and announcements. Assessment

  3. Major in Environmental Systems and Policy

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Major in Environmental Systems and Policy Master in Environmental Sciences #12;The major in Environmental Systems and Policy (ESP) trains students to analyse environmental problems in order to design of the ESP major is a training in policy analy- sis applied to environmental problems. In this program

  4. Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Frank W.

    The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

  5. Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to

    E-print Network

    Early Draft Energy Policy and Financing Options to Achieve Solar Penetration Targets: Accounting States. Keywords: Photovoltaics, policy, financing, environmental, emissions, costs, SunShot *tel +1212...................................................................................... 14 4.1.5. FINANCING OPTIONS / LOAN GUARANTEES

  6. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  7. DEGREES, MAJORS, AND OPTIONS This is a list of the degrees, majors, and options

    E-print Network

    Emshwiller, Eve

    L&S College of Letters and Science Med Medical School Nur School of Nursing Pharm School of Pharmacy Option: Plant Biology Botany* (L&S) Cartography and Geographic Information Systems* (L&S Chemistry* (L Spring 2012) Microbiology (L&S) Molecular Biology* (L&S) Music* (L&S) Option: History Option: Performance

  8. Environmental Studies Major Continuation Policy What is the Continuation Policy?

    E-print Network

    MacCready, Parker

    Environmental Studies Major Continuation Policy What is the Continuation Policy? While (PoE) has set additional requirements of planning and grades for all students in the Environmental a Continuation Policy? For students: This policy helps ensure that students make satisfactory progress toward

  9. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  10. Accelerated Learning Options: A Promising Strategy for States. Policy Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelau, Demaree

    2006-01-01

    This issue of Policy Insights draws on findings from WICHE's report Accelerated Learning Options: Moving the Needle on Access and Success, to lay out some of the important policy issues that decision makers might consider when adopting new state policy related to accelerated learning or modifying policies already in existence. The publication…

  11. DANCE MAJOR ANNUAL REVIEW Policies and Procedures

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    DANCE MAJOR ANNUAL REVIEW Policies and Procedures April 2015 Bachelors of Fine Arts (BFA) ANNUAL Purpose: The BFA Annual Review provides two important functions for all BFA dance majors enrolled in the Maggie Allesee Department of Theatre and Dance at Wayne State University: 1) programmatic evaluation

  12. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    PubMed

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with internships and civic engagement projects, for example, may produce better results for many young people and also may promote academic achievement for teenagers who do not thrive in conventional classrooms and for those who face academic and social challenges when they move from one place to another. Stern argues that the limited success of today's high schools makes such new initiatives well worth trying and evaluating. www.futureofchildren.org PMID:21141711

  13. Educational Options High Schools Admissions Policy Study. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gampert, Richard D.; Blank, Randal

    For the fall 1987 semester, New York City's Board of Education modified the admissions policy for the educational options high schools in order to enhance the equity of opportunity to the desirable programs in these schools and to make the schools more accessible to at-risk students. Of the 17,236 students in educational options schools and…

  14. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  15. Language Policy at Major Sporting Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    2009-01-01

    International sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, are linguistically complex events that require large-scale language planning and policy. This chapter focuses on the Olympic Games and looks at the practicalities of the attitudes and responses to multilingualism and the language policies employed in this particular international event to…

  16. Policy Options to Promote Smokefree Environments for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Karla S

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among children is associated with a wide variety of adverse health risks, including: asthma, otitis media, respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and function, decreased exercise tolerance, cognitive impairments, behavior problems, and sudden infant death syndrome. Unfortunately, over 40% of children aged 3-11 years-15.1 million children-are currently exposed to SHS, with nearly 70% of black children in this age group being exposed. Over the past three decades, great strides have been made in establishing smokefree environments for adults, ultimately reducing their SHS exposure. Regulations have been passed at the organizational, local, and state levels that increasingly ban smoking in the workplace and public places. Children's SHS exposure patterns, however, differ from adults' exposures, with greater time spent in the home and other potentially unregulated venues (school, child care, and car). This means that children have been afforded relatively less protection from SHS by these smokefree regulations. It is imperative, therefore, to seek alternative options for promoting smokefree environments for children throughout the United States. This article explores policy options that promote smokefree environments for children and adolescents: comprehensive smokefree/tobacco-free policies covering indoor/outdoor public places, housing, private vehicles, and child care, as well as Clinical Guidelines regarding patient/family interviews on smoking, SHS, cessation, and voluntary smokefree efforts. The policy section highlights the role of child and adolescent health practitioners in promoting these policies with the hope of fostering engagement of these key stakeholders in the policy process. Note, there are a wide range of important policy and regulatory strategies aimed at reducing tobacco initiation and use among children, adolescents, and young adults; while essential in tobacco prevention and control efforts, a discussion of these strategies is beyond the scope of this article. PMID:26032229

  17. Undergraduate Day Majors and Options Division of Academic Affairs

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    and Systems Administration New Media Interactive Development Software Engineering * For freshmen only deciding between Computer Science and Software Engineering. **For freshmen only deciding among the majors) Biomedical Engineering Chemical Engineering Computer Engineering Computer Engineering­Software Engineering

  18. PETITION TO ADD A SECOND MAJOR SECOND MAJOR POLICY AND INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    PETITION TO ADD A SECOND MAJOR SECOND MAJOR POLICY AND INFORMATION Second majors (exclusive of some. Petitions for a double major must be submitted prior to earning 75 BYU hours (excluding language exam credits). College advisement centers are prepared to assist interested students in the petition process

  19. Three laboratory sciences intended for science majors are required. Option 1, Biology Emphasis

    E-print Network

    ________ Note: MATH 3850, MATH 3870 and MATH 4951 are recommended. Arts and Sciences Requirements Major RequirementsBachelor of Science: Major in MATH With Certificate in Actuarial Science 2014-2015 Catalog Year BSMThree laboratory sciences intended for science majors are required. Option 1, Biology Emphasis

  20. 23 24 November 2015 2 PRICING POLICY OPTIONS: VALUATION TOOLS AND METHODS

    E-print Network

    Chin, Wei Ngan

    23 ­ 24 November 2015 #12;2 PRICING POLICY OPTIONS: VALUATION TOOLS AND METHODS Introduction What to choose. A deeper understanding of such effects followed by their proper valuation and inclusion in policy Pricing Policy Options: Valuation Tools and Methods will provide insights into a range of methods used

  1. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on the analysis of the market scale and industry development, the article argues that China's biomass energy industry is still at a very early stage of development and that Feed-in Tariffs (FIT) might be the best policy option for China to promote its development of biomass energy. A successful enforcement of FIT in China needs some policy combination of special capital subsidies, R&D funding, tax incentives and pricing. PMID:20372892

  2. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America. PMID:25677377

  3. Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

  4. Recommended Academic Plan for Physics/Nanotechnology -Materials major/option (at University Park) Nanotechnology `track'

    E-print Network

    Babu, G. Jogesh

    1 Recommended Academic Plan for Physics/Nanotechnology - Materials major/option (at University Park) ­ Nanotechnology `track' Last updated Spring 2013 PHYS 211 General Physics: Mechanics (4) MATH 140 (GQ) Calculus Mechanics (4) MATH 4xx (3) or PHYS 419 Theoretical Mechanics (3) E SC 313 Introduction to Nanotechnology (3

  5. Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zhai, F

    2013-11-01

    By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  6. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  7. Nonprofit conversion: theory, evidence, and state policy options.

    PubMed Central

    Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the contributions of nonprofit hospitals and health plans to healthcare markets and to analyze state policy options with regard to the conversion of nonprofits to for-profit status. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary national and state data from a variety of sources, 1980-present. STUDY DESIGN: Policy analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Development of a conceptual economic framework; analysis of empirical, legal, and theoretical literature; and review of statutes, rules, and court decisions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three main rationales support special status for nonprofits, especially hospitals: charity care, other community benefits, and consumer protection. The main social rationale for for-profits is their incentives for better efficiency. There are reasons to expect that nonprofit and for-profit goals differ; however, measured differences in community hospital cost, prices, and quality between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals are undetectable or inconclusive. Nonprofit hospitals do provide more uncompensated care than for-profit hospitals. Similarities between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals may exist because nonprofits may set norms that for-profits follow to some degree. States have substantial power and discretion in overseeing nonprofit conversions. Some have regularized oversight through new legislation that constrains, but does not eliminate, state officials' discretion. These statutes may be deferential to converting entities and their buyers or may be very restrictive of them. CONCLUSIONS: Overseeing the appropriate disposition of nonprofit assets in individual conversions is extremely important. States should also monitor local market conditions through community benefits assessments and other data collection, however, to accurately assess (and possibly redress) what is lost or gained from conversion. Local market conditions are likely more important in determining hospital behavior than ownership form. Potentially, a mix of for-profit and nonprofit hospitals in a given market may improve market performance due to constraints the two ownership types may exercise over one another. If nonprofits disappear, the states may need to maintain quality and access norms through regulation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9865231

  8. Excellence at Work. Policy Option Papers for the National Governors' Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzglass, Evelyn, Ed.

    This volume contains an introduction and four policy option papers that explore key issues affecting the economy and state options to address the issues within the context of the U.S. workplace. "Introduction" (David Bedford, Evelyn Ganzglass) discusses the issues identified in the first phase of the governors' initiative on Excellence at Work and…

  9. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  10. A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Volume 1 of this report evaluated generic policy instruments according to the criteria of efficiency information requirements, distributional effects, political sustainability, and applicability to greenhouse gas issues. This volume describes policies specific to the various components of the private sector and evaluates options for the implementation of policies according to a further set of screening criteria more suitable for specific instances or applications of the instruments. The description of the private sector in this volume is confined to qualitative analysis of the constraints and opportunities arising from existing materials, processes, markets, and regulatory frameworks that are likely to shape its response to the prospect of global warming. Materials include fuels as well as other substantive material and energy inputs and outputs for the sector. For example, steel production involves iron ore, coal, perhaps electricity, and the finished product. Processes are the activities by which a sector satisfies demands for its goods and services. For example, fossil fuel combustion is a major process in the utilities sector, while fertilizer production and application are both important processes for agriculture. Markets in this context include both capital markets which finance the activities of the private sector and the markets in which commodities and services are traded and consumed. The regulatory framework quite simply is the nexus of legal constraints on entry to an activity and the rules by which the government, or alternative regulatory agency, for example, a public utility commission, controls the activities of a sector. 387 refs., 15 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. The response of ozone to transportation technology and policy options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2008-12-01

    As the global economy grows, there is a corresponding increase in the number of passenger cars on the road and in the volume of goods shipped. Building on novel methods to estimate these transportation emissions, we evaluate the regional air quality impacts of personal vehicles and heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) for freight transport. In particular, we quantify the potential of technological and policy-based solutions to reduce mean ozone concentrations and the frequency of high ozone events. Although transportation contributes to a range of air quality challenges, ozone chemistry is particularly sensitive to vehicle emissions, with on-road vehicles accounting for 44 percent of all man-made U.S. NOx emissions, and HDDV accounting for nearly 42 percent of this on-road contribution. Our studies focus on the Upper Midwestern United States, where urban development, agricultural activities, lake effect meteorology, and cross-continental freight transport are all major drivers of ozone chemistry and transport. Results will be presented from a range of recently completed and ongoing studies evaluating the ozone impacts of urban vehicle travel, the response of freight emissions to fuel-conserving speed reduction measures, and the consequences of increased biofuel use.

  12. Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options

    E-print Network

    Fortunat, Joos

    Taking Action Against Ocean Acidification: A Review of Management and Policy Options Raphae¨l Bille Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 Abstract Ocean acidification has emerged over research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus

  13. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O'Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  14. Cost Benefit Analysis of Two Policy Options for Cannabis: Status Quo and Legalisation

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Marian; Ritter, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Aims To date there has been limited analysis of the economic costs and benefits associated with cannabis legalisation. This study redresses this gap. A cost benefit analysis of two cannabis policy options the status quo (where cannabis use is illegal) and a legalised–regulated option was conducted. Method A cost benefit analysis was used to value the costs and benefits of the two policies in monetary terms. Costs and benefits of each policy option were classified into five categories (direct intervention costs, costs or cost savings to other agencies, benefits or lost benefits to the individual or the family, other impacts on third parties, and adverse or spill over events). The results are expressed as a net social benefit (NSB). Findings The mean NSB per annum from Monte Carlo simulations (with the 5 and 95 percentiles) for the status quo was $294.6 million AUD ($201.1 to $392.7 million) not substantially different from the $234.2 million AUD ($136.4 to $331.1 million) for the legalised–regulated model which excludes government revenue as a benefit. When government revenue is included, the NSB for legalised–regulated is higher than for status quo. Sensitivity analyses demonstrate the significant impact of educational attainment and wellbeing as drivers for the NSB result. Conclusion Examining the percentiles around the two policy options, there appears to be no difference between the NSB for these two policy options. Economic analyses are essential for good public policy, providing information about the extent to which one policy is substantially economically favourable over another. In cannabis policy, for these two options this does not appear to be the case. PMID:24755942

  15. POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  16. The Farm Credit Crisis: Policy Options and Consequences. 

    E-print Network

    Duncan, Marvin; Harrington, David H.; Brake, John; Boehlje, Michael; Lee, Warren; Barry, Peter J.; Penson, John B.; Hughes, Dean W.; Knutson, Ronald D.: Richardson, James W.; Jolly, Robert W.; Lins, David A.; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Guither, Harold D.; Marshall, J. Paxton; Barkley, Paul W.

    1986-01-01

    by Peter J. Barry, University of Illinois and Michael D. Boehlje, University of Minnesota ....................... . ........................ 22 Impact of Macroeconomic Policy on Future Farm Financial Conditions . by John B. Penson, Texas A&M University.... Klinefelter, Texas A&M University ........ I ???????????????????????????????????????? 42 Policies and Programs to Ease the Transition of Resources Out of Agriculture by Harold D. Guither, University of Illinois; J. Paxton Marshall, Virginia Polytechnic...

  17. College of: Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: Animal Science Option: Ranch Operations Academic Year:2015-2016

    E-print Network

    Principles of Animal Nutrition PLNT 1213 Introduction to Plant and Soil Science College of: Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: Animal Science Option: Ranch Operations Academic Year:2015

  18. College of: Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: Animal Science Option: Production Academic Year:2015-2016

    E-print Network

    Meat Science AGEC 3423 Farm and Agribusiness Mgmt ANSI 3903 Ag Animals College of: Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: Animal Science Option: Production Academic Year:2015-2016 Proposed

  19. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Min; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  20. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  1. Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

  2. Panarchy, Adaptive Management and Governance: Policy Options for Building Resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a com...

  3. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  4. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance. PMID:26164637

  5. The Economics of Cybersecurity: Principles and Policy Options1 Tyler Moore

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    1 The Economics of Cybersecurity: Principles and Policy Options1 Tyler Moore Center for Research, 02138 tmoore@seas.harvard.edu Abstract Economics puts the challenges facing cybersecurity an incentive to do so. In this paper, we outline the various economic challenges plaguing cybersecurity

  6. Government policy and infant health: options for Ghana.

    PubMed

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A

    1989-01-01

    Ghana holds an infant mortality rate (IMR) greater than 60/1000 live births, suggesting a country under poor economic and health care conditions. Despite the country's 1978 Ministry of Health Primary Health Care program, and governmental expenditures on health care in excess of 9% of total governmental expenditures overall, health conditions have grown worse. The author recommends corrective measure to implement. The IMR has halted its decline begun in the 1960s, and may once again be on the rise. The global recession of the early 1980s, followed by Ghana's 1983 economic recovery program have been cited as causing the turnabout in health progress. The recovery program's focus on productivity and efficiency has especially adversely affected society's vulnerable groups. While PAMSCAD, a government program designed to ease the social costs of structural adjustment, is mentioned as a general positive step, 3 interdependent and necessary interventions are provided. The 1st and most important intervention is the protection of family income through alternative employment and the protection of special groups. Village-level organization should also exist for development, agricultural extension, cooperatives, and marketing ventures. Finally, improvements at the health service level should include special training of technical and management personnel along with adoption of an essential-drug policy. Where user fees are charged, attention should be made to provide quality services while ensuring that accrued fees return to the health sector for the benefit of needy populations. At the broader policy level, policymakers must understand that efforts to reduce child mortality and improve child health will be for naught in the absence of efforts to protect against family-level deprivation. Attention to this concern should be taken where structural adjustment is required in other countries. PMID:2603202

  7. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  8. The major in Urban Studies is one of the options within the Committee Interdisciplinary Major (CIM) program. The

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    systems, public transportation, public policy and funding, urban sprawl, crime, immigration and economic. A sampling of the types of urban challenges that are examined includes poverty, segregation, public education including law, education, urban planning, public administration, public health, economics, history

  9. Greater Energy Savings through Building Energy Performance Policy: Four Leading Policy and Program Options

    SciTech Connect

    SEE Action Existing Commercial Buildings Working Group

    2014-05-30

    This paper lays out recommendations for linking existing policies and developing new policies, such that their success is based on the real energy savings achieved in buildings. This approach has the potential to affect the entire building lifecycle.

  10. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Kreycik, Claire; Young, Katherine

    2009-09-01

    This research explores the effectiveness of the historical and current body of policies in terms of increased geothermal electricity development. Insights are provided into future policies that may drive the market to optimize development of available geothermal electricity resources.

  11. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Food Science Option: Science Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    Organic Chemistry FDSC 3113 Quality Control FDSC 3333 Meat Science (6 hrs from) FDSC 4763 Analysis of FoodCollege of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Food Science Option: Science Academic Year: 2014-15 Proposed* Four-Year Degree Plan Year One Fall Semester Spring Semester ENGL

  12. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Food Science Option: Industry Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    3113 Quality Control FDSC 3333 Meat Science (12 hrs from) FDSC 4763 Analysis of Food Products FDSC 3232College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Food Science Option Introduction to Food Science ANSI 1124 Introduction to Animal Science AG 1011 Ag Orientation ANSI 1111 Animal

  13. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science Option: Production Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    ') 3 hrs Humanities ANSI 3443 Animal Reproduction ANSI 3333 Meat Science 3 hr Related CoursesCollege of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science Option ANSI 1124 Introduction to Animal Science MATH 1613 Trigonometry (or MATH 2103 or STAT 2013) AG 1011 Ag

  14. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  15. The Health Equity and Effectiveness of Policy Options to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in England: Policy Forecast

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Duncan O. S.; Allen, Kirk; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Moreira, Patricia; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Diggle, Peter J.; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. Methods We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education). To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts’ predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect. Results Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900–6,100) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300–700) deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200–5,000) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (?100–600) deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400–500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality. Conclusions Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity. PMID:26131981

  16. Electricity demand-side management for an energy efficient future in China : technology options and policy priorities

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to identify robust technology and policy options which achieve substantial reductions in electricity demand in China's Shandong Province. This research utilizes a scenario-based ...

  17. Implementing Policy Options to Strengthen the Nexus between Postsecondary Education and Workforce Development. Commission Report 08-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the California Postsecondary Education adopted the last in an initial series of reports on the nexus between postsecondary education and workforce development by requesting staff to return with plans and priorities to pursue implementation of ten general policy options, grouped into three categories. One option is already being…

  18. A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate changes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming an issue of significant public concern. Recent scientific research results combined with a very warm decade have led to growing apprehension that we may be on the brink of global warming inadvertently induced by human activity. As one manifestation of increasing concern, several Congressional Committee hearings on issues deriving from potential climate change have been held. Additionally, in 1986 Congress requested two studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the effects of climate change and on policy options to stabilize the atmosphere. Those reports currently are being reviewed by Federal agencies prior to submission to Congress. In the report language accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriations Act, 1989, the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Conference Committee also requested four studies on climate change from the Department of Energy (DOE). The four reports are Alternative Energy R D -- to assess the state and direction of Federal R D on alternative energy sources, including conservation; Greenhouse Gas Data Collection -- to assess how greenhouse gas emission and climate trends data are coordinated, archived, and made available to scientists, both within and outside of government, Carbon Dioxide Inventory and Policy -- to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 5-10 years and a 50% reduction in 15-20 years as well as provide an inventory of emission sources; and Study of Options to Mobilize the Private Sector -- to assess policy options for encouraging the private sector to cooperate in mitigating, adapting, and preventing global climate change. 286 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Managing health professional migration from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada: a stakeholder inquiry into policy options

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Packer, Corinne; Klassen, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Canada is a major recipient of foreign-trained health professionals, notably physicians from South Africa and other sub-Saharan African countries. Nurse migration from these countries, while comparatively small, is rising. African countries, meanwhile, have a critical shortage of professionals and a disproportionate burden of disease. What policy options could Canada pursue that balanced the right to health of Africans losing their health workers with the right of these workers to seek migration to countries such as Canada? Methods We interviewed a small sample of émigré South African physicians (n = 7) and a larger purposive sample of representatives of Canadian federal, provincial, regional and health professional departments/organizations (n = 25); conducted a policy colloquium with stakeholder organizations (n = 21); and undertook new analyses of secondary data to determine recent trends in health human resource flows between sub-Saharan Africa and Canada. Results Flows from sub-Saharan Africa to Canada have increased since the early 1990s, although they may now have peaked for physicians from South Africa. Reasons given for this flow are consistent with other studies of push/pull factors. Of 8 different policy options presented to study participants, only one received unanimous strong support (increasing domestic self-sufficiency), one other received strong support (increased health system strengthening in source country), two others mixed support (voluntary codes on ethical recruitment, bilateral or multilateral agreements to manage flows) and four others little support or complete rejection (increased training of auxiliary health workers in Africa ineligible for licensing in Canada, bonding, reparation payments for training-cost losses and restrictions on immigration of health professionals from critically underserved countries). Conclusion Reducing pull factors by improving domestic supply and reducing push factors by strengthening source country health systems have the greatest policy traction in Canada. The latter, however, is not perceived as presently high on Canadian stakeholder organizations' policy agendas, although support for it could grow if it is promoted. Canada is not seen as "actively' recruiting" ("poaching") health workers from developing countries. Recent changes in immigration policy, ongoing advertising in southern African journals and promotion of migration by private agencies, however, blurs the distinction between active and passive recruitment. PMID:16907969

  20. Continuation Policy for the Environmental Science and Resource Management Major

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    in the program, the following actions will be invoked. Students will be notified of academic warning, probation to avoid probation. Probation for the Major If at the end of any quarter, the student fails to meet the general expectations of satisfactory progress, the student will be placed on probation. Once

  1. Exception to Enrollment Policy Request Checklist PURPOSE OF REQUEST: This form is used to request the following exception to enrollment policy options: the last day

    E-print Network

    Suri, Manil

    Exception to Enrollment Policy Request Checklist PURPOSE OF REQUEST: This form is used to request the following exception to enrollment policy options: the last day to drop course(s) without a W; last day to drop course(s) with a W; last day for term withdrawal; and, last day to cancel enrollment. This process

  2. Milk marketing policy options for the dairy industry in New England.

    PubMed

    Doyon, M; Criner, G; Bragg, L A

    2008-03-01

    New England dairy farmers are under intense price pressure resulting from important growth in milk production from lower cost of production Southwest states as well as by retailers' market power. Agricultural officials and legislative bodies in New England and in other Northeast US states are aware of these pressures and have been reacting with emergency dairy farm aid, following a very low 2006 milk price, and with state legislations in an attempt to address perceived excess retailing margins for fluid milk. In this paper, we suggest that a sigmoid demand relationship exists for fluid milk. This demand relationship would explain fluid milk asymmetric price transmission, high-low pricing, and the creation of a large retailing margin (chain surplus) often observed for fluid milk. It is also argued that a sigmoid demand relationship offers an opportunity for state legislators to help Northeast dairy farmers capturing a larger share of the dollar of the consumers through various policy options. Therefore, 5 milk market channel regulatory mechanisms (status quo, price gouging, supply control, fair share policy, and chain surplus return) are discussed and compared. The supply control mechanism was found the most effective at redistributing the chain surplus, associated with the sigmoid demand relationship for fluid milk, to dairy farmers. However, this option is unlikely to be politically acceptable in the United States. Second-best options for increasing dairy farmers' share of the consumers' dollar are the fair price policy and the chain surplus return. The former mechanism would distribute the chain surplus between retailers, processors, and farmers, whereas the latter would distribute it between consumers, retailers, and farmers. Remaining mechanisms would either transfer the chain surplus to retailers (status quo) or to consumers (price gouging). PMID:18292281

  3. ACEEE's greatest hits. Volume 1: Major reports helping to shape energy efficiency policies and programs

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-01

    Forty-seven reports published during the past decade which have had major impacts on, and continue to influence, energy efficiency policies and programs. Selected from all sectors of ACEEE's research programs.

  4. Performance-Based Policy Options for Postsecondary Vocational Education and Employment Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoachlander, E. Gareth

    Performance-based policy in postsecondary vocational education and employment training programs has two major goals. First, it seeks to increase the basic and job-specific skills needed by program participants to perform effectively in occupations related to training. Second, it aims to stimulate debate over what the appropriate outcomes for…

  5. List of Major Options Major Option Requirement

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    Awareness Graphic Design (recorded on MyMAP after completing VA 111 and VA 114 or VA 111 and VA 115) Arts or VA 111 and VA 115) Arts Art History and Curatorial Studies (recorded on MyMAP after completing Art Design (recorded on MyMAP after completing InDes 210) Arts Information Technology (recorded on My

  6. Should payment policy be changed to allow a wider range of EMS transport options?

    PubMed

    Morganti, Kristy G; Alpert, Abby; Margolis, Gregg; Wasserman, Jeffrey; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2014-05-01

    The Institute of Medicine and other national organizations have asserted that current payment policies strongly discourage emergency medical services (EMS) providers from transporting selected patients who call 911 to non-ED settings (eg, primary care clinics, mental health centers, dialysis centers) or from treating patients on scene. The limited literature available is consistent with the view that current payment policies incentivize transport of all 911 callers to a hospital ED, even those who might be better managed elsewhere. However, the potential benefits and risks of altering existing policy have not been adequately explored. There are theoretical benefits to encouraging EMS personnel to transport selected patients to alternate settings or even to provide definitive treatment on scene; however, existing evidence is insufficient to confirm the feasibility or safety of such a policy. In light of growing concerns about the high cost of emergency care and heavy use of EDs, assessing EMS transport options should be a high-priority topic for outcomes research. PMID:24209960

  7. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  8. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  9. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Chandler, Jess; Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Ally, Moonis

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  10. Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain nutrients once in the wetland. Finally, the function indicators are aggregated to provide an overall function score for each wetland. This overall value estimates a wetland's potential to provide ecosystem services compared to other wetlands on the landscape. The function indicators in combination with 'scarcity' as indicated by the historical wetland loss rates allows policy makers to adjust thresholds between wetland function scores and policy and management objectives. The wetland function assessment system offers a scientific foundation upon which wetland policy can be built. To exemplify its policy potential, we conduct quantitative ';future' scenarios to determine priority wetlands for protection under different development scenarios - this scenario analysis reveals the necessity of making tradeoffs among wetland functions, as wetlands with high ecological function may not be the same wetlands with high hydrological function. The project's resulting wetland function assessment system will improve conservation and restoration/remediation efforts by identifying high functioning wetlands, by revealing the necessity of tradeoffs, and by directing conservation towards preserving wetlands that provide important ecosystem services while allowing other wetlands to be developed.

  11. Policy brief: Options to reduce sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify key policy recommendations to relevant settings that impact on the availability, marketing price, and knowledge of SSBs and ultimately the consumption of SSBs in New Zealand, particularly in youth. These recommendations will provide achievable goals to various stakeholders and settings of influence, aiming to reduce SSBs intake. The ideal outcome is that water and milk (unflavoured) become preferred beverage options for New Zealand children and adults. These goals align to the vision articulated by the advocacy group 'FIZZ' to achieve a Sugary Drink Free New Zealand by 2025. This means that SSBs should be only rarely consumed, and comprise less than 5% of total population beverage intake. Addressing SSBs in particular is an important step to addressing New Zealand's obesity epidemic, especially among children. PMID:25929005

  12. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Agribusiness Option: Pre-Law Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Agribusiness Option: Pre-Law & Agribusiness Management 3 Communication course AGEC 3713 Agricultural Law or LSB 3213 3/4__3 Prelaw elective 3

  13. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    PubMed

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms). PMID:21399411

  14. The challenges and policy options for integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicle into the electric grid

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Anurag K.; Annabathina, Bharath; Kamalasadan, Sukumar

    2010-04-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle may be prime candidates for the next generation of vehicles, but they offer several technological and economical challenges. This article assesses current progress in PHEV technology, market trends, research needs, challenges ahead and policy options for integrating PHEVs into the electric grid. (author)

  15. Encouraging re-mining and reclamation of abandoned mined lands in Appalachia: Policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Santopietro, G.D.; Zipper, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Abandoned mined lands (AML) are areas that were mined prior to implementation of federal controls over coal-mined land reclamation and were inadequately reclaimed. The majority of the US`s AML acreages were produced by coal mining in the Appalachian areas. Environmental problems include lands in barren or semi-barren condition, excessive sedimentation, acid water discharges, and unstable slopes. This article address the potential to reclame AMLs in the Appalachian region by creating incentives for environmental enhancement through re-mining. Background information of AML and on current policies affecting re-mining are reviewed and the results of a survey of individuals who are knowledgeable in remining policy issues are reported. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

  17. ACS Certified Chemistry Majors at the University of Utah Complete Core and one of the options below or see www.chem.utah.edu for more emphases.

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    ACS Certified Chemistry Majors at the University of Utah Complete Core and one of the options below or see www.chem.utah.edu for more emphases. Chemistry Core Courses (required of all majors): CHEM 1210 Science & Engineering, Mathematics and Teaching. See www.chem.utah.edu for details or contact

  18. Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, P.

    2013-12-01

    Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of knowledge in the field by comparing different state-of-the-art temporal forest carbon modeling efforts, and discusses whether or to what extent a deterministic ';carbon debt' accounting is possible and appropriate. It concludes upon the possible scientific and eventually political choices in temporal carbon accounting for regulatory frameworks including alternative options to address unintentional carbon losses within forest ecosystems/bioenergy systems.

  19. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  20. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Food Science Option: Meat Science Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Food Science Option: Meat to Speech Communication POLS 1113 American Government FDSC 2253 Meat Animal and Carcass Evaluation MICR 2123 FDSC 3310 Meat Judging (2 hrs) HORT 3213 Fruit and Nut Production FDSC 3113 Quality Control FDSC 3333

  1. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Agribusiness Option: Crop and Soil Science Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    Agricultural Law 3/4__3 Minor CASNR Production elective 3 Minor CASNR Production elective Total: 16 creditCollege of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Agribusiness Option: Crop Production elective BIOL 1114 Intro Biology STAT 2023 Elem. Stat. for Bus. & Econ. SPCH 2713 Intro to Speech

  2. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science Option: Pre-Veterinary Animal Science Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    Economics ANSI 1124 Introduction to Animal Science MATH 1613 Trigonometry (or MATH 2103 or STAT 2013) AGCollege of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science Option: Pre-Veterinary Animal Science Academic Year: 2014-15 Proposed* Four-Year Degree Plan Year One Fall

  3. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Entomology Option: Pre-Veterinary and Pre-Medical Sciences Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Entomology Option: Pre-Veterinary Spring Semester 2018 ENTO 4854 Medical and Veterinary Entomology MICR 2123 Introduction to Microbiology 3033 Cell and Molecular Biology PHYS 1214 General Physics II ZOOL 4104 General Parasitology Or ANSI

  4. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science Option: Ranch Operations Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    Meat Science 3 hr Related Courses/Electives Total: 15 credit hours Total: 15 credit hours Year FourCollege of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Animal Science Option Economics ANSI 1124 Introduction to Animal Science MATH 1613 Trigonometry (or MATH 2103 or STAT 2013) AG

  5. State Policy Options To Support a P-16 System of Public Education. Preschool through Postsecondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipho, Chris

    This paper offers options to state policymakers interested in a P-16 system of educational reform. P-16 systems are attempts to create a coherent, flexible system of public education that stretches from preschool through the fourth year of college. The range of options for policymakers is broad and depends on existing state programs and plans. The…

  6. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in certain Islamic legal schools, emphasizing significant actors that support abortion, and being mindful of policy frames that will not be well-received in Muslim-majority countries. PMID:23749735

  7. College of: Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: Food Science Option: Meat Science Academic Year:2015-2016

    E-print Network

    Science Option: Meat Science Academic Year:2015-2016 Proposed* Four-Year Degree Communication POLS 1113 American Government FDSC 2253 Meat Animal and Carcass 3310 Meat Judging (2 hrs) 3 hrs Related FDSC 3113 Quality Control

  8. Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

    2009-01-01

    This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on three prior…

  9. Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1996-03-01

    The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

  10. California Policy Options to Accelerate Latino Student Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    California policy makers and institutional leaders are making critical policy, programmatic, and budgetary decisions affecting segments of the state's population that lack sufficient levels of formal training and education. These decisions are occurring at a time when five critical trends are converging in the state. These trends are: (1)…

  11. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Natural Resource Ecology & Management Option: Natural History and Conservation

    E-print Network

    & Management Option: Natural History and Conservation Academic Year: 2014-15 Proposed* Four-Year Degree Plan II BIOL 1114 General Biology ZOOL 1604 Animal Biology MATH 1513 College Algebra or MATH 1483 HIST 1103 GE NREM 1012 Intro to Natural Resources NREM 1014 Natural History AG 1011 Orientation AGLE 2403 Ag

  12. Engineering and policy analysis of strategic and tactical options for future aerospace traffic management

    E-print Network

    Falker, John M

    2002-01-01

    Current space launch/landing events are conducted only within Special Use Airspace (SUA), separate from air traffic. This is a strategic traffic management policy because SUA size and duration are set well in advance. It ...

  13. US weapons-useable plutonium disposition policy: implementation of the MOX fuel option 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Vanessa L

    1998-01-01

    licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can...

  14. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    Quanbao, Jiang; Marcus W., Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination. PMID:24363477

  15. Using the nuclear option to find middle Ground on energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Wodka, Nancy A.; Zelermyer, Salo L.

    2010-05-15

    President Obama's actions promoting the construction of new U.S. nuclear power plants could be the first of many moves designed to create a middle ground on energy policy and ultimately lead to the passage of the first bill designed specifically to reduce emissions of greenhouse gas. (author)

  16. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Lu, Hongyou; Sambeek, Emiel van; Yowargana, Ping; Shuang, Liu; Kejun, Jiang

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  17. [Major revisionposted 6/12/14 (replaces 2/23/00 edition) Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    and chief financial officer (SVC/CFO). POLICY/PROCEDURE 1. Policy This policy will apply when lease. c. The lease-purchase will then be referred to the TTUS SVC/CFO to determine if the Texas Tech.18 Revenue Finance System (see Regents' Rules 07.05.4, Equipment financing). The TTUS SVC/CFO will either

  18. College of: Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: Food Science Option: Industry Academic Year:2015-2016

    E-print Network

    Communicating Ag to the Public FDSC 3333 Meat Science (15 hrs from Meat Judging (2 hrs)(15 hrs from) ENVR 1113 Environmental Science College of: Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: Food

  19. Improving The Affordable Care Act: An Assessment Of Policy Options For Providing Subsidies.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Evan A; Eibner, Christine; Enthoven, Alain C

    2015-12-01

    A key challenge of health reform efforts is to make health insurance affordable for individuals and families who lack coverage without harming those with coverage or increasing federal spending. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) addresses this challenge in part by providing tax subsidies to qualified individuals for purchasing individual insurance and retaining tax exemptions for employer and employee contributions to the cost of premiums of employer-sponsored insurance. These tax exemptions cost approximately $250 billion annually in lost tax revenue and have been criticized for favoring higher earners and conferring preferential treatment of employer-sponsored over individual insurance. We analyzed three options for leveling the financial playing field between the two insurance markets by reallocating the value of tax benefits of employer coverage. We found that one option that uses the subsidy formula employed in the insurance Marketplaces under the ACA for both the individual and employer-sponsored insurance markets, and additionally requires the subsidy to be at least $1,250 without an upper income limit on subsidy eligibility imposed, could expand insurance coverage and reduce individual market premiums relative to the ACA with no additional federal spending. PMID:26643630

  20. Evaluating research misconduct policies at major research universities: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Rebecca Ann

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study evaluates the accessibility and usefulness of the research misconduct (RM) policies at the top-25 universities as ranked by NIH and NSF grant awards. Measuring accessibility demonstrates how readily-available policies are to the people they affect. Evaluating the range of policy content indicates whether policies and procedures on research misconduct are "useful" as opposed to merely "minimal" (Rhoades, 2003). On average, it took five clicks to get from a university's home page to its RM policies. Only nine policies were accessed within three or fewer clicks. Policy information was coded into categories comprising a total of 20 topic areas, which were then grouped into five content domains. The policies reveal a broad range of usefulness. Some provide relevant details on almost every topic area, while others leave most questions unanswered. Three of the 20 topic areas are almost universally covered in the policies analyzed. In contrast, five other topic areas average less than half of the information which could have been included. These policies, from elite U.S. research universities, may serve as role models; as such they should perhaps be held to the highest standards. If the message sent by a policy lacks clarity and precision, it should be revised to include an appropriate level of detail. PMID:16634174

  1. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    PubMed

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed. PMID:21147432

  2. Worker Adjustment to Plant Shutdowns and Mass Layoffs: An Analysis of Program Experience and Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Michael C.; Reisner, Fritzie

    The American economy is in a state of flux; it will probably generate more displaced workers; and it has yet to determine a policy to assist such workers in preparing for and locating new jobs. Although the extent of the problem is not entirely known, a low estimate is that some 2.2 million workers may have been affected by plant closings and mass…

  3. Policy Options To Expand Medicare's Low-Income Provisions To Improve Access And Affordability.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Cathy; Buttorff, Christine; Andersen, Martin; Davis, Karen

    2015-12-01

    For fifty years Medicare has enhanced the health and financial security of seniors. Yet in 2014 an estimated 40 percent of low-income beneficiaries spent 20 percent or more of their incomes on out-of-pocket expenditures for premiums and medical care, while one-third were underinsured based on their out-of-pocket spending for medical care alone. These high burdens reflect Medicare's limited benefits and restrictive income eligibility levels for supplemental Medicaid coverage. We examined the impacts of illustrative policies designed to improve beneficiaries' financial protection and access to care by reducing Medicare premiums and cost sharing for covered benefits on a sliding scale for all beneficiaries with incomes up to 200 percent of the federal poverty level. We estimate that these policies could improve the affordability of health care for eleven million people. Designed to be aligned with the Affordable Care Act's subsidy approach for the population younger than age sixty-five, these policies also have the potential to smooth transitions into Medicare, reduce administrative costs, and provide a more secure and equitable foundation for Medicare's future. PMID:26643629

  4. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  5. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts... on the New Starts and Small Starts programs. FTA is required by statute to publish policy guidance every two years on the New Starts and Small Starts programs. This notice serves to notify the...

  6. Admissions Policies Governing the Declaration of Academic Major and Academic Advising Models Relating to Student Outcomes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workinger, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze admissions policies pertaining to the declaration of academic majors for incoming students and structures of academic advising at American universities and how they relate to student outcomes. The student outcomes considered for the study were first to second year retention rates and graduation rates. …

  7. The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia: Considering U.S. Options. Choices for the 21st Century. Alternatives for Public Debate and Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    The conflict in Bosnia (Yugoslavia) has confronted U.S. leaders with fundamental questions about the use and capability of U.S. power abroad. This document brings the decision facing the United States into the classroom. The unit features a set of four divergent options for U.S. policy toward the Bosnian conflict, and a brief account of…

  8. IEEE Communications Surveys http://www.comsoc.org/pubs/surveys Fourth Quarter 1998 Vol. 1 No. 12 SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT POLICY OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    Peha, Jon M.

    area network (LAN), or a portable wireless private branch exchange (PBX) phone system that is moved. 12 SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT POLICY OPTIONS ncreasing use of wireless devices early in this century led an attachment to laptop computers that would allow two or more laptops to form their own portable wireless local

  9. Translation as a Career Option for Foreign Language Majors. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Royal L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This booklet is intended to provide the college foreign language major with practical observations on translation and interpretation as possible professions. The skills and training required of competent translators are discussed, and their responsibilities, working conditions and approximate salary figures for various translating tasks are…

  10. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-05

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by legislative or regulatory authorities. Some renewable energy contracts pre-date the existence of RECs, however, and in these cases the disposition of RECs is often unclear. Similarly, because of the recent appearance of RECs, legislation and regulation mandating the purchase of renewable energy has sometimes been silent on the disposition of the RECs associated with that generation. The resulting uncertainty in REC ownership has hindered the development of robust REC markets and has, in some cases, led to contention between buyers and sellers of renewable generation. The purpose of this report is to provide information and insight to state policy-makers, utility regulators, and others about different approaches to clarifying the ownership of RECs. We focus exclusively on three distinct areas in which REC ownership issues have arisen: (1) Qualifying Facilities (QFs) that sell their generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978; (2) Customer-owned generation that benefits from state net metering rules; and (3) Generation facilities that receive financial incentives from state or utility funds. This is a survey report. It reviews how both the federal government and states have addressed these issues to date, and highlights the arguments that have been raised for different REC ownership dispositions. Our aim is to describe the arguments on each side, and the context for the debates that are occurring. We do not, in this report, provide a list of policy recommendations for how policymakers should be addressing these issues.

  11. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  12. Positioning the Indian coal-power sector for carbon mitigation: key policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Chikkatur, A.P.; Sagar, A.D.

    2009-01-15

    The report continues the series of Pew Center papers that explore strategies for addressing CO{sub 2} emissions from using coal to provide electricity. The domestic and international steps outlined in this paper could greatly advance the development and implementation of a GHG-mitigation strategy in the Indian coal-power sector, while allowing the sector to contribute suitably to the country's energy needs. The key to success will be adopting a deliberate approach, with short- and long-term perspectives in mind, that allows for the development of an integrated energy and climate policy. 58 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. The Nutrition and Dietetics major prepares students for careers in nutrition-related fields. The Nutrition option is designed for students who want to study nutrition combined with another field.

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    The Nutrition and Dietetics major prepares students for careers in nutrition-related fields. The Nutrition option is designed for students who want to study nutrition combined with another field. The Dietetics option is designed for students who want to study nutrition and become Registered Dietitians. Both

  14. Policy Issues and Options When States Take Over Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    Critical issues concerning the state takeover of local school districts are outlined in this paper. Three major topics are addressed: situational factors leading to intervention; the legitimacy of state power; and appropriate beneficial conditions of state takeover. The most frequent reasons for state intervention involve concerns about equity,…

  15. Technological and policy options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents issues and explores options for reducing emissions of carbonaceous pollutants from mobile sources. It discusses first what can be expected from current and proposed emission control system designed chiefly to reduce the output of regulated pollutants, then explores opportunities for incremental control of emissions of carbon (bound in gaseous form) that appear at this time to have good potential for success. The presentation of current and anticipated control technologies is organized by vehicle type, considering, in turn, passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, and non-highway vehicular modes. The discussion of incremental control opportunities focuses first on hardware and (existing) fuels modification for reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency, then turns to advanced vehicular technologies and fuels, new refrigerants (to replace CFCs, which, in addition to being implicated in the destruction of stratospheric ozone, are molecule for molecule more potent than carbon dioxide as greenhouse gases), and in-use emissions testing and travel reduction strategies. Finally, opportunities for continuation of the current (net) downward trend in fuel consumption by most non-highway transportation activities are described. The paper concludes that evolutionary developments in most transportation activities-- developments driven in large measure by simple economics--could be at least as effective in mitigating the contribution of (domestic) mobile sources to greenhouse warming'' as any specific revolutionary change. 41 refs.

  16. Vocational Education and Training: A Major Shift in World Bank Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Phillip

    1992-01-01

    Comments on the World Bank's policy paper on vocational and technical education and training. Argues that past failures in establishing effective vocational and technical education were a result of not applying conventional neoclassical economic theory. Asserts that the World Bank's policy paper corrects this approach. (CFR)

  17. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). Results In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE). Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita), compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of NHA data into policy is suggested for future researchers. PMID:25750545

  18. Limitations of Single-Basket Trading: A Lesson from the Montreal Protocol for Climate Policy Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. S.; Solomon, S.; Sanford, T. J.; McFarland, M.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2010-12-01

    The success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting stratospheric ozone has been widely recognized, with many viewing it as a model for international cooperation on global environmental issues. Years of collaborative problem solving by scientists, industry, and policymakers have provided numerous insights, some of which are applicable to addressing the international problem of anthropogenically-caused climate change. Here we suggest that one valuable lesson relates to the manner in which different greenhouse gases are controlled. The Montreal Protocol implemented a multi-basket scheme, which regulated various groups, or baskets, of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs); production and consumption trading were allowed within each basket, but not among baskets. This approach substantially reduced ODS emissions and the associated dangers of increased ozone losses. In contrast, discussions of greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation have generally focused on single-basket emissions trading. In particular, the Kyoto Protocol has allowed trading of emissions reductions among all regulated compounds. The flexibility of such an approach has the potential to lead to less expensive total abatement costs than if each GHG were regulated separately. Here we quantify the extent to which such a scheme may also lead to an ambiguous relationship between policy controls and the climate protection they provide over both short and long time horizons. We further show that the magnitude of this ambiguity depends strongly on the magnitude of the required emissions reduction. These results suggest it is important for policymakers to make a conscious and informed decision regarding whether the additional flexibility associated with a single-basket approach is worth the potentially reduced effectiveness for any particular reduction control level enacted. If it is not worth it, they should recognize that a multi-basket scheme has worked for protecting ozone and could also be effective for climate policy.

  19. NASA policy on pricing shuttle launch services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper explains the rationale behind key elements of the pricing policy for STS, the major features of the non-government user policy, and some of the stimulating features of the policy which will open space to a wide range of new users. Attention is given to such major policy features as payment schedule, cost and standard services, the two phase pricing structure, optional services, shared flights, cancellation and postponement, and earnest money.

  20. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    PubMed

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship. PMID:17625644

  1. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    PubMed

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health insurance market to multinational companies, the proper channelling of tax incentives to set up medical institutions in backward areas, and reinforcing appropriate regulatory mechanisms. PMID:11238435

  2. Storage of spent fuel from the nation's nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the spent fuel'' elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

  3. Storage of spent fuel from the nation`s nuclear reactors: Status, technology, and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial nuclear electric power industry, it has been recognized that spent nuclear reactor fuel must be able to be readily removed from the reactor vessel in the plant and safely stored on-site. The need for adjacent ready storage is first for safety. In the event of an emergency, or necessary maintenance that requires the removal of irradiated fuel from the reactor vessel, cooled reserve storage capacity for the full amount of fuel from the reactor core must be available. Also, the uranium fuel in the reactor eventually reaches the point where its heat generation is below the planned efficiency for steam production which drives the turbines and generators. It then must be replaced by fresh uranium fuel, with the ``spent fuel`` elements being removed to a safe and convenient storage location near the reactor vessel. The federal nuclear waste repository program, even without delays in the current schedule of disposal becoming available in 2003, will result in a large percentage of the 111 existing operable commercial reactors requiring expansion of their spent fuel storage capacity. How that need can and will be met raises issues of both technology and policy that will be reviewed in this report.

  4. A Policy Option To Provide Sufficient Funding For Massive-Scale Sequestration of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kithil, P. W.

    2007-12-01

    Global emissions of CO2 now are nearly 30 billion tons per year, and are growing rapidly due to strong economic growth. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have reached 380 ppm and recent reports suggest the rate of increase has gone from 1% per year in the 1990's to 3% per year now - with potential to cross 550ppm in the 2020 decade. Without stabilization of atmospheric CO2 below 550ppm, climate models predict unacceptably higher average temperatures with significant risk of runaway global warming this century. While there is much talk about reducing CO2 emissions by switching to non-fossil energy sources, imposing energy efficiency, and a host of other changes, there are no new large-scale energy sources on the horizon. The options are to impose draconian cuts in fossil energy consumption that will keep us below 550ppm (devastating the global economy) - or to adopt massive-scale sequestration of CO2. Three approaches are feasible: biological ocean sequestration, geologic sequestration, and biological terrestrial sequestration. Biological sequestration is applicable to all CO2 sources, whereas geologic sequestration is limited to fossil-fuel power plants and some large point-source emitters such as cement plants and large industrial facilities. Sequestration provides a direct mechanism for reducing atmospheric levels of CO2, whereas offsetting technologies such as wind power or improved efficiency, reduce the need for more fossil fuels but do not physically remove CO2 from the environment. The primary geologic technique, carbon capture & sequestration (CCS), prevents CO2 from entering the atmosphere but likewise does not reduce existing levels of atmospheric CO2. Biological sequestration (ocean or terrestrial) physically removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Since we cannot shut down our global economy, urgent action is needed to counteract CO2 emissions, and avoid catastrophic climate change. Given the long lead time and/or small impact of offsetting energy sources, sequestration is the only way to achieve near and medium-term reductions in atmospheric CO2 levels. To finance massive-scale sequestration of CO2, we propose the World Trade Organization (WTO) become an active player in the sequestration market. Given the WTO's role as overseer of international trade agreements annually representing 30 trillion in imports and exports of goods and services, it is by far the largest global economic force and therefore offers the broadest economic base. Absent a real solution to CO2 emissions, the global economy - and world trade - will shrink dramatically. The WTO can jumpstart the market for CO2 sequestration by issuing long term contracts to purchase bona fide sequestration-derived CO2 credits. Under this proposal, an initial price of 100 per ton which steps-down by 5% per year could bring forth the sequestration investment needed to achieve upwards of 10 billion tons sequestered CO2 per year by 2025 (seven billion tons from biological ocean sequestration and at least three billion tons from geologic and terrestrial sequestration). Assuming a contract term of 40 years, and a parallel commodity market continues to develop for CO2 credits, at some time in the future the WTO's contractual price will be less than the commodity market price - and the WTO begins to recover its investment. Under one set of assumptions, the net WTO annual subsidy would peak at $86 billion by 2022, equal to an across-the-board WTO tariff on imports and exports of about 1.01%, then become positive a few years later as the market price climbed above WTO's contracted price. Under this proposal, the WTO effectively subsidizes CO2 sequestration in the near to medium term and then recoups its investment and reaps large profits over the long term.

  5. Predicting the impact of measles vaccination in England and Wales: model validation and analysis of policy options.

    PubMed Central

    Babad, H. R.; Nokes, D. J.; Gay, N. J.; Miller, E.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Anderson, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Measles incidence in England and Wales has fallen to an all-time low. Attention is now focused on preventing local outbreaks, and, in the long run, on the elimination of indigenous measles. A realistic age-structured (RAS) mathematical model of measles transmission is used to reconstruct the impact of measles vaccination in England and Wales from 1968 to the present and to evaluate the merits of future policy options. In general, the predictions of the model show good agreement with long-term age stratified case reports and seroprevalence surveys. The model underestimates the proportion of cases that are notified in 0-2-year-old children. However, recent work suggests a high degree of misdiagnosis in this age group. Projections on the basis of the existing vaccination strategy in the UK suggest that the present level of measles vaccine coverage will be insufficient to eliminate small seasonal outbreaks of measles. This result is, however, sensitive to the assumed level of vaccine efficacy. Explorations of a variety of changes to current vaccination strategy favour a 2-dose schedule with the second dose administered at age 4 years irrespective of vaccination history. A vaccination campaign in school-age children, to reduce deficits in herd immunity, would accelerate progress towards measles elimination. PMID:7705494

  6. [Major revisionposted 2/4/15 (replaces 2/25/11 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    for the TTU campuses, maintaining compatibility and interoperability for the TTU network (both wired is connected to the main campus network or not. 1. Telecommunications will provide all: a. Network IT security policies located at http://www.infotech.ttu.edu/security and other TTU IT OPs. 4. All network

  7. When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

  8. [Major revision, renumbered from 54.03posted 11/20/09] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    of Texas Tech University registered names, logos, and trademarks, and for use of any revenues received for procurement services, the director of Licensing, Texas Tech Intercollegiate Athletics, and the athletic for administration and finance by November 15. POLICY/PROCEDURE 1. Texas Tech Licensing Program In 1994, Texas Tech

  9. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  10. [Major revisionposted 11/22/13 (replaces 2/18/11 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    audit reports or company financial statements and perform an initial risk assessment. The following Policy/Procedure (OP) is to set forth institutional requirements for assessing risk and monitoring sub by the managing director of Sponsored Programs Accounting and Reporting (SPAR) and the senior associate vice

  11. [Major revisionposted 12/12/13 (replaces 9/2/08 edition)] Operating Policy and Procedure

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    of these procedures is on the Study Abroad website at http://www.studyabroad.ttu.edu/?go=FacultyHandbook. 1 program must review the Study Abroad website and meet with the Faculty-Led Program coordinator no later to TTU policies (see OP 32.04) and is consistent with local law and custom. All TTU faculty taking

  12. Continuation Policy for Undergraduates Majoring in the Department of Earth & Space Sciences

    E-print Network

    Winglee, Robert M.

    on departmental warning, probation, and in extreme situations, may be dismissed from the major. Warning majors at UW Probation Students who are on warning status, who continue to miss departmental satisfactory progress will be placed on probation. Students on probation will be notified of their status

  13. Policy Related to Creating, Changing, and Terminating Degree Programs, Majors, Minors, Areas of Emphasis, Certificate Programs,

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    as the degree program). A bachelor's degree program requires a minimum of 120 credits, and a master's degree program requires a minimum of 30 credits beyond the bachelor's degree. New degree programs require the program title and the major. An undergraduate major requires a minimum of 30 credits. Minors Definition

  14. NRRI summary of Florida Public Service Commission: Fraud control policies of seven major Florida utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Staff recently completed an audit of fraud control policies and programs at the State`s largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities. The purpose of the audit was to examine the ability of Florida`s largest regulated utilities to deter, detect, and resolve occurrences of fraud. The Staff audited the state`s seven largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities: Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power and Light, Gulf Power Corporation, Tampa Electric Company, GTE-Florida, BellSouth Telecommunications (Southern Bell), and Sprint United/Centel. The audit scope was limited to fraudulent acts committed by employees, contractors, suppliers, or agents of the seven utilities. Information regarding the utilities` fraud control policies and programs was obtained through surveys, document requests, and interviews with managers and officers.

  15. Continuation Policy for the Oceanography Major This document clarifies what constitutes satisfactory progress towards degree for

    E-print Network

    MacCready, Parker

    , probation, or dismissal by email as soon as practicable after review and to resolve problems to avoid probation. Probation for the Major Students may be placed on probation for the following reasons: If a student has received

  16. Policy Related to Creating, Changing, and Terminating Degree Programs, Majors, Minors, Areas of Emphasis, Certificate Programs,

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    a minimum of 120 credits and a master's degree program requires a minimum of 30 credits beyond the bachelor requires a minimum of 30 credits. Minors Definition: An area of study outside of the major that encourages

  17. Room Policies Printing Options

    E-print Network

    Collaborative Technology Labs. If you find anything in the lab to be out of order, please report it when you which wireless network you are using (likely MSUNet 3.0) 8. Type the IP address into the Login box (35

  18. Room Policies Printing Options

    E-print Network

    Collaborative Technology Labs. If you find anything in the lab to be out of order, please report it when you.0) Type the IP address into the Login box (35.8.102.132) Type the 4-digit code (projected onto the screen

  19. Room Policies Printing Options

    E-print Network

    will appear on the screen. Touch a place on the screen where you want the cursor to appear, then touch the white control panel at the computer workstation and press the On/Off button. Please do not touch) through the projector to the screen by downloading and installing a special driver. On the white desktop

  20. Brandeis University Health: Science, Society and Policy current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    : an interdisciplinary education in health and health care Popular second majors: anthropology, biology, psychology student will engage in a handson experience in a healthrelated setting, typically through an internshipAssRoom Real internships In recent years, HSSP students interned at sites including the american Cancer Society

  1. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  2. Generation of policy-rich websites from declarative models

    E-print Network

    Chang, Felix Sheng-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Protecting sensitive data stored behind online websites is a major challenge, but existing techniques are inadequate. Automated website builders typically offer very limited options for specifying custom access policies. ...

  3. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  4. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Plant and Soil Sciences Option: Plant Biotechnology and Improvement Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    Option: Plant Biotechnology and Improvement Academic Year: 2014-15 Proposed* Four-Year Degree Plan Year Microbiology BOT 3463 Plant Physiology PLNT 3554 Plant Genetics and Biotechnology SOIL 4483 Soil Microbiology

  5. Youth with Disabilities in Transition: Health Insurance Options and Obstacles. Healthy & Ready To Work (HRTW) Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulzinger, Rhoda

    This paper highlights the public and private health insurance options for young people with disabilities or chronic health conditions including several recent Federal initiatives to increase access to health care for working adults with disabilities. Discussion of public health insurance eligibility and coverage focuses on aspects of Medicaid and…

  6. Energy Policy 35 (2007) 43914401 Evaluating the potential of small-scale renewable energy options to meet

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    2007-01-01

    represent 52% of the human population (UN, 2004). More than 2 billion rural residents in developing to meet rural livelihoods needs: A GIS- and lifecycle cost-based assessment of Western China's options than 2 kW) renewable energy technologies for rural electrification are assessed using a representative

  7. Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

  8. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario analysis focuses on life cycle issues and considers various generation and control technologies. When advanced technologies such as gasification with carbon capture and sequestration are used, emissions during generation decrease to a level where environmental discharges from extraction, processing and transportation become the dominant concern. The location of coal, coal composition and mining method are important in determining the overall impacts. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  9. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Option: Pre-Medical or Pre-Veterinary Science

    E-print Network

    and Molecular Biology Option: Pre-Medical or Pre-Veterinary Science Academic Year: 2014-15 Proposed* Four Semester BIOC 4113 Molecular Biology BIOC 4883 Senior Seminar in Biochemistry ZOOL 3204 Physiology BIOC Introductory Biology CHEM 3112 Organic Chemistry Lab ANSI 1124 Introduction to the Animal Sciences ZOOL 1604

  10. A Window of Opportunity for the Transformation of National Mental Health Policy in Turkey Following Two Major Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Kerim; Ergene, Tuncay; Tunaligil, Verda; Erol, Nese

    2011-01-01

    Striking at the nation’s highly populated industrial heartlands, two massive earthquakes in 1999 killed over 25,000 people in Turkey. The economic cost and the humanitarian magnitude of the disaster were unprecedented in the country’s history. The crisis also underscored a major flaw in the organization of mental health services in the provinces that were left out of the 1961 reforms that aimed to make basic health services available nationwide. In describing the chronology of the earthquakes and the ensuing national and international response, this article explains how the public and governmental experience of the earthquakes has created a window of opportunity, and perhaps the political will, for significant reform. There is an urgent need to integrate mental health and general health services, and to strengthen mental health services in the country’s 81 disparate provinces. As Turkey continues her rapid transformation in terms of greater urbanization, higher levels of public education, and economic and constitutional reforms associated with its projected entry into the European Union, there have also been growing demands for better, and more equitably distributed, health care. A legacy of the earthquakes is that they exposed the need for Turkey to create a coherent, clearly articulated national mental health policy. PMID:15371066

  11. Policy Options Relating to the Surrogate Parent Mandates of the Education for Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John W.

    The report considers state and federal policy issues regarding parent surrogates for handicapped children as mandated by P. L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Clarification about the limited advocacy role of the parent surrogate is given. The first chapter looks at identification of students who need surrogate parents:…

  12. Institutional Impacts of Federal Student Aid Programs: Current Issues and Future Policy Options. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linney, Thomas J.; Ross, Kathleen

    The impact of federal student aid programs on higher education and policy implications are discussed. Historical information on federal aid is presented. Large amounts of federal support are devoted to student assistance funding, which is channeled into the institutions in the form of tuition or housing costs. The student aid programs are designed…

  13. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... take in financial contracts should reduce risk exposure, that is, not be speculative. (b) Establishment of prudent written policies, appropriate limitations and internal controls and audit programs. If the... obligations. In addition, internal controls and internal audit programs to monitor such activity should...

  14. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... take in financial contracts should reduce risk exposure, that is, not be speculative. (b) Establishment of prudent written policies, appropriate limitations and internal controls and audit programs. If the... obligations. In addition, internal controls and internal audit programs to monitor such activity should...

  15. Telecommunication technologies development in countries of the former Yugoslavia : history, needs and policy options for the future

    E-print Network

    Sulejmanpašić , Adnan, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis I give an overview of the political-economic and telecommunications sector developments in major western economies, as well as some of the advanced Eastern European countries. I use this ...

  16. This major offers students a range of options for studies related to the environment. All programs are highly interdisciplinary, with faculty and courses

    E-print Network

    Leahy, Richard M.

    Courses ENST 100: Introduction to Environmental Studies -- Gateway to the majors and minors in Environmental Studies. Provides students with an overview of how government agencies and societal institutes

  17. Biochemistry Career Options

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Biochemistry Career Options · applied researcher · pharmaceutical researcher · research chemist · Testing and inspection professional MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Biochemistry College of Sciences www Program: M.S. in Biochemistry Our graduate programs offer exceptional research opportunities for advanced

  18. This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    occupations and skills in O*Net: www.onetonline.org · Use the FSU Career Portfolio to document transferable skills you develop through your major and other experiences: www.portfolio.fsu.edu · Use Professio Hills, CA www.oscars.org Academy of Television Arts & Science www.emmys.org Alliance of Motion Picture

  19. This sheet has sample occupations, work settings, employers, and career development activities associated with this major. Some of these options may require additional training and career planning. You are not limited to these options when choosing a poss

    E-print Network

    Ronquist, Fredrik

    with a concentration in music. A&M Records Alliance Entertainment Banner Records Brandt Information Services Carnival occupations and skills in O*Net: www.onetonline.org · Use the FSU Career Portfolio to document transferable skills you develop through your major and other experiences: www.portfolio.fsu.edu · Use Professio

  20. College of: AG Degree/Major: Plant and Soil Sciences Option: Agronomic Business Academic Year:2015-2016 Proposed* Four-Year Degree Plan

    E-print Network

    College of: AG Degree/Major: Plant and Soil Sciences 1213 Freshman Composition II PLNT 1101 Orientation to Plant and Soil Sciences Science SPCH 2713 Intro to Speech Communication PLNT 3554 Plant Genetics

  1. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-22

    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  2. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  3. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Plant and Soil Sciences Option: Agronomic Business Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Plant and Soil Sciences to Plant and Soil Sciences CHEM 1225 General Chemistry II CHEM 1215 General Chemistry I BIOL 1114 Introductory Biology ENGL 1113 Freshman Composition I PLNT 2013 Applied Plant Science HIST 1103 Survey

  4. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Plant and Soil Sciences Option: Soil and Water Resources Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Plant and Soil Sciences Orientation to Plant and Soil Sciences CHEM 1515 General Chemistry II CHEM 1314 General Chemistry I BIOL 1114 Sciences PLNT 2013 Applied Plant Science MATH 2144 Calculus I SOIL 2124 Fundamentals of Soil Science ENVR

  5. College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Plant and Soil Sciences Option: Crop Production and Management Academic Year: 2014-15

    E-print Network

    College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Degree/Major: BSAG Plant and Soil Sciences to Plant and Soil PLNT 2013 Applied Plant Science ANSI 1124 Intro to Animal Science MATH 2103 MATH 1613 3323 Technical Writing PLNT 3113 Principles of Weed Science BOT 3463 Plant Physiology PLNT 3554 Plant

  6. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  7. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  8. Policy options to improve leadership of middle managers in the Australian residential aged care setting: a narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both chronic diseases and multi-morbidity increases with longer life spans. As Australia's population ages, the aged care sector is under increasing pressure to ensure that quality aged care is available. Key to responding to this pressure is leadership and management capability within the aged care workforce. A systematic literature review was conducted to inform the policy development necessary for the enhancement of clinical and managerial leadership skills of middle managers within residential aged care. Methods Using scientific journal databases, hand searching of specialist journals, Google, snowballing and suggestions from experts, 4,484 papers were found. After a seven-tiered culling process, we conducted a detailed review (narrative synthesis) of 153 papers relevant to leadership and management development in aged care, incorporating expert and key stakeholder consultations. Results • Positive staff experiences of a manager's leadership are critical to ensure job satisfaction and workforce retention, the provision of quality care and the well-being of care recipients, and potentially a reduction of associated costs. • The essential attributes of good leadership for aged care middle management are a hands-on accessibility and professional expertise in nurturing respect, recognition and team building, along with effective communication and flexibility. However, successful leadership and management outcomes depend on coherent and good organisational leadership (structural and psychological empowerment). • There is inadequate preparation for middle management leadership roles in the aged care sector and a lack of clear guidelines and key performance indicators to assess leadership and management skills. • Theory development in aged care leadership and management research is limited. A few effective generic clinical leadership programs targeting both clinical and managerial leaders exist. However, little is known regarding how appropriate and effective they are for the aged care sector. Conclusions There is an urgent need for a national strategy that promotes a common approach to aged care leadership and management development, one that is sector-appropriate and congruent with the philosophy of person-centred care now predominant in the sector. The onus is on aged care industries as a whole and various levels of Government to make a concerted effort to establish relevant regulation, legislation and funding. PMID:20602798

  9. Human attitudes in environmental management: Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and policy option simulations analysis for a coal-mine ecosystem in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Jie; Su, Chao; He, Mengying

    2013-01-30

    Ecosystem management is a complex process, and every stakeholder's cognition plays a crucial role in it. In order to manage the ecosystem better, it is significant for the coal-mining environmental managers to choose appropriate measures, in accord with the stakeholders' interests. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystems among stakeholders and then simulate policy options in a typical coal-mine region in China. The Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM) method was used to develop a participatory ecosystem management model in research area. Combining the initial state of variables and the adjacency matrix getting from FCM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to conduct simulations. The results found that among stakeholder groups' FCM model, 'air pollution' and 'water pollution' are the most frequently mentioned variables, while 'health effects' and 'expansion of related industries' are the core variables. However, different stakeholders expressed diverse perceptions on coal-mine ecosystem management. Mine workers paid more attention to occupational safety and their health impacts inducted by air and water pollution during coal-mine process. Local residents were concerned with local economic development and welfare facilities improvement; they also concerned their health impacts raised by coal-mine related problems such as air and water pollution, traffic and noises. Managers emphasized economic interests and environmental projects with immediate environmental effects other than long-term ecosystem improvement. Engineers mentioned more variables than other groups; they believed that air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion and biodiversity loss were important. Scenario analysis for policy simulation based on ANN suggested that the local governments and enterprises should place an emphasis on protecting farmland, increasing vegetation coverage, reducing solid contamination and improving energy efficiency to decrease air pollution. In addition, they should start from decreasing air pollution, protecting water environment, increasing vegetation coverage and paying attention to people's safety to improve health. National policy, public administration and enterprise countermeasures have positive influence to ecosystem management. The findings of this study could provide valuable information to researchers and administrators about stakeholders' knowledge of and attitudes towards coal-mine ecosystem management. These, in turn, could be incorporated into the development of protective measures for a coal-mine ecosystem in China. PMID:23266478

  10. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary?=?6, middle school?=?2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n?=?4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27%?year 1, 30%?year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22%?year 1, 25%?year 2) children. Conclusions Healthy ONES adaptation of IHI’s rapid improvement process provided a promising model for implementing nutrition policy and environmental changes that can be used in a variety of school settings. This approach may be especially effective in assisting schools to implement the current federally-mandated wellness policies. PMID:22734945

  11. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  12. 75 FR 71391 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... accordance with the RFA.\\7\\ The proposed rules would affect SDs and MSPs. \\6\\ 5 U.S.C. 601-611. \\7\\ 47 FR... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by... Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). The proposed regulations establish conflicts...

  13. MEMORANDUM FOR MAJOR SUBORDINATE COMMANDS AND DISTRICT SUBJECT: Policy Guidance Letter (PGL) No. 42, Additional Guidance on Financing of

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Letter (PGL) No. 42, Additional Guidance on Financing of Dredged Material Management Studies 1. Reference. Memorandum of 25 March 1993, Subject: Policy Guidance Letter (PGL) No. 40, Development and Financing of Dredged Material Management Studies. 2. Purpose. This PGL provides guidance on the financing of dredged

  14. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  15. The Effect of the Lowered Age of Majority and Relaxed Dormitory Policies on Drug Usage by Dormitory Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznik, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    In 1973, the state of Minnesota passed legislation lowering the legal age of adulthood from 21 to 18; this gave 18-year olds the opportunity to legally consume alcoholic beverages. At the same time, the University of Minnesota made policy changes which enabled dormitory residents to consume alcoholic beverages in their rooms. To ascertain the…

  16. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  17. Is irrigation with partial desalinated seawater a policy option for saving freshwater in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, Sebastian; Alquwaizany, Abdulaziz S.; Lehnert, Karl-H.; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The agriculture sector consumes with 88 % a majority of the almost fossil water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Irrigation with saline water has been highlighted to be a promising technique to reduce fresh water consumption. Current desalination techniques, further developments, salt tolerant crop types and improved irrigation systems can potentially redesign future perspectives for irrigation agriculture, in particular by considering the growing desalination capacity in KSA (5 million m3 day-1 in 2003). Hence, we have analyzed the potential of using desalinated and partial desalinated seawater for growing crops in KSA by considering scenarios of salinity levels and desalination costs. The desalination process has been modelled with the ROSA© software considering a reverse osmosis (RO) plant. The spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER has been applied to assess the water footprint of crops (WFcrop). In order to maintain high crop yields, salts need to be washed out from the rooting zone, which requires the application of additional salt-free water. Therefore, high crop yields come along with additional water requirements and increased desalination effort and increased costs for proving high quality water. As an example, growing wheat with partial desalinated seawater from the Arabian Gulf with a RO plant has been investigated. Desalination reduces the salinity level from 76 dS m-1 to 0.5 dS m-1 considering two RO cycles, with cost of desalinized water in the range of 0.5 to 1.2 m-3. We acknowledge that cost only refer to desalination without considering others such as transport, water pumping or crop fertilization. The study shows that Boron is the most problematic salt component, because it is difficult to remove by RO and toxic in high concentrations for crops (wheat threshold of 0.5 to 1.0 mg l-1). The nationwide average WFcrop of wheat under surface irrigation is 2,628 m3 t-1 considering high water quality of 1 dS m-1 and 3,801 m3 t-1 at 12 dS m-1. Using sprinkler or drip irrigation systems the WFcrop decreases of about 20 % and 34 %, respectively. It can be shown that a salinity level larger than 9 dS m-1 increases leaching water requirement of wheat over proportional and that a salinity level of 9 dS m-1 reduces cost for irrigation water by about 11 % in comparison to the irrigation with nearly fresh water quality of 1 dS m-1. A trade-off analyses reveals that making desalinated seawater use profitable, cost need to be reduced below 0.2 m-3 for sprinkler and drip irrigation and even below 0.1 m-3 for widespread used surface irrigation systems. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia, for funding the research Project No. 33-900 entitled 'Technology for desalinated seawater use in agriculture'.

  18. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health care and are wary of cost shifting from the public plan to private insurers. FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT-BASED COVERAGE: The availability of a health insurance exchange may have implications for the future of the employment-based health benefits system and raises major questions for workers. Will employers provide a fixed contribution for the purchase of insurance through an exchange? Would that be large enough to purchase coverage? Would it be flat or vary by such factors as worker health status, age, and/or marital status or the presence of children? Would it be taxed? For both employers and workers, the implications are enormous. PMID:19545086

  19. Policies

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute and the National Human Genome Research Institute staff actively seek input from subject matter experts in developing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) policies and guidelines to help govern the way investigators implement tissue and clinical data collections, data access and publications using the TCGA data sets.

  20. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

  1. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  2. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to identify any nuclear fuel cycle technology or option that may result in a significant beneficial impact to the issues as compared to the current U.S. approach of once-through use of nuclear fuel in LWRs or similar reactors followed by direct disposal of UNF. This approach was taken because incremental differences may be difficult to clearly identify and justify due to the large uncertainties that can be associated with the specific causes of the issues. Phase II of this Options Study continued the review of nuclear fuel cycle options that was initiated and documented during Phase I, concentrating on reviewing and summarizing the potential of integrated nuclear fuel cycles. However, based on the reviews of previous studies and available data, it was not always possible to clearly determine sufficiently large differences between the various fuel cycle and technology options for some of the issues or evaluation measures, for example, in cases where only incremental differences with respect to the issues might be achieved regardless of the fuel cycle option or technologies being considered, or where differences were insufficient to clearly rise above the uncertainties.

  3. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  4. The Farm Credit Situation: Implications for Agricultural Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, J. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examines issues regarding current farm finance situation from a public policy perspective: origins and causes of current situation, available policy options for dealing with the problems, and impacts of policy options. (NEC)

  5. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: POLICY IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several government agencies are evaluating policy options for addressing global climate change. hese include planning for anticipated effects and developing mitigation options where feasible if climate does change as predicted. or fisheries resources, policy questions address eff...

  6. DCTD — Major Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Click here to view the Site Map Home | Sitemap | Contact DCTD Search this site Major Initiatives Search Grants Search Clinical Trials Ongoing Projects NCI Grants Policies Grant Application and Review Process DCTD Programs Cancer Diagnosis

  7. Exercising options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In a recent speech to graduates of the College of Computer, Mathematical, and Physical Sciences at the University of Maryland, Anne Petersen, deputy director of the National Science Foundation, encouraged a new generation of scientists to embrace opportunity and choice, and to use their scientific training as an employment credential, not a limit. In her May 23 commencement address, Petersen exhorted students to view their freshly minted diplomas as tickets to a broad and diverse job market, not just one-way trips to the laboratory.“Looking for the options and alternatives open to us—and creating options for ourselves where they are not apparent—can give us a sense of direction and volition that enriches our lives immensely…

  8. Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Attributable to Major Risk Factors is Similar in Argentina and the United States: the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Andrew; DeGennaro, Vincent; Ferrante, Daniel; Coxson, Pamela G.; Palmas, Walter; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Goldman, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Argentina and the U.S. Argentina is 92% urban, with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels approximating the U.S. Methods The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model is a national-scale computer model of CHD and stroke. Risk factor data were obtained from the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America Study (2003–04), Argentina National Risk Factor Survey (2005) and U.S. national surveys. Proportions of cardiovascular events over 2005–2015 attributable to risk factors were simulated by setting risk factors to optimal exposure levels [systolic blood pressure (SBP) 115 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) 2.00 mmol/l (78 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) 1.03 mmol/l (60 mg/dl), absence of diabetes, and smoking]. Cardiovascular disease attributable to body mass index (BMI) > 21 kg/m2 was assumed mediated through SBP, LDL, HDL, and diabetes. Results Cardiovascular disease attributable to major risk factors was similar between Argentina and the U.S., except for elevated SBP in men (CHD 8 % points higher in Argentine men, 6% higher for stroke). CHD attributable to BMI > 21 kg/m2 was substantially higher in the U.S. (men 10–11 % points higher; women CHD 13–14% higher). Conclusions Projected cardiovascular disease attributable to major risk factors appeared similar in Argentina and the U.S., though elevated BMI may be responsible for more of U.S. cardiovascular disease. A highly urbanized middle-income nation can have cardiovascular disease rates and risk factor levels comparable to a high income nation, but fewer resources for fighting the epidemic. PMID:21550675

  9. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-05-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

  10. Implementation of power barrier option valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyani, Agatha C. P.; Sumarti, Novriana

    2015-09-01

    Options are financial instruments that can be utilized to reduce risk in stock investment. Barrier options are one of the major types of options actively used in financial markets where its life period depends on the path of the underlying stock prices. The features of the barrier option can be used to modify other types of options. In this research, the barrier option will be implemented into power option, so it is called power barrier option. This option is an extension of the vanilla barrier options where the Call payoff being considered is defined as P C =max (ST?-K?,0 ) , and the Put payoff being considered is defined as P P =max (K?-ST?,0 ) . Here ? > 0 and ? ? 1, K is the strike price of the option, and ST is the price of the underlying stock at time maturity T. In this paper, we generate the prices of stock using binomial method which is adjusted to the power option. In the conclusion, the price of American power barrier option is more expensive than the price of European power barrier option.

  11. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  12. Undergraduate major Christoffer Renner

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    of Mathematical Sciences again delivered about 10% of the total student credit hours at MSU. We had 103 undergraduate majors seeking a B.S. degree in one of four options (Applied Mathematics, Mathematics, Mathematics Teaching, Statistics). In addition we had 109 graduate students enrolled in programs in Mathematics

  13. Major depression

    MedlinePLUS

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Ferri FF. Major depression. In: Ferri FF. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015.

  14. Antiviral options for biodefense.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Hruby, Dennis E

    2013-10-01

    A key to biodefense strategies is an assessment of current therapies available as well as the expedited development of new antiviral therapeutic options. Viruses make up the majority of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Category A Priority Pathogens, agents that are considered to pose the greatest risk to public health and national security, and yet there are currently no approved treatments for most of these viral biodefense threats. A review of the Category A viral biothreat agents and strategies for the development of new therapeutics are presented here. PMID:23773331

  15. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, Newell J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

  16. Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Recognizing Advanced Heart Failure and Knowing Your Options Updated:Oct 8, ... need in the future. Treatment Options for Advanced Heart Failure Major Interventions Open-heart surgery: For patients ...

  17. Financing Long-Term Services And Supports: Options Reflect Trade-Offs For Older Americans And Federal Spending.

    PubMed

    Favreault, Melissa M; Gleckman, Howard; Johnson, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    About half of older Americans will need a high level of assistance with routine activities for a prolonged period of time. This help is commonly referred to as long-term services and supports (LTSS). Under current policies, these individuals will fund roughly half of their paid care out of pocket. Partly as a result of high costs and uncertainty, relatively few people purchase private long-term care insurance or save sufficiently to fully finance LTSS; many will eventually turn to Medicaid for help. To show how policy changes could expand insurance's role in financing these needs, we modeled several new insurance options. Specifically, we looked at a front-end-only benefit that provides coverage relatively early in the period of disability but caps benefits, a back-end benefit with no lifetime limit, and a combined comprehensive benefit. We modeled mandatory and voluntary versions of each option, and subsidized and unsubsidized versions of each voluntary option. We identified important differences among the alternatives, highlighting relevant trade-offs that policy makers can consider in evaluating proposals. If the primary goal is to significantly increase insurance coverage, the mandatory options would be more successful than the voluntary versions. If the major aim is to reduce Medicaid costs, the comprehensive and back-end mandatory options would be most beneficial. PMID:26572919

  18. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each group to identify the options that have the support of research evidence (mostly systematic reviews) from PubMed, Cochrane database and Google Scholar. After the evidence synthesis, five policy options were selected out of 13 for malaria, 3 out of 10 for schistosomiasis and 5 out of 11 for LF. Conclusion: The outcome suggests that an evidence-to-policy capacity enhancement workshop combined with a mentorship programme can improve policy-makers’ capacity for evidence-informed policy-making (EIP). PMID:26340489

  19. An Option in Applied Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William E., III

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program option for undergraduate chemical engineering students interested in biotechnology. Discusses how this program is deployed at the University of Southern Florida. Lists courses which apply to this program. Discusses the goals of teaching applied microbiology to engineering majors. (CW)

  20. CHRONIC URTICARIA AND TREATMENT OPTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Godse, Kiran Vasant

    2009-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and causes. Still, despite our best efforts no cause may be found in the majority of cases. The treatment options are: Primary prevention in the form of avoidance of aggravating factors; counseling; antihistamines; leukotriene receptor antagonists; prednisolone; sulfasalazine and a host of immunosuppressives like methotrexate, cyclosporine, omalizumab etc. PMID:20101328

  1. Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

    2001-09-14

    We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone. PMID:11532360

  2. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  3. Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    Chemistry Major and Minor At A Glance Major I ­ Pre-professional (Medicine, Dentistry, Business, Law, Engineering) Major II ­ ACS Certified e.g. Graduate Study or Entry Level Chemistry Employment. Major III ­ Forensic Chemistry Major IV** ­ Biochemistry Option Chemistry Minor General Chemistry I & II

  4. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  5. Assessing land degradation and acknowledging adaptive policy options to face with changes: an integrated approach applied to a semiarid agropastoral system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrasón, D.; Ravera, F.; Reed, M.; Dougill, A.

    2009-04-01

    The complexity of assessing land degradation on semiarid systems deals with challenges that have rarely been addressed. Land degradation is a human-induced and permanent reduction of key ecosystem functions and services at different temporal and spatial scale. Initial attempts to assess land degradation at a broader scale were based on expert opinion, however the empirical bases to sustain these estimations are weak and the ecological data are still scarce. In addition, such approaches are essentially subjective and they reflect the objectives and assumptions of those making the assessment, who are rarely land users themselves. Currently, the concept of "land degradation" is debated, and in the last years have emerged a growing number of efforts to develop land degradation participatory assessment methods that could capture a more complex understanding of human-environment interactions. This study proposes an interdisciplinary and hybrid methodology, combining local and scientific knowledge, to assess land degradation in mixed farming systems. Specifically, i) it describes and analyses the mixed farming system and it explores how historically political, social and institutional local factors have interacted with ecological process, ii) it identifies key ecosystem processes and services needed to support the agropastoral systems that are perceived to be under threat from land degradation; iii) it assesses the status and trends of these key ecosystem services; and iv) it identifies and evaluates potential management alternatives to prevent land degradation and cope with changes (e.g. climate change). We show how to achieve, through a co-construction of hybrid knowledge between scientific and farmers, a more accurate and reliable appraisal of land degradation, since farmer's perception is contextualized, dynamic and complex and involves simultaneously multiple temporal and spatial scales and multiple dimensions of analysis that could help the scientific exploration. The study reveals that the ecosystem services' exploration with local actors is a good method to reveal the multiple and sometimes conflictive local strategies and interests at stake. Ecosystem services assessment has also been used as an entry to discuss with local land users about adaptive management strategies to improve soil functions involved in the maintenance of the provision and regulation processes and land productivity that support local livelihoods face to changes. The integrated methodological framework adopted has a positive impact to empower local users, enlarging the access to adequate information and channels of communication between experts/local users, and improving their capacity to use the co-constructed hybrid knowledge. We argue that engaging the relevant and interested actors in the process is key to understand margin of flexibility for dialogue between local users, scientific and policy makers and it is a base for ownership of local actors in decision making processes that facilitates effective soil-land governance. Finally, we discuss how wide institutional changes at different levels are needed to support agro-environmental policies for communities, small and medium farmers and to undertake new adaptive management strategies to cope with uncertainties of future changes.

  6. Approved Technical Electives for Astronautics Engineering Majors *Students on catalog year 2013 or after*

    E-print Network

    Approved Technical Electives for Astronautics Engineering Majors *Students on catalog year 2013 are subject to change #12;Approved Technical Electives for Astronautics Engineering Majors *Students #12;Exploration Course Options for Astronautics Engineering Majors Approved Exploration Course Options

  7. Introduction to Options 

    E-print Network

    Mintert, James R.; Welch, Mark

    2009-01-07

    are not predetermined, but rather are determined by the interaction of option buyers and sellers at the exchange. There are several important facts to remember when trading options. Most im- Mark Welch and James Mintert* 2 portant, trading a call option is completely.... When viewed as price insurance, option costs can be added to other production and marketing costs in determining a price objective. Hedgers can evaluate the cost of options trading and determine whether the implied price protection is worth...

  8. Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

  9. Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

    2006-01-01

    The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may force…

  10. The Environment and Health endorsed option focuses on physical and

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    protection, health promotion, health education, urban development, resource management, health policyThe Environment and Health endorsed option focuses on physical and social environments as determinants of individual and societal health. Environmental determinants of health status range from

  11. Finding the cheapest Clean power options

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, Thomas R.; Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2009-12-15

    Speculation about why policies favor high-cost low-carbon generation options could fill a book. Vested interests? Lack of knowledge? Industry lobbying? Cost-plus regulatory mentality? Regardless of reasons, the data show that efficient generation that uses energy twice is largely ignored. While all other generation, both clean and dirty, receives large subsidies, energy recycling is ignored. (author)

  12. Rethinking Worklife Options for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Jack, Ed.; Nusberg, Charlotte, Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that were presented at a conference addressing critical issues related to employment options for older persons. They are arranged in four sections that cover early retirement policies and their implications; older workers of Asia and the Pacific; the impact of technological change on the employment prospects of older…

  13. RCS program evaluation plan options

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.; Bayne, C.K.

    1980-10-01

    The Residential Conservation Service (RCS) Program evaluation plan is designed to provide an ongoing evaluation during the RCS Program's active period as well as a measurement of the RCS Program's cumulative effect after the program's termination. The study options described include utility case studies, random survey sampling, directed survey sampling, and remote data collection. Survey techniques are described and appropriate questions are suggested. Several sample selection criteria are included as background for a DOE policy decision on this issue. Present and anticipated data sources are listed and discussed. Statistical data analysis plans include a preliminary determination of required sample sizes.

  14. Option values of low carbon technology policies

    E-print Network

    Finon, Dominique; Meunier, Guy

    2012-06-19

    , and offshore windpower farms. These technologies require high upfront capital investments and long construction lead?times. Such new large?size technologies must undergo a long and risky transition stage before they become commercially...

  15. Expanding Policy Options for Educating Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading…

  16. Spasmodic Torticollis: Treatment Options

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Options Patient Support Treatment Options Medications Botulinum Toxin Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) Selective Denervation Surgery Physical ... Chemodenervation which involves injections using BOTOX®, (a botulinum toxin Type A manufactured by Allergan Inc.), DYSPORTt® (a ...

  17. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  18. Natural Gas Purchasing Options 

    E-print Network

    Watkins, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a result of economic and regulatory changes, the natural gas marketplace now offers multiple options for purchasers. The purpose of this panel is to discuss short-term purchasing options and how to take advantage of these options both to lower...

  19. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage level... and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level—The coverage level percentage contained in the actuarial documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO)...

  20. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... offered by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level. The... and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level. The coverage level percentage contained in the actuarial documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO)...

  1. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... offered by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level. The... and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level. The coverage level percentage contained in the actuarial documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO)...

  2. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... offered by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level. The... and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level. The coverage level percentage contained in the actuarial documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO)...

  3. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage level... and reinsured policies: Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level—The coverage level percentage contained in the actuarial documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO)...

  4. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level —The coverage level...documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO) is available and selected by you. This...percentage is applicable under the combined MPCI/CEO policy when losses under the MPCI...

  5. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Coverage Enhancement Option 1. Definitions CEO coverage level —The coverage level...documents where the Coverage Enhancement Option (CEO) is available and selected by you. This...percentage is applicable under the combined MPCI/CEO policy when losses under the MPCI...

  6. Federal Policies in Barrier Island Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, H. Crane

    1980-01-01

    Current federal policy towards barrier islands is ambivalent, both favoring and regulating development. Alternate policies are presently being examined by Congress and the Department of Interior. Several of these options are discussed in this article. (WB)

  7. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post-certification polio immunization. The break-even price of switching to IPV compared with continuing with OPV immunizations is US$ 0.50 per dose of IPV. However, this doses not account for the cost of vaccine-derived poliovirus cases resulting from the continued use of OPV. In addition to financial costs, risk assessments related to the re-emergence of polio will be major determinants of policy decisions. PMID:15106295

  8. Evaluating State Options for Reducing Medicaid Churning

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Katherine; Short, Pamela Farley; Graefe, Deborah R.; Uberoi, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    Medicaid churning - the constant exit and re-entry of beneficiaries as their eligibility changes - has long been a problem for both Medicaid administrators and recipients. Churning will continue under the Affordable Care Act, because despite new federal rules, Medicaid eligibility will continue to be based on current monthly income. We developed a longitudinal simulation model to evaluate four policy options for modifying or extending Medicaid eligibility to reduce churning. The simulations suggest that two options, extending Medicaid eligibility either to the end of a calendar year or for twelve months after enrollment, would be far more effective in reducing churning than the other options of a three-month extension or eligibility based on projected annual income. States should consider implementation of the option that best balances costs, including both administration and services, with improved health of Medicaid enrollees. PMID:26153313

  9. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  10. Options for lowering U.S. carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierbaum, Rosina M.; Friedman, Robert M.; Levenson, Howard; Rapoport, Richard D.; Sundt, Nick

    1992-03-01

    The United States can decrease its emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) to as much as 35 percent below 1987 levels within the next 25 years by adopting an aggressive package of policies crossing all sectors of the economy. Such emissions reductions will be difficult to achieve and may be costly, but no major technological breakthroughs are needed. In this paper, we identify a ``Tough'' package of energy conservation, energy supply, and forest managment practices to accomplish this level of emissions reductions. We also present a package of cost-effective, ``Moderate'' technical options, which if adopted, would hold CO2 emissions to about 15-percent increase over 1987 levels by 2015. In constrast, if the United State takes not new actions to curb energy use, CO2 emissions will likely rise 50 percent during that time. A variety of Federal policy initiatives will be required to achieve large reductions in U.S. CO2 emissions. Such policy actions will have to include both regulatory ``push'' and market ``pull'' mechanisms--including performance standards, tax incentive programs, carbon-emission or energy taxes, labeling and efficiency ratings, and research, development, and demostration activities.

  11. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...10-1324] Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who...captioned ``Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People who...and affordable wireless phone options. More specifically...the vast majority of mobile telephones are not...

  12. Capture-Ready Power Plants -Options, Technologies and Economics Mark C. Bohm

    E-print Network

    1 Capture-Ready Power Plants - Options, Technologies and Economics by Mark C. Bohm Bachelor and Policy Program #12;2 #12;3 Capture-ready Power Plants ­ Options, Technologies and Costs by Mark C. Bohm for the Degree of Master of Science in Technology and Policy ABSTRACT A plant can be considered to be capture

  13. Syrtis Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A prominent dark, triangular albedo feature (dark by contrast with its surroundings) on the Martian equator, centered approximately at 10 °N, 70 °E. It takes its name from the historical name for the larger of two quicksands off the North African coast. Syrtis Major is prominent in telescopic views of the planet, and was in fact the first feature of Mars ever to be recorded, in a sketch made by C...

  14. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  15. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  16. Option pricing for project evaluation: An introduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Read, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    An option is a contract that gives the holder the right to buy (or sell) an asset at a predetermined price on or before a specified date. Since it is a right rather than an obligation, the holder will exercise an option only if it is profitable to do so. Many characteristics of investment projects are analogous to option contracts. A power plant that can burn two types of fuel provides a fuel switching option, for example, since the manager can choose to burn the alternate fuel if it is more profitable (less costly) to do so. In the context of investment projects, an option is the flexibility to revise an investment or operating plan as new information becomes available. The options embedded in investment projects can be important sources of value. However, discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, which is the technique traditionally used for valuation purposes in utility planning, is ill-suited to the valuation of options. Fortunately, the theory and methods developed to price options in financial markets can be exploited to value the options embedded in investment projects too. This report provides an introduction to option pricing theory and methods from a project evaluation perspective. It also illustrates these valuation techniques by application to a set of electric utility planning problems. In contrast to conventional DCF analysis, option pricing provides insight into optimal management policy as well as project value.

  17. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  18. Electricity Real Options Valuation

    E-print Network

    Ewa Broszkiewicz-Suwaj

    2006-08-16

    In this paper a real option approach for the valuation of real assets is presented. Two continuous time models used for valuation are described: geometric Brownian motion model and interest rate model. The valuation for electricity spread option under Vasicek interest model is placed and the formulas for parameter estimators are calculated. The theoretical part is confronted with real data from electricity market.

  19. Vilazodone: a new treatment option for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Owen, R T

    2011-07-01

    Vilazodone hydrochloride belongs to a new class of antidepressants-the indolalkylamines-and has dual activity as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor. Its antidepressant activity has been demonstrated in two 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials and in a 1-year open-label study. None of these trials compared vilazodone with existing antidepressants; however, changes in depressive symptoms after vilazodone treatment were similar to those reported for SSRIs. The most common adverse events were diarrhea and nausea, although these were mild to moderate in severity and rarely a cause for discontinuation. No important clinical changes in vital signs, laboratory values, ECG morphology and sexual function were observed or reported. PMID:22013560

  20. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history, scientists were fascinated with Syrtis Major because this dark region varied so much through the seasons and years. Some people thought it might be a changing sea, and others thought it might be vegetation. Early spacecraft like Mariner and Viking revealed for the first time that the changes were caused by the wind blowing dust and sand across the surface. What we can see in this image is exactly that: evidence of a lot of wind action. Bright dust patches streak across this image, formed through wind interference from craters and other landforms. These wispy, bright streaks are spread on the surface by a vigorous, east-west wind that kicked up huge dust storms, scattering the fine particles of sand and dust in an almost etherial pattern. The bright streaks in the top part of the image might have formed in a slightly different way, because there is no landform standing in the wind's way. Beneath the bright surface dust are raised ridges that mark the edges of earlier lava flows from Nili Patera, a Martian 'caldera.' A caldera is a collapsed, bowl-shaped depression at the top of a volcano cone. Can you imagine how Christian Huygens would feel if he lived today and could see all of this knowledge unfold? Or how it would feel to be the first person to stand in this dark volcanic and cratered region, knowing how many discovers had paved the way to that moment? Yes, exploration lives!

  1. The City House and the Country House: Land-Use Policies and Rural Poverty in the Northeast. Coal, Poverty, and Development Policy in Eastern Kentucky. Development and Management of Forest Resources for Rural Development in the Pacific Northwest. Natural and Human Resources: Major Public Policy and Minority Rural Land Ownership, Management, and Use. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series, Part V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popper, Frank J.; And Others

    This workshop collection contains four case studies regarding particular relationships between specific resources and clientele or user groups, and three discussions based on those four papers and/or conference discussions. The first paper discusses urban land use origins and compares urban policies with rural policies suggesting that future rural…

  2. Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappu, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

  3. Assess Policy Retire Policy

    E-print Network

    Hammack, Richard

    . Incorporate feedback 11. Determine revision cycle no longer than 3 years 12. Submit draft policy & procedures. Incorporate feedback 9. Determine effective term no longer than 1 year 10. Submit draft interim policyAssess Policy Need Retire Policy Revise Policy Evaluate Effectiveness Enforce Compliance Educate

  4. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

  5. Expensing options solves nothing.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system. PMID:12510541

  6. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt has been traced back to an ancient Ethiopian word 'basal,' which means 'a rock from which you can obtain iron.' That must have made it a very desired material with ancient Earth civilizations long ago. Basalt is actually one of the most abundant types of rock found on Earth. Most of the volcanic islands in the ocean are made of basalt, including the large shield volcano of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, which is often compared to Martian shield volcanoes. Shield volcanoes don't have high, steep, mountain-like sides, but are instead low and broad humps upon the surface. They're created when highly fluid, molten-basalt flows spread out over wide areas. Over several millennia of basaltic layering upon layering, these volcanoes can reach massive sizes like the ones seen on Mars. You can see the wrinkly texture of dark lava flows (now hard and cool) in the above image beneath the brighter dust.

  7. SEATSAT programs option analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckl, L.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of the costs of SEASAT follow-on options is presented. All the options assume the existence of SEASAT-A as currently defined in the SEASAT Economic Assessment. It is assumed that each option will continue through the year 2000 and approach operational system status in the 1983-1986 period, depending upon the sensor package selected. The launch vehicle assumed through 1983 is the Atlas Agena. After 1983, it is assumed SEASAT-A will switch to the use of the Space Shuttle. All cost estimates are 1976 dollars for fiscal year cost accounting, with no inflation rate included.

  8. The diet game. Weighing the options.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, D.

    1993-01-01

    As a major source of nutrition information for the public, physicians have a responsibility to assist their patients to make safe choices about weight loss programs. While most diet programs result in weight loss, the "quick fix" potentially is harmful. This article describes weight control options and their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:8471909

  9. 17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., any transaction in interstate commerce that is a commodity option transaction, provided that: (1) Such... Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants) of this chapter; and (5) Section 4s(e) of the Act... commerce pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall remain subject to part 180 (Prohibition...

  10. 17 CFR 32.3 - Trade options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., any transaction in interstate commerce that is a commodity option transaction, Provided that: (1) Such... Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants) of this chapter; and (5) Section 4s(e) of the Act... commerce pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section shall remain subject to part 180 (Prohibition...

  11. Interdisciplinary Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Interdisciplinary Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet 2008-2010 Semester Catalog Revised for a Computer Science major, please consult the 2008-2010 Undergraduate Bulletin or check out www@cs.montana.edu). #12;1. Required Computer Science Courses COURSE TITLE CREDITS SUBSTITUTE COURSE SUBSTITUTE CREDITS

  12. Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet 2014-2016 Semester Catalog Revised 06 for a Computer Science major, please check out www.montana.edu/wwwcat/programs/cs.html. · This is a complex form@cs.montana.edu). #12;1. Required Computer Science Courses COURSE TITLE CREDITS SUBSTITUTE COURSE SUBSTITUTE CREDITS

  13. Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet 2012-2014 Semester Catalog Revised 05 for a Computer Science major, please check out www.montana.edu/wwwcat/programs/cs.html. · This is a complex form@cs.montana.edu). #12;1. Required Computer Science Courses COURSE TITLE CREDITS SUBSTITUTE COURSE SUBSTITUTE CREDITS

  14. Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet 2008-2010 Semester Catalog Revised 06 for a Computer Science major, please consult the 2008-2010 Undergraduate Bulletin or check out www@cs.montana.edu). #12;1. Required Computer Science Courses COURSE TITLE CREDITS SUBSTITUTE COURSE SUBSTITUTE CREDITS

  15. Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Professional Option Computer Science Graduation Worksheet 2010-2012 Semester Catalog Revised 08 for a Computer Science major, please consult the 2010-2012 Undergraduate Bulletin or check out www@cs.montana.edu). #12;1. Required Computer Science Courses COURSE TITLE CREDITS SUBSTITUTE COURSE SUBSTITUTE CREDITS

  16. SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND, TEXAS

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    1 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND, TEXAS ASHLEY E. FREY1 , ANDREW MORANG1 , DAVID.C.Thomas@usace.army.mil Abstract: Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth while the beach west of the Seawall has severely eroded. In order to protect the island and ensure

  17. Policy on Gender Neutral Housing Policy on Gender-Neutral

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Gender Neutral Housing 10/01/2013 Policy on Gender-Neutral Housing I. Purpose and Scope Gender-neutral housing gives students the option to reside with another student, regardless of sex, gender, gender identity or gender expression. II. Definitions Gender-neutral housing is defined

  18. italian studies at rutgers MAJOR / MINOR

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    italian studies at rutgers MAJOR / MINOR Italian Studies Major This option is designed to provide and the Italian diaspora from antiquity through the present. It consists of 36 credits, distributed as follows. Five courses are taken in Italian language and/or literature, beginning at the level of 560

  19. Global plutonium management: A security option

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

  20. Cogeneration System Design Options 

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    , engine, turbine, generator, switchgear, and balance of plant can be bewildering. This paper presents an overview and a systematic approach to the basic system alternatives and attributes. The presentation illustrates how these options match the electrical...

  1. Mathematics & Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    ) Mathematics and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Biblical Studies Classical Studies Economics Modern History Philosophy Psychology RussianW Scottish History SpanishW Theological Studies Mathematics132 Mathematics & Statistics Degree options MMath (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Applied

  2. Insecticide Options for

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    Insecticide Options for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer Daniel A. Herms, Deborah G. Mc for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer (Second Edition) is funded in part by the USDA-NIFA North Central for Protecting Ash Trees from Emerald Ash Borer #12;InsectIcIde OptIOns fOr prOtectIng Ash trees frOm emerald Ash

  3. Physical Therapy Career Options Human Biology Health & Society (HBHS)

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    65 Physical Therapy Career Options Human Biology Health & Society (HBHS) Nutritional Sciences ­ CHE-CALS) ________________________________________________________________________________________ Many NS-CHE, NS-CALS and HBHS majors consider physical therapy as a career option because, performance and rehabilitation. The pathway to a career in physical therapy for Cornell undergraduates

  4. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  5. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  6. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence of rail is restricted to approximately twelve, without upgrading public highways. There is high uncertainty as to what road upgrades and security/escorts the Nevada Department of Transportation would require to obtain an overweight/overdimensional permit. In addition, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program has indicated that a larger cask weight than that analyzed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement may be required for naval shipments, resulting in additional costs for heavy-haul transport. These uncertainties result in a high cost and schedule risk. Option 3 assumes that the start of rail construction will be delayed until after construction authorization is received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Similar to Option 2, Option 3 uses legal-weight truck shipments and limited heavy haul truck shipments to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as Option 1, until rail becomes available. By using heavy-haul truck for two years, Option 3 contains the same uncertainties and resultant high cost and schedule risk as Option 2. The cost and schedule of legal-weight truck transport are not included in this report as that will be evaluated in the report on national transportation.

  7. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-05-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  8. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  9. Environmental Science, Policy, and Undergraduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Undergraduate Handbook 2008-2009 MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY A BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES MAJOR Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management/01/08 #12;2 Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Undergraduate Affairs CONTACT INFORMATION Walk

  10. Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Undergraduate Handbook

    E-print Network

    Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Undergraduate Handbook 2010-2011 CONSERVATION AND RESOURCE STUDIES AN INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES MAJOR Department of Environmental Science, Policy January 2011 #12;2 Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Undergraduate Affairs CONTACT INFORMATION

  11. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  12. 14.74 Foundations of Development Policy, Spring 2004

    E-print Network

    Duflo, Esther, 1972-

    Explores the foundations of policy making in developing countries. Goal is to spell out various policy options and to quantify the trade-offs between them. Special emphasis on education, health, gender, fertility, adoption ...

  13. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Lafayette Centre, 1155 21st Street NW., Washington, DC 20581. Courier: Same as mail above. Federal e... Contract Participants and Trade Options d. FERC-Regulated Transactions e. Deleting the Dealer Option... From General Swaps Rules b. Offeror c. Offeree d. Physical Commodity Option e. Trade Option...

  14. 48 CFR 234.7002 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Acquisition of Major Weapon Systems as Commercial Items 234.7002 Policy. (a) Major weapon systems. (1) A DoD major weapon system may be treated as a commercial item, or acquired...

  15. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  16. A Menu of Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Armed with a few topical and organizational strategies, primary grade teachers can successfully introduce their young scientists to science notebooks. The following overview of notebook methods offers a menu of options to help you develop creative and meaningful science notebook experiences. Choose and customize what works for your classroom to…

  17. Film Studies Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Film Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degrees) Film Studies MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Film Studies and one of: Ancient History Arabic Art History Biblical Studies Classical Studies Philosophy Psychology RussianW Scottish History Social Anthropology SpanishW Theological Studies Film

  18. Film Studies Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    102 Film Studies Degree options MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Film Studies and one of: Ancient History Anthropology SpanishW Theological Studies FilmStudieswww.st-andrews.ac.uk/filmstudies Features * The Department of Film Studies consistently receives excellent ratings of student satisfaction in course evaluations

  19. Computer Science Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    44 Computer Science Degree options MSc (One Year) Coursework & 15,000-word Dissertation Advanced Computer Science Artificial Intelligence Computing and Information Technology Human Computer Interaction and Human Computer Interaction seminar series. * You will be a part of SICSA, the Scottish Information

  20. Sustainable Office Lighting Options

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Sustainable Office Lighting Options Task Lighting: Task lighting is a localized method of lighting a workspace so that additional, unnecessary lighting is eliminated, decreasing energy usage and costs. Illumination levels in the targeted work areas are higher with task lighting than with the ambient levels

  1. ARSENIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PPT presentation will provide information on the drinking water treatment options for small utilities to remove arsenic from ground water. The discussion will include information on the EPA BAT listed processes and on some of the newer technologies, such as the iron based ad...

  2. CFB repowering options

    SciTech Connect

    Gittinger, J.

    1996-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed CFB repowering options are summarized. The following topics are discussed: why repower with CFB technology; advantages of repowering; two forms of of repowering; B and N`s internal recirculation CFB; space-saving design features; cost-saving design features; Ukrainian repowering project; and candidates for repowering.

  3. Physics & Astronomy Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    138 Physics & Astronomy Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics MPhys in Mathematics Physics and Astronomy (Gateway and International Gateway) Entry For UK students with high academic science qualifications. Do I need previous knowledge of this subject? ­ Yes, see above. Physics&Astronomy

  4. Physics & Astronomy Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    148 Physics & Astronomy Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Astrophysics Physics MPhys AND HL7 in Mathematics Physics and Astronomy (Gateway and International Gateway) Entry For UK students. Physics&Astronomy Subject enquiries Dr Kenny Wood E: physics@st-andrews.ac.uk Features * The nature

  5. Our Energy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  6. Computer Science Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    74 Computer Science Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Computer Science and one of: Economics Philosophy* Management Management Science * The title and content of BSc Philosophy is under review. MSci (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science Entrance

  7. Computer Science Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    82 Computer Science Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science BSc (Joint Honours Degrees) Computer Science and one of: Economics Logic and Philosophy of Science Management Management Science MSci (Single Honours Degree) Computer Science Entrance Requirements (see also pages 164 - 205

  8. Art History Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    ItalianW Management Mathematics Mediaeval History Middle East Studies Modern History Philosophy Psychology66 Art History Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Art History MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Art History and one of: Ancient History Arabic Biblical Studies Classical Studies Comparative Literature

  9. Mathematics & Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    ItalianW Latin Mediaeval History Mathematics& Statistics Psychology www.st-andrews.ac.uk/maths Mathematics with SpanishW School of Mathematics & Statistics Physics Psychology Philosophy* Psychology Modern History122 Mathematics & Statistics Degree options MMath (Single Honours Degrees) Mathematics Applied

  10. Art History Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    .st-andrews.ac.uk/arthistory International Relations ItalianW Management Mathematics Mediaeval History Middle East Studies Modern History58 Art History Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) Art History MA (Joint Honours Degrees) Art History and one of: Ancient History Arabic Biblical Studies Classical Studies Comparative Literature

  11. Name: Major: Minor: ____________________

    E-print Network

    Ashline, George

    Name: Major: Major: Minor: ____________________ Advisor: Advisor: Minor: I. MAJOR COURSES (list all: ______________ Current Overall GPA: (2.9 required) Advisor's Signature:___________________________________________________ Date:_____________________________ 2nd Major Advisor's Signature

  12. Energy, Product, and Economic Implications of Environmental Compliance Options- A Southern California Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Kyricopoulos, P. F.; Dennison, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    to selecting an option to implement. We discuss how the options are assembled into an array of coping strategies for environmental compliance. This work is part of an ongoing project to develop a database of regulations and technology options. (A major Southern...

  13. Economic impact of accelerated cleanup on regions surrounding the U.S. DOE's major nuclear weapons sites.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Solitare, L; Frisch, M; Lowrie, K

    1999-08-01

    The regional economic impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's accelerated environmental cleanup plan are estimated for the major nuclear weapons sites in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The analysis shows that the impact falls heavily on the three relatively rural regions around the Savannah River (SC), Hanford (WA), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ID) sites. A less aggressive phase-down of environmental management funds and separate funds to invest in education and infrastructure in the regions helps buffer the impacts on jobs, personal income, and gross regional product. Policy options open to the federal and state and local governments are discussed. PMID:10765427

  14. Policy Scientificity 3.0: Theory and Policy Analysis in-and-for This World and Other-Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemologies and ontologies of education policy studies. Our aim is to posit a reinvigoration of policy studies to hedge against undue ossification and co-option of critical policy studies. We do so by arguing for the need to develop new concepts for policy studies using the "posts" (e.g., post-structuralism and…

  15. CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted in accordance with all

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    CELL PHONE ALLOWANCE POLICY All Cell Phone Allowance Policies and Procedures must be conducted://hr.ucf.edu/current-employees/pay-practices-information/ Select Cell Phone Allowance Request Form A good reference for Cell Phone Payroll FAQs (for Policy 4 FAQ under Cell Phone If Option 2 of University Policy 4-009.2 is chosen, please go to F&A website at

  16. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  17. OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

  18. Foreign workers recruiting policies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, T

    1996-01-01

    "This article presents the basic characteristics of the foreign workers recruiting policy in Japan, which consists [of] barring entry to unskilled workers, and confronts it with the actual tolerance for a large number of illegal unskilled workers. After a historical overview of the reasons for the current policy, the article examines elements which reveal that a seclusionist policy is based on mistaken assumptions and reviews policy options to deal with the issue of illegal migration." PMID:12320771

  19. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures. PMID:22783610

  20. Used nuclear fuel storage options including implications of small modular reactors

    E-print Network

    Brinton, Samuel O. (Samuel Otis)

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses two aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle system with significant policy implications. The first is the preferred option for used fuel storage based on economics: local, regional or national storage. The ...

  1. Wake Forest U. Joins Ranks of Test-Optional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    Wake Forest University will no longer require applicants to submit standardized test scores, the university announced last week. The move makes Wake Forest, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, one of the most prominent institutions with a "test optional" admissions policy. The university's decision reveals the increasing complexity of the national…

  2. Management options of varicoceles

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy. PMID:21716892

  3. The Window Strategy with Options 

    E-print Network

    McCorkle, Dean; Amosson, Stephen H.; Fausett, Marvin

    1999-06-23

    The window strategy is one of several marketing strategies using futures and options to establish a floor price and allow for upside price potential. It also reduces option premium costs. This publication discusses how the window strategy works...

  4. Interpolation and American options pricing

    E-print Network

    Lyuu, Yuh-Dauh

    -form solution of the European option has already been derived by Fischer Black, Myron Scholes, and Robert Merton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.1 The Balck-Scholes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2.2 Binomial Option

  5. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  6. Novel operative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, D N J; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    There are an increasing number of more novel options available for operative intervention. This chapter outlines a series of operative treatment options which are available to the modern clinician to select from once a decision has been made to treat a carious lesion operatively. A series of novel methods of caries removal have been described; including chemomechanical caries removal, air abrasion, sono-abrasion, polymer rotary burs and lasers. There are also novel approaches to ensure complete caries removal and novel approaches for the management of deep caries. A novel question increasingly asked by clinicians is: does all the caries need to be removed? Operative management options here include: therapeutic fissure sealants, ultraconservative caries removal, stepwise excavation and the Hall technique. In conclusion, there is now a growing wealth of evidence that questions the traditional methods of caries removal and restoring the tooth. In parallel, there is a growing movement exploring the merits of therapeutically sealing caries into the tooth. This philosophy is alien to many of today's dentists and, until further randomized controlled trials are carried out in primary care, prudent caution must be exercised with this promising approach. Research is required into techniques which will allow monitoring of sealed caries to detect any rare, but insidious, failures. These novel techniques are an alternative way of managing the later stages of the caries process from a sounder biological basis and have marked potential benefits to patients from treatment, pain and outcome perspectives. PMID:19494685

  7. Factors Affecting Option Premium Values 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Jason; Smith, Jackie; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.; Waller, Mark L.

    1999-06-23

    Black and Myron Scholes in 1973. There are also computerized software versions of this type of analysis that estimate option premiums as the futures price, time to expiration, volatility, and interest rates change. Option Values at Expiration An option... margin account and meet margin calls if the market moves against the option seller?s position. Premiums are determined by open outcry in the trading pits of commodity exchanges such as the Chicago Board of Trade, New York Cotton Exchange, Chicago...

  8. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  9. Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Nutrition Science Option The nutrition science option is designed to prepare a student for admission to medical (allopathic or osteopathic), dental, or graduate school with an emphasis on nutrition and biochemistry. A student can earn

  10. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-10-03

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

  11. Environmental and Resource Studies (ERS) Program Formal Degree Options

    E-print Network

    Fox, Michael

    major, or minor B.Sc. in Water Sciences 4 years; single major B.Sc. in Environmental Chemistry 3 or 4Environmental and Resource Studies (ERS) Program Formal Degree Options Bachelor of Environmental-University DegreesOffered through the ERS Program B.Sc. in Environmental & Resource Science 4 years; single/joint1

  12. Flexible Work Schedule Procedure Policy Statement

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    - 1 - Flexible Work Schedule Procedure Policy Statement It has been the practice of UNLV to allow the use of flexible work schedules where it is a viable management work option, and based institutional requirements. The University recognizes how such work options have benefited employees when both

  13. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  14. Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

  15. Arsenic contaminated groundwater and its treatment options in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S M; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  16. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  17. Handbook of Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

  18. Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major The Department of Health and Human Development offers a major in the study of food and nutrition. Students who choose the nutrition science://catalog.montana.edu/undergraduate/education-health- human-development/health-human-development/food-nutrition-major- dietetics-option) is designed

  19. Biological Systems Engineering Major Summer 2014 through Spring 2016

    E-print Network

    Bohnhoff, David

    Biological Systems Engineering Major Summer 2014 through Spring 2016 UndergraduateStudentHandbook #12;2014-16 Undergraduate Student Handbook for Biological Systems Engineering Majors, University Obtaining Credit for Work Experience Finding Employment Benefits of Coops/Internships Programming Policies

  20. Biological Systems Engineering Major Summer 2015 through Spring 2016

    E-print Network

    Bohnhoff, David

    Biological Systems Engineering Major Summer 2015 through Spring 2016 UndergraduateStudentHandbook #12;2014-16 Undergraduate Student Handbook for Biological Systems Engineering Majors, University Obtaining Credit for Work Experience Finding Employment Benefits of Coops/Internships Programming Policies

  1. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action. PMID:26673650

  2. 41COLLEGE POLICIES College Policies

    E-print Network

    Wenderholm, Elaine

    41COLLEGE POLICIES College Policies Academic and Grade Appeal Process.............................................................74 Student Health Insurance ..............................................................76 HIV-Discrimination Policy ...................................................................92 Parking

  3. Change-Impact Analysis of Firewall Policies Alex X. Liu

    E-print Network

    Liu, Alex X.

    , consequences. A major source of policy errors stem from policy changes. Firewall policies often needChange-Impact Analysis of Firewall Policies Alex X. Liu Department of Computer Science of its policy (i.e., configuration). Due to the lack of tools for analyzing firewall policies, most

  4. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions. PMID:1434557

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  6. Special Divisional Majors 1 Special Divisional Majors

    E-print Network

    Post, David M.

    prevail. Some majors combine two disciplines (e.g., music and English, religious studies and anthropology Major," without specifying the student's field of concentration. Before applying for a Special

  7. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  8. Financial Policy Manual ACCOUNTING POLICIES

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    is to account for resources in accordance with objectives established by the Trustees, management, donorsFinancial Policy Manual Page 1 ACCOUNTING POLICIES 1101 General Accounting Policy ­ University Financial Activity 1102 General Accounting Policy ­ Financial Resources 1103 Accounting System Maintenance

  9. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  10. RTP as an Optional Service: It's Alive, But Is It Well?

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Economists have advocated for real-time pricing (RTP) of electricity on the basis of the gains in economic efficiency that would result from charging customers the contemporaneous marginal cost of supplying electricity instead of the average cost. In recent years, RTP has also become the subject of interest in a variety of policy contexts, including integrated resource planning initiatives, ongoing efforts to improve efficiency and reliability in competitive electricity markets, and implementation of default service in states with retail choice. Most experience with RTP has been as an optional service, that is, a self-selecting alternative to the standard utility service. By our count, approximately 70 utilities in the U.S. offered an optional RTP program at some point over the past 20 years. However, many programs are now defunct. In 2003, 47 utilities in the U.S. were still offering an optional RTP program, on either a pilot or permanent basis (see Figure 1). In addition, 10 utilities in states with retail choice currently offer RTP as the default service for large customers that are not under contract with a competitive supplier. Another two utilities have received regulatory approval to do so in the next few years. Although the results of a few optional RTP programs have been publicized, the vast majority of programs have operated in relative obscurity. To provide a wider perspective on utility and customer experience with RTP, we surveyed 43 optional RTP programs offered in 2003. We interviewed RTP program managers and other utility staff, and reviewed publicly available sources, including key regulatory documents and program evaluations. Based on this research, we identified trends related to RTP program history and outlook, program design and implementation, customer participation, and participant price response. The results are both surprising and instructive. We conclude that RTP is indeed alive but is not prospering as well it could. Thus, we offer a number of recommendations for policymakers and utilities that are considering optional RTP as a strategy for developing price responsive demand.

  11. Management of major system programs and projects. Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Handbook establishes the detailed policies and processes for implementing NMI 7120.4, 'Management of Major System Programs and Projects'. It constitutes a comprehensive source of the specific policies and processes governing management of major development programs/projects and is intended as a resource to the entire program/project management (PPM) community.

  12. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  13. NCLB Transfer Policy Seen as Flawed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This article examines what some people see as flaws in the transfer policy provision of the No Child Left Behind law. Advocates of the policy are calling for providing schools with incentives to accept transfers and for giving parents more time, information, and options, among other changes. States need to hold districts' feet to the fire, those…

  14. Lecture outline What is a policy?

    E-print Network

    Powell, Warren B.

    is a policy? 1) Policy function approximations (PFAs) » Lookup table · Recharge the battery between 2am and 6am each morning, and discharge as needed. » Parameterized functions · Recharge the battery when be organized into major groups: » Policy function approximations (PFAs) » Policies based on cost function

  15. TOPEX satellite option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic design of the fleet satellite communication spacecraft (FLTSATCOM) can easily accommodate any of the three payload options for the ocean dynamic topography experiment (TOPEX). The principal mission requirements as well as the payload accommodations and communications systems needed for launching this payload are reviewed. The existing FLTSATCOM satellite design is identified and the approaches for the proposed propulsion system are described in addition to subsystems for mechanical; power; attitude and velocity control; and telemetry, tracking and control are described. The compatability of FLTSATCOM with the launch vehicle is examined and its capabilities vs TOPEX requirements are summarized. Undetermined changes needed to meet data storage, thermal control, and area to mass ratio requirements are discussed. Cost estimates are included for budgetary and planning purposes. The availability of the described design is assessed based on the continuing production of FLTSATCOM spacecraft during the schedule span planned for TOPEX.

  16. Achalasia: current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Familiari, Pietro; Greco, Santi; Volkanovska, Ance; Gigante, Giovanni; Cali, Anna; Boškoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder, characterized by impaired swallow-induced, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and defective esophageal peristalsis. Unfortunately, there are no etiological therapies for achalasia. Patients present with dysphagia, chest pain and regurgitation of undigested food, often leading to weight loss. The currently available treatments have the common aim of relieving symptoms by decreasing the pressure of the LES. This can be achieved with some medications, by inhibiting the cholinergic innervation (botulinum toxin), by stretching (endoscopic dilation) or cutting (surgery) the LES. Recently, other therapeutic options, including per-oral endoscopic myotomy have been developed and are gaining international consensus. The authors report on the benefits and weaknesses of the different therapies and provide an updated approach to the management of achalasia. PMID:26186641

  17. Early amplification options.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed. PMID:14648816

  18. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

  19. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement;...

  20. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED State Supplementation Provisions; Agreement;...

  1. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  2. Pro-poor health policies in poverty reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Laterveer, Leontien; Niessen, Louis W; Yazbeck, Abdo S

    2003-06-01

    Since 1999, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank have required low-income countries soliciting for debt relief and financial support to prepare a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The objective of this study is to arrive at a systematic assessment of the extent to which the first batch of interim PRSPs actually addresses the health of the poor and vulnerable. A literature study was used to design and test a semi-quantitative approach to assess the pro-poor focus of health policies in national documents. The approach was applied to the existing interim proposals for 23 Highly Indebted Poor Countries. Results show that a majority of proposals lack country-specific data on the distribution and composition of the burden of disease, a clear identification of health system constraints and an assessment of the impact of health services on the population. More importantly, they make little effort to analyze these issues in relation to the poor. Furthermore, only a small group explicitly includes the interests of the poor in health policy design. Attention to policies aiming at enhancing equity in public health spending is even more limited. Few papers that include expenditure proposals also show pro-poor focused health budgets. We conclude that our systematic assessment of a new international development policy instrument, PRSP, raises strong concerns about the attributed role of health in development and the limited emphasis on the poor, the supposed primary beneficiaries of this instrument. There is a need and an opportunity for the international development community to provide assistance and inputs as poor countries shift their policy thinking from an interim stage to fully developed national policies. This paper presents a menu of analytical and policy options that can be pursued. PMID:12740318

  3. The Reagan Administration: Adult Literacy, Present Policy and Future Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolenbrander, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the Reagan Administration's policy toward adult literacy, taking information from a series of interviews with persons involved in the formulation of federal adult literacy policy. He also presents some options within the policy preferences of the Reagan Administration and some possibilities for consideration by future…

  4. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009a [NRC/IOM, 2009a]) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown that incidence of major depressive episodes can be significantly reduced. Meta-analyses suggest that 22% to 38% of major depressive episodes could be prevented with currently available methods. We argue that, if major depressive episodes can be prevented, the health care system should provide routine access to evidence-based depression prevention interventions, just as it provides inoculations for other common and debilitating health problems. At the same time, researchers should pursue the major directions advocated by the IOM report to increase the enduring effectiveness of future prevention interventions. These directions include taking a developmental perspective, learning to identify groups at high risk, and testing evidence-based interventions that are likely to have the widest reach. Scientific evidence has shown that clinical depression can be averted. Our societies must take action to reduce clinical depression to the lowest possible level. PMID:22583342

  5. Energy Options for Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tratner, Karen Lee

    Produced for public interest, the Environmental Education Group has prepared this two-part review of the current state of energy utilization, the nature of the energy crisis, and approaches to energy production. The major section is a presentation of alternative sources of energy that are neglected, are of possible aid in the near future, or are…

  6. Energy options: the practical and the promising

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A review of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, geothermal, and ocean thermal gradients); advanced technologies for fuel cells, cogeneration, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion; and synthetic fuels from coal gasification or liquefaction shale oil, and tar sands explores US options for supplanting fossil fuels and developing the electric power necessary for economic growth. The DOE projects that renewables will contribute only 3% of power generated by the year 2000, while the advanced technologies will only make a significant contribution in the 21st century. Coal and nuclear energy are the major energy sources for the interim until promising alternatives prove to be practical. 17 references.

  7. A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a geometry…

  8. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY UTILITY DESIGN: OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    SUSTAINABLE ENERGY UTILITY DESIGN: OPTIONS FOR THE CITY OF SEOUL FINAL REPORT TO SEOUL DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE APRIL 2008 #12;#12;SUSTAINABLE ENERGY UTILITY DESIGN: OPTIONS FOR THE CITY OF SEOUL Final Report....................................................................................i 1. A New Model for Sustainable Energy Service Delivery.....................1 2. Learning form

  9. Communication Needs and Integration Options

    E-print Network

    Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Future Grid Initiative White System #12;Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Prepared for the Project the current state of communications for the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and recommends

  10. Communication Needs and Integration Options

    E-print Network

    Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Future Grid Initiative White Paper Power Systems Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;Communication Needs and Integration Options for AMI in the Smart Grid Prepared for the Project

  11. Problem Patrons: Reviewing Your Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Considers possible options for public librarians dealing with problem patrons. Highlights include considering the safety of the patrons and staff; general considerations of library security, including security guards, legal responsibility for patrons and staff safety; and working through possible options ahead of time to be more prepared. (LRW)

  12. AFCI Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  13. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  14. Financial Policy Manual GIFT POLICIES

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 GIFT POLICIES 2201 Gift Date Policy 2202 Gift Receipt Policy 2203 Gift Valuation for Publicly-Traded Securities 2204 Gifts of Securities (liquid) 2205 Gifts of Service 2206 Illiquid Gift Acceptance Policy 2207 Gifts in Kind 2208 Gifts of Currency 2209 Gifts of Insurance

  15. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  16. All UNH students are welcome to declare a Theatre & Dance major.

    E-print Network

    / / Theatre Dance & #12;All UNH students are welcome to declare a Theatre & Dance major. Through Dance as an Option, or select an Emphasis in one of seven areas: Option: Dance Major Emphases: General Youth Drama in Special Education Minors: Theatre Musical Theatre Dance Youth Drama Graduate Degrees

  17. Religious StudiesMAJOR MAP FOR UNDERGRADUATES Get to know

    E-print Network

    Religious StudiesMAJOR MAP FOR UNDERGRADUATES Get to know RELIGIOUS STUDIES Religion plays and effectively. Degree OPTIONS Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Major / Medial / Minor Bachelor of Arts (General matters through courses such as Religion and Violence, Religion and Sport, Mythology of the Ancient Near

  18. The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

  19. Brandeis University Creative Writing current number of majors

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    options are orga nized throughout the year. Internships Creative writing majors have held intern ships was invited to the New York State Summer Writers' Institute. recent graduates have interned for a year and philosophy. Double majors have ranged from the humanities to neuroscience, biology, math, computer science

  20. A Study on Administrators' Perceptions of the Optional Flexible Year Program: School Improvement Effort in a Rural Texas School District 

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Melanie Arrington

    2015-08-06

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine how administrators from a single, rural school district in southeast Texas experienced the implementation of a reform policy, the Optional Flexible Year Program (OFYP), during 2007 through 2012...

  1. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  2. Transportation Business Plan: strategy options document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    This document provides the framework for development of a business plan for establishing and operating the transportation system necessary to support a repository. Section I contains introductory material and defines the plan in terms of policy basis, purpose, and scope of business activities. Section II discusses the evolving strategy that will direct the Department's business actions and describes various strategy options that are under consideration. Also discussed in Section II is a process for the systematic development and acquisition of the transportation system. This process is based on a phased development approach with business activities divided into four stages: system definition; engineering development and certification; cask fleet procurement and carrier negotiations; and transportation operations. 8 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Sustainable Building Policy 1 3/17/2005 Sustainable Building Policy University Facilities POLICY 9 in them through every major building project. Contained in the policy are procedures, responsibilities that will be LEED certified, and those that will adhere to sustainable building practices. 1.0 Sustainable Building

  4. Making real options really work.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets. PMID:15605572

  5. Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program. Part 2: User and programmer documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    User and programmer oriented documentation for the flexible body option of the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program are provided. The user information provides sufficient knowledge of the development and use of the option to enable the engineering user to successfully operate the modified program and understand the results. The programmer's information describes the option structure and logic enabling a programmer to make major revisions to this part of the TOLA computer program.

  6. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  7. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  8. School of Art -Montana State University GRAPHIC DESIGN OPTION

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    School of Art - Montana State University GRAPHIC DESIGN OPTION 120 credits are required must be taken in sequence. Graphic Design majors must pass portfolio review before going on to 300, GDSN 371 Motion Graphics, GDSN 372 Adv. Web Design, GDSN 373 Illustration, GDSN 374 Digital

  9. Pharmaceutical policy reform in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Caroline; Vandoros, Sotiris; Antoun, Joseph George

    2014-06-01

    Of Russia's 142 million citizens, fewer than 20 million are enrolled in outpatient drug coverage plans. The current government aims to establish universal health insurance including outpatient medicines. Based on the current political and regulatory environment, this report explores pharmaceutical pricing options for Russia that balance greater access to medicines with achieving government plans of boosting local pharmaceutical production. To match innovative medicine prices with their health benefits, in the long run, we suggest that Russia consider adopting value-based pricing, and in the short term, that it introduce direct price negotiations and price drugs according to reference countries that use health technology assessment. Although generic market shares are high, generic medicine prices are higher than they should be. We propose tenders at the manufacturer level for the pricing of high-selling generics, and free pricing for products with sufficient market competition. These policy recommendations are a jumping-off point for further discussion about how pharmaceutical policy could aid this major economy to achieve its population health and health service goals. PMID:24603082

  10. current number of majors and minors: 82

    E-print Network

    Hickey, Timothy J.

    ARch Language study Courses offer a full range of language instruction in Japanese and Chinese, including Popular second majors: anthropology; biology; economics; fine arts; health: science, society and policy; history; politics Website: brandeis.edu/programs/eastasia about the program east asian studies

  11. Major concepts of health care economics.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Victor R

    2015-03-01

    This article applies major economic concepts, such as supply, demand, monopoly, monopsony, adverse selection, and moral hazard, to central features of U.S. health care. These illustrations help explain some of the principal problems of health policy-high cost and the uninsured-and why solutions are difficult to obtain. PMID:25732280

  12. The Test-Optional Movement at America's Selective Liberal Arts Colleges: A Boon for Equity or Something Else?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Andrew S.; Rosinger, Kelly O.; Hearn, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The test-optional movement in the United States emerged largely in response to criticism of standardized admissions tests as inadequate and potentially biased measures of postsecondary promise. Although anecdotal reports suggest that test-optional policies have improved campus diversity, empirical research has not yet confirmed this claim.…

  13. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  14. 78 FR 35559 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...1545-BA53 Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by...that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not cause the recognition of...

  15. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917.207 Federal...CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a...

  16. 78 FR 17868 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ...1545-BA53 Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue...to the tax treatment of noncompensatory options and convertible instruments issued by...that the exercise of a noncompensatory option does not cause the recognition of...

  17. 48 CFR 2917.207 - Exercising options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exercising options. 2917.207 Section 2917.207 Federal...CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 2917.207 Exercising options. The contracting officer must use a...

  18. Financing School Infrastructure: What Are the Options?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes local, state, and federal school infrastructure funding options. Local funding options include bond issues, special local-option sales taxes, and voter-approved mills and sinking funds. Describes use of federal Qualified Zone Academy Bonds. (PKP)

  19. Group status drives majority and minority integration preferences.

    PubMed

    Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F; Mania, Eric W; Guerra, Rita; Wilson, David C; Friel, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    This research examined preferences for national- and campus-level assimilative and pluralistic policies among Black and White students under different contexts, as majority- and minority-group members. We targeted attitudes at two universities, one where 85% of the student body is White, and another where 76% of students are Black. The results revealed that when a group constituted the majority, its members generally preferred assimilationist policies, and when a group constituted the minority, its members generally preferred pluralistic policies. The results support a functional perspective: Both majority and minority groups seek to protect and enhance their collective identities. PMID:22173737

  20. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313...) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major regulatory... major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May cause a near-term net...

  1. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313...) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major regulatory... major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May cause a near-term net...

  2. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313...) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major regulatory... major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May cause a near-term net...

  3. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313...) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major regulatory... major regulatory action requiring an energy statement, if it: (1) May cause a near-term net...

  4. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Tests or procedures that examine the skin ... and is not helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for ...

  6. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Tracy R.

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  7. Policies for whom? Realities of the Romanian Peasantry beyond the Common Agricultural Policy 

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez Beperet, Maria

    2014-11-27

    Since its origins in 1962, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been a keystone of the European political framework. Conceived to support agriculture and rural development, this policy has followed two major trends: ...

  8. Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Golden, Kenneth M.

    Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet NAME: _______________________________ STUDENT ID Required: 1010 Culture and the Human Experience [BF} / 3001 Anthropology as a Major and Career / 1 Two From) [BF] / 1050 Evolution of Human Nature [SF] / 1070 Introduction to Linguistics in Anthropology / Two

  9. Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet

    E-print Network

    Tipple, Brett

    Anthropology Major Advising Worksheet NAME: ________________________________ STUDENT ID Required: 1010 Culture and the Human Experience [BF] / 3001 Anthropology as a Major and Career / 1 Two From be retaken for abetter gradeAnthropology hours required: This can include ANY

  10. Federal Tax Policy Towards Energy

    E-print Network

    Metcalf, Gilbert E.

    On Aug. 8, 2005, President Bush signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (PL 109-58). This was the first major piece of energy legislation enacted since 1992 following five years of Congressional efforts to pass energy ...

  11. SFA MAJOR REQUIREMENTS SFA Corrections major requires

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    1301. Note 2 3 hrs of math from New Core or: MTH 110,MATH 1316,1314,1324,1342,2313. Office Texas Common Course Numbers & New Core Curriculum 2015-2016 Catalog TCCN CORE COURSES 010 ENGL 1301 Core (see Note 3) 3 hrs from Creative Arts Core (Note 4) Law Enforcement major requires: CRIJ 1301

  12. Modeling aviation's global emissions, uncertainty analysis, and applications to policy

    E-print Network

    Lee, Joosung Joseph, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) fuel burn results below 3000 ft. For emissions, the emissions indices were the most influential uncertainties for the variance in model outputs. By employing the model, this thesis examined three policy options for ...

  13. DIRECT USE OF NATURAL GAS: ANALYSIS AND POLICY OPTIONS

    E-print Network

    up the hydropower system in low water years were found to be cost-effective resources. In conjunction with the hydropower system, combustion turbines would be used only when water conditions limit the supply of nonfirm-uses, such as space and water heating, than to burn natural gas to generate electricity to serve the end-use energy

  14. Exploring design and policy options for orbital infrastructure projects

    E-print Network

    Putbrese. Benjamin L

    2015-01-01

    The space industry is currently at a significant inflection point. New economies are forming in low- Earth orbit (LEO), driven by miniaturization of technologies and the promise of lower launch costs, which should then ...

  15. An assessment of Hawaii's biomass enrgy options: Economics and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kasturi, P.

    1980-12-01

    The technology for converting agricultural biomass to generate electrical power by the direct combustion method has long been established on sugarcane plantations in the state of Hawaii. Increasing uncertainty over energy supplies and pyramidal escalation of energy prices in recent years have served to refocus both state and national attention on the operational feasibility and economic viability of alternate Biomass Energy Systems. This study scrutinizes the key parameters affecting the overall productivity and the cost of electricity from such systems. The conditions for obtaining net energy productivity and associated costs are examined for electrical power generation from wood yields of the giant koa haole (Leucaena leucocephala) as a reference point. Current technology involving direct combustion of biomass generates substantial net electrical energy though from a cost perspective it would appear that conditions for biomass production and harvest as a replacement for diesel fuel in utilities having conventional generator units are only now being met. Some potentials and constraints for three other candidate plant species using similar conversion system are also explored.

  16. Controlling Nipah virus encephalitis in Bangladesh: Policy options.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasmine; Banerjee, Arinjay

    2015-08-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis is endemic in Bangladesh, with yearly seasonal outbreaks occurring since 2003. NiV has a notable case fatality rate, 75-100 per cent depending on the strain. In Bangladesh, primary transmission to humans is believed to be because of consumption of bat-contaminated date palm sap (DPS). Both the disease and the virus have been investigated extensively, however efforts to implement preventive strategies have met social and cultural challenges. Here we present a variety of community approaches to control the spread of Nipah encephalitis, along with advantages and disadvantages of each. This information may be useful to health workers and policymakers in potential NiV outbreak areas in Southeast Asia. PMID:25925087

  17. Capital mobility and sudden stops: consequences and policy options 

    E-print Network

    Ball, Christopher Patrick

    2004-09-30

    to occur at date two and asks whether individuals in such a shock-prone world are still better off borrowing than in autarky. Unambiguously, this chapter shows that individuals are better off borrowing than in autarky and provides a tractable core model...

  18. Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years…

  19. Evaluation of large scale industrial development using real options analysis : a case study

    E-print Network

    Ariizumi, Tatsuyuki

    2006-01-01

    Recently, real-option analysis has gained attention as an innovative valuation method for complex real estate projects. However, considering its potential, this method has not become as popular as it should have. One major ...

  20. 77 FR 65241 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ...strike price intervals are currently permitted. \\11\\ The Exchange is making a distinction between initiating series and cloning series. The Exchange and the majority, if not all, of the other options exchanges that have adopted a Weekly Program...

  1. Alternative defence policy

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book considers key questions connected with the present crisis, questions such as Would conventional deterrence really be effective. Just what is the Labour Party's policy. How precisely might Britain be transformed into a non-aligned, non-military state. The future of British defence policy is an issue of major concern not just in Britain but throughout the world, especially in the United States where there are major anxieties in the Pentagon about what will happen if the Labour Party wins an election outright. British defence policy is currently in a state of crisis. The former position where a reasonably united establishment on one hand confronted nuclear disarmers on the other has been replaced by a position where a wide spectrum of different opinions is held not just by the peace movement and the opposition parties but by many people in the Conservative party and the military also.

  2. Research Outcomes of Prenatal Substance Exposure and the Need To Review Policies and Procedures Regarding Child Abuse Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.

    2001-01-01

    Clarifies policy options for reporting and serving children testing positive at birth for controlled substances. Advocates the strengthening of existing state policies regarding child abuse reporting and response. (JPB)

  3. Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have influenced…

  4. Do Birthing Options Really Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    In this column, the author answers the question, “Is choosing to give birth naturally a realistic option in today's birth environment?” Women's choices of health care provider and place of birth are limited by the general belief that birth is safe only in the hospital and when managed by obstetric medicine. In the typical hospital environment, women rarely have access to the wide variety of comfort measures and the continuous emotional and physical support required to give birth naturally. Routine care practices further limit women's birthing options. The Coalition for Improving Maternity Services' document, the “Mother-Friendly Childbirth Initiative,” offers direction for creating birth environments that ensure options for women who choose to give birth naturally. PMID:17273259

  5. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  6. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald J.; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be considered which have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfers and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  7. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  8. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  9. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  10. Isolated rupture of the teres major tendon.

    PubMed

    Lester, Jonathan D; Boselli, Karen J; Kim, Paul D; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2010-11-01

    Acute isolated rupture of the teres major is an uncommon injury. This article presents the first report of midterm subjective and objective functional results following nonoperative management of an isolated teres major rupture. A 30-year-old right hand dominant man presented after a waterskiing traction injury to his left upper extremity. On physical examination, the patient had swelling and retraction of the teres major at the lower scapular border, which was accentuated with resisted adduction of the extremity. His teres major attachment at the humerus was not palpable. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated teres major tendon rupture. The patient was treated non-operatively with a rehabilitation protocol emphasizing rotator cuff, periscapular, and latissimus muscle strengthening. By 3 months postinjury, the patient had returned to all of his usual sporting activities, despite a persistent muscle retraction deformity over the teres major. At 3-year follow-up, the patient had no subjective complaints in the injured extremity and excellent functional outcome scores. A mean 37 kg loss of internal rotation strength (as measured by dynamometer) in the affected extremity with the arm abducted to 90° existed, although this difference was not subjectively appreciable. Although previously published reports have presented various options for the management of teres major injuries, the present case demonstrates that nonoperative treatment can produce excellent midterm subjective results in spite of objective internal rotation weakness. PMID:21053871

  11. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  12. The 21st Century Challenge: Moving the Youth Agenda Forward. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Public Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, Marion, Ed.

    This document contains nine papers devoted to the labor market problems faced by out-of-school and other disadvantaged young people in the United States and policy options and strategies for addressing those problems. The papers update the data on out-of-school young adults, review the lessons learned from past youth programs and policies,…

  13. Identifying the Barriers and Opportunities for Enhanced Coherence between Agriculture and Public Health Policies: Improving the Fat Supply in India.

    PubMed

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The national Government of India has published draft regulation proposing a 5% upper limit of trans fat in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with unsaturated fat but it is not known whether this will be feasible in India. We systematically identified policy options to address the three major underlying agricultural sector issues that influence reformulation with healthier oils: the low productivity of domestically produced oilseeds leading to a reliance on palm oil imports, supply chain wastage, and the low availability of oils high in unsaturated fats. Strengthening domestic supply chains in India will be necessary to maximize health gains associated with product reformulation. PMID:25879914

  14. Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

  15. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Dwivedi, Anila; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  16. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  17. Newer Management Options in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

  18. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new subsurface area (high cost); surface aging in the complete waste package (risk to the waste package and impact on the Waste Handling Facility); and aging in the stainless steel liner (impact on the waste package design and new high risk operations added to the waste packaging process). The selection of a design basis for aging will be made in conjunction with the other design re-evaluation studies.

  19. Insomnia treatment options for women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Judith R

    2009-12-01

    This article describes the circumstances under which women may develop insomnia and the various treatment options, including hypnotic medication and nonpharmacologic approaches. The efficacy and safety of these treatments are reviewed. The choice of treatment depends on the nature of the insomnia, the stage of a woman's life, the presence of medical or mental health conditions, the availability of treatments, and personal preference. For immediate, short-term relief of acute insomnia, hypnotic medication, especially the nonbenzodiazepines (zolpidem, zopiclone, eszopiclone) are options. For chronic insomnia, insomnia-specific cognitive and behavioral therapies are generally the interventions of choice. PMID:19944303

  20. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    SciTech Connect

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-10-24

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  1. 48 CFR 1334.201-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.201-70 Policy. (a) In accordance with... Policy, the use of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is required for major acquisitions for... requiring an EVMS must successfully complete an Earned Value Management course that meets the...

  2. 48 CFR 334.201 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 334.201 Section 334.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 334.201 Policy. (a) For acquisitions for development designated as major in...

  3. 48 CFR 1334.201-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.201-70 Policy. (a) In accordance with... Policy, the use of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is required for major acquisitions for... requiring an EVMS must successfully complete an Earned Value Management course that meets the...

  4. 48 CFR 1334.201-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.201-70 Policy. (a) In accordance with... Policy, the use of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is required for major acquisitions for... requiring an EVMS must successfully complete an Earned Value Management course that meets the...

  5. 48 CFR 1334.201-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1334.201-70 Policy. (a) In accordance with... Policy, the use of an Earned Value Management System (EVMS) is required for major acquisitions for... requiring an EVMS must successfully complete an Earned Value Management course that meets the...

  6. Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

  7. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  8. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors

  9. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

  10. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  11. Financial Policy Manual CASH POLICIES

    E-print Network

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 CASH POLICIES 1501 Banking Relationships 1502 Working Capital Management 1503 Signatory Authority 1504 Deposit of Cash Receipts 1505 Facsimile Signatures 1506 Imprest Balance Accounts ­ Petty Cash 1507 Imprest Balance Accounts ­ Separately Administered Bank Accounts 1508

  12. Policy Tools for U.S. Agriculture. 

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Ronald D.; Richardons, James W.; Klinefelter, Danny A.; Paggi, Mechel S.; Smith, Edward G.

    1986-01-01

    ' position in domestic and foreign markets. ? Credit programs-designed to assure agriculture an adequate supply of debt capital at a reasonable cost. A single-page summary describes each policy tool with respect to the following: ? The policy area... was forced to modify these provisions in "technical amendments" to make cross-compliance an optional decision for the Secretary. ? The cross compliance provision improves effectiveness of production controls across program commodities. ? The provision...

  13. University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist

    E-print Network

    Rev. 5/09 University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist The University Policy Office (UPO) has designed the Policy Development Checklist to assist you develop or revise university policy practices. #12;University Policy Process Policy Development Checklist Page 2 of 6 University policies may

  14. Solid Target Options S. Childress

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    geometry to spread energy deposition over a large target area #12;Solid Target Options NuFACT'00 S power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite target design (400 kW beam) has similar energy deposition density as a 1 MW neutrino source. Recent

  15. New options for barrier contraception.

    PubMed

    Yranski, Patricia A; Gamache, Mary E

    2008-01-01

    Barrier contraceptives are a safe alternative to hormonal methods of fertility management. Newer barrier method options include the Today Sponge, the FemCap, and the Lea's Shield. Understanding the use, benefits, and limitations of these barrier methods of birth control will assist women's health care providers to better meet the family planning needs of their patients. PMID:18507612

  16. Document Delivery: Evaluating the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses options available to libraries for document delivery. Topics include users' needs; cost; copyright compliance; traditional interlibrary loan; types of suppliers; selection criteria, including customer service; new developments in interlibrary loan, including outsourcing arrangements; and the need to evaluate suppliers. (LRW)

  17. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ...final rules for commodity options (added Sec. 32.3). For a transaction to be within...June 26, 2012. Comment date: Comments on Sec. 32.3, the interim final rule portion...according to the procedures established in Sec. 145.9 of the CFTC's...

  18. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  19. School of Medicine Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    136 School of Medicine Medicine Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Medicine Entrance Applied Sciences`Pathway to Medicine'at Perth College The School of Medicine has formed a partnership Andrews. More information can be found on the School of Medicine web pages ( http://medicine

  20. School of Medicine Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    126 School of Medicine Medicine Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Medicine Entrance level. HNC Applied Sciences`Pathway to Medicine'at Perth College The School of Medicine has formed at St Andrews. More information can be found on the School of Medicine webpages or from Perth College T

  1. The impact of CEO option grants on firm value: determinants of the effectiveness of option grants 

    E-print Network

    Weber, Catherine Krueger

    2007-04-25

    The significance of stock options as a component of executive compensation has fluctuated dramatically over the past decade. The purpose of this study is to investigate determinants of the effectiveness of stock option grants. These option grants...

  2. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  3. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Vikram; Srivastava, Alok; Chandy, Mammen

    2014-12-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplant remains the only curative option for ?-thalassemia major. In patients with good risk features it is reasonable to anticipate a greater than 90% chance of a successful transplant outcome. The conventional risk stratification system has limitations and alternative systems are being explored to better identify subsets that require innovative approaches. Several novel regimens have been evaluated to reduce treatment-related morbidity and mortality. There remain challenges in improving the clinical outcome of high-risk patients. There are limited data on the role of splenectomy before transplantation or optimal posttransplant chelation and care of these patients. PMID:25459187

  4. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  5. Issues and Alternatives: A Guide for the Policy Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas Public Library, TX.

    This document describes the policy-oriented information delivery mechanism, the Public Interest Information Network (PIIN), that was developed by the Dallas Public Library to respond to the informational needs of local governments and citizen's groups by compiling sources which can provide a humanistic context for evaluating public policy options.…

  6. Community Shared Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This brochure explores the ways in which the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering, tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment.

  7. Cryptographic Currencies from a Tech-Policy Perspective

    E-print Network

    Kohno, Tadayoshi

    surrounding crypto curren- cies, such as Bitcoin, and how those issues interact with technical design options and policies, raising key issues for both policy experts and technologists. 1 Introduction Bitcoin [32 have seen nu- merous commercial efforts to mine bitcoins, serve as bitcoin exchanges, and provide

  8. CTIC Cablebooks. Volume 2: A Guide for Local Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesuale, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    The second in a two-part series, this volume presents 13 chapters discussing many of the most pressing cable policy issues facing local government, describing alternative policy options, and suggesting regulatory procedures successfully used by decision makers in the United States. Topics covered are (1) "The Rationale for Regulation," Bruce…

  9. Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

  10. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on NIMH’s depression page . NEXT Statistical Methods and Measurement Caveats Diagnostic Assessment: Modules related to major depressive ... NSDUH weighting includes non-response adjustments to reduce bias, these adjustments may not fully account for differential ...

  11. Checklist for enrolling in Independent Research, PSYC 88 not part of a psychology major

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Checklist for enrolling in Independent Research, PSYC 88 not part of a psychology major __________________________________________________ __________________ please print your name date checklist & materials submitted This checklist will guide you in preparing be checked in Option I or, instead, in Option II, permission for 88 cannot be approved. Submit the Checklist

  12. Department of Music Bachelor of Music with Major in Music

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Department of Music Bachelor of Music with Major in Music Performance Concentration:Guitar Option from following: Chamber Music Literature 1 MUL 3561 2 MVK 2421 Chamber Music Literature 2 MUL 3562 2 minutes) Semester completed: #12;Music Core Course Requirements This core is the official sequence

  13. Department of Music Bachelor of Music with Major in Music

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Department of Music Bachelor of Music with Major in Music Performance Concentration - Vocal Option 2201, MUS 2202 Musical Theater Workshop 1 MUO 4006 1 MVV 2171 Musical Theater Workshop 2 MUO 4008 1 MUO 2201, MUS 2202 Opera Workshop 2 MUO 4504 1 MUO 4503 Survey of Choral Music Lit MUL 4643 2 MUH 4212, MUT

  14. Department of Music Bachelor of Music with Major in Music

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Department of Music Bachelor of Music with Major in Music Performance Concentration - Piano Option Music Literature 1 MUL 3561 2 MVK 2421 Chamber Music Literature 2 MUL 3562 2 MUL 3561 Piano Pedagogy MVK: MVO 4340 Senior Performance Recital (60) Semester completed: #12;Music Core Course Requirements

  15. MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Chemistry

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    MAJOR TO CAREER GUIDE B.S. Chemistry College of Sciences www.unlv.edu/chemistry Mission of the College of Sciences The College of Sciences offers programs in life sciences, chemistry, geoscience: 702-895-2077 Campus Location: MPE-A 130 www.unlv.edu/sciences/advising Chemistry Career Options

  16. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of prior audit findings under § 99.510(a)(7) do not preclude the Type A program from being low-risk... section), except this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) does not require the auditor to audit more high-risk Type B... identifying which high-risk Type B programs to audit as major under either Option 1 or 2 in paragraph...

  17. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of prior audit findings under § 99.510(a)(7) do not preclude the Type A program from being low-risk... section), except this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) does not require the auditor to audit more high-risk Type B... identifying which high-risk Type B programs to audit as major under either Option 1 or 2 in paragraph...

  18. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of prior audit findings under § 99.510(a)(7) do not preclude the Type A program from being low-risk... section), except this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) does not require the auditor to audit more high-risk Type B... identifying which high-risk Type B programs to audit as major under either Option 1 or 2 in paragraph...

  19. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of prior audit findings under § 99.510(a)(7) do not preclude the Type A program from being low-risk... section), except this paragraph (e)(2)(i)(A) does not require the auditor to audit more high-risk Type B... identifying which high-risk Type B programs to audit as major under either Option 1 or 2 in paragraph...

  20. Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Food and Nutrition Major with Dietetics Option The dietetics by the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND) of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics foundation in food and nutrition, food service management, and clinical nutrition. Registered dietitians may

  1. The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

  2. Test-Optional Admission at a Liberal Arts College: A Founding Mission Affirmed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanley, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Father Brian J. Shanley discusses Providence College's pilot program to eliminate standardized test scores from the required components of an admission application. Building on the college's ninety-year history of opening the doors of higher education to underrepresented populations, Providence College's test-optional policy is…

  3. 46 CFR 308.520 - Standard optional endorsement No. 3, Form MA-300-C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard optional endorsement No. 3, Form MA-300-C. 308.520 Section 308.520 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  4. Costings of Different Programme Options for Junior Primary Upgrading and Community-Based Educare Provision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric; And Others

    This combined report provides cost analyses of four strategies for improving child success and retention in South African junior primary schools, and for eight community-based preschool day care (educare) options. The junior primary school cost analyses utilize the Assessing Policies for Educational Excellence (APEX) computer model to make…

  5. 75 FR 18931 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...Add a Note to Rule 4.11 Advising the Delta-Based Equity Hedge Exemption Is Not Currently...and Policy .04 (c) to Rule 4.11, Delta-Based Equity Hedge Exemption, advising...sic] Amendment No. 1, to extend the delta hedging exemption from equity option...

  6. OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY OPTIONS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN WESTERN CHINA by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy of University of Delaware Sponsored by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ministry of Agriculture People's Republic of China June 2001 #12;i OFF-GRID RENEWABLE ENERGY

  7. Drought as a hazard and the options for reducing the associated risks are

    E-print Network

    Papanicolaou, Vassilis

    Drought as a hazard and the options for reducing the associated risks are receiving increasing attention by policy makers and scientists. Emphasis is in risk-based management and improved drought preparedness to mitigate the impacts of droughts on society, economy and the environment. In particular

  8. Clean Energy Options for Sabah an analysis of resource availability and cost

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Clean Energy Options for Sabah an analysis of resource availability and cost Tyler McNish1, 2 and Appropriate Energy Laboratory 2 University of California, Berkeley School of Law 3 University of California, Berkeley Energy and Resources Group 4 University of California, Berkeley Goldman School of Public Policy 5

  9. Gas option: America's least-cost energy strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.H.

    1980-05-17

    Public energy policy which acknowledges the gas option as having significant potential will increase supply incentives while decreasing demand restraints. The arguments developed by the Mellon Institute and others confirm the need to reject the Title II incremental pricing and the need to implement the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS). Positive evidence that proved reserves are higher than was thought has prompted the gas industry to fight incremental pricing as a barrier to a least-cost national energy strategy. BEPS, on the other hand, encourages more efficient use without eliminating industrial use. (DCK)

  10. Social Policy: Safety Net or Springboard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitta, Cosmas, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Cooperation South" looks at recent experiences in protecting and advancing human welfare in the south as well as the north. It presents a shared learning exercise about an array of social policy options; which decision makers in the south can consider in their efforts to shape a caring society, alleviate poverty, promote human…

  11. Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Muhammad Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

  12. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  13. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  14. Wastewater treatment plant cogeneration options

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfield, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews municipal sewage cogeneration and digester gas utilization options available to wastewater treatment plants, and will focus on utilizing the digester gas in combustion turbines and engine-generator systems. Defining the digestion and gas generation process is crucial to understanding the best gas utilization system. In municipal wastewater treatment plants biosolids (sludge) reduction is accomplished using aerobic or anaerobic digestion. The basic process of treating sewage solids with digestion is not new and has been practiced as far back as the nineteenth century. High energy usage consumed by aerobic blow systems supplying air to the process and the potential ``free`` energy generated by anaerobic digesters sometimes sways designers to select anaerobic over aerobic digestion. The following areas will be covered in this paper: gas utilization and cogeneration; definition of digestion process; sizing the cogeneration system and reviewing the systems components; emissions requirements and options; and capital, and O and M cost analysis.

  15. 7 CFR 372.8 - Major planning and decision points and public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Major planning and decision points...AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING... § 372.8 Major planning and decision points...coordinated with APHIS planning in cooperation...be addressed in the environmental impact statement...

  16. 7 CFR 372.8 - Major planning and decision points and public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Major planning and decision points...AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING... § 372.8 Major planning and decision points...coordinated with APHIS planning in cooperation...be addressed in the environmental impact statement...

  17. DLC Policy and Guidelines 02/28/2013 University of New Orleans

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    DLC Policy and Guidelines 02/28/2013 1 University of New Orleans Distance Learning PolicyOfAcreditation.pdf #12;DLC Policy and Guidelines 02/28/2013 2 Federal guidelines3 require that when the majority

  18. Rhetorical divergence; Real convergence? The economic policy debate in the 2002 French presidential and legislative elections 

    E-print Network

    Howarth, D.

    2004-01-01

    Why, despite considerable convergence in the economic policy preferences and policies of the mainstream Left (principally Socialist Party) and Right, did economic policy remained a major subject of debate during the 2002 ...

  19. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Boxiang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of ? of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate ? of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options. PMID:26266271

  20. Reauthorizing the Higher Education Act (HEA): Issues and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Thomas, Ed.

    This report presents relevant policy research, historical perspective, and an agenda of major issues involved in the complex process of reauthorizing the Higher Education Act (HEA). Like many other federal laws, the HEA is not permanent. It expires on September 30, 2004, and this expiration requires that the 108th Congress consider extending or…

  1. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  2. Giving "Credit When It's Due": A Case Study of Reverse Transfer Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rachel R.

    2015-01-01

    More states are considering what kinds of policies or processes can be put in place to successfully improve the degree attainment of their postsecondary students, and one popular option is a reverse transfer policy. Reverse transfer policies usually involve authorizing community colleges to award a degree or certificate to students that have…

  3. Effective Physics Major Recruiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Only the high school students that are in the top 2% in math of those that are college bound do well as physics majors. These students you recruit face to face in April by telling them your program is academically the toughest that they will find at your school. You promise that while crippling their social life and assuring that their lowest grades will be in their physics major, they will get to find out just how good they are. We will discuss:How to get face to face with that top 2% high school student.Why high school teachers and counselors will not help you.Why wait until April to recruit.What parents want to know about your physics program.Which activities are a waste of time when recuiting.By investing 20 hours spread over 2 weeks expect to get about 8 good physics majors.

  4. PRE-APPROVED TECHNICAL ELECTIVE (TE) COURSE OPTIONS FOR THE BIOENGINEERING PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    PRE-APPROVED TECHNICAL ELECTIVE (TE) COURSE OPTIONS FOR THE BIOENGINEERING PROGRAM The Technical" courses not required for the Bioengineering major and other 4-unit, upper-division (100 series) courses requirements in any majors in the Department of Bioengineering. #12;

  5. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  6. 78 FR 38843 - Single Application Option

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...Docket No. 2013-6] Single Application Option AGENCY: U.S. Copyright Office, Library...order to establish a new registration option called the ``single application...introduced in order to provide an additional option for individual authors/claimants...

  7. Option Fixation: A Cognitive Contributor to Overconfidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieck, Winston R.; Merkle, Edgar C.; Van Zandt, Trisha

    2007-01-01

    The ASC model of choice and confidence in general knowledge proposes that respondents first Assess the familiarity of presented options, and then use the high-familiarity option as a retrieval cue to Search memory for the purposes of Constructing an explanation about why that high-familiarity option is true. The ASC process implies that…

  8. NATURE ARABIC EDITION MEDIA OPTIONS 2014

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    NATURE ARABIC EDITION MEDIA OPTIONS 2014 NATURE ARABIC EDITION MEDIA OPTIONS 2014 © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved #12;Media Options 2014 | Nature Arabic Edition CONTENTS Nature Arabic Edition 2-3 Banner advertising 4 Email alerts 5 Inserts and outserts 6 Print: Nature, Nature Research

  9. Perpetual Game Options in Incomplete Markets

    E-print Network

    Heil, Matthias

    Perpetual Game Options in Incomplete Markets N. Attard First version: 18 September 2015 Research #12;Perpetual Game Options in Incomplete Markets N. Attard Research Report No. 4, 2015, Probab of perpetual game capped call option in incomplete markets. In particular, by considering geometric Brownian

  10. Montana State University 1 Photography Option

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Montana State University 1 Photography Option The Photography option offers both artistic of Art and Design, the Photography option sets high standards for production and is one of the few comprehensive four-year photography degree programs in a sizable geographical area of the north central

  11. Executive Stock Options with E ort Disutility

    E-print Network

    Cvitanic, Jaksa

    Executive Stock Options with E#11;ort Disutility and Choice of Volatility #3; Abel Cadenillas y Jak@marshall.usc.edu. #12; Executive Stock Options with E#11;ort Disutility and Choice of Volatility Abstract We consider the problem of an executive that receives call options as com- pensation in a dynamic setting. She can

  12. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Dichman, Don; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these designs can be restricted by the selection of the Cubesat subsystem design such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be designed with have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several design options including deployment into low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfer orbits. In addition to direct transfer options from these initial orbits, we also investigate the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory. In this article we examine several design options that meet the above limited deployment and subsystem drivers. We study ways that both impulsive and low-thrust Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) engines can be used to place the Cubesat first into a highly eccentric Earth orbit, enter the Moon's Sphere of Influence, and finally achieve a highly eccentric lunar orbit. We show that such low-thrust transfers are feasible with a realistic micro-thruster model, assuming that the Cubesat can generate sufficient power for the SEP. Two examples are shown here: (1) A Cubestat injected by Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) then employing low thrust; and (2) a CubSat deployed in a GTO, then employing impulsive maneuvers. For the EM-1 injected initial design, we increase the EM-1 targeted lunar flyby distance to reduce the energy of the lunar flyby to match that of a typical lMoon system heteroclinic manifold. Figure 1 presents an option that encompasses the similar dynamics as that of the ARTEMIS mission design. Low-thrust maneuvers are used along the manifold trajectory to raise perigee to that of a lunar orbit, adjust the timing with respect to the Moon, rotate the line of apsides, and target a ballistic lunar encounter. In this design a second flyby decreases the orbital energy with respect to the Moon, so that C3 -0.1 km2s2. Another design, shown in Figure 2 emanates from a GTO then uses impulsive maneuvers to phase onto a local Earth-Moon manifold, which then transfers the CubeSat to a lunar encounter.

  13. Undergraduate Education DECLARATION OF MAJOR(S) / CHANGE OF ADVISOR

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Undergraduate Education DECLARATION OF MAJOR(S) / CHANGE OF ADVISOR For Liberal Arts Students Updated 7/31/2014 Please inform your previous advisor(s) of any major or advisor changes prior A MAJOR I am declaring a major in ________________________________________________ Major advisor

  14. Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

    E-print Network

    Langerhans, Brian

    Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 1 Category Item Information with T3i underwater case #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory pg. 2 Small black SLR camera bag - good #12;Langerhans Lab Major Equipment Inventory Major Equipment Inventory

  15. How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation. PMID:26317368

  16. Energy efficiency options for the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) -- Framing paper No.4

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, Jeff

    2002-05-01

    In response to direction from the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) in Docket 99-09-30, the Connecticut Light and Power Company (CL&P) has assessed the role of third parties (e.g., ESCOs) in its current energy efficiency programs as well as additional opportunities for third parties to participate in future programs. In addition to working with consultants to the Energy Conservation Management Board, CL&P asked an independent consultant to develop a descriptive framework (i.e., typology) that summarizes alternative approaches to using third parties in ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. For each approach, experiences of energy efficiency program administrators (EEA) in other states are summarized, major policy objectives and goals that motivated regulators or EEAs to pursue that option are identified, and lessons learned (e.g., strengths and weaknesses) are summarized. Existing program offerings of CL&P are then classified using this typology in order to characterize the current situation in Connecticut and the potential implications for Connecticut's energy efficiency programs are discussed.

  17. Psychology MAJOR Event Presentation

    E-print Network

    Green, C. Shawn

    Psychology MAJOR Event Presentation 4:00 P.M. Welcome Associate Chair, Karl Rosengren, PhD 4:10 P Session #1 "Harnessing the Power of the Mind" Cheri Cope, Athletic Mind, LLC Using the Power of the Mind distractions. By harnessing the power of the mind we create a life of purpose. Getting Involved in Research

  18. Serving Emerging Majority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the demographic shifts occurring in the United States and discusses the associated rapid increase in the number of community college students from diverse racial backgrounds. Profiles of two community colleges offer examples of timely responses to emerging majority students' academic, economic, and social…

  19. Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease

    E-print Network

    Alper, Chester A.

    Major Histocompatibility Complex: Disease Associations Chester A Alper, Harvard Medical School at least a third of normal European Caucasian MHC haplotypes and contribute most of the MHC disease susceptibility genetic markers. Whereas this has facilitated the detection of MHC gene-disease association

  20. Mobilizing the Moral Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Robert C.

    The Moral Majority has been more successful in mobilizing conservative Christians than three other evangelical groups--Third Century Publishers, Christian Voice, and the Religious Roundtable. According to the literature on social movements, four possible explanations for the success of such groups are that they have access to financial resources,…