Science.gov

Sample records for major radiation accidents

  1. Planning on a regional basis for a major radiation accident

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    As a part of the Radiological Assistance Program, members of the Safety and Environmental Protection Division of Brookhaven National Laboratory have served as a response team for many years to the northeastern section of the United States. During this time, responses have been made to several significant incidents, including the accident at Three Mile Island. The planning and preparation for emergency response activities will be discussed. Included will be a review of instrument requirements, analytical and support equipment, modes of response, and communication needs. Interaction with and support from other response teams will be discussed. In particular, the lessons from the respone to Three Mile Island will be reviewed.

  2. Radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Saenger, E L

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity. PMID:3526994

  3. Radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Saenger, E.L.

    1986-09-01

    It is essential that emergency physicians understand ways to manage patients contaminated by radioactive materials and/or exposed to external radiation sources. Contamination accidents require careful surveys to identify the metabolic pathway of the radionuclides to guide prognosis and treatment. The level of treatment required will depend on careful surveys and meticulous decontamination. There is no specific therapy for the acute radiation syndrome. Prophylactic antibodies are desirable. For severely exposed patients treatment is similar to the supportive care given to patients undergoing organ transplantation. For high-dose extremity injury, no methods have been developed to reverse the fibrosing endarteritis that eventually leads to tissue death so frequently found with this type of injury. Although the Three Mile Island episode of March 1979 created tremendous public concern, there were no radiation injuries. The contamination outside the reactor building and the release of radioiodine were negligible. The accidental fuel element meltdown at Chernobyl, USSR, resulted in many cases of acute radiation syndrome. More than 100,000 people were exposed to high levels of radioactive fallout. The general principles outlined here are applicable to accidents of that degree of severity.

  4. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident. PMID:22951483

  5. [The radiation accident].

    PubMed

    Stögmann, W

    1988-08-26

    The reactor accident of Chernobyl in April 1986 has shown us all the dangers which are inherent ever in the peaceful use of atomic energy. The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation are dependent on biological effectiveness, on dose, on duration of exposure and on the age of the exposed person (the younger the graver). Acute ionizing radiation of the whole body leads to radiation disease or radiation syndrome of different stages of severity according to dosage. If the patient survives other consequences of ionizing radiation may arise: non-stochastic effects such as cataracts, keloid formation, fibrosis of the lungs and infertility) and stochastic effects (oncogenesis and mutagenesis). The sensitivity to ionizing radiation is especially high in childhood because of the high velocity of cell metabolism and cell growth, the large body-surface area and because their repair mechanism following radiation damage is not yet. PMID:3188527

  6. Environmental aftermath of the radiation accident at Tomsk-7

    SciTech Connect

    Porfiriev, B.N. |

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident`s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed. 33 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Major Extremity Injuries Associated with Farmyard Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Copuroglu, Cem; Heybeli, Nurettin; Ozcan, Mert; Yilmaz, Baris; Ciftdemir, Mert; Copuroglu, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study is to analyze the major agricultural injuries related to the extremities. Patients. We evaluated a 3-year period including 41 patients. Data on age, sex, injury patterns, anatomical localizations, injury season, length of stay in the hospital, and infections were evaluated, and the patients were examined with SF-36 in the follow-up period. Results. Hand was the most commonly injured part (n: 9) followed by the distal part of the lower limb (cruris) (n: 7) and foot (n: 7). Mean time between trauma and emergency-department arrival was 115 minutes (60–360). Mean length of stay was 24 days (4–150), and mean number of operations during hospitalization was 2.4 (1–30). Deep wound infection was seen in 8 patients. Seasonal distribution for accidents was even for spring and fall (27% each), high for summer (36%), and less for winter (10%). Conclusions. Distal parts of the elbow and knee were affected more frequently. Due to the high microbiological load and high incidence of crush-type injuries, repetitive debridements and long duration of hospital stay were needed. Attention should be paid in the harvesting times to the farmyard injuries. Due to the seasonal variation, more resources should be allocated to treat the increasing incidence of injury over the period from spring to fall. PMID:23002385

  8. Early dose assessment following severe radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Goans, R.E.; Holloway, E.C.

    1996-06-01

    Prompt and aggressive treatment of victims to high level whole-body gamma exposure has been shown to improve their likelihood of survival. However, in such cases, both the magnitude of the accident and the dosimetry profile(s) of the victim(s) are often not known in detail for days to weeks. Medical intervention could therefore be delayed after a major accident because of uncertainties in the initial dose estimate. A simple dose-prediction algorithm based on lymphocyte kinetics as documented in prior radiation accidents is presented here. This algorithm provides an estimate of marrow dose within the first 12-18 h following an acute whole-body gamma exposure. Early lymphocyte depletion curves post-accident follow a single exponential, L(t) = L{sub o}e{sup -k(D)t}, where L{sub o} is the pre- accident lymphocyte count and k(D) is a rate constant, dependent on the average dose, D. Within the first 12-18 h post-accident, K(D) may be calculated utilizing serial lymphocyte counts. Data from the REAC/TS Accident Registry were used to develop a dose prediction algorithm from 43 gamma exposure cases where both lymphocyte kinetics and dose reconstruction were felt to be reasonably reliable. The relationship D(K) is shown to follow a logistic dose response curve of the form D = a/[1 + (K/b){sup c}] in the range 0 {le} D {le} 15 Gy. The fitting parameters (mean {+-} SD) are found to be a = 21.5 {+-} 5.8 Gy, b = 1.75 {+-} 0.99 d{sup -1}, and c = -0.98 {+-} 0.14, respectively. The coefficient of determination r{sup 2} for the fit is 0.90 with an F-value of 174.7. Dose estimated in this manner is intended to serve only as a first approximation to guide initial medical-management. The treatment regimen may then be modified as needed after more exact dosimetry has become available.

  9. Environmental Aftermath of the Radiation Accident at Tomsk-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfiriev, Boris N.; Porfiriev, Boris N.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the environmental effects of the most serious radiation accident recorded after Chernobyl, which occurred in the formerly secret town of Tomsk-7 in Siberia, Russia, on 6, April 1993. Fortunately, it appears not to have become a major industrial crisis or disaster. The causes of the accident are described. It is argued that a mixture of both objective and subjective prerequisites, including specific human, organizational, and technological factors, were responsible for the explosion or directly facilitated it. The Tomsk-7 accident’s ecological, medical, social, and psychological consequences are discussed.

  10. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  11. Early dose assessment following severe radiation accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Goans, R.E.; Holloway, E.C.; Berger, M.E.; Ricks, R.C.

    1997-04-01

    Early treatment of victims of high level acute whole-body x-ray or gamma exposure has been shown to improve their likelihood of survival. However, in such cases, both the magnitude of the exposure and the dosimetry profile(s) of the victim(s) are often not known in detail for days to weeks. A simple dose-prediction algorithm based on lymphocyte kinetics as documented in prior radiation accidents is presented here. This algorithm provides an estimate of dose within the first 8 h following an acute whole-body exposure. Early lymphocyte depletion kinetics after a severe radiation accident follow a single exponential, L(t) = L{sub o}e{sup -k(D)t}, where k(D) is a rate constant, dependent primarily on the average dose, D. Within the first 8 h post-accident, K(D) may be calculated utilizing serial lymphocyte counts. Data from the REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry were used to develop a dose-prediction algorithm from 43 gamma exposure cases where both lymphocyte kinetics and dose reconstruction were felt to be reasonably reliable. The inverse relationship D(K) may be molded by a simple two parameter curve of the form D = a/(1 + b/K) in the range 0 {le} D {le} 15 Gy, with fitting parameters (mean {+-} SD): a = 13.6 {+-} 1.7 Gy, and b = 1.0 {+-} 0.20 d{sup -1}. Dose estimated in this manner is intended to serve only as a first approximation to guide initial medical management. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. An operational centre for managing major chemical industrial accidents.

    PubMed

    Kiranoudis, C T; Kourniotis, S P; Christolis, M; Markatos, N C; Zografos, K G; Giannouli, I M; Androutsopoulos, K N; Ziomas, I; Kosmidis, E; Simeonidis, P; Poupkou, N

    2002-01-28

    The most important characteristic of major chemical accidents, from a societal perspective, is their tendency to produce off-site effects. The extent and severity of the accident may significantly affect the population and the environment of the adjacent areas. Following an accident event, effort should be made to limit such effects. Management decisions should be based on rational and quantitative information based on the site specific circumstances and the possible consequences. To produce such information we have developed an operational centre for managing large-scale industrial accidents. Its architecture involves an integrated framework of geographical information system (GIS) and RDBMS technology systems equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The operational centre was developed for Windows 98 platforms, for the region of Thriasion Pedion of West Attica, where the concentration of industrial activity and storage of toxic chemical is immense within areas of high population density. An appropriate case study is given in order to illuminate the use and necessity of the operational centre. PMID:11744201

  13. Analysis of National Major Work Safety Accidents in China, 2003–2012

    PubMed Central

    YE, Yunfeng; ZHANG, Siheng; RAO, Jiaming; WANG, Haiqing; LI, Yang; WANG, Shengyong; DONG, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study provides a national profile of major work safety accidents in China, which cause more than 10 fatalities per accident, intended to provide scientific basis for prevention measures and strategies to reduce major work safety accidents and deaths. Methods: Data from 2003–2012 Census of major work safety accidents were collected from State Administration of Work Safety System (SAWS). Published literature and statistical yearbook were also included to implement information. We analyzed the frequency of accidents and deaths, trend, geographic distribution and injury types. Additionally, we discussed the severity and urgency of emergency rescue by types of accidents. Results: A total of 877 major work safety accidents were reported, resulting in 16,795 deaths and 9,183 injuries. The numbers of accidents and deaths, mortality rate and incidence of major accidents have declined in recent years. The mortality rate and incidence was 0.71 and 1.20 per 106 populations in 2012, respectively. Transportation and mining contributed to the highest number of major accidents and deaths. Major aviation and railway accidents caused more casualties per incident, while collapse, machinery, electrical shock accidents and tailing dam accidents were the most severe situation that resulted in bigger proportion of death. Conclusion: Ten years’ major work safety accident data indicate that the frequency of accidents and number of eaths was declined and several safety concerns persist in some segments. PMID:27057515

  14. Risk management: Role of societal factors in major industrial accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hovden, J.; Rausand, M.; Sergeev, G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses factors influencing the occurrence of major accidents in complex technological systems. Societal factors are identified as most significant in this context. Important types of societal factors are pin-pointed and discussed. The safety situation in the former Soviet Union and in today`s Russian is described. The calamities at Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, and partly also Bhopal are discussed, and the role of societal factors identified. A main point of view is that it is not surprising that these catastrophes happened in the then existing conditions. What is surprising is that they did not happen earlier!

  15. Radiation damage aspects of the chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmentier, N.; Nenot, J. C.

    During the night of 25 to 26 April 1986, the most severe nuclear accident occurred at the Chernobyl power station, about 150km north of Kiev, in the Ukraine. It resulted in the irradiation of 237 workers at dose levels justifying medical care. The most severe cases (115) were hospitalized in Moscow, with 20 patients with doses higher than 6 Gy. In most cases, the treatment was classical, based on transfusion of red cells and platelets, and heavy supportive therapy. For 19 patients with severe aplasia, transplantations of bone marrow (13) or foetal liver (6) were decided. Of these patients only one survived, which justifies the statement from U.S.S.R. physicians: after an accident the indications of grafting are limited and its risks may not justify its use. Most of the complications were related to radiation burns which involved 56 victims and resulted in fatal outcomes in at least 19 patients. The population was evacuated from a 30 km zone around the site; based on direct measurements and calculations, the collective dose was evaluated at 1.6 × 10 4 man Sv, with an individual average lower than 250 mSv. The European part of U.S.S.R. with 75 million persons is supposed to have received a collective dose likely to increase the natural mortality by less than 0.1%. The numbers with cancer in the Northern Hemisphere might increase by 0.004% over the next 50 years.

  16. Radiation accidents and nuclear energy: medical consequences and therapy.

    PubMed

    Champlin, R E; Kastenberg, W E; Gale, R P

    1988-11-01

    After the accidents at Chernobyl, the Soviet Union, and in Goiania, Brazil, there is increasing concern about the medical risks from radiation accidents. This overview summarizes the principles of nuclear energy, the biologic effects of accidental radiation exposure, the emergency response to nuclear accidents, and approaches to treating radiation injuries. Also discussed are the related issues of reactor safety, the disposal of radioactive waste, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons. With the increasing use of radioactive materials for power, weapons, and medical diagnostics, the medical community needs to understand the health consequences of radiation exposure. PMID:3056171

  17. Major accidents and disaster response: The Swiss perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Favre, R.

    1995-12-31

    The coordination of the emergency preparedness towards disasters and major accidents takes place into the context of a global security policy. The purpose of this policy is to guarantee the survival of the population and to protect vital installations within a given area (state, region, canton, district, prefecture). According to the Swiss law--except in the case of a nuclear accident--the authorities of the cantons and communes are in charge of disaster relief in their jurisdiction. In addition, various instruments subordinated to Federal Departments (i.e., ministries) can be required either to function as experts or--on request and while respecting the principle of subsidiarity--to contribute to disaster response. Also in peace-time, parts of the army (rescue troops, engineers, medical units, ...) or parts of the means of the civil defense may be involved. In accordance with Switzerland`s federal state organization, each canton has worked out its own structure for disaster response (examples are provided in the paper). Although each of them has its own peculiarities and the available means can vary, several local events in the past few years have allowed them to give proof of their efficiency.

  18. [Role of the practitioner after accidents related to ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Vrousos, C; Kolodié, H; Gallin-Martel, C; Pons, H

    1995-03-15

    Accidents due to ionizing radiations can be nuclear accidents, concerning a large part of the population, or radiological accidents which may, at higher doses, irradiate a limited number of persons. In case of nuclear accident, radioactive rejections lead to an irradiation and/or a contamination, and induce the "préfet" to take public health measures. According to the dose possibly received by the population, measures can be the continuation of normal life, confinement, distribution of stable iodine, restriction of certain food consummation, evacuation being the ultimate measure. General practitioner will be an important actor in the information of the populations. When a radiological accident occurs, the management will depend on the type of accident and the dose emitted. This treatment of medico-surgical emergency is an absolute priority, if traumatic lesions are associated, on nuclear risk, especially when prognosis for life is involved. Lesions associated to radiolesions worsen the prognosis. PMID:7754325

  19. Fatigue: a major cause of commercial livestock truck accidents.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jennifer; Grandin, Temple

    2008-01-01

    Accident reports on 415 commercial livestock truck accidents were tabulated between 1994 and June 2007 in the United States and Canada. Data was collected from Google internet searches of newspaper and television news reports, unpublished industry sources and Alberta government agencies. Fifty-nine percent of the accidents occurred during the early morning hours from midnight to 9:00 am and 80% involved a single vehicle. Driver error was blamed for 85% of the wrecks. In 83% of the accidents, the vehicle rolled over and 84% of the truckers tipped over on their right side. In North America, vehicles travel on the right-hand side of the road and if a driver falls asleep at the wheel he usually drifts off toward the right. Driver fatigue is the most likely explanation for many of these accidents. PMID:20405431

  20. Radiation accident dosimetry on electronic components by OSL.

    PubMed

    Bassinet, C; Trompier, F; Clairand, I

    2010-02-01

    In the event of large-scale radiation accidents and considering a growing terrorism concern, non-invasive and sufficiently accurate retrospective dosimetry methods are necessary to carry out a fast population triage in order to determine which radiation-exposed individuals need medical treatment. Retrospective dosimetry using different electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, and integrated circuits present on mobile phone circuit boards have been considered. Their response has been investigated with luminescence techniques (OSL, IRSL, and TL). The majority of these electronic components exhibit radiation-induced luminescence signals, and the OSL technique seems the most promising for these materials. Results concerning three types of components that present the most interesting OSL characteristics (in terms of signal annealing and sensitivity) and that are the most often present on mobile phone circuit boards are presented. Preheating effects on OSL signal, sensitization, and dose-response curves from 0.7 to 27 Gy for resistors and from 0.7 to 160 Gy for capacitors and integrated circuits, dose recovery tests, and signal stability 10 h after irradiation have been studied and interests and limits of their use evaluated. PMID:20065718

  1. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Jow, H.N.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D. ); Amos, C.N. ); Helton, J. ); Boyd, G. )

    1992-06-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a point estimate of risk, but to determine the distribution of risk, and to assess the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station. Much of this important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Source Term Panel.

  2. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, R.J.; Harper, F.T.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D. ); Murfin, W. ); Amos, C.N. )

    1992-03-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a so-called'' point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station were assessed. Much of the important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Structural Response Panel.

  3. Radiation safety: what can happen in an accident.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; de Almeida, O P

    1992-04-11

    Radiation hazards in dental practice have long been recognized, and the dangers from ionising radiation during dental radiography are discussed elsewhere. Continuing legislation will undoubtedly help reduce the risk of over-exposure and accidents. Nevertheless, it is of some concern that radiation safety is still ignored by some: for example, one recent survey in the UK showed that not all radiography sets conformed to modern safety standards. However, the profession also has reason to be concerned about more public radiation hazards that may affect them, and their families and others, and may, without denying the importance of dental radiation protection, have far greater effects on health. Well-known examples of domestic radon exposure occurred in the UK, particularly in the Lake District and the South West, and the nuclear reactor accidents--notably at Chernobyl in 1986. PMID:1576019

  4. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC /TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  5. The health impact of major nuclear accidents: the case of Greece.

    PubMed

    Kollas, J G

    1993-10-01

    An assessment of the radiological consequences that would result for the population of Greece from postulated major nuclear accidents in the Kozloduy nuclear power station in Bulgaria is performed. Kozloduy lies at a distance of 225 km from the northern borders of Greece and contains six reactors, all of the Russian WWER type. The postulated accidents that are classified as level 7 accidents on the International Nuclear Event Scale, involve significant releases of radioactive materials into the environment, and widespread health and environmental effects. The analysis is performed by the MACCS code. The estimated consequences are compared to the corresponding actual impact of the Chernobyl accident in Greece. The results of the analysis indicate that, under the conservative assumptions adopted, the radiological consequences of the most severe accidents considered would be about 1.5 orders of magnitude larger than the actual radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. PMID:8259439

  6. Three Mile Island epidemiologic radiation dose assessment revisited: 25 years after the accident.

    PubMed

    Field, R William

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, public health concerns following the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident prompted several epidemiologic investigations in the vicinity of TMI. One of these studies is ongoing. This commentary suggests that the major source of radiation exposure to the population has been ignored as a potential confounding factor or effect modifying factor in previous and ongoing TMI epidemiologic studies that explore whether or not TMI accidental plant radiation releases caused an increase in lung cancer in the community around TMI. The commentary also documents the observation that the counties around TMI have the highest regional radon potential in the United States and concludes that radon progeny exposure should be included as part of the overall radiation dose assessment in future studies of radiation-induced lung cancer resulting from the TMI accident. PMID:15657112

  7. Radiation chemistry of major food components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes radiolysis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The major focuses of the chapter are on recent developments in radiation chemistry and the use of irradiation to reduce undesirable chemicals in foods. Specifically, formation of volatile sulfur compounds from...

  8. The medical technologist and the radiation-accident victim

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, M.E.; Thompson, D.W.; Ricks, R.C.; Kaufmann, D.

    1981-10-01

    Radiation accidents may produce external or internal contamination with radionuclides, local or whole-body exposure to penetrating radiation, or a combination of these. Trauma and medical problems which require rapid diagnosis and treatment may accompany a radiation injury. The role of the medical technologist in the early post-injury period may include the use of precautions in handling of contaminated specimens, prompt and repeated determinations of the absolute lymphocyte count, establishment of baseline values of the cellular and chemical components of the blood, and urinalysis. Following significant whole-body exposure to penetrating radiation, laboratory tests are required to monitor the development of granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia and to provide information necessary for the prevention, control, and treatment of infection and/or bleeding. Chromosome analysis may aid in dosimetry, and a procedure for collecting and shipping blood for analysis by experts in radiation cytogenetics is described.

  9. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  10. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  11. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  12. [Minor and major work accidents in a Puglia business in the food sector: a 10-year study].

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, L; Zocchetti, C; Platania, A; De Francesco, G; De Metrio, R; Pirris, A; Gigante, M R

    1998-01-01

    At present no official data are available for those occupational accidents which, according to current law, are not subject to notification to the Italian National Institute for Insurance of Occupational Accidents (INAIL) and which are conventionally called "minor" accidents. They can be divided into accidents with prognosis from 1 to 3 days (franchises) and accidents which do not cause absence from work (medications). The already mentioned lack of data, which is not confined to Italy, is reflected in the small number of articles published in Italian and international journals. Also information regarding the possible relationships between "minor" accidents and the life habits of injured workers, are rare. The aim of this study was to provide detailed data on the characteristics of the different kinds of occupational accidents occurring in a food factory in Apulia, southern Italy, from 1985 to 1994, as well as to verify whether any relationship existed between the different types of occupational accidents and the consumption of cigarettes and alcohol by injured workers. The company's accident register yielded data on injuries which caused absence from work; the nursing service register provided information about accidents which did not determine absence from work; personal health documents gave details of worker life habits; and the company pay roll showed the amount of "worked hours". "Minor" accidents represented 70% of all accidents occurring during the ten year period studied. "Blue collars" had more frequent and serious occupational injuries, in comparison with "technical employees". "Minor" accidents, and especially "medications", occurred more frequently during one-shift work than during three-shift work. As work seniority increased, the number of "major" accidents decreased and number of accidents without absence from work rose. Contusions were the most frequent lesions and were responsible for the majority of the 3 kinds of accidents. "Medications" together

  13. Two dimensional imaging of radiation accidents and radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tomoya; Sarukura, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Masahito; Fukuda, Tsuguo; Nango, Nobuhito

    2010-05-01

    An accident in a nuclear power plant caused by an unpredictable event such as an explosion, fire and earthquake is so serious that we have to carefully and precisely detect any radiation leakage from the plants, given that the number of nuclear power plants is recently increasing in order to cope with the contamination of air due to carbon dioxide emission from conventional power plants. Invisible radiation contamination of the environment due to nuclear fallout in nuclear power plants and research laboratories is also a very serious problem necessitating an urgent solution. For this purpose, bundles composed of well-designed and regularly arranged scintillation fiber segments or thin cylinders have been developed to detect and display the radiation sources as a map, using the directional sensitivity of the segments or cylinders for locating sources of incident radiation. By combining several types of scintillating elements into a bundle, we have developed a "panchromatic" detector that is suitable for use against radiation from different types of sources.

  14. Simulation of the radiation fields from ionizing radiation sources inside the containment in an accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kalugin, M. A.

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, a set of codes used for simulations of the radiation fields from ionizing radiation sources inside the containment in an accident is described. A method of evaluating the gamma dose rate from a space and energy distributed source is given. The dose rate is calculated by means of the design point kernel method and using buildup factors. The code MCU-REA with the ORIMCU module is used for the burnup calculations.

  15. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jim T

    2007-01-01

    Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the) major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident) with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks. PMID:17407581

  16. [Radiation effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Hungarian population].

    PubMed

    Kanyár, Béla

    2002-05-12

    Due to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in April 1986, the atmospheric transport spread the released radioactivity throughout the whole Europe. The initial plume moved into the north-western direction and a portion of this plum turned to west and later on to south-west. The central European countries including Hungary became affected in 29-30 April. The release during the last period (5-7 May) was directed to Romania, Bulgaria and Greece. In addition to the main trajectories of the atmospheric transport, the local meteorological conditions with winds of different directions at various altitudes, rainfalls etc. produced a very complex deposition pattern in Central Europe. The contamination of the soil surface and vegetation were strongly influenced by the wash-out of the radioactive materials from the local air. Due to the high geographical variation of the rains the surface contamination provided a similar heterogeneity among the territories of the country. The northern-west part and the region of the capital Budapest became nearly 5 times higher contaminated than the middle part of the country. Radiation doses of the population have been provided by activity concentrations in air, soil, vegetation, foods etc. and the external dose rates, mainly due to the surface contamination by the isotopes of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs. The average effective dose contribution received by the individuals (adults) in Hungary during the 15 years following the accident has been assessed to be 0.30 mSv while the annual dose from the natural background is 2.5-3 mSv. Contribution to total dose from the internal pathway (committed effective dose) resulted about 0.10 mSv and the external radiation provided 0.19 mSv. The contributions of the external exposure from the contaminated air and inhalation are less than 5% of the total one. PMID:12063853

  17. Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Arifumi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Yabe, Hirooki; Maeda, Masaharu; Shigemura, Jun; Ohira, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Takako; Akashi, Makoto; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Kamiya, Kenji; Shibuya, Kenji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy K

    2015-08-01

    437 nuclear power plants are in operation at present around the world to meet increasing energy demands. Unfortunately, five major nuclear accidents have occurred in the past--ie, at Kyshtym (Russia [then USSR], 1957), Windscale Piles (UK, 1957), Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (Ukraine [then USSR], 1986), and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). The effects of these accidents on individuals and societies are diverse and enduring. Accumulated evidence about radiation health effects on atomic bomb survivors and other radiation-exposed people has formed the basis for national and international regulations about radiation protection. However, past experiences suggest that common issues were not necessarily physical health problems directly attributable to radiation exposure, but rather psychological and social effects. Additionally, evacuation and long-term displacement created severe health-care problems for the most vulnerable people, such as hospital inpatients and elderly people. PMID:26251393

  18. Reported Radiation Overexposure Accidents Worldwide, 1980-2013: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Coeytaux, Karen; Bey, Eric; Christensen, Doran; Glassman, Erik S.; Murdock, Becky; Doucet, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation overexposure accidents are rare but can have severe long-term health consequences. Although underreporting can be an issue, some extensive literature reviews of reported radiation overexposures have been performed and constitute a sound basis for conclusions on general trends. Building further on this work, we performed a systematic review that completes previous reviews and provides new information on characteristics and trends of reported radiation accidents. Methods We searched publications and reports from MEDLINE, EMBASE, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Radiation Protection Association, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site radiation accident registry over 1980-2013. We retrieved the reported overexposure cases, systematically extracted selected information, and performed a descriptive analysis. Results 297 out of 5189 publications and reports and 194 records from the REAC/TS registry met our eligibility criteria. From these, 634 reported radiation accidents were retrieved, involving 2390 overexposed people, of whom 190 died from their overexposure. The number of reported cases has decreased for all types of radiation use, but the medical one. 64% of retrieved overexposure cases occurred with the use of radiation therapy and fluoroscopy. Additionally, the types of reported accidents differed significantly across regions. Conclusions This review provides an updated and broader view of reported radiation overexposures. It suggests an overall decline in reported radiation overexposures over 1980-2013. The greatest share of reported overexposures occurred in the medical fields using radiation therapy and fluoroscopy; this larger number of reported overexposures accidents indicates the potential need for enhanced quality assurance programs. Our data also highlights

  19. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N ); Rollstin, J.A. ); Helton, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  20. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents' risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP. PMID:26057539

  1. Bipolarization of Risk Perception about the Health Effects of Radiation in Residents after the Accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nakayama, Yumi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Urata, Hideko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Endo, Yuuko; Yamashita, Shunichi; Takamura, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    The late health effects of low-dose rate radiation exposure are still a serious public concern in the Fukushima area even four years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP). To clarify the factors associated with residents’ risk perception of radiation exposure and consequent health effects, we conducted a survey among residents of Kawauchi village in May and June 2014, which is located within 30 km of FNPP. 85 of 285 residents (29.8%) answered that acute radiation syndrome might develop in residents after the accident, 154 (54.0%) residents responded that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on children, and 140 (49.1%) residents indicated that they had anxieties about the health effects of radiation on offspring. Furthermore, 107 (37.5%) residents answered that they had concerns about health effects that would appear in the general population simply by living in an environment with a 0.23 μSv per hour ambient dose for one year, 149 (52.2%) residents reported that they were reluctant to eat locally produced foods, and 164 (57.5%) residents believed that adverse health effects would occur in the general population by eating 100 Bq per kg of mushrooms every day for one year. The present study shows that a marked bipolarization of the risk perception about the health effects of radiation among residents could have a major impact on social well-being after the accident at FNPP. PMID:26057539

  2. Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident: experiences of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Homma, T; Takahara, S; Kimura, M; Kinase, S

    2015-06-01

    Radiation protection issues on preparedness and response for a severe nuclear accident are discussed in this paper based on the experiences following the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The criteria for use in nuclear emergencies in the Japanese emergency preparedness guide were based on the recommendations of International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 63. Although the decision-making process for implementing protective actions relied heavily on computer-based predictive models prior to the accident, urgent protective actions, such as evacuation and sheltering, were implemented effectively based on the plant conditions. As there were no recommendations and criteria for long-term protective actions in the emergency preparedness guide, the recommendations of ICRP Publications 103, 109, and 111 were taken into consideration in determining the temporary relocation of inhabitants of heavily contaminated areas. These recommendations were very useful in deciding the emergency protective actions to take in the early stages of the Fukushima accident. However, some suggestions have been made for improving emergency preparedness and response in the early stages of a severe nuclear accident. PMID:25915551

  3. Aviation safety and maintenance under major organizational changes, investigating non-existing accidents.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Ivonne A; Nordskag, Arve O; Myhre, Grete; Halvorsen, Kåre

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the following questions: Do concurrent organizational changes have a direct impact on aviation maintenance and safety, if so, how can this be measured? These questions were part of the investigation carried out by the Accident Investigation Board, Norway (AIBN). The AIBN investigated whether Norwegian aviation safety had been affected due to major organizational changes between 2000 and 2004. The main concern was the reduction in safety margins and its consequences. This paper presents a summary of the techniques used and explains how they were applied in three airlines and by two offshore helicopter operators. The paper also discusses the development of safety related indicators in the aviation industry. In addition, there is a summary of the lessons learned and safety recommendations. The Norwegian Ministry of Transport has required all players in the aviation industry to follow up the findings and recommendations of the AIBN study. PMID:19819363

  4. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus, we reviewed evidence of the effects of radiation, thyroid screening, and iodine deficiency on regional differences in incidence rates of thyroid cancer. We also reviewed current evidence on content of nitrate in groundwater and thyroid cancer risk drawing attention to high levels of nitrates in open well water in several contaminated regions of Belarus, i.e. Gomel and Brest, related to the usage of nitrogen fertilizers. In this hypothesis generating study, based on ecological data and biological plausibility, we suggest that nitrate pollution may modify the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer contributing to regional differences in rates of pediatric thyroid cancer in Belarus. Analytic epidemiological studies designed to evaluate joint effect of nitrate content in groundwater and radiation present a promising avenue of research and may provide useful insights into etiology of thyroid cancer. PMID:26397978

  5. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    PubMed Central

    Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  6. Little impact of tsunami-stricken nuclear accident on awareness of radiation dose of cardiac computed tomography: A questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increased use of cardiac computed tomography (CT), radiation dose remains a major issue, although physicians are trying to reduce the substantial risks associated with use of this diagnostic tool. This study was performed to investigate recognition of the level of radiation exposure from cardiac CT and the differences in the level of awareness of radiation before and after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Methods We asked 30 physicians who were undergoing training in internal medicine to determine the equivalent doses of radiation for common radiological examinations when a normal chest X-ray is accepted as one unit; questions about the absolute radiation dose of cardiac CT data were also asked. Results According to the results, 86.6% of respondents believed the exposure to be 1 mSv at most, and 93.3% thought that the exposure was less than that of 100 chest X-rays. This finding indicates that their perceptions were far lower than the actual amounts. Even after the occurrence of such a large nuclear disaster in Fukushima, there were no significant differences in the same subjects’ overall awareness of radiation amounts. Conclusions Even after such a major social issue as the Fukushima nuclear accident, the level of awareness of the accurate radiation amount used in 64-channel multidetector CT (MDCT) by clinical physicians who order this test was not satisfactory. Thus, there is a need for the development of effective continuing education programs to improve awareness of radiation from ionizing radiation devices, including cardiac CT, and emphasis on risk-benefit evaluation based on accurate knowledge during medical training. PMID:23631688

  7. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 12. Water Accidents, Electrical Emergencies, Hazardous Materials and Radiation Accidents. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, covers water accidents, electrical emergencies, and hazardous materials and radiation accidents. Objectives stated for the three chapters are for the students to be able to describe: emergency care for specified water…

  8. Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Endo, A

    2007-01-01

    A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure. PMID:17510203

  9. [Radiation measures and trend after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2014-02-01

    The radioactive materials spread by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident in March, 2011 caused NPP workers to be exposed to radiation above ordinance limits. The number of workers exposed to radiation within ordinance limits is increasing. Decontamination began at many places in Fukushima, although new laws were enforced in the decontamination work, in the current situation, medical examinations for radiation are limited due to a shortage of doctors. In this paper, I introduce the ordinances on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards and the revised points about radiation exposure doses of the NPP workers, as well as the new ordinance for decontamination. PMID:24605520

  10. Major chemical accidents in industrializing countries: the socio-political amplification of risk.

    PubMed

    de Souza Porto, M F; de Freitas, C M

    1996-02-01

    Accidents in the chemical industry, such as those that took place in Seveso (1976) and Bhopal (1984), may kill or injure thousands of people, cause serious health hazards and irreversible environmental damage. The aim of this paper is to examine the ever-increasing risk of similar accidents becoming a frequent ocurrence in the so-called industrializing countries. Using figures from some of the worst chemical accidents in the last decades, data on the Bhopal disaster, and Brazil's social and institutional characteristics, we put forward the hypothesis that present social, political and economic structures in industrializing countries make these countries much more vulnerable to such accidents and create the type of setting where--if and when these accidents occur--they will have even more catastrophic consequences. The authors argue that only the transformation of local structures, and stronger technical cooperation between international organizations, industrialized and industrializing countries could reduce this vulnerability. PMID:8868221

  11. Health risk assessment of major accidents with toxic chemicals for disaster preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Torn, P.

    1991-01-01

    Health risks of major accidents with toxic chemicals need to be defined by: (i) nature, (ii) number and (iii) severity. (ad i) Health effects are conveniently categorized by nature into local (L)/systemic (S) and immediate (1)/delayed (2) (health effects). (ad ii) Derivation of population responses generally is unfeasible, instead exposure bands can be specified by effect-level. (ad iii) The continuum of health effects should be described in a global disability scale. The 4 D'-scale seems most appropriate: death (D{sub 1}), disability (D{sub 2}), discomfort (D{sub 3}), detectability (D{sub 4}). For use in disaster response health risk specifications should furthermore be: (1) transparent, (2) in line with the overall situational analysis and (3) congruent with mitigation. (-ad 1) Transparency can be improved by selecting one main sign/symptom by effect level for field instructions. (-ad 2) Situational analysis initially involves the source-area (what effect levels are found near the source ) and the outer limits of the effect area (feedback from telephone complaints mostly D{sub 4}). Otherwise, knowledge is needed of the ratio of exposures that lead to consecutive effect levels to assess the overall health impact by interpolation. Finally, the need to recognize high risk situations is emphasized: e.g. data bases with distributions of dispersion constraints (urban areas), penetration potentials into the housing-stock, concentrations of groups at high-risk (over time). (-ad 3) Mitigation is divided into: (a) protection of the public in a threatened area and (b) medical assistance.

  12. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME III

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  13. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  14. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE 2, VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem St...

  15. Cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes for the purpose of dose reconstruction: a review of three recent radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, A; Gregoire, E; Hayata, I; Roy, L; Sommer, S; Stephan, G; Voisin, P

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood of radiation accident victims is an established method of biological dosimetry. The dose estimate on the basis of an in vitro calibration curve is straightforward when the radiation exposure is homogeneous and the analysis not delayed. In recent years three radiation accidents occurred, where the irradiation or sampling conditions precluded a simple estimation of the dose. During the Georgian accident soldiers carried in their pockets small sources of 137Cs leading to partial and protracted body exposures. During the Tokai-mura accident, three employees involved in the process of 235U enrichment were exposed to very high doses of gamma rays and neutrons. During the Bialystok accident, five patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy were exposed to a single dose of electrons which reached about 100 Gy. In the present paper the approaches chosen to estimate, by cytogenetic methods, the doses absorbed by the people involved in the accidents are described. PMID:15162038

  16. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters. Experts` determination of structural response issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, R.J.; Harper, F.T.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Murfin, W.; Amos, C.N.

    1992-03-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ``so-called`` point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station were assessed. Much of the important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Structural Response Panel.

  17. Cobalt-60 simulation of LOCA (loss of coolant accident) radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Buckalew, W.H.

    1989-07-01

    The consequences of simulating nuclear reactor loss of coolant accident (LOCA) radiation effects with Cobalt-60 gamma ray irradiators have been investigated. Based on radiation induced damage in polymer base materials, it was demonstrated that electron/photon induced radiation damage could be related on the basis of average absorbed radiation dose. This result was used to estimate the relative effectiveness of the mixed beta/gamma LOCA and Cobalt-60 radiation environments to damage both bare and jacketed polymer base electrical insulation materials. From the results obtained, it is concluded that present simulation techniques are a conservative method for simulating LOCA radiation effects and that the practices have probably substantially overstressed both bare and jacketed materials during qualification testing. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. [Radiation emergency medical preparedness in Japan--lessons learned from the Fukushima accident].

    PubMed

    Akashi, Makoto; Tominaga, Takako; Takabatake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Hachiya, Misao

    2012-03-01

    Although radiation exposure accidents fortunately occur only rarely, potential sources for exposure accidents can be found anywhere. When persons are accidentally exposed to radiation, physicians may be involved in their assessment and care; of course, their early diagnosis and dose assessment are crucial. After the criticality accident at Tokaimura in 1999, the system of radiation emergency medical preparedness has been further strengthened for nuclear facilities in Japan. In the revised system, hospitals involved were classified into three levels, depending on their locations and capabilities. The Great East Japan Earthquake attacked the Pacific coast area of eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. This earthquake and tsunami caused serious damage to the nuclear power plants of Tokyo Electric Power Co.(TEPCO) in Fukushima Prefecture; a large amount of radionuclides such as iodine and cesium were released into the environment. Since the revised system was focused on treatment of heavily exposed patients and knowledge on radiation was not enough for medical staff, many problems were raised at hospitals and fire departments in this disaster. PMID:22514928

  19. Perception of Radiation Risk by Japanese Radiation Specialists Evaluated as a Safe Dose Before the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Miura, Miwa; Ono, Koji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Matsuda, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    From October to December 2010, just before the radiological accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, 71 radiation professionals from radiation facilities in Japan were asked what they considered as a "safe dose" of radiation for themselves, their partners, parents, children, siblings, and friends. Although the 'safe dose' they noted varied widely, from less than 1 mSv y to more than 100 mSv y, the average dose was 35.6 mSv y, which is around the middle point between the legal exposure dose limits for the annual average and for any single year. Similar results were obtained from other surveys of members of the Japan Radioisotope Association (36.9 mSv y) and of the Oita Prefectural Hospital (36.8 mSv y). Among family members and friends, the minimum average "safe" dose was 8.5 mSv y for children, for whom 50% of the responders claimed a "safe dose" of less than 1 mSv. Gender, age and specialty of the radiation professional also affected their notion of a "safe dose." These findings suggest that the perception of radiation risk varies widely even for radiation professionals and that the legal exposure dose limits derived from regulatory science may act as an anchor of safety. The different levels of risk perception for different target groups among radiation professionals appear similar to those in the general population. The gap between these characteristics of radiation professionals and the generally accepted picture of radiation professionals might have played a role in the state of confusion after the radiological accident. PMID:27115222

  20. The radiation in the atmosphere during major solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clucas, S.; Dyer, C.; Lei, F.

    Major solar particle events can give rise to greatly enhanced radiation throughout the entire atmosphere including at aircraft altitudes. These particle events are very hard to predict and their effect on aircraft is difficult to calculate. A comprehensive model of the energetic radiation in the atmosphere has been developed based on a response matrix of the atmosphere to energetic particle incidence. This model has previously been used to determine the spectral form of several ground level neutron events including February 56 and September/October 1989. Significant validation of the model has been possible using CREAM data flying onboard Concorde during the September/October 1989 events. Further work has been carried out for this solar maximum, including estimates of the solar particle spectra during the July 2000, April 2001, and October 2003 events and comparisons of predicated atmospheric measurements with limited flight data. Further CREAM data has being obtained onboard commercial airlines and high altitude business jets during quiet time periods. In addition, the atmospheric radiation model, along with solar particle spectra, have been used to calculate the neutron flux and dose rates along several commercial aircraft flight paths including London - LA. The influence of suppression on cut-off rigidity by geomagnetic storms is examined and shows that the received flight dose during disturbed periods can be significantly enhanced compared with quiet periods.

  1. The radiation in the atmosphere during major solar particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clucas, Simon N.; Dyer, Clive S.; Lei, Fan

    Major solar particle events can give rise to greatly enhanced radiation throughout the entire atmosphere including at aircraft altitudes. These particle events are very hard to predict and their effect on aircraft is difficult to calculate. A comprehensive model of the energetic radiation in the atmosphere has been developed based on a response matrix of the atmosphere to energetic particle incidence. This model has previously been used to determine the spectral form of several ground level neutron events including February 1956 and September/October 1989. Significant validation of the model has been possible using CREAM data flying onboard Concorde during the September/October 1989 events. Further work has been carried out for the current solar maximum, including estimates of the solar particle spectra during the July 2000, April 2001, and October 2003 events and comparisons of predicted atmospheric measurements with limited flight data. Further CREAM data have been obtained onboard commercial airlines and high altitude business jets during quiet time periods. In addition, the atmospheric radiation model, along with solar particle spectra, have been used to calculate the neutron flux and dose rates along several commercial aircraft flight paths including London to Los Angeles. The influence of rigidity cut-off suppression by geomagnetic storms is examined and shows that the received flight dose during disturbed periods can be significantly enhanced compared with quiet periods.

  2. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME V. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  3. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME I. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  4. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: UPDATE. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  5. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME IV. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  6. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME III. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  7. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME VI. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  8. THREE MILE ISLAND NUCLEAR REACTOR ACCIDENT OF MARCH 1979. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION DATA: VOLUME II. A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE ACCIDENT AT THREE MILE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corp...

  9. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on background radiation doses measured by control dosimeters in Japan.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; King, David L; Kennemur, Lisa K

    2012-05-01

    After the 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011 in Japan, several reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered severe damage. There was immediate participation of U.S. Navy vessels and other United States Department of Defense (DoD) teams that were already in the area at the time of the disaster or arrived shortly thereafter. The correct determination of occupational dose equivalent requires estimation of the background dose component measured by control dosimeters, which is subsequently subtracted from the total dose equivalent measured by personal dosimeters. The purpose of the control dosimeters is to determine the amount of radiation dose equivalent that has accumulated on the dosimeter from background or other non-occupational sources while they are in transit or being stored. Given the release of radioactive material and potential exposure to radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and the process by which the U.S. Navy calculates occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, analysis of pre- and post-event control dosimeters is warranted. Several hundred historical dose records from the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) database were analyzed and compared with the post-accident dose equivalent data of control dosimeters. As result, it was shown that the dose contribution of the radiation and released radiological materials from the Fukushima nuclear accident to background radiation doses is less than 0.375 μSv d for shallow and deep photon dose equivalent. There is no measurable effect on neutron background exposure. The latter has at least two important conclusions. First, the NDC can use doses measured by control dosimeters at issuing sites in Japan for determination of personnel dose equivalents; second, the dose data from control dosimeters prior to and after the Fukushima accident may be used to assist in dose reconstruction of non-radiological (non-badged) personnel at these locations

  10. Thyroid Dose Estimates for a Cohort of Belarusian Children Exposed to Radiation from the Chernobyl Accident

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Leshcheva, Svetlana; Gavrilin, Yury; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Kutsen, Semion; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tretyakevich, Sergey; Trofimik, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. National Cancer Institute, in collaboration with the Belarusian Ministry of Health, is conducting a study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in a cohort of about 12,000 persons who were exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986. The study subjects were 18 years old or younger at the time of exposure and resided in Belarus in the most contaminated areas of the Gomel and Mogilev Oblasts, as well as in the city of Minsk. All cohort members had at least one direct thyroid measurement made in April–June 1986. Individual data on residential history, consumption of milk, milk products and leafy vegetables as well as administration of stable iodine were collected for all cohort members by means of personal interviews conducted between 1996 and 2007. Based on the estimated 131I activities in the thyroids, which were derived from the direct thyroid measurements, and on the responses to the questionnaires, individual thyroid doses from intakes of 131I were reconstructed for all cohort members. In addition, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for the following minor exposure pathways: (a) intake of short-lived 132I, 133I and 132Te by inhalation and ingestion; (b) external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (c) ingestion intake of 134Cs and 137Cs. Intake of 131I was the major pathway for thyroid exposure; its mean contribution to the thyroid dose was 92%. The thyroid doses from 131I intakes varied from 0.5 mGy to almost 33 Gy; the mean was estimated to be 0.58 Gy, while the median was 0.23 Gy. The reconstructed doses are being used to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases in the cohort. PMID:23560632

  11. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  12. Female reproductive function in areas affected by radiation after the Chernobyl power station accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kulakov, V.I.; Sokur, T.N.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive survey of the effects of the accidental release of radiation caused by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in April 1986. The accident and the resulting release of radiation and radioactive products into the atmosphere produced the most serious environmental contamination so far recorded. We have concentrated on evaluating the outcomes and health risks to women, their reproductive situation, and consequences for their progeny. We have concentrated on two well-defined areas: the Chechersky district of the Gomel region in Belorussia and the Polessky district of the Kiev region in the Ukraine. A number of investigations were carried out on 688 pregnant women and their babies, and data were obtained from 7000 labor histories of the development of newborns for a period of 8 years (3 years before the accident and 5 years after it). Parameters examined included birth rate, thyroid pathology, extragenital pathology such as anemias, renal disorders, hypertension, and abnormalities in the metabolism of fats, complications of gestation, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, perinatal morbidity and mortality, stillbirths and early neonatal mortality, infections and inflammatory diseases, neurological symptoms and hemic disturbances in both mothers and infants, trophic anomalies, and biochemical and structural changes in the placenta. Several exogenous, complicating influences were also considered such as psycho-emotional factors, stress, lifestyle changes, and others caused directly by the hazardous situation and by its consequences such as treatment, removal from affected areas, etc. 9 figs.

  13. Radiation-driven migration: the case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

  14. Radiation-Driven Migration: The Case of Minamisoma City, Fukushima, Japan, after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Yan, Wanglin; Oba, Akihiro; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The emigration of residents following the Fukushima nuclear accident has resulted in aging and depopulation problems in radiation-contaminated areas. The recovery of affected areas, and even those areas with low radioactive pollution levels, is still heavily affected by this problem. This slow recovery consequently affects immigration patterns. This review aims to present possible factors that have contributed to this dilemma. We first present an overview of the evacuation protocol that was administered in the study area following the Fukushima accident. We then analyze characteristics of the subsequent exodus by comparing population data for both before and after the accident. Based on the findings of existing literature, we identify three causes of emigration: (1) The health risks of living in a low radiation zone are still unknown; (2) The post-disaster psychological disturbance and distrust of government information promotes the emigration of evacuees; (3) an absence of economic vitality and of a leading industry renders the area less attractive to individuals residing outside of the city. Further research is needed on this issue, especially with respect to countermeasures for addressing this problem. PMID:25207491

  15. The outcome of local radiation injuries: 14 years of follow-up after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Steinert, M; Weiss, M; Bebeshko, V; Belyi, D; Nadejina, N; Stefani, F H; Wagemaker, G; Fliedner, T M; Peter, R U

    2001-03-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident on April 26, 1986 was the largest in the history of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Of the 237 individuals initially suspected to have been significantly exposed to radiation during or in the immediate aftermath of the accident, the diagnosis of acute radiation sickness (ARS) could be confirmed in 134 cases on the basis of clinical symptoms. Of these, 54 patients suffered from cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS) to varying degrees. Among the 28 patients who died from the immediate consequences of accidental radiation exposure, acute hemopoietic syndrome due to bone marrow failure was the primary cause of death only in a minority. In 16 of these 28 deaths, the primary cause was attributed to CRS. This report describes the characteristic cutaneous sequelae as well as associated clinical symptoms and diseases of 15 survivors of the Chernobyl accident with severe localized exposure who were systematically followed up by our groups between 1991 and 2000. All patients presented with CRS of varying severity, showing xerosis, cutaneous telangiectasias and subungual splinter hemorrhages, hemangiomas and lymphangiomas, epidermal atrophy, disseminated keratoses, extensive dermal and subcutaneous fibrosis with partial ulcerations, and pigmentary changes including radiation lentigo. Surprisingly, no cutaneous malignancies have been detected so far in those areas that received large radiation exposures and that developed keratoses; however, two patients first presented in 1999 with basal cell carcinomas on the nape of the neck and the right lower eyelid, areas that received lower exposures. During the follow-up period, two patients were lost due to death from myelodysplastic syndrome in 1995 and acute myelogenous leukemia in 1998, respectively. Other radiation-induced diseases such as dry eye syndrome (3/15), radiation cataract (5/15), xerostomia (4/15) and increased FSH levels (7/15) indicating impaired fertility were also

  16. The chornobyl accident: estimation of radiation doses received by the Baltic and Ukrainian cleanup workers.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Chumak, Vadim V; Inskip, Peter D; Kryuchkov, Viktor; Luckyanov, Nickolas

    2006-07-01

    During the first day after the explosion, the Chornobyl accident of April 26, 1986 exposed a few hundred emergency workers to high dose levels ranging up to 16 Gy, resulting in acute radiation syndrome. Subsequently, several hundred thousand cleanup workers were sent to the Chornobyl power plant to mitigate the consequences of the accident. Depending on the nature of the work to be carried out, the cleanup workers were sent for periods ranging from several minutes to several months. The average dose from external radiation exposure that was received by the cleanup workers was about 170 mGy in 1986 and decreased from year to year. The radiation exposure was mainly due to external irradiation from gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides and was relatively homogeneous over all organs and tissues of the body. To assess the possible health consequences of external irradiation at relatively low dose rates, the U.S. National Cancer Institute is involved in two studies of Chornobyl cleanup workers: (1) a study of cancer incidence and thyroid disease among Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian workers, and (2) a study of leukemia and other related blood diseases among Ukrainian workers. After an overview of the sources of exposure and of the radiation doses received by the cleanup workers, a description of the efforts made to estimate individual doses in the Baltic and Ukrainian studies is presented. PMID:16808604

  17. A methodology for the quantitative risk assessment of major accidents triggered by seismic events.

    PubMed

    Antonioni, Giacomo; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2007-08-17

    A procedure for the quantitative risk assessment of accidents triggered by seismic events in industrial facilities was developed. The starting point of the procedure was the use of available historical data to assess the expected frequencies and the severity of seismic events. Available equipment-dependant failure probability models (vulnerability or fragility curves) were used to assess the damage probability of equipment items due to a seismic event. An analytic procedure was subsequently developed to identify, evaluate the credibility and finally assess the expected consequences of all the possible scenarios that may follow the seismic events. The procedure was implemented in a GIS-based software tool in order to manage the high number of event sequences that are likely to be generated in large industrial facilities. The developed methodology requires a limited amount of additional data with respect to those used in a conventional QRA, and yields with a limited effort a preliminary quantitative assessment of the contribution of the scenarios triggered by earthquakes to the individual and societal risk indexes. The application of the methodology to several case-studies evidenced that the scenarios initiated by seismic events may have a relevant influence on industrial risk, both raising the overall expected frequency of single scenarios and causing specific severe scenarios simultaneously involving several plant units. PMID:17276591

  18. Radiation situation in Kamchatka after the Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The chronology of events in Kamchatka related to the threat of radioactive contamination of the territory as a result of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power station (NPS) accident in Japan is briefly reviewed based on the published data. The accident happened on March 11, 2011, after a strong earthquake near the coast of Japan and the giant tsunami followed by the earthquake. The power supply was damaged and, as a result, the cooling system of NPS reactors was destroyed. Although the reactors did not explode, radioactive emissions from the damaged NPS discharged into the atmosphere and spread over large areas by the air flows. Information about the radiation situation in Kamchatka is controversial. Therefore, the author carried out regular monitoring of the radiation background during a hiking trip in Kamchatka in August 2011. The data are presented in this paper. It was concluded that the radiation background along the route of the trip was consistent (within the accuracy of measurement methods) with the normal values of a natural background. A thorough analysis of air, soil, food samples, etc., is required for a more detailed study to identify the presence of radionuclides in the atmospheric emissions from the damaged NPS in Japan.

  19. [The cradle of the Russian radioecology (to the 50th anniversary of the Kyshtym radiation accident)].

    PubMed

    Aleksakhin, R M; Prister, B S

    2008-01-01

    On September 29, 1957, at a nuclear industry facility (Production Association "Mayak"), there was a large radiation accident resulting in the release of radioactive wastes into the environment and the formation of the East-Urals Radioactive Trail (EURT). Within the EURT and there established in 1958 an Experimental Scientific Research Station (ESRS) which came to be known as alma mater of domestic radioecology, various comprehensive long-term investigations had been carried out. The main results of these 50-year investigations have been summarized for a broad range of problems on radionuclide migration in the natural environment and ionizing radiation effects on biota, as well as problems of environmental protection. In addition to the studies of the in situ behavior of released during the accident anthropogenic radionuclides (primarily 90Sr, the main dose-forming radionuclide within the EURT), at the ESRS large experiment have been performed to study migration and biological effects on agricultural plants and animals of man-made radionuclides (especially fresh mixtures of fission products) introduced to the natural environment. Results of ESRS experiments are described on irradiation of natural biogeocenoses from a powerful source of ionizing radiation (1.2 x 10(15) Bq 137Cs). The first unique experience is described of remediation of radioactively contaminated areas with emphasis on agricultural radioecology. The importance of the EURT and ESRS radioecological studies for the development of radioecology as a science is stressed. PMID:18666658

  20. [Principles and methods of evaluation of radiation risk and pilots' health in accidents of nuclear power objects].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Davydov, B I; Soldatov, S K; Zuev, V G

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with methodic approaches to health state evaluation of pilots who participated in liquidation of events following accidents at nuclear power objects. The main approaches are indeterminancy principle for late radiation effects, economic approach to evaluation of radiation risk, principle of risks comparison, consideration of summarized effect of environmental factors, etc. Some authors' viewpoints are presented. PMID:10097562

  1. Public meetings on radiation and its health effects caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, K.; Ayame, J.; Takashita, H.; Yamamoto, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has held public meetings on radiation and its health effects mainly for parents of students in kindergartens, elementary schools, and junior high schools in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures after the Fukushima nuclear accident. These meetings are held based on our experience of practicing risk communication activities for a decade in JAEA with local residents. By analyzing questionnaires collected after the meetings, we confirmed that interactive communication is effective in increasing participants' understanding and in decreasing their anxiety. Most of the participants answered that they understood the contents and that it eased their mind. (authors)

  2. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at ERDA facilities, 1975-1977

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) accident frequency and losses were similar to that of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1970 through 1974. The ERDA incidence rates per 200,000 work hours were 1.05 for lost workday injuries and 17.8 for workdays lost. These rates are about one-third of the national industrial averages reported by the National Safety Council (NSC). Ten fatalities occurred at ERDA facilities resulting in an average annual rate of three deaths per 100,000 workers compared to the national rate of 14 deaths per 100,000 workers. ERDA's total property loss from 1975 to 1977 was $11.9 million; $1.8 million caused by fires. The average annual loss rates, in cents loss per $100 valuation, were 1.15 for non-fire and 0.18 for fire. These rates are higher than the AEC post; Rocky Flats period (1970 through 1974) which were 0.60 non-fire and 0.10 fire; but are lower than the average annual rates which were 2.4 non-fire and 1.7 fire for the entire history of the AEC. Accidents causing more than $50,000 in property damage are tabulated. ERDA continued to make a strong effort to eliminate unnecessary radiation exposure to workers. The number of employees exceeding 1 rem decreased from 2999 in 1975 to 2274 in 1977. The two appendixes include criteria for accident investigations and summaries of accident investigation reports.

  3. A Device for Search of Gamma-Radiation Intensive Sources at the Radiation Accident Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Klyuchnykov, A; Kochnev, N; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.

    2005-08-08

    The procedure designed for measuring angular distributions of gamma radiation and for search of gamma radiation intensive sources is described. It is based on application of the original multidetector device ShD-1, for measuring an angular distribution in a complete solid angle (4 pi). The calibration results and data on the angular distributions of intensity of gamma radiation at the roof of Chornobyl NPP ''Shelter'' are presented.

  4. Operational accidents and radiation exposures at DOE facilities. Fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy's safety performance in fiscal year 1979 showed improvement in all categories over fiscal year 1978. The loss rates were less than one-half the United States industry average as reported by the National Safety Council. Incidence rates per 200,000 workhours were 1.1 lost workday cases and 17.2 lost workdays compared to 1.2 lost workday cases and 17.6 lost workdays during fiscal year 1978. The recordable occupational illness rate, based on only 80 cases, was 0.06 cases per 200,000 workhours compared to 0.07 cases per 200,000 workhours for fiscal year 1978. Nine fatalities of contractor employees resulted in an annual rate of 6.0 deaths per 100,000 workers compared with 10 fatalities during fiscal year 1978, and an annual rate of 6.7 deaths per 100,000 workers. The total Department of Energy property loss reported during fiscal year 1979 was $3.3 million; $765,400 was caused by fire, and $2.5 million by other causes. A total of 121 million vehicle miles of official travel resulted in 685 accidents with $338,400 in property damage. The loss rates of 5.7 accidents per million vehicle miles and $2.80 per 1000 miles were improvements over the fiscal year 1978 rates of 5.8 accidents per million vehicle miles and $2.97 property damage per 1000 miles. The 104,986 monitored Department of Energy and its contractor employees received a total dose of 9040 rem in calendar year 1979. Both the total dose and the 1748 employees receiving radiation exposures greater than 1 rem in 1979 represent a continuing downward trend from the calendar year 1978 total dose of 9380 rem and the 1826 employees who received radiation exposures greater than 1 rem.

  5. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field. PMID:19181661

  6. Reevaluation of radiation dose around the JCO site from the criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2005-04-01

    Based on the monitoring data periodically taken during the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura, neutron and gamma-ray doses were evaluated at 13 points around the site boundary ranging from 73 to 540 m from the conversion building where the criticality took place. Radiation doses obtained by the present study were compared with the dose-distance curves developed through the works of the Nuclear Safety Commission Investigation Committee. The latter values are larger by 30 to 120% than the former at the 6 nearest points within 150 m from the conversion building, while they agree well at the points beyond 250 m. It is suggested that the shielding effects by the surrounding buildings around the conversion building contributed to the difference of estimated doses near the JCO boundary. To reconstruct the radiation environment realistically at the residential area near the JCO facilities, it is necessary to employ radiation transport calculations with three-dimensional models of the configuration around the conversion building. Radiation doses evaluated in the present study can be used to check the validity of such calculations based on the three-dimensional model. PMID:15761301

  7. Daily variation of radiation dose rate after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi

    2015-04-01

    After the radioactive contamination of the lands from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, the radiation dose rates observed by the dosimeters often shows daily variations, at different local times at different places or time. These variations are caused by different reasons: the temperature-dependent characteristics of the dosimeter (instrumental effect), the daily convective wind that lifts up the radioactive small particle on the ground (local effect), and the daily sea-land wind that transports the radioactive small particle from highly contaminated area (regional effect). The last type is most important in understanding the internal dose by air taking. However, while very regular patterns can easily be judged as instrumental effect, variations that strongly depend on the weather conditions are not easily judged. Combining the atmospheric electric field measurement near the ground (potential gradient, PG) with the wind and weather data, some of these unclear cases can be classified into above three reasoning, which will be shown in the presentation. Thus, the PG measurement is important right after any nuclear accidents in the future.

  8. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  9. Spatiotemporal characteristics of internal radiation exposure in evacuees and first responders after the radiological accident in fukushima.

    PubMed

    Morita, Naoko; Miura, Miwa; Yoshida, Masahiro; Kumagai, Atsushi; Ohtsuru, Akira; Usa, Toshiro; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru; Yamashita, Shunichi; Matsuda, Naoki

    2013-09-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on March 11, 2011, the reconstruction of early internal radiation doses in residents of Fukushima plays a major role in evaluating their future heath risk, including thyroid cancer by internal radioiodine. Internal radioactivity was measured using a whole body counter (WBC) at the Nagasaki University Medical School to evaluate the health risks of residents and short term visitors in Fukushima. Measurable (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected altogether in 49 out of 196 people who were in Fukushima prefecture at any time during March 11 and April 20, 2011. In 49 people, the 90 percentile of the thyroid equivalent dose by (131)I and the committed effective dose (total effective dose over a lifetime) by the sum of (134)Cs and (137)Cs was 3 mSv and 0.06 mSv, respectively. The radionuclide intakes in early evacuees who left Fukushima before March 16 were more than five times as high as in the responders who moved to Fukushima later. The intake ratio of (131)I/(137)Cs of the earlier evacuees was approximately three. The spatial analysis of 16 evacuees to the south indicated a reduction of internal radioactivity depending on the distance from the nuclear power plant. Among them, high internal (131)I radioactivity in 6 people in a particular evacuation route could be explained by the arrival of a radioactive cloud with a high airborne (131)I/(137)Cs ratio to the environment, as predicted by atmospheric dispersion simulations. Overall, the actual internal radioactivity assessed by a WBC examination comparatively agreed with the predicted airborne radioactivity. These results suggest that the accurate estimation of internal doses in the first week after the radiological accident is critical for the dose reconstruction. The evaluation of internal doses of residents based on their evacuation routes and the advanced estimation of airborne radioactivity from the atmospheric dispersion model

  10. Estimates of radiation dose and health risks to the United States population following the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

    SciTech Connect

    Broadway, J.A.; Smith, J.M.; Norwood, D.L.; Porter, C.R.

    1988-09-01

    Estimates of both individual and collective doses received by the United States population following the Chernobyl accident have been made by using the data obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System. Radionuclides associated with the debris first were measured in precipitation and surface air particulates at Portland, OR and Olympia, WA on 5 May 1986. Iodine-131 was the most consistently measured nuclide in all media, although several Cs and Ru isotopes also were observed. Strontium and any actinides notably were absent from the samples at the lower level of detection. The highest calculated individual-organ dose due to intake during May and June 1986 was 0.52 mSv to the infant thyroid in the state of Washington. This was predominantly (98%) from the ingestion of milk. The maximum U.S. collective dose equivalent to any organ was calculated to be 3,300 person-Sv to the thyroid. Risk estimates project three excess lung cancer deaths and an additional four deaths due to cancers of thyroid, breast and leukemia in the U.S. population over the next 45 y from exposure during the May-June 1986 interval. The only long-lived radionuclide measured in milk samples following the accident was 137Cs. We estimate 20 excess fatalities from the ingestion of 137Cs in milk during all subsequent years, with six of these due to lung cancer and the majority of the remainder distributed approximately equally among cancers of the thyroid, breast, liver and leukemia. A total of 100 excess fatalities from all dietary components was estimated. Because of the uncertainty of risk estimates from data such as those available for this study, all calculated values carry a range of uncertainty from a minimum of one-half the calculated value to a maximum of two times the calculated value.

  11. Forecasting Radiation Effects on Wildlife in Japan After the Fukushima Nuclear Accident, Based on Limited Information of Post-Accident Early Stage in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, M. U.; Doko, T.; Koike, F.

    2014-11-01

    Due to the 11 March 2011 Tohoku earthquake, massive radioactive materials were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (Fukushima NPP). It is crucial to predict the regional distribution and magnitude of the effects on wildlife by radioactive materials. However, during the post-accident early stage in 2011, limited information on large-scale pollution and prediction maps was open to public. Hence, this paper aimed to provide (1) the pollution map covering areas within 300 km from the Fukushima NPP where the radiation intensity exceeded 0.5 μSv/h, (2) pollution maps which predicted air dose for the next 30 years after the accident, and (3) maps of areas where wildlife might be affected by radioactive isotopes by the Fukushima nuclear accident. First, the relative contributions of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated from time series observation data. Second, a 30-year prediction of the pollution was calculated based on the isotope half-lives. Third, the chronic radiation effects on vertebrates were estimated using the threshold dose rate proposed by Sazykina et al. (2009). We examined the chronic radiation effects on morbidity, reproduction, and longevity. The results indicated that radioactive materials could have affected vertebrate morbidity within a 350 km2 area in early April 2011; the threshold level was the median result of Sazykina et al. (2009) with bootstrapping. Based on the prediction, a 15.5 km2 region will remain affected after 30 years. These areas should be monitored to confirm the effects of radioactivity on wildlife.

  12. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health. PMID:21396118

  13. Replicated divergence in cichlid radiations mirrors a major vertebrate innovation.

    PubMed

    McGee, Matthew D; Faircloth, Brant C; Borstein, Samuel R; Zheng, Jimmy; Darrin Hulsey, C; Wainwright, Peter C; Alfaro, Michael E

    2016-01-13

    Decoupling of the upper jaw bones--jaw kinesis--is a distinctive feature of the ray-finned fishes, but it is not clear how the innovation is related to the extraordinary diversity of feeding behaviours and feeding ecology in this group. We address this issue in a lineage of ray-finned fishes that is well known for its ecological and functional diversity--African rift lake cichlids. We sequenced ultraconserved elements to generate a phylogenomic tree of the Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi cichlid radiations. We filmed a diverse array of over 50 cichlid species capturing live prey and quantified the extent of jaw kinesis in the premaxillary and maxillary bones. Our combination of phylogenomic and kinematic data reveals a strong association between biting modes of feeding and reduced jaw kinesis, suggesting that the contrasting demands of biting and suction feeding have strongly influenced cranial evolution in both cichlid radiations. PMID:26763694

  14. [Radiation-related health effects of major nuclear events].

    PubMed

    Orgiazzi, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Three major nuclear events, the Hirosima and Nagasaki bombings and the Chernobyl and Fukushima catastrophes, have been selected to Illustrate the health consequences, observed or anticipated, of irradation of populations. Differences in doses and modalities of irradiation, with the combination of clinical epidemiology and dose estimates, recently revisited, allow for more accurate dose-effect relationship models of the risks. However, extrapolation to the low-doses (< 0.1 Gy) or very low-doses of these models obtained with doses ≥ 0.2 Gy remains hazardous. PMID:25842445

  15. Satellite Infrared Radiation Measurements Prior to the Major Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulintes, S.; Bryant, N.; Taylor, Patrick; Freund, F.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and increases in mid-infrared (IR) flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. We present and &scuss observed variations in thermal transients and radiation fields prior to the earthquakes of Jan 22, 2003 Colima (M6.7) Mexico, Sept. 28 .2004 near Parkfield (M6.0) in California and Northern Sumatra (M8.5) Dec. 26,2004. Previous analysis of earthquake events has indicated the presence of an IR anomaly, where temperatures increased or did not return to its usual nighttime value. Our procedures analyze nighttime satellite data that records the general condtion of the ground after sunset. We have found from the MODIS instrument data that five days before the Colima earthquake the IR land surface nighttime temperature rose up to +4 degrees C in a 100 km radius around the epicenter. The IR transient field recorded by MODIS in the vicinity of Parkfield, also with a cloud free environment, was around +1 degree C and is significantly smaller than the IR anomaly around the Colima epicenter. Ground surface temperatures near the Parkfield epicenter four days prior to the earthquake show steady increase. However, on the night preceding the quake, a significant drop in relative humidity was indicated, process similar to those register prior to the Colima event. Recent analyses of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicate significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and/or gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly usually covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have found strong anomalies signal (two sigma) along the epicentral area signals on Dec 21

  16. Development of posture-specific computational phantoms using motion capture technology and application to radiation dose-reconstruction for the 1999 Tokai-Mura nuclear criticality accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, Justin A.; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2014-09-01

    The majority of existing computational phantoms are designed to represent workers in typical standing anatomical postures with fixed arm and leg positions. However, workers found in accident-related scenarios often assume varied postures. This paper describes the development and application of two phantoms with adjusted postures specified by data acquired from a motion capture system to simulate unique human postures found in a 1999 criticality accident that took place at a JCO facility in Tokai-Mura, Japan. In the course of this accident, two workers were fatally exposed to extremely high levels of radiation. Implementation of the emergent techniques discussed produced more accurate and more detailed dose estimates for the two workers than were reported in previous studies. A total-body dose of 6.43 and 26.38 Gy was estimated for the two workers, who assumed a crouching and a standing posture, respectively. Additionally, organ-specific dose estimates were determined, including a 7.93 Gy dose to the thyroid and 6.11 Gy dose to the stomach for the crouching worker and a 41.71 Gy dose to the liver and a 37.26 Gy dose to the stomach for the standing worker. Implications for the medical prognosis of the workers are discussed, and the results of this study were found to correlate better with the patient outcome than previous estimates, suggesting potential future applications of such methods for improved epidemiological studies involving next-generation computational phantom tools.

  17. Identification and evaluation of competencies of health professionals in the hospital emergency management of the radiation accident victim

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary list of ten competency and forty-six sub-competency statements derived from literature and consultation with experts and based on the general areas of clinical performance defined by the National Board of Medical Examiners were the concern of Phase I of this study. Forty-eight experts in nuclear medicine, radiology, radiotherapy, health physics, medical physics, radiation biology, public and occupational health, surgery, and emergency medicine and nursing considered this preliminary list of competencies and sub-competencies to determine which were essential for health professionals who may be caring for radiation accident victims in hospital emergency departments. Eight competencies and thirty-three sub-competencies were rated as Essential competencies. Competencies dealing with establishing priorities in patient care and initiating treatment, assessment, contamination control, and decontamination were highly rated. In the second part of this study, the Essential competencies were utilized in the development of an original evaluation instrument designed to identify deficiencies and continuing education needs during radiation accident drills or exercises. The instrument was designed for use in sixteen possible patient care situations in which the radiation accident victims have varying medical and radiological conditions. Development of the evaluation instrument was described.

  18. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.S. . School of Public Health)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. In addition, models are included for assessing the risks of several nonlethal early and continuing effects -- including prodromal vomiting and diarrhea, hypothyroidism and radiation thyroiditis, skin burns, reproductive effects, and pregnancy losses. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and other.'' The category, other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also developed. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. The models of cancer risk are derived largely from information summarized in BEIR III -- with some adjustment to reflect more recent studies. 64 refs., 18 figs., 46 tabs.

  19. [Retrospective Cytogenetic Dose Evaluation. II. Computer Data Processing in Persons Irradiated in Different Radiation Accidents].

    PubMed

    Nugis, V Yu; Khvostunov, I K; Goloub, E V; Kozlova, M G; Nadejinal, N M; Galstian, I A

    2015-01-01

    The method for retrospective dose assessment based on the analysis of cell distribution by the number of dicentrics and unstable aberrations using a special computer program was earlier developed based on the data about the persons irradiated as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. This method was applied for the same purpose for data processing of repeated cytogenetic studies of the patients exposed to γ-, γ-β- or γ-neutron radiation in various situations. As a whole, this group was followed up in more distant periods (17-50 years) after exposure than Chernobyl patients (up to 25 years). The use for retrospective dose assessment of the multiple regression equations obtained for the Chernobyl cohort showed that the equation, which includes computer recovered estimate of the dose and the time elapsed after irradiation, was generally unsatisfactory (r = 0.069 at p = 0.599). Similar equations with recovered estimate of the dose and frequency of abnormal chromosomes in a distant period or with all three parameters as variables gave better results (r = 0.686 at p = 0.000000001 and r = 0.542 at p = 0.000008, respectively). PMID:26863777

  20. An EPR dosimetry method for rapid scanning of children following a radiation accident using deciduous teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Haskell, E.H.; Hayes, R.B.; Kenner, G.H.

    1999-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry may be applied to whole deciduous teeth of children. This makes it feasible to make direct measurement of absorbed gamma ray dose in the days and weeks following a nuclear accident, particularly if used in conjunction with a public awareness program. The technique reported here requires little sample preparation and has resulted in precision of approximately 30 mGy (1 {sigma}) for a deciduous incisor. Under conditions for rapid screening procedures, the methodology is estimated to provide 0.5 Gy accuracy. The largest error in the process is the determination of an appropriate background native signal for subtraction from the whole tooth spectrum. The native signal is superimposed on the radiation-induced signal, and the subtraction requires knowledge of a sample`s relative content of enamel and dentin along with their relative native signal intensities. Using a composite background standard, an equivalent absorbed dose of 70 {+-} 38 mGy (1 {sigma}) was determined. The lower detection limit of the technique was achieved by the elimination of anisotropic effects through rotation of the sample during measurement, together with subtraction of the standard native background signal and empty tube background spectra from the sample spectra.

  1. Quality assurance in military medical research and medical radiation accident management.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Mark E; Meineke, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    The provision of quality radiation-related medical diagnostic and therapeutic treatments cannot occur without the presence of robust quality assurance and standardization programs. Medical laboratory services are essential in patient treatment and must be able to meet the needs of all patients and the clinical personnel responsible for the medical care of these patients. Clinical personnel involved in patient care must embody the quality assurance process in daily work to ensure program sustainability. In conformance with the German Federal Government's concept for modern departmental research, the international standard ISO 9001, one of the relevant standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), is applied in quality assurance in military medical research. By its holistic approach, this internationally accepted standard provides an excellent basis for establishing a modern quality management system in line with international standards. Furthermore, this standard can serve as a sound basis for the further development of an already established quality management system when additional standards shall apply, as for instance in reference laboratories or medical laboratories. Besides quality assurance, a military medical facility must manage additional risk events in the context of early recognition/detection of health risks of military personnel on deployment in order to be able to take appropriate preventive and protective measures; for instance, with medical radiation accident management. The international standard ISO 31000:2009 can serve as a guideline for establishing risk management. Clear organizational structures and defined work processes are required when individual laboratory units seek accreditation according to specific laboratory standards. Furthermore, international efforts to develop health laboratory standards must be reinforced that support sustainable quality assurance, as in the exchange and comparison of test results within

  2. DATABASE OF METEOROLOGICAL AND RADIATION MEASUREMENTS MADE IN BELARUS DURING THE FIRST THREE MONTHS FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Zhukova, Olga; Germenchuk, Maria; Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Kukhta, Tatiana; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Minenko, Victor; Podgaiskaya, Marina; Savkin, Mikhail; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2012-01-01

    Results of all available meteorological and radiation measurements that were performed in Belarus during the first three months after the Chernobyl accident were collected from various sources and incorporated into a single database. Meteorological information such as precipitation, wind speed and direction, and temperature in localities were obtained from meteorological station facilities. Radiation measurements include gamma-exposure rate in air, daily fallout, concentration of different radionuclides in soil, grass, cow’s milk and water as well as total beta-activity in cow’s milk. Considerable efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of the measurements that were collected. The electronic database can be searched according to type of measurement, date, and location. The main purpose of the database is to provide reliable data that can be used in the reconstruction of thyroid doses resulting from the Chernobyl accident. PMID:23103580

  3. Clinical data from one year follow-up of victims of the radiation accident with 60Co in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Djounova, J; Guleva, I; Negoicheva, K; Mileva, I; Panova, D; Rupova, I

    2014-09-01

    A severe radiation accident occurred on 14 June 2011 in an industrial irradiation facility for medical equipment sterilization in Bulgaria. Five people were exposed for 5-10 min to a 60Co source containing 137 TBq. The Emergency Department of the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP), Bulgaria, put into practice the plans for providing medical care in radiation accidents and the procedures developed for assessment of injury severity, the decision-making algorithm regarding subsequent treatment, and the therapy for persons affected. The activities performed for initial assessment of the severity of injury of irradiated patients were published in 2012. Based on predictive assessments of the severity of radiation damage, it was decided that the victims required hospitalization at a specialized hematology clinic. Percy Hospital in Paris was chosen for this purpose. The aim of this report is to present the results of 1-y follow-up for three of the victims. Sadly, 1 mo after the accident, Patient 4 died from a heart attack. The medical opinion was that this was not a direct outcome of the irradiation. Patient 5 was only followed up for 4 mo (118 d) because medical follow-up is voluntary, and despite repeated calls, the patient did not respond. Medical examinations by a physician as well as hematology and biochemical tests were performed using standard laboratory methods. The obtained results were compared to the victims' personal reference limits obtained from annual health monitoring. After the accident, the recovery to normal content of peripheral blood cells was observed in all victims. Nevertheless, there were observed cases of thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and leucocytopenia at various times after exposure. During the period of observation, morphological changes in red blood cells such as anisomicrocitosis, macrocytes, megalocytes, and polychromatic erythrocytes were demonstrated. During the 1-y observation period, all victims showed

  4. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident: radiation exposure and remediation strategies.

    PubMed

    Jacob, P; Fesenko, S; Bogdevitch, I; Kashparov, V; Sanzharova, N; Grebenshikova, N; Isamov, N; Lazarev, N; Panov, A; Ulanovsky, A; Zhuchenko, Y; Zhurba, M

    2009-12-15

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements were defined by having in 2004 less than 10,000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Data on population, current farming practices, contamination of soils and foodstuffs, and remedial actions previously applied were collected for each of such 541 study settlements. Calculations of the annual effective dose from internal radiation were validated with extensive data sets on whole body counter measurements. According to our calculations for 2004, in 290 of the study settlements the effective dose exceeded 1 mSv, and the collective dose in these settlements amounted to about 66 person-Sv. Six remedial actions were considered: radical improvement of grassland, application of ferrocyn to cows, feeding pigs with uncontaminated fodder before slaughter, application of mineral fertilizers for potato fields, information campaign on contaminated forest produce, and replacement of contaminated soil in populated areas by uncontaminated soil. Side effects of the remedial actions were quantified by a 'degree of acceptability'. Results are presented for two remediation strategies, namely, Strategy 1, in which the degree of acceptability was given a priority, and Remediation Strategy 2, in which remedial actions were chosen according to lowest costs per averted dose only. Results are highly country-specific varying from preference for soil replacement in populated areas in Belarus to preference for application of ferrocyn to cows in Ukraine. Remedial actions in 2010 can avert a large collective dose of about 150 person-Sv (including averted doses, which would be received in the following years). Nevertheless, the number of

  5. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Robert Svendsen, Erik; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-05-01

    Herein we summarize the public health actions taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radiation after the Fukushima accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 in order to record valuable lessons learned for disaster preparedness. Evacuations from the radiation-affected areas and control of the distribution of various food products contributed to the reduction of external and internal radiation exposure resulting from the Fukushima incident. However, risk communication is also an important issue during the emergency response effort and subsequent phases of dealiing with a nuclear disaster. To assist with their healing process, sound, reliable scientific information should continue to be disseminated to the radiation-affected communities via two-way communication. We will describe the essential public health actions following a nuclear disaster for the early, intermediate and late phases that will be useful for radiological preparedness planning in response to other nuclear or radiological disasters. PMID:25862700

  6. Public health activities for mitigation of radiation exposures and risk communication challenges after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Robert Svendsen, Erik; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Herein we summarize the public health actions taken to mitigate exposure of the public to radiation after the Fukushima accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 in order to record valuable lessons learned for disaster preparedness. Evacuations from the radiation-affected areas and control of the distribution of various food products contributed to the reduction of external and internal radiation exposure resulting from the Fukushima incident. However, risk communication is also an important issue during the emergency response effort and subsequent phases of dealiing with a nuclear disaster. To assist with their healing process, sound, reliable scientific information should continue to be disseminated to the radiation-affected communities via two-way communication. We will describe the essential public health actions following a nuclear disaster for the early, intermediate and late phases that will be useful for radiological preparedness planning in response to other nuclear or radiological disasters. PMID:25862700

  7. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. PMID

  8. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Causal Factors in Major Maritime Accidents in the USA and Canada (1996-2006)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Holloway, C, M.

    2007-01-01

    Accident reports provide important insights into the causes and contributory factors leading to particular adverse events. In contrast, this paper provides an analysis that extends across the findings presented over ten years investigations into maritime accidents by both the US National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and Canadian Transportation Safety Board (TSB). The purpose of the study was to assess the comparative frequency of a range of causal factors in the reporting of adverse events. In order to communicate our findings, we introduce J-H graphs as a means of representing the proportion of causes and contributory factors associated with human error, equipment failure and other high level classifications in longitudinal studies of accident reports. Our results suggest the proportion of causal and contributory factors attributable to direct human error may be very much smaller than has been suggested elsewhere in the human factors literature. In contrast, more attention should be paid to wider systemic issues, including the managerial and regulatory context of maritime operations.

  9. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.

    PubMed Central

    Gestal, J J

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). PMID:3307896

  10. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault.

    PubMed

    Gestal, J J

    1987-08-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). PMID:3307896

  11. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. “rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March),” “deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June),” “20-mSv exposure,” and “100-mSv exposure.” The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d—much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  12. Was the Risk from Nursing-Home Evacuation after the Fukushima Accident Higher than the Radiation Risk?

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Ono, Kyoko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Oka, Tosihiro; Kami, Masahiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    After the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, nursing-home residents and staff were evacuated voluntarily from damaged areas to avoid radiation exposure. Unfortunately, the evacuation resulted in increased mortalities among nursing home residents. We assessed the risk trade-off between evacuation and radiation for 191 residents and 184 staff at three nursing homes by using the same detriment indicator, namely loss of life expectancy (LLE), under four scenarios, i.e. "rapid evacuation (in accordance with the actual situation; i.e. evacuation on 22 March)," "deliberate evacuation (i.e. evacuation on 20 June)," "20-mSv exposure," and "100-mSv exposure." The LLE from evacuation-related mortality among nursing home residents was assessed with survival probability data from nursing homes in the city of Minamisoma and the city of Soma. The LLE from radiation mortality was calculated from the estimated age-specific mortality rates from leukemia and all solid cancers based on the additional effective doses and the survival probabilities. The total LLE of residents due to evacuation-related risks in rapid evacuation was 11,000 persons-d-much higher than the total LLEs of residents and staff due to radiation in the other scenarios (27, 1100, and 5800 persons-d for deliberate evacuation, 20 mSv-exposure, and 100 mSv-exposure, respectively). The latitude for reducing evacuation risks among nursing home residents is surprisingly large. Evacuation regulation and planning should therefore be well balanced with the trade-offs against radiation risks. This is the first quantitative assessment of the risk trade-off between radiation exposure and evacuation after a nuclear power plant accident. PMID:26359666

  13. Long-term follow-up of the genital organs and eye lenses in three cases of acute radiation sickness from a 60Co radiation accident in China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhi Wei; Jiang, En Hai; Du, Jian Ying; Zhao, Feng Ling; Fu, Bao Hua; Jiang, Li Ping; Wang, Xiao Guang; Zhao, Xin Ran; Liu, Qiang; Jiang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    A follow-up study aimed primarily at investigating late radiation effects on the genital organs and eye lenses was performed between 1999 and 2010 on three individuals who suffered from acute radiation sickness in China. The examination included a medical history, a physical examination, ultrasonography, laboratory analysis, and an ophthalmologic examination. In Case 1, amenorrhea occurred after exposure to a Co source. The uterus and ovaries were significantly narrowed in the second year following exposure. The estradiol level decreased significantly during the first 3 y; progesterone was lowest in the second year; and levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone increased, especially in the first year. The lenses in both eyes appeared opaque 6 mo after the exposure, resulting in a gradual deterioration in visual acuity. In Case 2 (8 y old), the levels of testosterone and estradiol were normal. In Case 3, the levels of testosterone and estradiol were also normal, but the sperm count was 0 from 6 mo to 1 y, and the proportion of abnormal sperm was increased from 3-5 y after the accident. The lenses in Case 3 also began to turn opaque in the ninth year after the accident. In Case 1, the ovarian function was reduced, leading to amenorrhea and early menopause. In Case 3, the sperm count was reduced and the number of abnormal sperm was increased due to testicular damage by radiation. Radiation-induced cataracts occurred in both Case 1 and Case 3. PMID:25437514

  14. Internal Radiation Exposure Dose in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture after the Accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Nukui, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Naoko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuda, Naoki; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) on 11 March 2011, a huge amount of radionuclides, including radiocesium, was released and spread over a wide area of eastern Japan. Although three years have passed since the accident, residents around the FNPP are anxious about internal radiation exposure due to radiocesium. In this study, we screened internal radiation exposure doses in Iwaki city of Fukushima prefecture, using a whole-body counter. The first screening was conducted from October 2012 to February 2013, and the second screening was conducted from May to November 2013. Study participants were employees of ALPINE and their families who underwent examination. A total of 2,839 participants (1,366 men and 1,473 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the first screening, and 2,092 (1,022 men and 1,070 women, 1–86 years old) underwent the second screening. The results showed that 99% of subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the first screening, and all subjects registered below 300 Bq per body in the second screening. The committed effective dose ranged from 0.01–0.06 mSv in the first screening and 0.01–0.02 mSv in the second screening. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to avoid unnecessary chronic internal exposure and to reduce anxiety among the residents by communicating radiation health risks. PMID:25478794

  15. Radiation-epidemiological Study of Cerebrovascular Diseases in the Cohort of Russian Recovery Operation Workers of the Chernobyl Accident.

    PubMed

    Kashcheev, V V; Chekin, S Yu; Maksioutov, M A; Tumanov, K A; Menyaylo, A N; Kochergina, E V; Kashcheeva, P V; Gorsky, A I; Shchukina, N V; Karpenko, S V; Ivanov, V K

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the incidence of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) in the cohort of Russian workers involved in recovery tasks after the Chernobyl accident. The studied cohort consists of 53,772 recovery operation workers (liquidators) who arrived in the zone of the Chernobyl accident within the first year after this accident (26 April 1986-26 April 1987). The mean external whole body dose in the cohort was 0.161 Gy, while individual doses varied from 0.0001 Gy to 1.42 Gy. During the follow-up period 1986-2012, a total of 23,264 cases of CeVD were diagnosed as a result of annual health examinations. A Poisson regression model was applied for estimation of radiation risks and for an assessment of other risk factors of CeVD. The following factors were considered as risk factors for CeVD: the dose, duration of the liquidators' work in the Chernobyl zone, and the concomitant diseases (hypertension, ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and diabetes). The baseline incidence of CeVD is statistically significantly (p < 0.001) associated with all studied concomitant diseases. The incidence of CeVD has revealed a statistically significant dose response with the lack of a latent period and with the average ERR/Gy = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.62), p < 0.001. Radiation risks of CeVD statistically significantly (p = 0.03) varied with the duration of liquidators' stay in the Chernobyl zone; for those who stayed in the Chernobyl zone less than 6 wk, ERR/Gy = 0.64, 95% CI = (0.38; 0.93), p < 0.001. Among studied concomitant diseases, diabetes mellitus statistically significantly (p = 0.002) increases the radiation risk of CeVD: for liquidators with diagnosed diabetes, ERR/Gy = 1.29. PMID:27356064

  16. Evaluation of the response to xenon-133 radiations by thermoluminescent dosimeters used during the accident at Three Mile Island.

    PubMed

    Riley, R J; Zanzonico, P B; Masterson, M E; St Germain, J M; Laughlin, J S

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is presented of the accuracy and sensitivity of three types of TLD's used during the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This evaluation indicated that, due to the method of calibration, all the dosimeters over-responded to 133Xe radiations. The response ranged from slightly above unity to almost two. Exposures of the TLD's were of two types, namely, the characteristic X-rays either were or were not filtered from the beam. The angular sensitivity of the dosimeters is also reported. PMID:7068394

  17. Nuclear power plant accident simulations of gasket materials under simultaneous radiation plus thermal plus mechanical stress conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Malone, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    In order to probe the response of silicone door gasket materials to a postulated severe accident in an Italian nuclear power plant, compression stress relaxation (CSR) and compression set (CS) measurements were conducted under combined radiation (approximately 6 kGy/h) and temperature (up to 230{degrees}C) conditions. By making some reasonable initial assumptions, simplified constant temperature and dose rates were derived that should do a reasonable job of simulating the complex environments for worst-case severe events that combine overall aging plus accidents. Further simplification coupled with thermal-only experiments allowed us to derive thermal-only conditions that can be used to achieve CSR and CS responses similar to those expected from the combined environments that are more difficult to simulate. Although the thermal-only simulations should lead to sealing forces similar to those expected during a severe accident, modulus and density results indicate that significant differences in underlying chemistry are expected for the thermal-only and the combined environment simulations. 15 refs., 31 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Observations of the impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the atmospheric radiation balance

    SciTech Connect

    Slingo, A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Allan, R. P.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Robinson, G. J.; Barnard, James C.; Miller, Mark; Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Dewitte, S.

    2006-12-01

    Saharan dust storms transport large quantities of material across the African continent and beyond, causing widespread disruption and hazards to health. The dust may be deposited into the Atlantic Ocean, where it provides an important source of nutrients1, and may be carried as far as the West Indies. Such events may also influence the growth of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Satellite observations have enabled estimates to be made of the effect of the dust on the radiation budget seen from space, but only limited in situ observations have hitherto been made at the surface. Here we present the first simultaneous and continuous observations of the effect of a major dust storm in March 2006 on the radiation budget both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface. We combine data from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) broadband radiometer and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat-8 weather satellite with remote sensing and in situ measurements from a new Mobile Facility located in Niamey, Niger (13{sup o} 29'N, 2{sup o} 10'E), operated by the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. We show that the dust produced major perturbations to the radiation budget seen from space and from the surface. By combining the two datasets, we estimate the impact on the radiation budget of the atmosphere itself. Using independent data from the Mobile Facility, we derive the optical properties of the dust and input these and other information into radiation codes to simulate the radiative fluxes. Comparisons with the observed fluxes provides a stringent test of the ability of the codes to represent the radiative properties of this important component of the global aerosol burden.

  19. Radiation sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine the amount of radiation exposure from nuclear accidents, the best signs of the severity of the ... doses of radiation, such as radiation from a nuclear power plant accident Exposure to excessive radiation for medical treatments

  20. Comorbidity and radiation: methodological aspects of health assessment of persons exposed to the Chornobyl accident factors.

    PubMed

    Nosach, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comorbidity is one of the most challenging problems of a modern medicine. In a population exposed to the factors of the Chornobyl accident there is an obvious increase in the number of diseases occurring simultaneously against the background of rising prevalence of different classes of chronic medical nosology. The scientific data analysis are presented on the methodological approaches that can be used to create a specialized system for integrated assessment of the health of patients with comorbid disorders. Developing such a system it should be taken into account the trends of changes in the incidence, prevalence and structure of chronic disease, factors and regularities of comorbid disease in the cohorts of Chornobyl accident clean-up workers, evacuees and dwellers of contaminated territories. The system should provide a non-random selection of combinations (clusters) of the most common diseases with serious consequences for the survivors. PMID:25191728

  1. Laser-based flow cytometric analysis of genotoxicity of humans exposed to ionizing radiation during the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Langlois, R.G.; Grant, S.G. ); Pleshanov, P.G. ); Chirkov, A.A. ); Pilinskaya, M.A. )

    1990-09-12

    An analytical technique has been developed that allows laser-based flow cytometric measurement of the frequency of red blood cells that have lost allele-specific expression of a cell surface antigen due to genetic toxicity in bone marrow precursor cells. Previous studies demonstrated a correlation of such effects with the exposure of each individual to mutagenic phenomena, such as ionizing radiation, and the effects can persist for the lifetime of each individual. During the emergency response to the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, USSR, a number of people were exposed to whole body doses of ionizing radiation. Some of these individuals were tested with this laser-based assay and found to express a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of variant red blood cells that appears to be a persistent biological effect. All data indicate that this assay might well be used as a biodosimeter to estimate radiation dose and also as an element to be used for estimating the risk of each individual to develop cancer due to radiation exposure. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Design and operation of a whole-body monitoring system for the Goiania radiation accident

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, C.A.; Lourenco, M.C.; Dantas, B.M.; Lucena, E.A. )

    1991-01-01

    With as many individuals involved in the Goiania 137Cs accident who had high levels of internal contamination, it was necessary to improvise a whole-body counter installation in loco. The in-vivo counting system was located in a 4.0 X 3.5 X 3.5-m room, where seven layers of 2-mm lead sheets with dimensions of 2.0 m X 1.0 m were overlaid on the floor at loci that were equidistant from the walls. A 20-cm diameter NaI (Tl) detector was installed at a height of 2.05 m above the floor at the center of the room. The detector was shielded and collimated with 5 cm of lead. The enormous amounts of activity in the subjects required the detector to be positioned at a height of 2.05 m. Subjects were required to wear disposable clothing and lie on a reclining, fiberglass chair. Counting time for the subjects was 2 min (live-time). The minimum detectable 137Cs activity for this counting time was 7.3 kBq* (0.05 significance level). Besides the accident victims, all individuals who had direct or indirect contact with contaminated people or areas were also monitored. More than 300 people of both sexes, with ages varying from a few months to 72 y, were measured for whole-body radioactivity. The observed activities ranged from less than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) to 59 MBq.

  3. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  4. [Immunological aspects of the study of contingents of population exposed to ionizing radiation effects as the consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Chumak, A A; Bazyka, D A; Tal'ko, V V; Minchenko, Zh N; Bezpalenko, A G; Beliaeva, N V; Gerasimenko, N K; Dmitrenko, E A; Konopleva, Iu L; Nefedova, R A

    1991-01-01

    The immune system was examined in those who participated in the liquidation of accident sequelae at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station and the population exposed to ionizing radiation. Alteration in surface antigenic markers of basic regulatory subpopulations of immunocompetent cells and metabolic changes are caused by radiation and co-existent somatic diseases. Typing for HLA antigens and proteins with a genetically determined phenotype revealed characteristic features of their distribution for the general population. PMID:1950153

  5. Contemporaneous and recent radiations of the world's major succulent plant lineages

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Mónica; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Nyffeler, Reto; Lendel, Anita; Eggli, Urs; Ogburn, R. Matthew; Spriggs, Elizabeth; Moore, Michael J.; Edwards, Erika J.

    2011-01-01

    The cacti are one of the most celebrated radiations of succulent plants. There has been much speculation about their age, but progress in dating cactus origins has been hindered by the lack of fossil data for cacti or their close relatives. Using a hybrid phylogenomic approach, we estimated that the cactus lineage diverged from its closest relatives ≈35 million years ago (Ma). However, major diversification events in cacti were more recent, with most species-rich clades originating in the late Miocene, ≈10–5 Ma. Diversification rates of several cactus lineages rival other estimates of extremely rapid speciation in plants. Major cactus radiations were contemporaneous with those of South African ice plants and North American agaves, revealing a simultaneous diversification of several of the world's major succulent plant lineages across multiple continents. This short geological time period also harbored the majority of origins of C4 photosynthesis and the global rise of C4 grasslands. A global expansion of arid environments during this time could have provided new ecological opportunity for both succulent and C4 plant syndromes. Alternatively, recent work has identified a substantial decline in atmospheric CO2 ≈15–8 Ma, which would have strongly favored C4 evolution and expansion of C4-dominated grasslands. Lowered atmospheric CO2 would also substantially exacerbate plant water stress in marginally arid environments, providing preadapted succulent plants with a sharp advantage in a broader set of ecological conditions and promoting their rapid diversification across the landscape. PMID:21536881

  6. Major vegetation types, climatological data, and solar radiation calculations for Colorado's Brush Creek valley

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lambeth, R.; Allwine, K.J.

    1987-04-01

    In this report we present information on the vegetative cover, climate, and solar radiation for the Brush Creek valley. A brief vegetative survey was made on October 3, 1984, to identify the vegetation types in the lowest 8 km of the valley; the reader is cautioned that this included only a small part of the Brush Creek valley. The intent was to identify the principal vegetation types, with no attempt to use available scientific sampling techniques to determine accurate relative frequencies of the vegetation types. Nevertheless, the site survey has allowed us to identify the major species of vegetation, and to make reasonably accurate differentiations of both major vegetation types on valley surfaces (the valley floor, two sidewalls, and ridgetops) and the relative abundance of major vegetation types on each surface.

  7. Sodium in man and the assessment of radiation dose after criticality accidents.

    PubMed

    Mole, R H

    1984-11-01

    Recent observations on the sodium content of the human body, both total and exchangeable, using isotope dilution methods and activation of sodium by whole-body irradiation with neutrons in the course of clinical research, suggest that ICRP Reference Man is a misleading guide to the sodium content of the body and of the skeleton and its parts. They also show that reasonable predictions of body sodium content can be made from body weight, height and age, or even from body weight alone. Mean sodium in the average man is about 1.04 g per kg and in the average women about 0.98 g per kg in British and N. American populations. Within each sex mean tissue concentration is inversely related to body weight. Review of the dosimetry for the criticality accident at Y-12 Oak Ridge shows that dose estimates should be increased by about 10% because whole blood values of 24Na were relied on instead of plasma values. Taking account of body build reduces the range of dose amongst the four most heavily irradiated subjects. The absorbed doses reported for the subjects exposed at the criticality accident at Vinca, Yugoslavia, need to be increased by about 30% because the normal sodium content of the body was grossly overestimated. The more severe clinical picture at Vinca than at Y-12 is now more easily understood in terms of differences in dose. These changes are solely the result of improved information about sodium in the body. Other uncertainties in the dosimetry at Y-12 and Vinca are unaltered. PMID:6505014

  8. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  9. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: an approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Mary T; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-06-15

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire. PMID:18078713

  10. Phylogenomics supports Panpulmonata: opisthobranch paraphyly and key evolutionary steps in a major radiation of gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Kocot, Kevin M; Halanych, Kenneth M; Krug, Patrick J

    2013-12-01

    Pulmonates, with over 30,000 described species, represent the largest radiation of non-marine animals outside of Arthropoda. The pulmonate lung was a key evolutionary innovation enabling diversification of terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. However, recent studies drew conflicting conclusions about pulmonate monophyly, and support for a sister group is lacking, hindering our understanding of this major animal radiation. Analyses of mitochondrial protein-coding genes recovered a paraphyletic Pulmonata grading into a monophyletic Opisthobranchia, a traditional group of sea slugs long considered sister to pulmonates. Conversely, analyses of datsets dominated by nuclear rDNA indicated Opisthobranchia is paraphyletic with respect to Pulmonata. No study resolved the placement of two key taxa: Sacoglossa, an opisthobranch group including photosynthetic sea slugs, and Siphonarioidea, intertidal limpet-like snails traditionally in Pulmonata. To examine evolutionary relationships at the base of the pulmonate radiation, we performed a phylogenomic analysis of 102 nuclear protein-coding gene regions for 19 gastropods. Opisthobranchia was recovered as paraphyletic with respect to Panpulmonata, a clade in which Sacoglossa was sister to Pulmonata, with Siphonarioidea as the basal pulmonate lineage. Siphonarioideans share a similar gill structure with shelled sacoglossans but lack the contractile pneumostome of pulmonates, suggesting descent from an evolutionary intermediate that facilitated the pulmonate radiation into non-marine habitats. PMID:23850501

  11. Radiation Monitoring using an Unmanned Helicopter in the Evacuation Zone Set up by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Tatsuo; Sanada, Yukihisa; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu; Kondo, Atsuya; Shoji, Yasunori; ikeda, Kazutaka

    2013-04-01

    By the nuclear accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) caused by the East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami occurred on March 11, 2011, a large amount of radioactive materials was released from the NPP. In recent years, technologies for an unmanned helicopter have been developed and applied to natural disasters. In expectation of the application of the unmanned helicopter to airborne radiation monitoring, we had developed a radiation monitoring system using an autonomous unmanned helicopter (AUH). Then, we measured the ambient dose-rate at the height of 1-m above the ground and the soil deposition of radioactive cesium (Cs-134, Cs-137) by using the AUH system in the evacuation zone of residents around the NPP. Here, we report on the measurement technique and the result. As a result measured around a river at 10-km away from the NPP, high contaminated areas compared with the circumstance are detected along the dry riverbed. It was seemed that it had flowed along the river from highly contaminated areas in the upper stream.

  12. Kevlar® as a Potential Accident Radiation Dosimeter for First Responders, Law Enforcement and Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Romanyukha, Alexander; Trompier, François; Benevides, Luis A

    2016-08-01

    Today the armed forces and law enforcement personnel wear body armor, helmets, and flak jackets composed substantially of Kevlar® fiber to prevent bodily injury or death resulting from physical, ballistic, stab, and slash attacks. Therefore, there is a high probability that during a radiation accident or its aftermath, the Kevlar®-composed body armor will be irradiated. Preliminary study with samples of Kevlar® foundation fabric obtained from body armor used by the U.S. Marine Corps has shown that all samples evaluated demonstrated an EPR signal, and this signal increased with radiation dose. Based on these results, the authors predict that, with individual calibration, exposure at dose above 1 Gy can be reliably detected in Kevlar® samples obtained from body armor. As a result of these measurements, a post-event reconstruction of exposure dose can be obtained by taking various samples throughout the armor body and helmet worn by the same irradiated individual. The doses can be used to create a whole-body dose map that would be of vital importance in a case of a partial body or heterogeneous exposure. PMID:27356056

  13. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  14. Mortality study of atomic-bomb survivors: implications for assessment of radiation accidents.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Mabuchi, K; Preston, D L; Shigematsu, I

    1996-01-01

    To determine the possible late effects of atomic-bomb radiation, the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of about 120,000 individuals, including 93,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 non-exposed controls, was established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). Mortality in this cohort has been under study since 1950. Deaths are routinely identified through the family registry system and ascertainment is virtually complete. Cancer incidence data for the LSS cohort are also available from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki population-based tumour registry established in 1958. The central finding of the LSS is an increase in cancer risk. Besides the well-known increase in leukaemia, increases in solid cancer such as cancers of the lung, breast, stomach and thyroid have also been demonstrated. Radiation-induced leukaemia occurred 2 to 3 years after exposure, reached its peak within 6 to 8 years after the bombing, and has since declined steadily. However, this has not been true of solid cancer. Radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear at later ages than such cancer is normally prone to develop, and continues to increase proportionally with the increase in mortality or incidence in the control group as it ages. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fail with time is not yet clear. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure. Beyond cancer risk, increased risk of non-cancer mortality is also suggested, although it is not conclusive. PMID:8896256

  15. [Informational and analytical system for the support of decision making during liquidation of consequences of a large-scale radiation accident].

    PubMed

    Zlatoustov, N N; Bizin, I A; Bondarenko, I M; Kaganov, V M; Grenkova, G K

    2001-07-01

    The developed information and analytic system (IAS) of decision making support in liquidation medical-and-sanitary consequences of the large-scale radiation accidents permits on the base of computer models to evaluate the size and degree of territorial radioactive pollution, the radiation doses, the number and structure of radiation affection, the forces and means of medical service required for rendering the casualties the first medical aid as well as to compare the available and necessary medical forces and means. IAS is intended for equipping the toxicologist-radiologist's working place. To solve the private problems the IAS computer methods can be used both in complex and autonomously. PMID:11561428

  16. Proposed radiation hardened mobile vehicle for Chernobyl dismantlement and nuclear accident response

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, M.S.; Holliday, M.A.; Karpachov, J.A.; Ivanov, A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers are developing a radiation hardened, Telerobotic Dismantling System (TDS) to remediate the Chernobyl facility. To withstand the severe radiation fields, the robotic system, will rely on electrical motors, actuators, and relays proven in the Chernobyl power station. Due to its dust suppression characteristics and ability to cut arbitrary materials the authors propose using a water knife as the principle tool to slice up the large fuel containing masses. The front end of the robot will use a minimum number of moving parts by locating most of the susceptible and bulky components outside the work area. Hardened and shielded video cameras will be designed for remote control and viewing of the robotic functions. Operators will supervise and control robot movements based on feedback from a suite of sensory systems that would include vision systems, radiation detection and measurement systems and force reflection systems. A gripper will be instrumented with a variety of sensors (e.g. force, torque, or tactile), allowing varying debris surface properties to be grasped. The gripper will allow the operator to manipulate and segregate debris items without entering the radiologically and physically dangerous dismantlement operations area. The robots will initially size reduce the FCM`s to reduce the primary sources of the airborne radionuclides. The robot will then remove the high level waste for packaging or decontamination, and storage nearby.

  17. Radiation Dose Reduction Efficiency of Buildings after the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    PubMed Central

    Monzen, Satoru; Hosoda, Masahiro; Osanai, Minoru; Tokonami, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS) in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air) of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55±0.04, 0.15±0.02, and 0.19±0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites. PMID:24999992

  18. Returning land contaminated as a result of radiation accidents to farming use.

    PubMed

    Voronina, A V; Blinova, M O; Semenishchev, V S; Gupta, D K

    2015-06-01

    An assessment is given of the possibility of sorbents based on natural aluminosilicates (glauconite and clinoptilolite) being used for remediation of radioactively contaminated land with the aim of returning it to farming use. A comparative study of selectivity and reversibility of radiocaesium and radiostrontium sorption by natural aluminosilicates as well as by modified ferrocyanide sorbents based on these aluminosilicates was made. It was found that surface modification of aluminosilicates by ferrocyanides increases the selectivity of synthesized sorbents to caesium by 100-1000 times, increases sorption capacity and makes caesium sorption almost irreversible, whereas, selectivity of these sorbents to strontium radionuclides remains approximately the same as for natural aluminosilicates. The caesium distribution coefficient for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide on glauconite is 10((5.0±0.6)) L kg(-1), the static exchange capacity (SEC) is 63 mg g(-1); for mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite caesium distribution coefficients in various concentration ranges are 10((7.0±1.0)), 10((5.7±0.4)) and 10((3.2±0.7)) L kg(-1), total SEC was 500 mg g(-1). Caesium leaching by various leaching solutions from saturated mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on clinoptilolite was lower than 2%; from saturated mixed nickel-potassium ferrocyanide based on glauconite it was 1.5-14.6%. Ferrocyanide sorbents, based on glauconite and clinoptilolite are recommended for remediation of land, contaminated by caesium as a result of the Fukushima accident in Japan. Use of these sorbents should decrease the transfer of caesium to agricultural vegetation up to a factor of 20. PMID:25827577

  19. ICRP Publication 111 - Application of the Commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency.

    PubMed

    Lochard, J; Bogdevitch, I; Gallego, E; Hedemann-Jensen, P; McEwan, A; Nisbet, A; Oudiz, A; Oudiz, T; Strand, P; Janssens, A; Lazo, T; Carr, Z; Sugier, A; Burns, P; Carboneras, P; Cool, D; Cooper, J; Kai, M; Lecomte, J-F; Liu, H; Massera, G; McGarry, A; Mrabit, K; Mrabit, M; Sjöblom, K-L; Tsela, A; Weiss, W

    2009-06-01

    In this report, the Commission provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas resulting from either a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency. The report considers the effects of such events on the affected population. This includes the pathways of human exposure, the types of exposed populations, and the characteristics of exposures. Although the focus is on radiation protection considerations, the report also recognises the complexity of post-accident situations, which cannot be managed without addressing all the affected domains of daily life, i.e. environmental, health, economic, social, psychological, cultural, ethical, political, etc. The report explains how the 2007 Recommendations apply to this type of existing exposure situation, including consideration of the justification and optimisation of protection strategies, and the introduction and application of a reference level to drive the optimisation process. The report also considers practical aspects of the implementation of protection strategies, both by authorities and the affected population. It emphasises the effectiveness of directly involving the affected population and local professionals in the management of the situation, and the responsibility of authorities at both national and local levels to create the conditions and provide the means favouring the involvement and empowerment of the population. The role of radiation monitoring, health surveillance, and the management of contaminated foodstuffs and other commodities is described in this perspective. The Annex summarises past experience of longterm contaminated areas resulting from radiation emergencies and nuclear accidents, including radiological criteria followed in carrying out remediation measures. PMID:20472181

  20. The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child. PMID:21496337

  1. [The blood kinin system in persons exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    PubMed

    Klimenko, V I; Liubarets, T F

    1993-01-01

    Condition of blood kinin system was studied in persons engaged on liquidation of Chernobyl accident sequels in 1986 and subjected to levels of ionizing radiation ranging up to 1 Gy. Activation of kininogenesis in such persons manifested in rise of the initial protaminolytic blood activity, partial decrease of prekallikrein level and imbalance on the part of the blood inhibitory potential in the form of alpha-2-macroglobulin level fall and increase of general blood antiproteolytic activity. PMID:8209496

  2. MODTRAN6: a major upgrade of the MODTRAN radiative transfer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Alexander; Conforti, Patrick; Kennett, Rosemary; Perkins, Timothy; Hawes, Frederick; van den Bosch, Jeannette

    2014-06-01

    The MODTRAN6 radiative transfer (RT) code is a major advancement over earlier versions of the MODTRAN atmospheric transmittance and radiance model. This version of the code incorporates modern software ar- chitecture including an application programming interface, enhanced physics features including a line-by-line algorithm, a supplementary physics toolkit, and new documentation. The application programming interface has been developed for ease of integration into user applications. The MODTRAN code has been restructured towards a modular, object-oriented architecture to simplify upgrades as well as facilitate integration with other developers' codes. MODTRAN now includes a line-by-line algorithm for high resolution RT calculations as well as coupling to optical scattering codes for easy implementation of custom aerosols and clouds.

  3. Major global radiation of corvoid birds originated in the proto-Papuan archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Jønsson, Knud A.; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Ricklefs, Robert E.; Fjeldså, Jon

    2011-01-01

    A central paradigm in island biogeography has been the unidirectional “downstream” colonization of islands from continents (source to sink) based on the idea that less-diverse island communities are easier to invade than biologically more-diverse continental communities. Recently, several cases of “upstream” colonization (from islands to continents) have been documented, challenging the traditional view. However, all these cases have involved individual island species that have colonized mainland regions. Here, using molecular phylogenetic data, divergence time estimates, lineage diversity distributions, and ancestral area analyses, we reconstruct the spread of a species-rich (>700 species) passerine bird radiation (core Corvoidea) from its late Eocene/Oligocene origin in the emerging proto-Papuan archipelago north of Australia, including multiple colonizations from the archipelago to Southeast Asia. Thus, islands apparently provided the setting for the initiation of a major songbird radiation that subsequently invaded all other continents. Morphological and behavioral adaptations of the core Corvoidea as generalist feeders in open habitats, which facilitated dispersal and colonization, apparently evolved in the descendants of sedentary forest birds that invaded the proto-Papuan archipelago. The archipelago evidently provided islands of the right size, number, and proximity to continental areas to support the adaptation and diversification of vagile colonizers that went on to increase avian diversity on a global scale. PMID:21262814

  4. Estimation of absorbed radiation dose rates in wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Yoshito; Fuma, Shoichi; Kawaguchi, Isao; Aoki, Masanari; Kubota, Masahide; Furuhata, Yoshiaki; Shigemura, Yusaku; Yamada, Fumio; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Obara, Satoshi; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The dose rates of radiation absorbed by wild rodents inhabiting a site severely contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were estimated. The large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus), also called the wood mouse, was the major rodent species captured in the sampling area, although other species of rodents, such as small field mice (Apodemus argenteus) and Japanese grass voles (Microtus montebelli), were also collected. The external exposure of rodents calculated from the activity concentrations of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in litter and soil samples using the ERICA (Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and Management) tool under the assumption that radionuclides existed as the infinite plane isotropic source was almost the same as those measured directly with glass dosimeters embedded in rodent abdomens. Our findings suggest that the ERICA tool is useful for estimating external dose rates to small animals inhabiting forest floors; however, the estimated dose rates showed large standard deviations. This could be an indication of the inhomogeneous distribution of radionuclides in the sampled litter and soil. There was a 50-fold difference between minimum and maximum whole-body activity concentrations measured in rodents at the time of capture. The radionuclides retained in rodents after capture decreased exponentially over time. Regression equations indicated that the biological half-life of radiocesium after capture was 3.31 d. At the time of capture, the lowest activity concentration was measured in the lung and was approximately half of the highest concentration measured in the mixture of muscle and bone. The average internal absorbed dose rate was markedly smaller than the average external dose rate (<10% of the total absorbed dose rate). The average total absorbed dose rate to wild rodents inhabiting the sampling area was estimated to be approximately 52 μGy h(-1) (1.2 mGy d(-1)), even 3 years after

  5. Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its Radiological Impact on the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident is a topic of current media and public interest. It provides a means to motivate students to understand the fission process and the barriers that have been designed to prevent the release of fission products to the environment following a major nuclear power reactor accident. The Fukushima Daiichi accident further encourages a discussion of the effect of fission products upon the environment, including the resulting contamination of air, water, soil, animals, fish, milk, and crops. Accident-generated radiation levels that caused the evacuation of people 20-30 km from the facility further serve to foster student interest and desire to understand the science associated with the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

  6. Natural radioactivity and radiation index of the major plutonic bodies in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, A; Christofides, G; Koroneos, A; Papadopoulou, L; Papastefanou, C; Stoulos, S

    2013-10-01

    The natural radioactivity of the major plutonic bodies in Greece, as well as the assessment of any potential health hazard due to their usage as decorative building materials is studied. One hundred and twenty one samples from every major plutonic body in Greece, including various rock-types from gabbro to granite, have been measured for their natural radioactivity using γ-spectrometry methodology. According to the experimental results, the natural radioactivity levels were ranged up to 315 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, up to 376 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and up to 1632 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, with arithmetic mean values and standard deviations of 74 (±51), 85 (±54) and 881 (±331) Bq kg(-1) respectively, which are below the international representative mean values for granite stones. The excess on the effective dose received annually indoors due to granite tiles usage is estimated considering a standard room model where granite tiles with 1.5 cm in thickness cover only the floor of the room. The increment on the external γ-radiation effective dose rate shows a Gaussian distribution well dispersed below 0.3 mSv y(-1), presenting a mean value of 0.14 (±0.06) mSv y(-1). In case of the internal α-radiation a log-normal distribution is appeared scattering below 0.5 mSv y(-1) with a mean value 0.19 (±0.13) mSv y(-1), for a well-ventilated living environment. In case of a poor-ventilated room the increment on internal effective dose rate is estimated with a mean value 0.27 (±0.19) mSv y(-1) scattering below 0.8 mSv y(-1). The majority of the samples increase the external as well as the internal dose less than 30% of the maximum permitted limit of the effective dose rate. Therefore, at least from radiological point of view, the plutonic rocks of Greece could be safely used as decorative building materials. PMID:23827232

  7. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  8. Mapping apparent stress and energy radiation over fault zones of major earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.; Fletcher, Joe B.

    2002-01-01

    Using published slip models for five major earthquakes, 1979 Imperial Valley, 1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, and 1995 Kobe, we produce maps of apparent stress and radiated seismic energy over their fault surfaces. The slip models, obtained by inverting seismic and geodetic data, entail the division of the fault surfaces into many subfaults for which the time histories of seismic slip are determined. To estimate the seismic energy radiated by each subfault, we measure the near-fault seismic-energy flux from the time-dependent slip there and then multiply by a function of rupture velocity to obtain the corresponding energy that propagates into the far-field. This function, the ratio of far-field to near-fault energy, is typically less than 1/3, inasmuch as most of the near-fault energy remains near the fault and is associated with permanent earthquake deformation. Adding the energy contributions from all of the subfaults yields an estimate of the total seismic energy, which can be compared with independent energy estimates based on seismic-energy flux measured in the far-field, often at teleseismic distances. Estimates of seismic energy based on slip models are robust, in that different models, for a given earthquake, yield energy estimates that are in close agreement. Moreover, the slip-model estimates of energy are generally in good accord with independent estimates by others, based on regional or teleseismic data. Apparent stress is estimated for each subfault by dividing the corresponding seismic moment into the radiated energy. Distributions of apparent stress over an earthquake fault zone show considerable heterogeneity, with peak values that are typically about double the whole-earthquake values (based on the ratio of seismic energy to seismic moment). The range of apparent stresses estimated for subfaults of the events studied here is similar to the range of apparent stresses for earthquakes in continental settings, with peak values of about

  9. Predicting astronaut radiation doses from major solar particle events using artificial intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, Nazila H.

    1998-06-01

    Space radiation is an important issue for manned space flight. For long missions outside of the Earth's magnetosphere, there are two major sources of exposure. Large Solar Particle Events (SPEs) consisting of numerous energetic protons and other heavy ions emitted by the Sun, and the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) that constitute an isotropic radiation field of low flux and high energy. In deep-space missions both SPEs and GCRs can be hazardous to the space crew. SPEs can provide an acute dose, which is a large dose over a short period of time. The acute doses from a large SPE that could be received by an astronaut with shielding as thick as a spacesuit maybe as large as 500 cGy. GCRs will not provide acute doses, but may increase the lifetime risk of cancer from prolonged exposures in a range of 40-50 cSv/yr. In this research, we are using artificial intelligence to model the dose-time profiles during a major solar particle event. Artificial neural networks are reliable approximators for nonlinear functions. In this study we design a dynamic network. This network has the ability to update its dose predictions as new input dose data is received while the event is occurring. To accomplish this temporal behavior of the system we use an innovative Sliding Time-Delay Neural Network (STDNN). By using a STDNN one can predict doses received from large SPEs while the event is happening. The parametric fits and actual calculated doses for the skin, eye and bone marrow are used. The parametric data set obtained by fitting the Weibull functional forms to the calculated dose points has been divided into two subsets. The STDNN has been trained using some of these parametric events. The other subset of parametric data and the actual doses are used for testing with the resulting weights and biases of the first set. This is done to show that the network can generalize. Results of this testing indicate that the STDNN is capable of predicting doses from events that it has not seen

  10. Major Radiations in the Evolution of Caviid Rodents: Reconciling Fossils, Ghost Lineages, and Relaxed Molecular Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, María Encarnación; Pol, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Background Caviidae is a diverse group of caviomorph rodents that is broadly distributed in South America and is divided into three highly divergent extant lineages: Caviinae (cavies), Dolichotinae (maras), and Hydrochoerinae (capybaras). The fossil record of Caviidae is only abundant and diverse since the late Miocene. Caviids belongs to Cavioidea sensu stricto (Cavioidea s.s.) that also includes a diverse assemblage of extinct taxa recorded from the late Oligocene to the middle Miocene of South America (“eocardiids”). Results A phylogenetic analysis combining morphological and molecular data is presented here, evaluating the time of diversification of selected nodes based on the calibration of phylogenetic trees with fossil taxa and the use of relaxed molecular clocks. This analysis reveals three major phases of diversification in the evolutionary history of Cavioidea s.s. The first two phases involve two successive radiations of extinct lineages that occurred during the late Oligocene and the early Miocene. The third phase consists of the diversification of Caviidae. The initial split of caviids is dated as middle Miocene by the fossil record. This date falls within the 95% higher probability distribution estimated by the relaxed Bayesian molecular clock, although the mean age estimate ages are 3.5 to 7 Myr older. The initial split of caviids is followed by an obscure period of poor fossil record (refered here as the Mayoan gap) and then by the appearance of highly differentiated modern lineages of caviids, which evidentially occurred at the late Miocene as indicated by both the fossil record and molecular clock estimates. Conclusions The integrated approach used here allowed us identifying the agreements and discrepancies of the fossil record and molecular clock estimates on the timing of the major events in cavioid evolution, revealing evolutionary patterns that would not have been possible to gather using only molecular or paleontological data alone. PMID

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters. Experts` determination of source term issues: Volume 2, Revision 1, Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, F.T.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Jow, H.N.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Amos, C.N.; Helton, J.; Boyd, G.

    1992-06-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a point estimate of risk, but to determine the distribution of risk, and to assess the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station. Much of this important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Source Term Panel.

  12. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  13. Near-Infrared Transcranial Radiation for Major Depressive Disorder: Proof of Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Paolo; Cusin, Cristina; Mischoulon, David; Hamblin, Michael R.; De Taboada, Luis; Pisoni, Angela; Chang, Trina; Yeung, Albert; Ionescu, Dawn F.; Petrie, Samuel R.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Fava, Maurizio; Iosifescu, Dan V.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial near-infrared radiation (NIR) is an innovative treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), but clinical evidence for its efficacy is limited. Our objective was to investigate the tolerability and efficacy of NIR in patients with MDD. We conducted a proof of concept, prospective, double-blind, randomized study of 6 sessions of NIR versus sham treatment for patients with MDD, using a crossover design. Four patients with MDD with mean age 47 ± 14 (SD) years (1 woman and 3 men) were exposed to irradiance of 700 mW/cm2 and a fluence of 84 J/cm2 for a total NIR energy of 2.40 kJ delivered per session for 6 sessions. Baseline mean HAM-D17 scores decreased from 19.8 ± 4.4 (SD) to 13 ± 5.35 (SD) after treatment (t = 7.905; df = 3; P = 0.004). Patients tolerated the treatment well without any serious adverse events. These findings confirm and extend the preliminary data on NIR as a novel intervention for patients with MDD, but further clinical trials are needed to better understand the efficacy of this new treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01538199. PMID:26356811

  14. Availability of Japanese Government's supplemental texts on radiation reflecting the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for elementary and secondary education from dental students' understanding.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Midori; Honda, Eiichi; Dashpuntsag, Oyunbat; Maeda, Naoki; Hosoki, Hidehiko; Sakama, Minoru; Tada, Toshiko

    2016-05-01

    Following the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident, the Japanese government created two supplemental texts about radiation reflecting the accident for elementary, middle school, and high school students. These texts were made to explain radiation and consequently to obtain public consent for the continuation of the nuclear program. The present study aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of the content of the texts and to collect the basic data on the level of understanding necessary to improve radiation education. Lectures on radiology including nuclear energy and the Fukushima accident were given to 44 fourth-year dental students in 2013. The questionnaire was administered in 2014 when these students were in their sixth-year. The survey was also administered to 40 first-year students and 41 fourth-year students who hadn't any radiology lectures. Students rated their level of understanding of 50 phrases used in the texts on a four-point scale (understanding = 3, a little knowledge = 2, having heard = 1, no knowledge = 0). Questions on taking an advanced physics course in high school and means of learning about radiation in daily life were also asked. The level of understanding of phrases in the supplemental text for middle and high school students was significantly higher among sixth-year students (mean = 1.43) than among first-year (mean = 1.12) or fourth-year (mean = 0.93) students (p < 0.05). Overall, the level of understanding was low, with scores indicating that most students knew only a little. First-year students learning about radiation from television but four-year and six-year students learning about radiation from newspaper scored significantly higher (p < 0.05). It was concluded that radiation education should be improved by using visual material and preparing educators to teach the material for improving the public's understanding of radiation use-especially nuclear power generation because the phrases used in the supplementary texts are very

  15. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  16. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives(s) The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events (SPEs), as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials Ferrets were exposed to 0 – 2 Gray (Gy) of whole body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population, known as the LD50, of ferrets was established at ~ 1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 post-irradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early times post-irradiation when coagulopathies were present and progressively becoming more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions The data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD50 in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is solely due to the cell killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals. PMID:24495588

  17. Analyses of risks associated with radiation exposure from past major solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weyland, Mark D.; Atwell, William; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation exposures and cancer induction/mortality risks were investigated for several major solar particle events (SPE's). The SPE's included are: February 1956, November 1960, August 1972, October 1989, and the September, August, and October 1989 events combined. The three 1989 events were treated as one since all three could affect a single lunar or Mars mission. A baryon transport code was used to propagate particles through aluminum and tissue shield materials. A free space environment was utilized for all calculations. Results show the 30-day blood forming organs (BFO) limit of 25 rem was surpassed by all five events using 10 g/sq cm of shielding. The BFO limit is based on a depth dose of 5 cm of tissue, while a more detailed shield distribution of the BFO's was utilized. A comparison between the 5 cm depth dose and the dose found using the BFO shield distribution shows that the 5 cm depth value slightly higher than the BFO dose. The annual limit of 50 rem was exceeded by the August 1972, October 1989, and the three combined 1989 events with 5 g/sq cm of shielding. Cancer mortality risks ranged from 1.5 to 17 percent at 1 g/sq cm and 0.5 to 1.1 percent behind 10 g/sq cm of shielding for five events. These ranges correspond to those for a 45 year old male. It is shown that secondary particles comprise about 1/3 of the total risk at 10 g/sq cm of shielding. Utilizing a computerized Space Shuttle shielding model to represent a typical spacecraft configuration in free space at the August 1972 SPE, average crew doses exceeded the BFO dose limit.

  18. Analyses of risks associated with radiation exposure from past major solar particle events

    SciTech Connect

    Weyland, M.D.; Atwell, W.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Wilson, J.W.; Hardy, A.C.

    1991-08-01

    Radiation exposures and cancer induction/mortality risks were investigated for several major solar particle events (SPE's). The SPE's included are: February 1956, November 1960, August 1972, October 1989, and the September, August, and October 1989 events combined. The three 1989 events were treated as one since all three could affect a single lunar or Mars mission. A baryon transport code was used to propagate particles through aluminum and tissue shield materials. A free space environment was utilized for all calculations. Results show the 30-day blood forming organs (BFO) limit of 25 rem was surpassed by all five events using 10 g/sq cm of shielding. The BFO limit is based on a depth dose of 5 cm of tissue, while a more detailed shield distribution of the BFO's was utilized. A comparison between the 5 cm depth dose and the dose found using the BFO shield distribution shows that the 5 cm depth value slightly higher than the BFO dose. The annual limit of 50 rem was exceeded by the August 1972, October 1989, and the three combined 1989 events with 5 g/sq cm of shielding. Cancer mortality risks ranged from 1.5 to 17 percent at 1 g/sq cm and 0.5 to 1.1 percent behind 10 g/sq cm of shielding for five events. These ranges correspond to those for a 45 year old male. It is shown that secondary particles comprise about 1/3 of the total risk at 10 g/sq cm of shielding. Utilizing a computerized Space Shuttle shielding model to represent a typical spacecraft configuration in free space at the August 1972 SPE, average crew doses exceeded the BFO dose limit.

  19. [Nervous disorders in those engaged in the cleanup of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station subjected to ionizing radiation exposure at low doses].

    PubMed

    Panchenko, E N; Kazakova, S E; Safonova, E F

    1993-07-01

    Neurological, psychiatric, somatic and immune status were studied in 256 patients subjected to ionizing radiation at the dose of 10-45 cGy during liquidation of aftermath of the Chernobyl accident. In 61% of them neurocirculatory dystonia was found, 39% of patients revealed dyscirculatory encephalopathy. Alongside with dystonic disorders structural changes of vessels were detected. Asthenoneurosis diagnosed in 97% of patients was recognized as a key syndrome in 53%, while in 23%--obsessional-phobic syndrome dominated, in 7%--depressive syndrome and in 14%--psycho-organic syndrome were at the foreground. Somatic status in most patients (67%) was burdened by diseases of digestive tract. 191 patients revealed considerable immune imbalance. In 95 patients (33%) it was less pronounced and consisted in moderate decrease of TPR/TPS ratio. Degrees of immune and neurological disorders correlated closely. The conclusion was made that low-dose radiation induces primary damage of immunity and vessels with secondary nervous system involvement. That is why connection between neurological symptoms and radiation in subjects who took part in liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftermath may be considered probable only in association with immune and circulatory disorders. PMID:8079465

  20. International Outreach: What Is the Responsibility of ASTRO and the Major International Radiation Oncology Societies?

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, Nina A.; Hu, Kenneth S.; Liao, Zhongxing; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Amendola, Beatriz E.; Calaguas, Miriam J.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Yue, Ning J.; Rengan, Ramesh; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-07-01

    In this era of globalization and rapid advances in radiation oncology worldwide, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is committed to help decrease profound regional disparities through the work of the International Education Subcommittee (IES). The IES has expanded its base, reach, and activities to foster educational advances through a variety of educational methods with broad scope, in addition to committing to the advancement of radiation oncology care for cancer patients around the world, through close collaboration with our sister radiation oncology societies and other educational, governmental, and organizational groups.

  1. An influential factor for external radiation dose estimation for residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident-time spent outdoors for residents in Iitate Village.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Sakai, Akira; Akahane, Keiichi; Yonai, Shunsuke; Sakata, Ritsu; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Masayuki; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have been conducted on radiation doses to residents after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Time spent outdoors is an influential factor for external dose estimation. Since little information was available on actual time spent outdoors for residents, different values of average time spent outdoors per day have been used in dose estimation studies on the FDNPP accident. The most conservative value of 24 h was sometimes used, while 2.4 h was adopted for indoor workers in the UNSCEAR 2013 report. Fukushima Medical University has been estimating individual external doses received by residents as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey by collecting information on the records of moves and activities (the Basic Survey) after the accident from each resident. In the present study, these records were analyzed to estimate an average time spent outdoors per day. As an example, in Iitate Village, its arithmetic mean was 2.08 h (95% CI: 1.64-2.51) for a total of 170 persons selected from respondents to the Basic Survey. This is a much smaller value than commonly assumed. When 2.08 h is used for the external dose estimation, the dose is about 25% (23-26% when using the above 95% CI) less compared with the dose estimated for the commonly used value of 8 h. PMID:27034103

  2. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle facility accident analysis handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J E; Clark, A T; Loysen, P; Ballinger, M Y; Mishima, J; Owczarski, P C; Gregory, W S; Nichols, B D

    1988-05-01

    The Accident Analysis Handbook (AAH) covers four generic facilities: fuel manufacturing, fuel reprocessing, waste storage/solidification, and spent fuel storage; and six accident types: fire, explosion, tornado, criticality, spill, and equipment failure. These are the accident types considered to make major contributions to the radiological risk from accidents in nuclear fuel cycle facility operations. The AAH will enable the user to calculate source term releases from accident scenarios manually or by computer. A major feature of the AAH is development of accident sample problems to provide input to source term analysis methods and transport computer codes. Sample problems and illustrative examples for different accident types are included in the AAH.

  4. Accident investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laynor, William G. Bud

    1987-01-01

    The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has attributed wind shear as a cause or contributing factor in 15 accidents involving transport-categroy airplanes since 1970. Nine of these were nonfatal; but the other six accounted for 440 lives. Five of the fatal accidents and seven of the nonfatal accidents involved encounters with convective downbursts or microbursts. Of other accidents, two which were nonfatal were encounters with a frontal system shear, and one which was fatal was the result of a terrain induced wind shear. These accidents are discussed with reference to helping the aircraft to avoid the wind shear or if impossible to help the pilot to get through the wind shear.

  5. Sleep related vehicle accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Horne, J. A.; Reyner, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the incidence, time of day, and driver morbidity associated with vehicle accidents where the most likely cause was the driver falling asleep at the wheel. DESIGN--Two surveys were undertaken, in southwest England and the midlands, by using police databases or on the spot interviews. SUBJECTS--Drivers involved in 679 sleep related vehicle accidents. RESULTS--Of all vehicle accidents to which the police were summoned, sleep related vehicle accidents comprised 16% on major roads in southwest England, and over 20% on midland motorways. During the 24 hour period there were three major peaks: at around 0200, 0600, and 1600. About half these drivers were men under 30 years; few such accidents involved women. CONCLUSIONS--Sleep related vehicle accidents are largely dependent on the time of day and account for a considerable proportion of vehicle accidents, especially those on motorways and other monotonous roads. As there are no norms for the United Kingdom on road use by age and sex for time of day with which to compare these data, we cannot determine what the hourly exposure v risk factors are for these subgroups. The findings are in close agreement with those from other countries. PMID:7888930

  6. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: The Fukushima health management survey.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-08-01

    The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36-6.23) and 1.00 (0.67-1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  7. Comparison of childhood thyroid cancer prevalence among 3 areas based on external radiation dose after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideto; Yasumura, Seiji; Ohtsuru, Akira; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Satoru; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sakai, Akira; Yamashita, Shunichi; Tanigawa, Koichi; Ohto, Hitoshi; Abe, Masafumi; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake led to a subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In its wake, we sought to examine the association between external radiation dose and thyroid cancer in Fukushima Prefecture. We applied a cross-sectional study design with 300,476 participants aged 18 years and younger who underwent thyroid examinations between October 2011 and June 2015. Areas within Fukushima Prefecture were divided into three groups based on individual external doses (≥1% of 5 mSv, <99% of 1 mSv/y, and the other). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of thyroid cancer for all areas, with the lowest dose area as reference, were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for age and sex. Furthermore, the ORs of thyroid cancer for individual external doses of 1 mSv or more and 2 mSv or more, with the external dose less than 1 mSv as reference, were calculated. Prevalence of thyroid cancer for the location groups were 48/100,000 for the highest dose area, 36/100,000 for the middle dose area, and 41/100,000 for the lowest dose area. Compared with the lowest dose area, age-, and sex-adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for the highest-dose and middle-dose areas were 1.49 (0.36–6.23) and 1.00 (0.67–1.50), respectively. The duration between accident and thyroid examination was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence. There were no significant associations between individual external doses and prevalence of thyroid cancer. External radiation dose was not associated with thyroid cancer prevalence among Fukushima children within the first 4 years after the nuclear accident. PMID:27583855

  8. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  9. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    PubMed

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident. PMID:22119284

  10. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment in Health Risk Studies Following a Nuclear Reactor Accident

    PubMed Central

    Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Hatch, Maureen; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide concerns regarding health effects after the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents indicate a clear need to identify short- and long-term health impacts that might result from accidents in the future. Fundamental to addressing this problem are reliable and accurate radiation dose estimates for the affected populations. The available guidance for activities following nuclear accidents is limited with regard to strategies for dose assessment in health risk studies. Objectives: Here we propose a comprehensive systematic approach to estimating radiation doses for the evaluation of health risks resulting from a nuclear power plant accident, reflected in a set of seven guidelines. Discussion: Four major nuclear reactor accidents have occurred during the history of nuclear power production. The circumstances leading to these accidents were varied, as were the magnitude of the releases of radioactive materials, the pathways by which persons were exposed, the data collected afterward, and the lifestyle factors and dietary consumption that played an important role in the associated radiation exposure of the affected populations. Accidents involving nuclear reactors may occur in the future under a variety of conditions. The guidelines we recommend here are intended to facilitate obtaining reliable dose estimations for a range of different exposure conditions. We recognize that full implementation of the proposed approach may not always be feasible because of other priorities during the nuclear accident emergency and because of limited resources in manpower and equipment. Conclusions: The proposed approach can serve as a basis to optimize the value of radiation dose reconstruction following a nuclear reactor accident. Citation: Bouville A, Linet MS, Hatch M, Mabuchi K, Simon SL. 2014. Guidelines for exposure assessment in health risk studies following a nuclear reactor accident. Environ Health Perspect 122:1–5; http://dx.doi.org/10

  11. Detection of uranium and chemical state analysis of individual radioactive microparticles emitted from the Fukushima nuclear accident using multiple synchrotron radiation X-ray analyses.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshinari; Iizawa, Yushin; Terada, Yasuko; Adachi, Kouji; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Nakai, Izumi

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray microbeam analyses revealed the detailed chemical nature of radioactive aerosol microparticles emitted during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, resulting in better understanding of what occurred in the plant during the early stages of the accident. Three spherical microparticles (∼2 μm, diameter) containing radioactive Cs were found in aerosol samples collected on March 14th and 15th, 2011, in Tsukuba, 172 km southwest of the FDNPP. SR-μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis detected the following 10 heavy elements in all three particles: Fe, Zn, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, and Ba. In addition, U was found for the first time in two of the particles, further confirmed by U L-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra, implying that U fuel and its fission products were contained in these particles along with radioactive Cs. These results strongly suggest that the FDNPP was damaged sufficiently to emit U fuel and fission products outside the containment vessel as aerosol particles. SR-μ-XANES spectra of Fe, Zn, Mo, and Sn K-edges for the individual particles revealed that they were present at high oxidation states, i.e., Fe(3+), Zn(2+), Mo(6+), and Sn(4+) in the glass matrix, confirmed by SR-μ-X-ray diffraction analysis. These radioactive materials in a glassy state may remain in the environment longer than those emitted as water-soluble radioactive Cs aerosol particles. PMID:25084242

  12. Early radiation survey of Iitate village, which was heavily contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi accident, conducted on 28 and 29 March 2011.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Endo, Satoru; Sugai, Masuro; Ozawa, Shoji; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Following the news that the radiation level in Iitate Village, located 25-45 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, was seriously increased, an urgent field survey was carried out on 28 and 29 March 2011. Radiation levels at 130 locations were measured inside a van that traveled throughout the village using a CsI pocket survey meter and an ionization chamber. Soil samples were also taken at five locations and submitted to gamma ray analysis using a Ge detector. A radiation exposure rate of more than 20 μSv h was observed in the southern part of Iitate Village. Volatile radionuclides such as iodine and cesium were found to be the main components of radioactive contamination. A trace amount of plutonium isotopes originating from the accident was also confirmed in several soil samples, the level of which was less than the global fallout. Based on the measured density of radionuclides at the highest contamination location during the present survey, an exposure rate of about 200 μGy h at 1 m above the ground was estimated at the time of the radioactive deposition on March 15. At this location, the cumulative exposure would reach 50 mGy in the middle of May 2011. PMID:22549322

  13. Radiative Forcing Due to Major Aerosol Emitting Sectors in China and India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streets, David G.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Lu, Zifeng; Faluvegi, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the radiative forcing caused by anthropogenic aerosol sources is essential for making effective emission control decisions to mitigate climate change. We examined the net direct plus indirect radiative forcing caused by carbonaceous aerosol and sulfur emissions in key sectors of China and India using the GISS-E2 chemistry-climate model. Diesel trucks and buses (67 mW/ sq. m) and residential biofuel combustion (52 mW/ sq. m) in India have the largest global mean, annual average forcings due mainly to the direct and indirect effects of BC. Emissions from these two sectors in China have near-zero net global forcings. Coal-fired power plants in both countries exert a negative forcing of about -30 mW/ sq. m from production of sulfate. Aerosol forcings are largest locally, with direct forcings due to residential biofuel combustion of 580 mW/ sq. m over India and 416 mW/ sq. m over China, but they extend as far as North America, Europe, and the Arctic

  14. Intrinsic radiation sensitivity may not be the major determinant of the poor clinical outcome of glioblastoma multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Taghian, A.; Budach, W.; Gioioso, D.; Pardo, F.; Okunieff, P.; Suit, H. ); Ramsay, J.; Bleehen, N. ); Allalunis-Turner, J.; Urtasun, R. )

    1993-01-15

    Many radiobiologic mechanisms may contribute to the clinical radiation resistance of Glioblastoma Multiforme. One of them is considered to be an unusually low intrinsic radiation sensitivity. This is a collaborative study between three laboratories to evaluate the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of 85 cell lines derived from human malignant gliomas as the major cause of the poor clinical results of radiation treatment to these tumors. Fifty-one cell lines were early passage. The distribution by histologic type was: 58 glioblastoma, 17 anaplastic astrocytoma, six oligodendroglioma and four astrocytoma grade 2. The intrinsic radiation sensitivity will be expressed by the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF[sub 2]). The SF[sub 2] has been determined for single dose irradiation for cell lines on exponential phase, under aerobic conditions, growing on plastic. The patient age, Karnofski Status, histological grade, survival, dose or irradiation for 50 patients are investigated for correlations with SF[sub 2] of the corresponding newly established cell lines. These data on 85 malignant glioma cell lines show a very broad distribution of SF[sub 2] values for irradiation in vitro. SF[sub 2] reflected the difference in sensitivity between AA (Grade 3) and GBM (Grade) 4. This may suggest that the parameter SF[sub 2] is useful to discriminate between the sensitivity of different grades or types of histology in vitro. However, SF[sub 2] was not a predictor of the clinical outcome on individual basis for malignant gliomas. The in vitro studies will need to be supplemented by physiologic characterization of the tumors in vivo. Such conclusions would limit the predictive value of current radiation sensitivity assays based on in vitro dose-survival measurement for the least high grade malignant gliomas. 34 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts.

    PubMed

    Vea, Isabelle M; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228-273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210-165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  16. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Grimaldi, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228–273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210–165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous. PMID:27000526

  17. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  18. Diastereoselective synthesis of the major products resulting from the interaction between ionizing radiation and thymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Barvian, M.R.; Greenberg, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    5,6-Dihydro-5,6-dihydroxythymidine (thymidine glycol, 1) and 5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxy-thymidine (C5-thymidine hydrate, 2) are the major products attributed to the effects of {gamma}-radiolysis on thymidine under aerobic and hypoxic conditions, respectively. The authors have achieved the first chemical synthesis of 2 from the respective cis-glycols. Diastereoselective synthesis of 1 and 2 is achieved by carrying out a stereoselective dihydroxylation on the bis-t-butyl-dimethylsilyl ether of thymidine.

  19. Measures against increased environmental radiation dose by the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in some local governments in the Tokyo metropolitan area: focusing on examples of both Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities in Chiba prefecture.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Fujii, H; Oda, S; Nakamura, T; Hayashi, R; Kuroda, R; Furusawa, M; Umekage, T; Ohkubo, Y

    2012-11-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant of Tokyo Electric Power Cooperation (TEPCO) after the great east Japan earthquake (11 March 2011) elevated the background level of environmental radiation in Eastern Japan. Around the Tokyo metropolitan area, especially around Kashiwa and Nagareyama cities, the ambient dose equivalent rate has been significantly increased after the accident. Responding to strong requests from citizens, the local governments started to monitor the ambient dose equivalent rate precisely and officially, about 3 months after the accident had occurred. The two cities in cooperation with each other also organised a local forum supported by three radiation specialists. In this article, the activities of the local governments are introduced, with main focus on radiation monitoring and measurements. Topics are standardisation of environmental radiation measurements for ambient dose rate, dose mapping activity, investigation of foodstuff and drinking water, lending survey meters to citizens, etc. Based on the data and facts mainly gained by radiation monitoring, risk management and relating activity have been organised. 'Small consultation meetings in kindergartens', 'health consultation service for citizens', 'education meeting on radiation protection for teachers, medical staffs, local government staffs, and leaders of active volunteer parties' and 'decontamination activity', etc. are present key activities of the risk management and restoration around the Tokyo metropolitan area. PMID:22927655

  20. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident: application expansion to recovery and reconstruction work.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work. In April 2012, the Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters (NERH) started dividing the restricted areas into three sub-areas based on the ambient dose rate. In accordance with the rearrangement of the restricted area, NERH decided to allow resumption of business activities, including manufacturing and farming, as well as operation of hospitals, welfare facilities, and shops and related subordinate tasks, such as maintenance, repair, and transportation. As a result, the government needed regulations for radiation protection for workers engaged in those activities. The issues that arose in the deliberation of the regulations were distilled into two points: 1) whether radiation protection systems established for a planned exposure situation should apply to construction and agricultural work activities in an existing exposure situation, and 2) how to simplify the regulation in accordance with the nature of the work activities. Further research and development concerning the following issues are warranted: a) the relationship between the radioactive concentrations of materials handled and the risk of internal exposure, and b) the relationship between the radioactive concentration of the soil and the surface contamination level. PMID:24593039

  1. The radiative impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Michael; Brinkop, Sabine; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have significant impact on the earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes also the stratosphere is influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry-climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the EMAC model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) project, of which only one includes the volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour after the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as important sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on the tropospheric water vapour and ENSO are evident.

  2. THYROID CANCER STUDY AMONG UKRAINIAN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO RADIATION AFTER THE CHORNOBYL ACCIDENT: IMPROVED ESTIMATES OF THE THYROID DOSES TO THE COHORT MEMBERS

    PubMed Central

    Likhtarov, Ilya; Kovgan, Lina; Masiuk, Sergii; Talerko, Mykola; Chepurny, Mykola; Ivanova, Olga; Gerasymenko, Valentina; Boyko, Zulfira; Voillequé, Paul; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André

    2013-01-01

    In collaboration with the Ukrainian Research Center for Radiation Medicine, the U.S. National Cancer Institute initiated a cohort study of children and adolescents exposed to Chornobyl fallout in Ukraine to better understand the long-term health effects of exposure to radioactive iodines. All 13,204 cohort members were subjected to at least one direct thyroid measurement between 30 April and 30 June 1986 and resided at the time of the accident in the northern part of Kyiv, Zhytomyr, or Chernihiv Oblasts, which were the most contaminated territories of Ukraine as a result of radioactive fallout from the Chornobyl accident. Thyroid doses for the cohort members, which had been estimated following the first round of interviews, were re-evaluated following the second round of interviews. The revised thyroid doses range from 0.35 mGy to 42 Gy, with 95 percent of the doses between 1 mGy and 4.2 Gy, an arithmetic mean of 0.65 Gy, and a geometric mean of 0.19 Gy. These means are 70% of the previous estimates, mainly because of the use of country-specific thyroid masses. Many of the individual thyroid dose estimates show substantial differences because of the use of an improved questionnaire for the second round of interviews. Limitations of the current set of thyroid dose estimates are discussed. For the epidemiologic study, the most notable improvement is a revised assessment of the uncertainties, as shared and unshared uncertainties in the parameter values were considered in the calculation of the 1,000 stochastic estimates of thyroid dose for each cohort member. This procedure makes it possible to perform a more realistic risk analysis. PMID:25208014

  3. RECONSTRUCTION OF RADIATION DOSES IN A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF THYROID CANCER FOLLOWING THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Khrouch, Valeri; Maceika, Evaldas; Zvonova, Irina; Vlasov, Oleg; Bratilova, Angelica; Gavrilin, Yury; Goulko, Guennadi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Shinkarev, Sergey; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Bouville, Andre

    2010-01-01

    A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer was carried out in contaminated regions of Belarus and Russia among persons who were exposed during childhood and adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. For each study subject, individual thyroid doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) intake of 131I via inhalation and ingestion; (2) intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, and 135I) and radiotelluriums (131mTe, 132Te) via inhalation and ingestion; (3) external dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (4) ingestion of 134Cs and 137Cs. A series of intercomparison exercises validated the models used for reconstruction of average doses to populations of specific age groups as well as of individual doses. Median thyroid doses from all factors for study subjects were estimated to be 0.37 and 0.034 Gy in Belarus and Russia, respectively. The highest individual thyroid doses among the subjects were 10.2 Gy in Belarus and 5.3 Gy in Russia. Iodine-131 intake was the main pathway for thyroid exposure. Estimated doses from short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums ranged up to 0.53 Gy. Reconstructed individual thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 0.1 Gy, while those from internal exposure due to ingested cesium did not exceed 0.05 Gy. The uncertainty of the reconstructed individual thyroid doses, characterized by the geometric standard deviation, varies from 1.7 to 4.0 with a median of 2.2. PMID:20539120

  4. The Chornobyl Accident: A Comprehensive Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Poyarkov, Victor A.; Vargo, George J.; George J. Vargo

    2000-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive of the April 1986 Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident and its short and long-term effects in the fourteen years since the accident. Chapters include: cause and description of the accident; the Shelter constructed to contain the remains the destroyed reactor, radioactive wastes arising from the accident, environmental contamination, individual and collective radiation doses, societal aspects, economic impact and conclusions. Appendices on radiological units, the medical consequences of the accident, and a list of acronym and abbreviations are included.

  5. Phylogeny of the monarch flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly and novel relationships within a major Australo-Pacific radiation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Michael J; Hosner, Peter A; Filardi, Christopher E; Moyle, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    Monarch flycatchers are a major component of Australo-Pacific and Wallacean avifaunas. To date, the family has received incomplete attention by molecular systematists who focused on subclades with minimal character and/or taxon sampling. As a result, Monarchidae taxonomy is still out-of-date, and biogeographic reconstructions have been based on poorly-resolved phylogenies, limiting their interpretation. Here, we produced a comprehensive, molecular phylogeny of the Monarchidae inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear loci using both concatenated and multilocus coalescent frameworks. We sampled 92% of the 99 recognized monarchid biological species and included deeper sampling within several phylogenetic species complexes, including Monarcha castaneiventris, Symposiachrus barbatus, and Terpsiphone rufiventer. Melampitta is identified as sister to the monarch flycatchers, which themselves comprise four major lineages. The first lineage comprises Terpsiphone and allies, the second lineage is Grallina, the third is Arses and Myiagra, and the fourth lineage comprises a diverse assemblage of genera including the "core monarchs" and the most geographically isolated groups like Chasiempis (Hawaii) and Pomarea (eastern Polynesia). Gene tree discordance was evident in Myiagra, which has implications for basal lineages in the genus (e.g., M. azureocapilla, M. hebetior, and M. alecto). Numerous genera within the core monarchs are paraphyletic, including Mayrornis and Pomarea, whereas the validity of others such as Metabolus are questionable. We recognize polytypic taxa as multiple species, including Lamprolia victoriae and Myiagra azureocapilla. In general, the topology of species complexes included short internodes that were not well resolved, owing to their rapid diversification across island archipelagos. Terpsiphone rufiventer comprises multiple lineages, including a heretofore-unappreciated West African lineage, but relationships within these rapid radiations will require

  6. [The electroencephalographic correlates of neurological disorders in the late periods of exposure to ionizing radiation (the aftereffects of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station)].

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkova, L A; Kholodova, N B; Zubovskiĭ, G A; Smirnov, Iu N; Koptelov, Iu M; Ryzhov, N I

    1994-01-01

    EEG mapping and three-dimensional localization of epileptic activity sources together with a neurological analysis were carried out in subjects having taken part in 1986-1987 in the liquidation of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Experimental group included 40 right-handed 25-45 years-old men having received a radiation dose of 15-51 Ber stated officially. Control group consisted of 20 healthy men. Neurological examination of the patients revealed vegetative-vascular and endocrine dysfunctions as well as diffuse neurological symptoms. EEG of one group of patients (25 persons) was characterized by slow alpha- and theta-band foci and epileptic waves in the central-frontal regions; epileptic sources were localized at the diencephalic level mainly in the midline being shifted to the right hemisphere. In the EEG of another group (15 persons) delta-waves were recorded in the frontal regions at the background of diffuse beta-activity. The sources of epileptic activity of a diffuse character were localized at the basal level of the brain and in the cortex (predominantly) in the left hemisphere. The results obtained together with SPECT mapping and CT data permit to suppose the organic damage of different brain structures (at the cortical and the midline levels) in the patients, with participation of diencephalic structures in the pathological process hypothalamic-hypophysial system being probably connected with adaptive processes in the CNS. PMID:8023562

  7. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Low LET radiation: Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.; Book, S.; Buncher, C.; Denniston, C.; Gilbert, E.; Hahn, F.; Hertzberg, V.; Maxon, H.; Scott, B.

    1989-05-01

    This report provides dose-response models intended to be used in estimating the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents. Models of early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects are provided. Two-parameter Weibull hazard functions are recommended for estimating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary and gastrointestinal syndromes -- are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating cancer risks. Parameters are given for analyzing the risks of seven types of cancer in adults -- leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid and ''other''. The category, ''other'' cancers, is intended to reflect the combined risks of multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and cancers of the bladder, kidney, brain, ovary, uterus and cervix. Models of childhood cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Linear and linear-quadratic models are also recommended for assessing genetic risks. Five classes of genetic disease -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocation and multifactorial diseases --are considered. In addition, the impact of radiation-induced genetic damage on the incidence of peri-implantation embryo losses is discussed. The uncertainty in modeling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of all model parameters. Data are provided which should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk. 22 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  8. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  9. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged

  10. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged

  11. Estimated association between dwelling soil contamination and internal radiation contamination levels after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Sakaihara, Kikugoro; Kato, Shigeaki; Leppold, Claire; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Morita, Tomohiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of soil contamination levels has been considered a feasible method for dose estimation of internal radiation exposure following the Chernobyl disaster by means of aggregate transfer factors; however, it is still unclear whether the estimation of internal contamination based on soil contamination levels is universally valid or incident specific. Methods To address this issue, we evaluated relationships between in vivo and soil cesium-137 (Cs-137) contamination using data on internal contamination levels among Minamisoma (10–40 km north from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant), Fukushima residents 2–3 years following the disaster, and constructed three models for statistical analysis based on continuous and categorical (equal intervals and quantiles) soil contamination levels. Results A total of 7987 people with a mean age of 55.4 years underwent screening of in vivo Cs-137 whole-body counting. A statistically significant association was noted between internal and continuous Cs-137 soil contamination levels (model 1, p value <0.001), although the association was slight (relative risk (RR): 1.03 per 10 kBq/m2 increase in soil contamination). Analysis of categorical soil contamination levels showed statistical (but not clinical) significance only in relatively higher soil contamination levels (model 2: Cs-137 levels above 100 kBq/m2 compared to those <25 kBq/m2, RR=1.75, p value <0.01; model 3: levels above 63 kBq/m2 compared to those <11 kBq/m2, RR=1.45, p value <0.05). Conclusions Low levels of internal and soil contamination were not associated, and only loose/small associations were observed in areas with slightly higher levels of soil contamination in Fukushima, representing a clear difference from the strong associations found in post-disaster Chernobyl. These results indicate that soil contamination levels generally do not contribute to the internal contamination of residents in Fukushima; thus, individual

  12. Comparison between direct measurements and modeled estimates of external radiation exposure among school children 18 to 30 months after the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hayano, Ryugo; Furutani, Tomoyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-20

    After a major radioactive incident, accurate dose reconstruction is important for evaluating health risks and appropriate radiation protection policies. After the 2011 Japan Fukushima nuclear incident, we assessed the level of agreement between the modeled and directly measured dose and estimated the uncertainties. The study population comprised 520 school children from Minamisoma city, located 20 km north of the nuclear plant. The annual dose 18–30 months after the incident was assessed using two approaches: estimation using the model proposed by the Japanese government and direct measurement by radiation dosemeters. The ratio of the average of modeled and measured doses was 3.0 (standard deviation (SD): 2.0). The reduction coefficient, an index for radiation attenuation properties, was 0.3 (SD: 0.1) on average, whereas the value used in the government model was 0.6. After adjusting for covariates, the coefficient had a significant negative correlation with the air dose rate in the dwelling location (p < 0.001), indicating that stronger building shielding effects are valuable in areas with higher air contamination levels. The present study demonstrated that some overestimation may have been related to uncertainties in radiation reduction effects, and that the air contamination level might provide a more important indicator of these effects. PMID:25514624

  13. Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Nicholas S; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas G; Baumann, Zofia; Madigan, Daniel J; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2013-06-25

    Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in a worldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter (210)Po and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below (210)Po-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 µGy⋅h(-1)). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 µSv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people. PMID:23733934

  14. Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Nicholas S.; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas G.; Baumann, Zofia; Madigan, Daniel J.; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in a worldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter 210Po and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below 210Po-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 µGy⋅h−1). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 µSv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people. PMID:23733934

  15. A review of criticality accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, W R; Smith, D R

    1989-03-01

    Criticality accidents and the characteristics of prompt power excursions are discussed. Forty-one accidental power transients are reviewed. In each case where available, enough detail is given to help visualize the physical situation, the cause or causes of the accident, the history and characteristics of the transient, the energy release, and the consequences, if any, to personnel and property. Excursions associated with large power reactors are not included in this study, except that some information on the major accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 is provided in the Appendix. 67 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  17. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100

  18. [Hidden statistics of traffic accidents].

    PubMed

    Nordentoft, E L; Larsen, C F; Jørgensen, H R

    1989-10-23

    Only 19% of the 3,071 injured persons who were treated in the casualty department of Odense Hospital following traffic accidents in 1987 could be found again in the police registers of traffic accidents from the same region. All of the registrations from the police registers from the central region could be found again in the casualty department. In 1971, the corresponding coverage was 36%. The degree of coverage is particularly low for single bicycle accidents, other bicycle accidents, other single accidents and the hours immediately after midnight. Considerable disagreement exists concerning registration of the use of safety belts and crash helmets. In Odense, the municipal road authorities utilize the localization of the accidents reported by the casualty department. The decrease in the degree of coverage is due mainly to an increasing proportion of bicycle accidents. Where casualties require admission to hospital, the coverage is approximately 75%. This has remained unchanged throughout the years and it is therefore suggested that this proportion should be employed as indicator of the effect of the majority of prophylactic measures. In addition, proposals are made for simplification of the police registration forms. PMID:2588362

  19. Reconsidering Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to major human suffering caused by the evacuation and other counter-measures. However, the direct health consequences of the accident-related radiation exposures, besides the acute effects and small number of thyroid cancers, have not been observed. This absence is challenged by some influential groups affecting public policies who claim that the true extent of radiogenic health consequences is covered up. We consider such claims. The most conservative (in this case – overestimating) linear no-threshold hypothesis was used to calculate excess cancer expectations for cleanup workers, the population of the contaminated areas and the global population. Statistical estimations were performed to verify whether such expected excess was detectable. The calculated cancer excess for each group is much less than uncertainties in number of cancer cases in epidemiological studies. Therefore the absence of detected radiation carcinogenesis is in full correspondence with the most conservative a priori expectations. Regarding the cover-up claims, rational choice analysis was performed. Such analysis shows that these claims are ill-founded. The present overcautious attitude to radiological hazards should be corrected in order to mitigate the present suffering and to avoid such suffering in the future. PMID:26674769

  20. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers.

  1. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive /sup 131/I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of /sup 131/I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10/sup 6/ person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10/sup 7/ person-rem (2 x 10/sup 5/ Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs.

  2. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Modifications of models resulting from recent reports on health effects of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S. ); Bender, M.A. ); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gilbert, E.S. )

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The most recent health effects models resulting from these efforts were published in two reports, NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990) and Part 2 (1989). Several major health effects reports have been published recently that may impact the health effects models presented in these reports. This addendum to the Part 2 (1989) report, provides a review of the 1986 and 1988 reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council BEAR 5 Committee report and Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection as they relate to this report. The three main sections of this addendum discuss early occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. The major changes to the NUREG/CR-4214 health effects models recommended in this addendum are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies like that on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The results presented in this addendum should be used with the basic NUREG/CR-4214 reports listed above to obtain the most recent views on the potential health effects of radionuclides released accidentally from nuclear power plants. 48 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Modeling secondary accidents identified by traffic shock waves.

    PubMed

    Junhua, Wang; Boya, Liu; Lanfang, Zhang; Ragland, David R

    2016-02-01

    The high potential for occurrence and the negative consequences of secondary accidents make them an issue of great concern affecting freeway safety. Using accident records from a three-year period together with California interstate freeway loop data, a dynamic method for more accurate classification based on the traffic shock wave detecting method was used to identify secondary accidents. Spatio-temporal gaps between the primary and secondary accident were proven be fit via a mixture of Weibull and normal distribution. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate major factors contributing to secondary accident occurrence. Traffic shock wave speed and volume at the occurrence of a primary accident were explicitly considered in the model, as a secondary accident is defined as an accident that occurs within the spatio-temporal impact scope of the primary accident. Results show that the shock waves originating in the wake of a primary accident have a more significant impact on the likelihood of a secondary accident occurrence than the effects of traffic volume. Primary accidents with long durations can significantly increase the possibility of secondary accidents. Unsafe speed and weather are other factors contributing to secondary crash occurrence. It is strongly suggested that when police or rescue personnel arrive at the scene of an accident, they should not suddenly block, decrease, or unblock the traffic flow, but instead endeavor to control traffic in a smooth and controlled manner. Also it is important to reduce accident processing time to reduce the risk of secondary accident. PMID:26687540

  4. Severe accident simulation at Olkiuoto

    SciTech Connect

    Tirkkonen, H.; Saarenpaeae, T.; Cliff Po, L.C.

    1995-09-01

    A personal computer-based simulator was developed for the Olkiluoto nuclear plant in Finland for training in severe accident management. The generic software PCTRAN was expanded to model the plant-specific features of the ABB Atom designed BWR including its containment over-pressure protection and filtered vent systems. Scenarios including core heat-up, hydrogen generation, core melt and vessel penetration were developed in this work. Radiation leakage paths and dose rate distribution are presented graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an graphically for operator use in diagnosis and mitigation of accidents. Operating on an 486 DX2-66, PCTRAN-TVO achieves a speed about 15 times faster than real-time. A convenient and user-friendly graphic interface allows full interactive control. In this paper a review of the component models and verification runs are presented.

  5. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-05-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. 64 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. MSHA releases data on CM crushing accidents

    SciTech Connect

    2007-02-15

    The US Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) recently formed a committee to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents. The final report found that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another, place changing. Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are experienced miners who are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. This article was excerpted from the 'Remote Control Continuous Mining Machine Crushing Accident Data Study' published in May 2006. The report may be found from the website: www.msha.gov. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. [The autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system in subjects with the autonomic dystonia syndrome subjected to ionizing radiation exposure as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    PubMed

    Niagu, A I; Zazimko, R N

    1995-01-01

    180 males in the age of 21-50, all the participants of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation were examined. In all individuals vegetative dystonia (VD) syndrome was diagnosed (total radiation doses 0.1-1.0 Grey according to D. Erwin method). It was established that VD syndrome differed in these persons by pronounced stages of disorders manifestation as well as by polymorphism of vegetative disturbances. These findings testify central and peripheral vegetative nervous system parts involvement. In 40.2% of cases in individuals which were examined in rest and in 56.2% after dosed physical loading the functional disorders of vegetative cardiovascular system regulation of vagal type mainly (76.5%) were revealed. Clear correlation was not observed between vegetative disorders and radiation dose value. The estimation of contribution of each of the possible pathogenic factors (exactly stressogenic, radioactive and others) in vegetative disturbances development is not possible now. PMID:8533503

  8. Database structure for the Laser Accident and Incident Registry (LAIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, James W.; Hoxie, Stephen W.; Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Lund, David J.; Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1997-05-01

    The ubiquity of laser radiation in military, medical, entertainment, telecommunications and research industries and the significant risk, of eye injury from this radiation are firmly established. While important advances have been made in understanding laser bioeffects using animal analogues and clinical data, the relationships among patient characteristics, exposure conditions, severity of the resulting injury, and visual function are fragmented, complex and varied. Although accident cases are minimized through laser safety regulations and control procedures, accumulated accident case information by the laser eye injury evaluation center warranted the development of a laser accident and incident registry. The registry includes clinical data for validating and refining hypotheses on injury and recovery mechanisms; a means for analyzing mechanisms unique to human injury; and a means for identifying future areas of investigation. The relational database supports three major sections: (1) the physics section defines exposure circumstances, (2) the clinical/ophthalmologic section includes fundus and scanning laser ophthalmoscope images, and (3) the visual functions section contains specialized visual function exam results. Tools are available for subject-matter experts to estimate parameters like total intraocular energy, ophthalmic lesion grade, and exposure probability. The database is research oriented to provide a means for generating empirical relationships to identify symptoms for definitive diagnosis and treatment of laser induced eye injuries.

  9. Severe accident analysis using dynamic accident progression event trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Aram P.

    In present, the development and analysis of Accident Progression Event Trees (APETs) are performed in a manner that is computationally time consuming, difficult to reproduce and also can be phenomenologically inconsistent. One of the principal deficiencies lies in the static nature of conventional APETs. In the conventional event tree techniques, the sequence of events is pre-determined in a fixed order based on the expert judgments. The main objective of this PhD dissertation was to develop a software tool (ADAPT) for automated APET generation using the concept of dynamic event trees. As implied by the name, in dynamic event trees the order and timing of events are determined by the progression of the accident. The tool determines the branching times from a severe accident analysis code based on user specified criteria for branching. It assigns user specified probabilities to every branch, tracks the total branch probability, and truncates branches based on the given pruning/truncation rules to avoid an unmanageable number of scenarios. The function of a dynamic APET developed includes prediction of the conditions, timing, and location of containment failure or bypass leading to the release of radioactive material, and calculation of probabilities of those failures. Thus, scenarios that can potentially lead to early containment failure or bypass, such as through accident induced failure of steam generator tubes, are of particular interest. Also, the work is focused on treatment of uncertainties in severe accident phenomena such as creep rupture of major RCS components, hydrogen burn, containment failure, timing of power recovery, etc. Although the ADAPT methodology (Analysis of Dynamic Accident Progression Trees) could be applied to any severe accident analysis code, in this dissertation the approach is demonstrated by applying it to the MELCOR code [1]. A case study is presented involving station blackout with the loss of auxiliary feedwater system for a

  10. Earthquake related VLF activity and Electron Precipitation as a Major Agent of the Inner Radiation Belt Losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, Georgios C.; Sidiropoulos, Nikolaos; Barlas, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    The radiation belt electron precipitation (RBEP) into the topside ionosphere is a phenomenon which is known for several decades. However, the inner radiation belt source and loss mechanisms have not still well understood, including PBEP. Here we present the results of a systematic study of RBEP observations, as obtained from the satellite DEMETER and the series of POES satellites, in comparison with variation of seismic activity. We found that a type of RBEP bursts lasting for ~1-3 min present special characteristics in the inner region of the inner radiation belt before large (M >~7, or even M>~5) earthquakes (EQs), as for instance: characteristic (a) flux-time profiles, (b) energy spectrum, (c) electron flux temporal evolution, (d) spatial distributions (e) broad band VLF activity, some days before an EQ and (f) stopping a few hours before the EQ occurrence above the epicenter. In this study we present results from both case and statistical studies which provide significant evidence that, among EQs-lightings-Earth based transmitters, strong seismic activity during a substorm makes the main contribution to the long lasting (~1-3 min) RBEP events at middle latitudes.

  11. An exonuclease I-sensitive DNA repair pathway in Deinococcus radiodurans: a major determinant of radiation resistance.

    PubMed

    Misra, Hari S; Khairnar, Nivedita P; Kota, Swathi; Shrivastava, Smriti; Joshi, Vasudha P; Apte, Shree K

    2006-02-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans R1 recovering from acute dose of gamma radiation shows a biphasic mechanism of DNA double-strand break repair. The possible involvement of microsequence homology-dependent, or non-homologous end joining type mechanisms during initial period followed by RecA-dependent homologous recombination pathways has been suggested for the reconstruction of complete genomes in this microbe. We have exploited the known roles of exonuclease I in DNA recombination to elucidate the nature of recombination involved in DNA double-strand break repair during post-irradiation recovery of D. radiodurans. Transgenic Deinococcus cells expressing exonuclease I functions of Escherichia coli showed significant reduction in gamma radiation radioresistance, while the resistance to far-UV and hydrogen peroxide remained unaffected. The overexpression of E. coli exonuclease I in Deinococcus inhibited DNA double-strand break repair. Such cells exhibited normal post-irradiation expression kinetics of RecA, PprA and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins but lacked the divalent cation manganese [(Mn(II)]-dependent protection from gamma radiation. The results strongly suggest that 3' (rho) 5' single-stranded DNA ends constitute an important component in recombination pathway involved in DNA double-strand break repair and that absence of sbcB from deinococcal genome may significantly aid its extreme radioresistance phenotype. PMID:16430702

  12. A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-gu; Kang, Young-sig; Lee, Hyung-won

    2011-01-01

    To begin a zero accident campaign for industry, the first thing is to estimate the industrial accident rate and the zero accident time systematically. This paper considers the social and technical change of the business environment after beginning the zero accident campaign through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The program is developed to estimate the accident rate, zero accident time and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment. In this paper, MFC (Microsoft Foundation Class) software of Visual Studio 2008 was used to develop a zero accident program. The results of this paper will provide major information for industrial accident prevention and be an important part of stimulating the zero accident campaign within all industrial environments. PMID:20823633

  13. Emergency Responses and Health Consequences after the Fukushima Accident; Evacuation and Relocation.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, A; Ohira, T; Maeda, M; Yasumura, S; Tanigawa, K

    2016-04-01

    The Fukushima accident was a compounding disaster following the strong earthquake and huge tsunami. The direct health effects of radiation were relatively well controlled considering the severity of the accident, not only among emergency workers but also residents. Other serious health issues include deaths during evacuation, collapse of the radiation emergency medical system, increased mortality among displaced elderly people and public healthcare issues in Fukushima residents. The Fukushima mental health and lifestyle survey disclosed that the Fukushima accident caused severe psychological distress in the residents from evacuation zones. In addition to psychiatric and mental health problems, there are lifestyle-related problems such as an increase proportion of those overweight, an increased prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia and changes in health-related behaviours among evacuees; all of which may lead to an increased cardiovascular disease risk in the future. The effects of a major nuclear accident on societies are diverse and enduring. The countermeasures should include disaster management, long-term general public health services, mental and psychological care, behavioural and societal support, in addition to efforts to mitigate the health effects attributable to radiation. PMID:26876459

  14. Summary of along-track data from the Earth radiation budget satellite for several major desert regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, David R.; Fenn, Marta A.

    1988-01-01

    For several days in January and August 1985, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite, a component of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), was operated in an along-track scanning mode. A survey of radiance measurements is given for four desert areas in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Australia, and the Sahel region of Africa. Each overflight provides radiance information for four scene categories: clear, partly cloudy, mostly cloudy, and overcast. The data presented include the variation of radiance in each scene classification as a function of viewing zenith angle during each overflight of the five target areas. Several features of interest in the development of anisotropic models are evident, including day-night differences in longwave limb darkening and the azimuthal dependence of short wave radiance. There is some evidence that surface features may introduce thermal or visible shadowing that is not incorporated in the usual descriptions of the anisotropic behavior of radiance as viewed from space. The data also demonstrate that the ERBE scene classification algorithms give results that, at least for desert surfaces, are a function of viewing geometry.

  15. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-08-07

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals.

  16. The radiated energy budget of chromospheric plasma in a major solar flare deduced from multi-wavelength observations

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Keenan, Francis P.; Kerr, Graham S.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Dennis, Brian R.; Allred, Joel C.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Ireland, Jack

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents measurements of the energy radiated by the lower solar atmosphere, at optical, UV, and EUV wavelengths, during an X-class solar flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) in response to an injection of energy assumed to be in the form of nonthermal electrons. Hard X-ray observations from RHESSI were used to track the evolution of the parameters of the nonthermal electron distribution to reveal the total power contained in flare accelerated electrons. By integrating over the duration of the impulsive phase, the total energy contained in the nonthermal electrons was found to be >2 × 10{sup 31} erg. The response of the lower solar atmosphere was measured in the free-bound EUV continua of H I (Lyman), He I, and He II, plus the emission lines of He II at 304 Å and H I (Lyα) at 1216 Å by SDO/EVE, the UV continua at 1600 Å and 1700 Å by SDO/AIA, and the white light continuum at 4504 Å, 5550 Å, and 6684 Å, along with the Ca II H line at 3968 Å using Hinode/SOT. The summed energy detected by these instruments amounted to ∼3 × 10{sup 30} erg; about 15% of the total nonthermal energy. The Lyα line was found to dominate the measured radiative losses. Parameters of both the driving electron distribution and the resulting chromospheric response are presented in detail to encourage the numerical modeling of flare heating for this event, to determine the depth of the solar atmosphere at which these line and continuum processes originate, and the mechanism(s) responsible for their generation.

  17. Cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Finch, William; Shamsa, Kamran; Lee, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular sequelae of radiation exposure are an important cause of morbidity and mortality following radiation therapy for cancer, as well as after exposure to radiation after atomic bombs or nuclear accidents. In the United States, most of the data on radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) come from patients treated with radiation therapy for Hodgkin disease and breast cancer. Additionally, people exposed to radiation from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear accident have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The total dose of radiation, as well as the fractionation of the dose, plays an important role in the development of RIHD. All parts of the heart are affected, including the pericardium, vasculature, myocardium, valves, and conduction system. The mechanism of injury is complex, but one major mechanism is injury to endothelium in both the microvasculature and coronary arteries. This likely also contributes to damage and fibrosis within the myocardium. Additionally, various inflammatory and profibrotic cytokines contribute to injury. Diagnosis and treatment are not significantly different from those for conventional cardiovascular disease; however, screening for heart disease and lifelong cardiology follow-up is essential in patients with past radiation exposure. PMID:25290729

  18. Atmospheric releases from severe nuclear accidents: Environmental transport and pathways to man: Modelling of radiation doses to man from Chernobyl releases

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Goldman, M.; Catlin, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released a large amount of highly fractionated radioactive debris, including approximately 89 PBq of /sup 137/Cs. We calculated the resulting collective dose commitment to the Northern Hemisphere via the pathways of external exposure and ingestion of radionuclides withd food. We developed a rural/urban model of external dose and we used the PATHWAY model for ingestion. The results are a collective dose commitment of 630,000 person-Gy over the first year and 1,200,000 person-Gy over 50 years. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Micronucleus test of erythrocytes and lymphocytes in the blood of the people living in the radiation pollution zone as a result of the accident at the Siberian Chemical plant on April 6, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyinskikh, N.N.; Ivanchuk, I.I.; Ilyinskikh, E.N.

    1997-10-01

    We have carried out analysis of the number of blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes with micronuclei in the inhabitants of four settlements located near the place of the accident which happened at the atomic power station of the Siberian Chemical plant (Tomsk-7) on April 6, 1993. In all cases, the people examined showed a considerable increase in the number of cells with micronuclei as compared with the control. We observed the same people for two years and found a gradual decrease in the number of cells with micronuclei. It has been shown in this work that people born in 1963-1970 have a much higher level of cells with micronuclei which we tend to regard as a result of the radiation accident at the Siberian chemical plant in 1963. The data we have obtained allow us to conclude that penetration of radionuclides into the human organism in the prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to the formation of stable clones of erythroid cells with micronuclei and a higher level of erythrocytes with micronuclei which can remain in the blood for a long time.

  20. Designing an Experimental "Accident"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picker, Lester

    1974-01-01

    Describes an experimental "accident" that resulted in much student learning, seeks help in the identification of nematodes, and suggests biology teachers introduce similar accidents into their teaching to stimulate student interest. (PEB)

  1. Remote control continuous mining machine crushing accident data study

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-11

    A committee was formed to identify norms and trends in remote control continuous miner crushing accidents as part of US MSHA's efforts to reduce and eliminate these types of accidents. The committee was tasked with collecting, reviewing, and evaluating remote control accident data to identify significant factors that could possibly contribute to remote control accidents. The report identifies that these types of accidents commonly happen to experienced miners during routine mining activities, with the majority occurring while moving the miner from one face to another (place changing). Another common aspect of the accidents is that many of the victims are newly employed at the mine where the accident occurred. Training all employees to stay outside the turning radius of an energized remote control continuous miner, establishing this as a safe operating procedure, and consistently enforcing this practice among miners will reduce these types of accidents. 10 figs., 5 tabs., 7 apps.

  2. Cross-analysis of hazmat road accidents using multiple databases.

    PubMed

    Trépanier, Martin; Leroux, Marie-Hélène; de Marcellis-Warin, Nathalie

    2009-11-01

    Road selection for hazardous materials transportation relies heavily on risk analysis. With risk being generally expressed as a product of the probability of occurrence and the expected consequence, one will understand that risk analysis is data intensive. However, various authors have noticed the lack of statistical reliability of hazmat accident databases due to the systematic underreporting of such events. Also, official accident databases alone are not always providing all the information required (economical impact, road conditions, etc.). In this paper, we attempt to integrate many data sources to analyze hazmat accidents in the province of Quebec, Canada. Databases on dangerous goods accidents, road accidents and work accidents were cross-analyzed. Results show that accidents can hardly be matched and that these databases suffer from underreporting. Police records seem to have better coverage than official records maintained by hazmat authorities. Serious accidents are missing from government's official databases (some involving deaths or major spills) even though their declaration is mandatory. PMID:19819367

  3. Reduction factors for wooden houses due to external γ-radiation based on in situ measurements after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kanagami, Takashi; Uegaki, Masaki; Tashima, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For estimation of residents' exposure dose after a nuclear accident, the reduction factor, which is the ratio of the indoor dose to the outdoor dose is essential, as most individuals spend a large portion of their time indoors. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, we evaluated the median reduction factor with an interquartile range of 0.43 (0.34–0.53) based on 522 survey results for 69 detached wooden houses in two evacuation zones, Iitate village and Odaka district. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in the median reduction factor to the representative value of 0.4 given in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)-TECDOC-225 and 1162. However, with regard to the representative range of the reduction factor, we recommend the wider range of 0.2 to 0.7 or at least 0.2 to 0.6, which covered 87.7% and 80.7% of the data, respectively, rather than 0.2 to 0.5 given in the IAEA document, which covered only 66.5% of the data. We found that the location of the room within the house and area topography, and the use of cement roof tiles had the greatest influence on the reduction factor. PMID:25519512

  4. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Cardis, E.

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  5. New fossil insect order Permopsocida elucidates major radiation and evolution of suction feeding in hemimetabolous insects (Hexapoda: Acercaria).

    PubMed

    Huang, Di-Ying; Bechly, Günter; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S; Prokop, Jakub; Azar, Dany; Cai, Chen-Yang; van de Kamp, Thomas; Staniczek, Arnold H; Garrouste, Romain; Krogmann, Lars; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Baumbach, Tilo; Ohlhoff, Rainer; Shmakov, Alexey S; Bourgoin, Thierry; Nel, André

    2016-01-01

    With nearly 100,000 species, the Acercaria (lice, plant lices, thrips, bugs) including number of economically important species is one of the most successful insect lineages. However, its phylogeny and evolution of mouthparts among other issues remain debatable. Here new methods of preparation permitted the comprehensive anatomical description of insect inclusions from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber in astonishing detail. These "missing links" fossils, attributed to a new order Permopsocida, provide crucial evidence for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships in the Acercaria, supporting its monophyly, and questioning the position of Psocodea as sister group of holometabolans in the most recent phylogenomic study. Permopsocida resolves as sister group of Thripida + Hemiptera and represents an evolutionary link documenting the transition from chewing to piercing mouthparts in relation to suction feeding. Identification of gut contents as angiosperm pollen documents an ecological role of Permopsocida as early pollen feeders with relatively unspecialized mouthparts. This group existed for 185 million years, but has never been diverse and was superseded by new pollenivorous pollinators during the Cretaceous co-evolution of insects and flowers. The key innovation of suction feeding with piercing mouthparts is identified as main event that triggered the huge post-Carboniferous radiation of hemipterans, and facilitated the spreading of pathogenic vectors. PMID:26961785

  6. New fossil insect order Permopsocida elucidates major radiation and evolution of suction feeding in hemimetabolous insects (Hexapoda: Acercaria)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di-Ying; Bechly, Günter; Nel, Patricia; Engel, Michael S.; Prokop, Jakub; Azar, Dany; Cai, Chen-Yang; van de Kamp, Thomas; Staniczek, Arnold H.; Garrouste, Romain; Krogmann, Lars; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Baumbach, Tilo; Ohlhoff, Rainer; Shmakov, Alexey S.; Bourgoin, Thierry; Nel, André

    2016-01-01

    With nearly 100,000 species, the Acercaria (lice, plant lices, thrips, bugs) including number of economically important species is one of the most successful insect lineages. However, its phylogeny and evolution of mouthparts among other issues remain debatable. Here new methods of preparation permitted the comprehensive anatomical description of insect inclusions from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber in astonishing detail. These “missing links” fossils, attributed to a new order Permopsocida, provide crucial evidence for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships in the Acercaria, supporting its monophyly, and questioning the position of Psocodea as sister group of holometabolans in the most recent phylogenomic study. Permopsocida resolves as sister group of Thripida + Hemiptera and represents an evolutionary link documenting the transition from chewing to piercing mouthparts in relation to suction feeding. Identification of gut contents as angiosperm pollen documents an ecological role of Permopsocida as early pollen feeders with relatively unspecialized mouthparts. This group existed for 185 million years, but has never been diverse and was superseded by new pollenivorous pollinators during the Cretaceous co-evolution of insects and flowers. The key innovation of suction feeding with piercing mouthparts is identified as main event that triggered the huge post-Carboniferous radiation of hemipterans, and facilitated the spreading of pathogenic vectors. PMID:26961785

  7. Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... most radiation-sensitive parts of the body. Most nuclear accidents release radioactive iodine into the atmosphere which can ... works? After the 1986 Chornobyl (formerly called “Chernobyl”) nuclear accident, shifting winds blew a radioactive cloud over Europe. ...

  8. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed. PMID:22247595

  9. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed. PMID:22247595

  10. Potassium iodide for thyroid blockade in a reactor accident: administrative policies that govern its use.

    PubMed

    Becker, D V; Zanzonico, P

    1997-04-01

    A marked increase in thyroid cancer among young children who were in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant at the time of the 1986 accident strongly suggests a possible causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Although remaining indoors, restricting consumption of locally produced milk and foodstuffs, and evacuation are important strategies in a major breach-of-containment accident, stable potassium iodide (KI) prophylaxis given shortly before or immediately after exposure can reduce greatly the thyroidal accumulation of radioiodines and the resulting radiation dose. Concerns about possible side effects of large-scale, medically unsupervised KI consumption largely have been allayed in light of the favorable experience in Poland following the Chernobyl accident; 16 million persons received single administrations of KI with only rare occurrence of side effects and with a probable 40% reduction in projected thyroid radiation dose. Despite the universal acceptance of KI as an effective thyroid protective agent, supplies of KI in the US are not available for public distribution in the event of a reactor accident largely because government agencies have argued that stockpiling and distribution of KI to other than emergency workers cannot be recommended in light of difficult distribution logistics, problematic administrative issue, and a calculated low cost-effectiveness. However, KI in tablet form is expensive and has a long shelf life, and many countries have largely stockpiles and distribution programs. The World Health Organization recognizes the benefits of stable KI and urges its general availability. At present there are 110 operating nuclear power plants in the US and more than 300 in the rest of the world. These reactors product 17% of the world's electricity and in some countries up to 60-70% of the total electrical energy. Almost all US nuclear power plants have multistage containment

  11. World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  12. Dose estimates from the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.

    1987-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) responded to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union by utilizing long-range atmospheric dispersion modeling to estimate the amount of radioactivity released (source term) and the radiation dose distribution due to exposure to the radioactive cloud over Europe and the Northern Hemisphere. In later assessments, after the release of data on the accident by the Soviet Union, the ARAC team used their mesoscale to regional scale model to focus in on the radiation dose distribution within the Soviet Union and the vicinity of the Chernobyl plant. 22 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Shortwave cloud radiative forcing on major stratus cloud regions in AMIP-type simulations of CMIP3 and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Cloud and its radiative effects are major sources of uncertainty that lead to simulation discrepancies in climate models. In this study, shortwave cloud radiative forcing (SWCF) over major stratus regions is evaluated for Atmospheric Models Intercomparison Project (AMIP)-type simulations of models involved in the third and fifth phases of the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5). Over stratus regions, large deviations in both climatological mean and seasonal cycle of SWCF are found among the models. An ambient field sorted by dynamic (vertical motion) and thermodynamic (inversion strength or stability) regimes is constructed and used to measure the response of SWCF to large-scale controls. In marine boundary layer regions, despite both CMIP3 and CMIP5 models being able to capture well the center and range of occurrence frequency for the ambient field, most of the models fail to simulate the dependence of SWCF on boundary layer inversion and the insensitivity of SWCF to vertical motion. For eastern China, there are large differences even in the simulated ambient fields. Moreover, almost no model can reproduce intense SWCF in rising motion and high stability regimes. It is also found that models with a finer grid resolution have no evident superiority than their lower resolution versions. The uncertainties relating to SWCF in state-of-the-art models may limit their performance in IPCC experiments.

  14. Analysis of surface powered haulage accidents, January 1990--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Fesak, G.M.; Breland, R.M.; Spadaro, J.

    1996-12-31

    This report addresses surface haulage accidents that occurred between January 1990 and July 1996 involving haulage trucks (including over-the-road trucks), front-end-loaders, scrapers, utility trucks, water trucks, and other mobile haulage equipment. The study includes quarries, open pits and surface coal mines utilizing self-propelled mobile equipment to transport personnel, supplies, rock, overburden material, ore, mine waste, or coal for processing. A total of 4,397 accidents were considered. This report summarizes the major factors that led to the accidents and recommends accident prevention methods to reduce the frequency of these accidents.

  15. MELCOR analyses for accident progression issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.E.; Shaffer, C.J.; Payne, A.C.; Carmel, M.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Results of calculations performed with MELCOR and HECTR in support of the NUREG-1150 study are presented in this report. The analyses examined a wide range of issues. The analyses included integral calculations covering an entire accident sequence, as well as calculations that addressed specific issues that could affect several accident sequences. The results of the analyses for Grand Gulf, Peach Bottom, LaSalle, and Sequoyah are described, and the major conclusions are summarized. 23 refs., 69 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Using cost/risk procedures to establish recovery criteria following a nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tawil, J J; Strenge, D L

    1987-02-01

    In the event of a major accidental release of radionuclides at a nuclear power plant, large populated areas could become seriously contaminated. Local officials would be responsible for establishing radiation recovery criteria that would permit the evacuated population to return safely to their jobs and homes. The range of acceptable criteria could imply variations in property losses in the billions of dollars. Given the likely public concern over the health consequences and the enormity of the potential property losses, a cost/risk analysis can provide important input to establishing the recovery criteria. This paper describes procedures for conducting a cost/risk analysis of a site radiologically contaminated by a nuclear power plant accident. The procedures are illustrated by analyzing a hypothetically contaminated site, using software developed for determining the property and health effects of major reactor accidents. PMID:3818283

  17. Treatment of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Akita, Sadanori

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Radiation exposure as a result of radiation treatment, accident, or terrorism may cause serious problems such as deficiency due to necrosis or loss of function, fibrosis, or intractable ulcers in the tissues and organs. When the skin, bone, oral mucous membrane, guts, or salivary glands are damaged by ionizing radiation, the management and treatment are very lengthy and difficult. Critical Issues: In severe and irreversible injuries, surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Several surgical procedures, such as debridement, skin grafting, and local and free-vascularized flaps, are widely used. Recent Advances: In specific cases of major morbidity or in high-risk patients, a newly developed therapy using a patient's own stem cells is safe and effective. Adipose tissue, normally a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells, which are similar to those from the bone marrow, can be harvested, since the procedure is easy, and abundant tissue can be obtained with minimal invasiveness. Future Directions: Based on the molecular basis of radiation injuries, several prospective treatments are under development. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms focus on an individual's sensitivity to radiation in radiogenomics, and the pathology of radiation fibrosis or the effect of radiation on wound healing is being studied and will lead to new insight into the treatment of radiation injuries. Protectors and mitigators are being actively investigated in terms of the timing of administration or dose. PMID:24761339

  18. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  19. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  20. 10 CFR 835.1304 - Nuclear accident dosimetry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear accident dosimetry. 835.1304 Section 835.1304 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Emergency Exposure Situations § 835.1304 Nuclear accident dosimetry. (a) Installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material...

  1. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE - HISTORY AND RESULTS 25 YEARS AFTER

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    This article describes results of the radiation environmental monitoring performed in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) during the period following the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. This article presents a brief overview of five comprehensive reports generated under Contract No. DE-AC09-96SR18500 (Washington Savannah River Company LLC, Subcontract No. AC55559N, SOW No. ON8778) and summarizes characteristics of the ChEZ and its post-accident status and the history of development of the radiation monitoring research in the ChEZ is described. This article addresses characteristics of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ, its major goals and objectives, and changes of these goals and objectives in the course of time, depending on the tasks associated with the phase of mitigation of the ChNPP accident consequences. The results of the radiation monitoring in the ChEZ during the last 25 years are also provided.

  3. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities. PMID:24856781

  4. [Age-related peculiarities of effect of low dose ionizing radiation on blood antioxidant enzyme system status in Chernobyl's accident liquidation participant].

    PubMed

    Vartanian, L S; Gurevich, S m; Kozachenko, A I; Nagler, L G; Burlakova, E B

    2004-01-01

    Age-dependency of activity of key blood antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase has been estimated in 104 men and women aged 25-60 years participated in the liquidation of the Chernobyl's accident since 6 years after irradiation. Control group includes 35 age-matched men and women. The results of study on 18 children aged 7-15 years and 5 children aged 2-6 years born by irradiated parents are given as well. Nineteen children were in the control group. Low-dose irradiation was found modify the pattern of age-related dependency of all enzymes studied. Most susceptible chain was enzymes of glutathione cycle both in liquidators and children. Study of late effects has shown that young people (<30 years) as well as children are most susceptible to low-level irradiation whereas most resistant were middle-aged people. This observation should be taken into consideration at selection of high-risk groups in an industry linked with chronic low-dose irradiation. PMID:15559499

  5. Accidents in Canada: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Paddon, P

    1989-01-01

    For Canadians under 45, accidents are the leading cause of both death and hospitalization. For the Canadian population as a whole, accidents rank fourth as a cause of death, after cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and respiratory disease. This article analyzes accident mortality and hospitalization in Canada using age-specific rates, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR), and potential years of life lost (PYLL). The six major causes of accidental death for men are motor vehicle traffic accidents (MVTA), falls, drowning, fires, suffocation and poisoning. For women, the order is slightly different: MVTA, falls, fires, suffocation, poisoning and drowning. From 1971 to 1986, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for accidents decreased by 44% for men and 39% for women. The largest decrease occurred in the under 15 age group. Accidents accounted for 11.5% of total hospital days in 1985, and 8% of hospital discharges. Because young people have the highest rates of accidental death, potential years of life lost (PYLL) are almost as high for accidents as for cardiovascular disease, although CVD deaths outnumbered accidental deaths by almost five to one in 1985. PMID:2491351

  6. Learning lessons from Natech accidents - the eNATECH accident database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Girgin, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    When natural hazards impact industrial facilities that house or process hazardous materials, fires, explosions and toxic releases can occur. This type of accident is commonly referred to as Natech accident. In order to prevent the recurrence of accidents or to better mitigate their consequences, lessons-learned type studies using available accident data are usually carried out. Through post-accident analysis, conclusions can be drawn on the most common damage and failure modes and hazmat release paths, particularly vulnerable storage and process equipment, and the hazardous materials most commonly involved in these types of accidents. These analyses also lend themselves to identifying technical and organisational risk-reduction measures that require improvement or are missing. Industrial accident databases are commonly used for retrieving sets of Natech accident case histories for further analysis. These databases contain accident data from the open literature, government authorities or in-company sources. The quality of reported information is not uniform and exhibits different levels of detail and accuracy. This is due to the difficulty of finding qualified information sources, especially in situations where accident reporting by the industry or by authorities is not compulsory, e.g. when spill quantities are below the reporting threshold. Data collection has then to rely on voluntary record keeping often by non-experts. The level of detail is particularly non-uniform for Natech accident data depending on whether the consequences of the Natech event were major or minor, and whether comprehensive information was available for reporting. In addition to the reporting bias towards high-consequence events, industrial accident databases frequently lack information on the severity of the triggering natural hazard, as well as on failure modes that led to the hazmat release. This makes it difficult to reconstruct the dynamics of the accident and renders the development of

  7. Accident mortality among children

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Albrecht, R. M.; Grab, B.

    1956-01-01

    The authors present statistics on mortality from accidents, with special reference to those relating to the age-group 1-19 years. For a number of countries figures are given for the proportional mortality from accidents (the number of accident deaths expressed as a percentage of the number of deaths from all causes) and for the specific death-rates, per 100 000 population, from all causes of death, from selected causes, from all causes of accidents, and from various types of accident. From these figures it appears that, in most countries, accidents are becoming relatively increasingly prominent as a cause of death in childhood, primarily because of the conquest of other causes of death—such as infectious and parasitic diseases, which formerly took a heavy toll of children and adolescents—but also to some extent because the death-rate from motor-vehicle accidents is rising and cancelling out the reduction in the rate for other causes of accidental death. In the authors' opinion, further epidemiological investigations into accident causation are required for the purpose of devising quicker and more effective methods of accident prevention. PMID:13383361

  8. Personal nuclear accident dosimetry at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.C.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Burrows, R.

    1996-09-01

    DOE installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to potentially constitute a critical mass, such that the excessive exposure of personnel to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, are required to provide nuclear accident dosimetry services. This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by SNL and prescribes methodologies to initially screen, and to process PNAD results. In addition, this report describes PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study (NAD23), held during 12-16 June 1995, at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -6% to +36% with an average bias of +12%.

  9. Commuting by bike in Belgium, the costs of minor accidents.

    PubMed

    Aertsens, Joris; de Geus, Bas; Vandenbulcke, Grégory; Degraeuwe, Bart; Broekx, Steven; De Nocker, Leo; Liekens, Inge; Mayeres, Inge; Meeusen, Romain; Thomas, Isabelle; Torfs, Rudi; Willems, Hanny; Int Panis, Luc

    2010-11-01

    Minor bicycle accidents are defined as "bicycle accidents not involving death or heavily injured persons, implying that possible hospital visits last less than 24 hours". Statistics about these accidents and related injuries are very poor, because they are mostly not reported to police, hospitals or insurance companies. Yet, they form a major share of all bicycle accidents. Official registrations underestimate the number of minor accidents and do not provide cost data, nor the distance cycled. Therefore related policies are hampered by a lack of accurate data. This paper provides more insight into the importance of minor bicycle accidents and reports the frequency, risk and resulting costs of minor bicycle accidents. Direct costs, including the damage to bike and clothes as well as medical costs and indirect costs such as productivity loss and leisure time lost are calculated. We also estimate intangible costs of pain and psychological suffering and costs for other parties involved in the accident. Data were collected during the SHAPES project using several electronic surveys. The weekly prospective registration that lasted a year, covered 1187 persons that cycled 1,474,978 km. 219 minor bicycle accidents were reported. Resulting in a frequency of 148 minor bicycle accidents per million kilometres. We analyzed the economic costs related to 118 minor bicycle accidents in detail. The average total cost of these accidents is estimated at 841 euro (95% CI: 579-1205) per accident or 0.125 euro per kilometre cycled. Overall, productivity loss is the most important component accounting for 48% of the total cost. Intangible costs, which in past research were mostly neglected, are an important burden related to minor bicycle accidents (27% of the total cost). Even among minor accidents there are important differences in the total cost depending on the severity of the injury. PMID:20728675

  10. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309